Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2224-3232 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0573
Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE) [30 journals]
- Energy Efficient Biomass Gassifier Stove for Domestic Purpose
Authors: Khadija Sultan, Munir Ahmad
Abstract: Pakistan is facing issues with respect to sustainable energy and increasing of greenhouse gases, therefore, there is needed to take holistic approach to reduce energy crisis through the solution of renewable energy by natural resource management in the future. That is why this work has been carried out to develop and evaluate the performance of energy efficient biomass gasifier stove for domestic purposes as well as to compare its performance with improved cooking stove using locally available biomass fuels like wood chips. A biomass gasifier stove was developed and evaluated on wood chips fuel at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad. The design improvement of the stove focused on the following areas: provision of insulation around the chamber to reduce conduction heat loss across the walls of the chamber, incorporation of pot supporter as to minimize the smoke by direct contact to the fire and provision of sizable and adjustable air inlet to ensure the availability of sufficient air for the complete combustion of the fuel wood. The results obtained from this study showed that the gasifer wood stove has a maximum thermal efficiency of 30% as compared the thermal efficiency of improved stove of 18 %. Similarly, with a higher the useful heat energy output per kg of wood used was 1239.60 kJ/ kg than the useful heat energy output per kg of wood used by improved stove was 144.43 kJ/ kg. So, the performance of gasifier stove much better than improved stove. Keywords: Energy, Biomass, Gasifier Stove, Cooking Stove and Gasifer Wood Stove
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Wobbe Index Determination of Cattle Dung Biogas
Authors: Yaru; S. S., Adegun, I. K., Akintunde, M. A.
Abstract: This paper is aimed at determining the Wobbe Index (W I) of cattle dung biogas which is the amount of energy delivered to a burner through an injector or orifice especially during combustion. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of cattle dung in a batch digester within two weeks. Pressure and temperature of the digester were monitored at 12 noon daily. The analysis of the combustible biogas using thermal conductivity detector (TCD) revealed CH4 at 0.562, CO2 0.395, H2S 0.018, CO 0.019 and 0.005 moles for NH3 by volume. Its calorific value (C V) using gas calorimeter Junkers was 19.5 MJ/m3. The cumulative specific volume of the biogas rose from zero through day 1 to 0.622732 m3/kg on the sixth day before recording daily marginal increments with the rest of the days of incubation. The relative density of the biogas also had a sharp rise on the second day at 5.039208 before dropping to 2.51126 and then gradually decreased daily to the end of digestion. The Wobbe Index equally rose from zero on the first day through to 12.08434 MJ/m3, 14.07783 MJ/m3 and 15.87665 MJ/m3 on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after which it had logarithmic increments. The volatile solids destroyed also recorded logarithmic rise while the bacterial growth rate followed the zigzag pattern as those of internal energy and enthalpy. It is therefore concluded that parameters like the cumulative specific volume and Wobbe Index increased throughout the incubation period while those that are directly temperature dependent varied with the temperature of the digester. Keywords: Wobbe Index, calorifc value, cattle dung, biogas, batch digester, specific volume, relative density, internal energy, enthalpy
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Wind Statistical Analysis and the Number of Generation Hours for Different
Wind Turbines at Three Lakes in Iraq
Authors: Firas A. Hadi, Amani I. Al-Tmimi
Abstract: The use of wind as an energy source is becoming popular because it is non-polluting and renewable. There is a pressing need in Iraq to develop site-based technology on wind energy, which can be used for optimal design of wind turbines and wind farming. The main objective of this research is to analyze the wind data statistics for one year period of January to December 2012 at three lakes in Iraq; Tharthar, Habbaniyah, and Razzazah. In the other hand, data recorded at 10m are estimated at 30m and 50m above ground level. Statistical analysis of these data is achieved using Weibull distribution function; the analysis included different wind turbine machines (500 kW, 950 kW, and 1500 kW) in order to assess the number of hours electricity generation from those turbines. The results show that Tharthar Lake gives more generation hours than the other lakes depending on the site characteristics and on the turbine type. Keywords: Wind speed, Weibull parameters estimation, Generation hours, lakes, Iraq.
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Usage of Autogas within the Road Transport Industry in Two Contrasting
Settlements in Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Baffour-Awuah
Abstract: Road transport carries beyond 95% of passenger and freight traffic in Ghana. Though autogas, also referred to as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was traditionally encouraged to be used in residences and households, many road transport owners and drivers have shifted to the use of the fuel. The main objective of the study was therefore to ascertain the consumption characteristics of autogas in the urban and rural administrative districts in the Central Region of Ghana. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods in gathering data, using questionnaire and interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used in choosing the region, Metropolitans, Municipalities and Districts (MMDs). Ten rural and urban districts were considered while five hundred and fifty-six drivers partook in the study. Open- and closed-ended questions were posed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (Version 21) was employed as the in the analysis. Descriptive tools such as frequencies, percentages, and tables were utilized in the analysis. It was found among others that between 19 percent (within the districts) and 39 percent (in the metropolis/municipalities) of the drivers use autogas to power their vehicles comprising taxis, private cars and minibuses. The ratios of autogas, gasoline and gasoil usage in the rural and urban districts were 19:29:58 and 39:20:45 respectively. This consumption can be said to be substantial enough to influence autogas shortages. The paper recommends that there must be an integrated and holistic approach, designed in a strategic fashion in dealing with the supply chain of the fuel to avoid frequent shortages. Keywords: liquefied petroleum gas; rural; transportation; urban.
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Matching the Energy Demand of Surrounding Villages with Hydropower
Potential of the Un-Gauged Myombwe River
Authors: Hamis A. Mrope, Joseph Kihedu
Abstract: Energy demand of twelve villