Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 1064 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (90 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (764 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (123 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (31 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (56 journals)

AGRICULTURE (764 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 263 Journals sorted alphabetically
aBIOTECH : An International Journal on Plant Biotechnology and Agricultural Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta agriculturae Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Agronomica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Agronomica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Agriculturae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Research in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
African Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
African Journal of Horticultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agra Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agribusiness : an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Agric     Open Access  
Agricultura     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access  
Agricultural Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription  
Agricultural Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Economics : The Journal of the International Association of Agricultural Economists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Agricultural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
Agricultural History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Agricultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Food Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agriculture and Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Agriculture for Life, Life for Agriculture Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
AGRIEAST : Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
AgriEngineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrinova (Agrotechnology Innovation)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriprobe     Open Access  
Agriscientia     Open Access  
Agrisost     Open Access  
Agritech     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AGRITROPICA : Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agro Sur     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroalimentaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrociencia Uruguay     Open Access  
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agroindustrial Science     Open Access  
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Agronomía & Ambiente     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Mesoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomía Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomie Africaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Agrosearch     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrosintesa Jurnal Ilmu Budidaya Pertanian     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Agrotekma : Jurnal Agroteknologi dan Ilmu Pertanian     Open Access  
Agrotrop : Journal on Agriculture Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrovigor     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademik Ziraat Dergisi     Open Access  
AL-Qadisiya Journal For Agriculture Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Science     Open Access  
Alinteri Zirai Bilimler Dergisi : Alinteri Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
American Journal of Potato Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anadolu Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi     Open Access  
Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi / Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Silvicultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals Valahia University of Targoviste - Agriculture     Open Access  
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
APCBEE Procedia     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Applied Financial Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aquacultura Indonesiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Zootecnia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arthropod-Plant Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Food Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Agriculture     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Plant Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Research Journal of Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Avances     Open Access  
Avances en Investigacion Agropecuaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Agronomy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BHUMI : Jurnal Agraria dan Pertanahan     Open Access  
Bioagro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
BIOFIX Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Biological Agriculture & Horticulture : An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial     Open Access  
Biotemas     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Botanica Orientalis : Journal of Plant Science     Open Access  
Bragantia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak     Open Access  
Buletin Peternakan : Bulletin of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Veteriner Udayana     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture     Open Access  
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno de Ciências Agrárias     Open Access  
Cahiers Agricultures     Open Access  
Calidad, Tecnología y Desarrollo Agroindustrial     Open Access  
California Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Caraka Tani : Journal of Sustainable Agriculture     Open Access  
Ceiba     Open Access  
Central European Forestry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
CERNE     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Agrotecnologia     Open Access  
Ciencia e Investigación Agraria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola     Open Access  
Ciencia forestal en México     Open Access  
Ciência Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Agricultura     Open Access  
Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Científic@ : Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
COCOS : The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Arthropod-Plant Interactions
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.839
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1872-8847 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8855
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2624 journals]
  • Foreword
    • PubDate: 2019-03-21
       
  • The influence of leaf ontogenetic stage and plant reproductive phenology
           on trichome density and constitutive resistance in six tomato varieties
    • Abstract: Among other functions, trichomes defend plants against herbivores. Based on resource allocation theory, we hypothesized that foliar trichome density is determined by the balance between the fitness benefits and costs of trichome production, including possible resource allocation trade-offs with other functions, all of which may change with ontogeny and reproductive phenology. To assess the benefits and possible allocation trade-offs of trichome production, we examined the degree to which trichomes confer resistance against herbivores, and tested whether trichome density and resistance change with leaf ontogeny and with fruit production. Using six tomato varieties, we determined trichome density and tested for constitutive resistance of unexpanded and expanded leaves sampled from plants at their vegetative and reproductive stages by means of choice bioassays with a generalist caterpillar. We found a positive association between trichome density and resistance, albeit the relation was saturating rather than simple linear. Unexpanded leaves had greater trichome density and resistance than expanded leaves in vegetative plants. No such ontogenetic pattern was seen in reproductive plants. Trichome density of expanded leaves of reproductive plants did not differ significantly from that of unexpanded leaves of either vegetative or reproductive plants. Lastly, varieties with greater seed production had lower resistance. Such a clear trade-off suggests a high cost of resistance, which may have important implications for crop improvement programs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
       
  • Interactions between oil-collecting bees and Krameria grandiflora
           (Krameriaceae) with emphasis on the role of specialized floral traits in
           the mutual fit
    • Abstract: Oil-producing flowers have evolved specialized traits along with the ability to secrete oil as reward, leading to the expectation of a narrow relationship between floral architecture and oil-collecting behaviours of pollinators. Krameriaceae flowers have a showy calyx and a less conspicuous dimorphic corolla modified into a pair of elaiophores that secrete the oil, and a group of petaloid petals that, among oil-collecting bees, are used by only Centris (Centridini) during the oil gathering. A manipulative experiment consisted of excising these floral parts to test the prediction that these structures contribute to successful oil gathering by the bees and plant reproduction. We surveyed the oil-collecting bees associated with the Krameria grandiflora A. St.-Hil. across its distribution range and performed the experiment in populations associated with two different oil-collecting bee taxa—Caenonomada (Tapinotaspidini) and Centris, the main pollinators. Although predicted to mediate the floral mechanical fit with Centris, the absence of the petaloid petals had a neutral effect on both oil-gathering behaviour and seed set, when comparing Caenonomada and Centris. A negative effect on these responses was found when the elaiophores were excised, indicating that these glands have greater importance than the petals related to the mutual fit between flowers and pollinators. However, the petaloid petals seemed to function jointly with the sepals in pollinator attraction. When the sepals were excised, only Centris behaviour was affected, but not that of Caenonomada, indicating potentially divergent selective pressures on the calyx. In addition, we provide a novel oil host plant for several oil-collecting bees.
      PubDate: 2019-03-17
       
  • Foliar behaviour of biogenic semi-volatiles: potential applications in
           sustainable pest management
    • Abstract: Plants emit an extremely diverse bouquet of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from their above-ground and below-ground parts. Emissions are constitutive or induced, e.g. by herbivores. VOCs can be classified as highly volatile, volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Sesquiterpenes (SQTs) are typical semi-volatile organic compounds (sVOCs) released by plants. Similarly, herbivore-induced homoterpenes and methyl salicylate also have relatively low volatility. SVOCs have a high boiling point (> 240 °C) and a vapour pressure below 0.005 kPa at 25 °C. Glandular trichomes on plant surfaces can store SQTs in mixtures with more volatile VOCs, which are released into the air by diffusion or after gland rupture. The sVOCs stored in glandular trichomes often have repellent effects on herbivores, while herbivore-induced sVOCs are known for their attractiveness to natural enemies of herbivores, i.e. they act in indirect chemical defence of plants. Due to their low volatility, sVOCs produced by plants may easily adhere to the surfaces of emitter and neighbouring plants during the colder temperatures that plants face, e.g. at night. On the foliage of neighbouring receiver plants, sVOCs may act in direct and indirect defence of that plant species. When the temperature rises again, sVOCs are released into the atmosphere. The semi-volatile reaction products of highly volatile plant monoterpenes and photochemical pollutants such as ozone could constitute further sVOCs on plant leaf surfaces. Here, we review recent literature of the plant surface–environment interaction of biogenic sVOCs and particularly evaluate potential crop protection strategies such as intercropping and companion planting using sVOC-emitting species. Foliage typically forms the widest surfaces on crop plants, and foliar herbivory is a major type of pest damage during the vegetative stage of crop plants. Foliage is also a major source of herbivore-induced VOC emissions. Consequently, we focus on foliage-mediated sVOCs and their potential in pest management.
      PubDate: 2019-03-17
       
  • The ethological significance and olfactory detection of herbivore-induced
           plant volatiles in interactions of plants, herbivorous insects, and
           parasitoids
    • Abstract: Tritrophic interactions play a pivotal role in maintaining a functional agroecosystem. After damaged by phytophagous insects, host plants release a blend of odorants called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that are attractive to natural enemies including arthropod predators and, in particular, parasitoids. In the last three decades, the identities of HIPVs have been meticulously characterized in a variety of tritrophic systems by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. A plethora of HIPV components have been physiologically screened by gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and single sensillum recording (SSR). The effects of induced odorants on behavior of herbivores and parasitoids have been investigated using Y-tube olfactometer assays and wind tunnels in the laboratory and bait trap tests in the field. Given the potential utility of parasitic wasps for pest control, the understanding of olfactory mechanisms of how HIPVs are detected by herbivores and parasitic wasps could facilitate the exploitation of parasitoids as bio-control agents. As the advent of the genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, a large repertoire of chemosensory protein genes including odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins has been identified in herbivores and parasitic wasps, providing an unprecedented opportunity to debunk the molecular basis of olfaction-based interactions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progresses in characterization of HIPVs, the studies of olfactory mechanisms underlying tritrophic interactions with a focus on parasitoids, Lepidopteran pests, and related host plants.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Insects allocate eggs adaptively across their native host plants
    • Abstract: Finding plants for their eggs is the only parental care shown by many winged insects. Hatched juveniles often feed on one individual plant until gaining the power of flight as adults. Females are therefore predicted to lay more eggs on plants supporting high offspring survival. Many experiments comparing egg-laying and offspring survival across plant species refute this, leading to alternative concepts including ‘enemy free space’, ‘optimal bad motherhood’ and ‘neural constraints’. Whether tested plants have the same geographic origin as the insect is often overlooked. Using 178 oviposition–performance studies, we found when insects and plants share a native range, 83% of insect species associated their eggs with plants conferring highest offspring survival. This was broadly true across insect taxa and for generalists and specialists. Only 57% did so with non-native plants. That females are attracted to hosts with high offspring survival is a well-supported theory that does not necessarily apply to exotic host plants.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
       
  • Affect of food provisioning on survival and reproductive success of the
           olive fruit fly parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi , in the field
    • Abstract: Conservation biological control offers approaches that can be integrated into classical biological control programs to enhance pest suppression. Food subsidies, such as nectar and honeydew, can increase a parasitoid’s fecundity either by extension of the reproductive lifespan, increasing the rate of egg maturation, or both. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a major pest of olives in California, where a classical biological control program is currently underway using an exotic parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi. We conducted a field study where female–male pairs of P. lounsburyi wasps were caged with B. oleae-infested olives, and provisioned either with or without food. Our study showed that adult feeding is crucial to P. lounsburyi survival and fecundity under field-cage conditions. Food provision increased P. lounsburyi survival and several components of the wasp’s reproductive success; nevertheless, parasitism rates and offspring production were relatively low. This was probably due, at least in part, to location of host larvae in enemy-free space ‘beyond the reach’ of the wasp’s ovipositor. Sex ratio of offspring was male-biased, perhaps due to inbreeding in the laboratory colony from which P. lounsburyi was sourced. Female wasps carried ca. 25–35 eggs at their time of death, suggesting that they were time limited rather than egg limited. Integration of conservation biological control (e.g., food provisioning) and classical biological control (release of an exotic natural enemy) have promise to suppress olive fruit fly populations. Evaluation of the effect of food provisioning on P. lounsburyi reproductive success under open field conditions is warranted.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
       
  • Metabolic fingerprints reveal how an insect metabolome is affected by
           different larval host plant species
    • Abstract: Oligophagous insects can consume a wide range of different host plant species, but how these host plants vary in their metabolite compositions and the extent to which this variation affects the biochemistry of the insect herbivores is largely unknown. An understanding of how defensive metabolites from plants are processed by insects may help us develop more effective pesticides. We studied the interactions between the oligophagous insect herbivore Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and five species of its larval host plants (family Brassicaceae and Cleomaceae) by examining untargeted metabolic fingerprints of the plants and the larval herbivores feeding on them. Visualisation of the metabolic fingerprints of the different host plant species showed highly distinctive clusters in the PCA-X score plots. Larvae could also be distinguished based on the species of host plant they fed on but clusters overlapped to a greater extent. The fingerprints of larvae feeding on Cleome spinosa plants were most distinctive due to a large group of abundant metabolites also found in high abundance in C. spinosa, but not in the other host plants examined. We conclude that host plants influence the biochemistry of their larval herbivores, and that some metabolites are conserved from one trophic level to the next.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
       
  • Temporal distribution in a tri-trophic system associated with Piper
           amalago L. in a tropical seasonal forest
    • Abstract: Insect seasonality is a known pattern that has intrigued ecologists for over 30 years. However, despite being well understood in general, for several taxa such as Lepidopteran caterpillars its underlying causes and mechanisms are still not fully understood. This is especially critical for Brazilian tropical forests where caterpillars have previously been shown to have a puzzling pattern of peaking in abundance only in the first months of the dry season; however, this pattern still lacks an explanation. Here, to advance our understanding of the factors underlying seasonal changes in caterpillar abundance in tropical forests, we addressed how the lepidopteran caterpillar community that feeds on Piper amalago L. plants, their host plants leaf numbers, the herbivory levels, and the parasitoid pressure all change throughout the dry and wet seasons in a Brazilian tropical semideciduous forest. We found that immature abundance and herbivory peak in the first 2 months of the dry season and then rapidly decrease and remain low throughout the remaining of the dry season and the entire wet season at the study site. However, although the proportion of parasitized immatures increased alongside caterpillar abundance, it peaked in the month that followed a drastic decrease in caterpillar abundance. These results suggest that parasitoids play a major role in the observed caterpillar abundance pattern and thus, we propose the hypothesis that high parasitoid predation pressure causes early eclosion and emergence of caterpillars and primarily drives caterpillar abundance seasonality in Brazilian tropical forests.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
       
  • Tripartite interactions between jasmonic/salicylic acid pathways, western
           flower thrips, and thrips-transmitted tomato zonate spot virus infection
           in Capsicuum annuum
    • Abstract: The disease caused by Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner, results in significant loss in production and quality in ornamentals and vegetable crops. Related to this recently found tospovirus (TZSV), knowledge involving the interaction between virus, vector, and host plants remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TZSV infection on the changes in concentration of the plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), and the transcriptional regulation of JA- and SA-associated genes. Additionally, we verified that JA and SA inhibit the fitness of the vector F. occidentalis. This work brings to a new perspective on plant—virus–vector interactions is proposed, which could be applied to control the TZSV infection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
       
  • Resistance to greenbugs in the sorghum nested association mapping
           population
    • Abstract: The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum, is a serious pest of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). For the past several decades, resistant sorghum hybrids have been used to control greenbug populations. However, the durability of plant resistance is frequently challenged by evolution of new greenbug biotypes, and there is a continuous need for screening of resistant germplasm for its effective management in the field. Natural variation in sorghum plants/populations provides distinct approaches to identify novel sources of resistance against greenbugs. In this study, we used the recently developed sorghum nested association mapping (NAM) population parental lines to understand sources of sorghum resistance to greenbugs. Using choice and no-choice assays, we have identified SC265 and Segaolane as the resistant and susceptible lines, respectively, to greenbugs compared to the wild-type plants. The Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) analysis revealed that the greenbugs spent significantly lesser time in the xylem and sieve element phases while feeding on the resistant NAM parental line, SC265, compared to the susceptible (Segaolane) and wild-type (RTx430) sorghum lines. In addition, the EPG results indicated that there is no significant difference in the time to first probe, time to reach first sieve element, pathway phase, and non-probing phase among the three sorghum plants, which suggests that the resistance factors present in the vascular tissues of the resistant line (SC265) potentially contribute to the resistance mechanisms against greenbugs. Overall, SC265 NAM parental line showed a combination of antixenotic and antibiotic-mediated resistance mechanisms against greenbugs, whereas the susceptible line Segaolane displayed the least resistance to greenbugs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
       
  • The effects of rainfall on plant–pollinator interactions
    • Abstract: As global surface temperatures rise, global precipitation rates are predicted to increase. These localised increases in rainfall patterns may significantly affect plant–pollinator interactions in multiple ways. Detrimental effects to plant–pollinator interactions could have significant ecological and economic consequences, and so it is important to understand the effects that rain has on these mutualisms. Increased rainfall has the potential for population-level effects but there also wide scope for individual-level effects, which have received surprisingly little attention. Changes in rainfall patterns could alter the timings of phenological phases while also increasing the likelihood of pollen degradation and nectar dilution, each having detrimental effects to the fitness of the plant, the pollinator or both parties. Pollinators could also be affected through mechanical and energetic constraints, along with disruption of foraging patterns and disruption to sensory signals. In this review, we demonstrate that there are clear gaps in our knowledge of these events, the exploration of which should open new areas of debate surrounding the effects of climate change on biological systems.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
       
  • Feeding on glandular and non-glandular leaf trichomes negatively affect
           
    • Abstract: Trichomes, the hair-like projections on plant leaves, have been well studied as an herbivore defense. However, whether variation in trichome type can have negative effects through the different stages of caterpillar life cycle is poorly understood. Using Solanum elaeagnifolium that produce non-glandular stellate trichomes, and Solanum lycopersicum that predominantly produce glandular, non-branched trichomes, we examined how trichomes affect choice and growth of Manduca sexta, a specialist herbivore of plant species belonging to the Solanaceae. To accomplish this, we removed leaf trichomes and added them into artificial diet for caterpillars, and allowed the caterpillars to grow and develop. Our results show that trichomes negatively affected caterpillar body mass and mass gain, although there was no preference or aversion for them in choice assays. Non-glandular trichomes were particularly damaging, as the consumption of non-glandular trichomes resulted in suppressed mass gain and increased time to pupation. While the consumption of glandular trichomes also affected growth, the effects were significantly lower compared to the consumption of non-glandular ones. Taken together, our results show that feeding on solanaceous trichomes can have negative effects on herbivore larval growth and development, and should be examined further.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
       
  • Volatiles composition and timing of emissions in a moth-pollinated orchid
           in relation to hawkmoth (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) activity
    • Abstract: In the family Orchidaceae, many species have highly specialised floral structures and floral fragrances resulting from interactions with specific pollinators. Olfactory cues are important for the moths to locate orchids at a distance, whereas visual cues are important at a closer range. In this study, we combined a portable air entrainment kit with an automated video monitoring system for collecting volatiles and observing behaviour directly around-the-clock (24 h) in the natural habitat of our target plant–arthropod system, the orchid Platanthera chlorantha and the hawkmoth Sphinx pinastri. We found that P. chlorantha was visited almost exclusively by S. pinastri. All the visits occurred after sunset, principally between sunset and midnight. Soon after midnight, visits dropped to levels recorded at sunset, then declined further towards sunrise. The period with most visits matched the peak production of the terpenoids (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene. In contrast, linalool, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate emission continued to increase beyond the period of peak visits up to sunrise. Methyl benzoate emissions declined throughout the night from a sunset peak. As temporal emission of the two volatile ocimenes from P. chlorantha flowers matches S. pinastri foraging visits to the flowers, we propose that they play a vital role in assisting hawkmoths locate their hosts. This is the first study to show correspondence in the timing of specific scent emissions in orchids and moth activity on the scale of hours.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
       
  • Frequency of plant visits by the generalist ant Lasius niger depends on
           the surface microstructure of plant stems
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the visiting frequency of generalist ants to plants with different surface textures of their stems. We performed an experiment in which Lasius niger ants were attracted by sweet drops to flower stems of five plant species bearing different surface structures: Alchemilla mollis (wax projections and long tread-shaped trichomes), Lilium lancifolium (without wax, with ribbon-shaped trichomes and cuticular folds), Salvia nemorosa (without wax, with trichomes of various lengths and cuticular folds), Tulipa gesneriana (wax projections, no trichomes), and Paeonia lactiflora (neither of above surface features). As control samples, dry, smooth bamboo sticks were placed in the vicinity of experimental plant stems. Using cryo scanning electron microscopy, the micromorphology of stem surfaces was examined. The present study demonstrates that, on the one hand, ants avoid climbing wax-covered stems, if trichomes are lacking. On the other hand, some trichome-bearing stems having specific trichome micromorphologies were also ignored by ants. The strongest attractiveness was revealed in glossy stems and stems covered with soft/floppy trichomes. This experiment supports the hypothesis that when exposed to a diversity of plant stems in the field, generalist ants choose substrates where their locomotion is less hampered by obstacles or slipperiness of surface. Presumably, additional locomotory efforts needed to master climbing on “greasy” or “spiny” stems lead to an increase of costs-to-benefits ratio. However, since every type of stem surface was visited at least once during the experiment, it does not automatically mean that ants are not capable of walking on such challenging surfaces.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
       
  • Responses of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to changes in vegetation
           from wet oligotrophic habitats of Western France
    • Abstract: While many arthropod species are known to depend, directly or indirectly, on certain plant species or communities, it remains unclear to what extent vegetation shapes spider assemblages. In this study, we tested whether the activity-density, composition, and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders were driven by changes in vegetation structure. Field sampling was conducted using pitfall traps in bogs, heathlands, and grasslands of Brittany (Western France) in 2013. A total of 8576 spider individuals were identified up to the species level (for a total of 141 species), as well as all plant species in more than 300 phytosociological relevés. A generalised linear model showed that spider activity-density was negatively influenced by mean vegetation height and mean Ellenberg value for moisture. Indices of diversity (ɑ, β, and functional diversities) increased with increasing vegetation height and shrub cover. Variables driving spider composition were mean vegetation height, dwarf shrub cover, and low shrub cover (results from a redundancy analysis). Spiders, some of the most abundant arthropod predators, are thus strongly influenced by vegetation structure, including ground-dwelling species. Although later successional states are usually seen as detrimental to local biodiversity in Europe, our results suggest that allowing controlled development of the shrub layer could have a positive impact on the diversity of ground-dwelling spiders.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
       
  • Anchoring of greenhouse whitefly eggs on different rose cultivars
    • Abstract: Whiteflies attach their eggs to plants by implanting the egg pedicel into the epidermis of the underside of leaves. This pedicel works like a wall plug embedded in sealing cement, presenting a smart interconnection, which was exemplarily studied in Trialeurodes vaporariorum eggs on two stages of abaxial leaflets of four cut rose cultivars using a combination of microscopic and biomechanical techniques. The penetration force obtained by piercing single epidermal cells with an insect minuten pin did not significantly correlate with the force which was applied to pull off the greenhouse whitefly eggs from abaxial leaves. A maximum pull-off force of 5.4 mN was measured on young leaves of the rose cultivar ‘Schloss Ippenburg®’, corresponding to maximum 941 times the egg weight. Egg pull-off force significantly differed between cut rose cultivars and leaf ages. On greenhouse whitefly-susceptible cultivars ‘Poesie®’ and ‘Reggae®’, eggs detached, applying less force compared to that on resistant cultivars. Leaf structural features had no significant impact on greenhouse whitefly egg pull-off forces. A major effect of leaf turgor pressure and swelling of colleterial gland secretion (cement) surrounding the whitefly egg is assumed to facilitate the firm interconnection between egg and plant epidermis by a combination of form closure, friction locking, and adhesive bond forming a composite material in the contact region. This bond exhibits a maximum adhesive strength of 12.2 MPa, which is much higher than those in beetle and moth eggs glued to oviposition substrates.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
       
  • Arthropod infestation sites and induced defence can be traced by emission
           from single spruce needles
    • Abstract: Emissions of defence chemicals from Norway spruce seedlings can be induced by feeding arthropods or by exogenous hormonal application. Some defence chemicals may attract or repel associated arthropods. The aim of this study was to show that it is possible to detect and collect stress-induced volatiles from micro sites, such as at the scale of a single needle, in vivo by using SPME. Methyl jasmonate application on the stem of Norway spruce seedlings induced emission of (E)-β-farnesene only from the needles closest to the application site. Emissions of (E)-β-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene and (E)-α-bisabolene were only detected from needles infested by the spider mite Oligonychus ununguis. The total volatile amount detected by SPME-GC-MS reached a considerable mass of 14 ng/needle/24 h, suggesting that emission from damaged and stressed conifers might have a larger impact on the macro climate than previously estimated.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
       
  • Trade-offs between defenses against herbivores in goldenrod ( Solidago
           altissima )
    • Abstract: In the goldenrod Solidago altissima, most stems are erect, but “ducking” genotypes bend the tip of the apical stem downward for much of the growing season, and this morphology protects against at least two gall-forming herbivore species. Despite this advantage to defense, ducking remains a rare strategy in goldenrod, yet the costs that prevent ducking genotypes from outcompeting erect genotypes remain unclear. We tested whether ducking (an architectural defense) trades off with chemical defense against aphids (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum). We hypothesized that signaling related to the ducking defense might interfere with investment in chemical defenses, making ducking plants more susceptible to some herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we compared aphid survival and preference on ducking and erect genotypes. We also measured terpenoid concentration in S. altissima leaf tissue to determine whether plant investment in these compounds correlated with either ducking or aphid performance. Aphids had higher survival on all three ducking genotypes than their erect counterparts and preferred ducking to erect plants in two of three genotype pairings. However, terpenoid concentrations did not track with either ducking or aphid performance and cannot therefore explain the differences between ducking and erect host-plants. Although the mechanism remains unknown, the data supported the predicted trade-off in defenses against different herbivores, which may contribute to the distribution and abundance of these two defensive strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
       
  • The March fly and the ant: the unusual pollination system of Eustegia
           minuta (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae)
    • Abstract: Pollination studies of South African Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) have mostly examined species in the moist summer-rainfall grasslands, with limited studies of the early-diverging groups occurring in the drier winter-rainfall habitats. This study examined the pollination and floral traits of Eustegia minuta, an unusual species endemic to the winter-rainfall Greater Cape Floristic Region and representing an early-diverging clade within the Asclepiadeae. Observations of floral visitors in Jonkershoek Nature Reserve showed that this species is visited primarily by a species of March fly, Bibio turneri (Bibionidae). These flies moved actively between plants and carried pollinaria on their mouthparts. In addition, an ant species, Camponotus vestitus (Formicidae), and a single honey bee Apis mellifera capensis (Apidae) individual carried pollinaria and may contribute to pollination. Bagging experiments confirmed that flowers require pollinators for reproduction. Flowers produced small amounts (1.2 µl per flower) of concentrated (32.5% sugar) nectar. Pollination success was low (14.5% of flowers were pollinated and 3.4% of flowers developed fruits). Pollen transfer efficiency (PTE) was 5.2%. The corolla reflectance was similar to that of green leaves, but the gynostegium exhibited a relatively bright human-white spectral curve. Floral scent comprised over 50 compounds, but was dominated by various aromatics along with 2,3-heptandione, (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and several unidentified compounds. We conclude that E. minuta is pollinated primarily by the March fly B. turneri, although ants and possibly honey bees may make a lesser contribution. Pollination by bibionid flies has not previously been reported in asclepiads and is extremely uncommon amongst angiosperms.
      PubDate: 2019-02-02
       
 
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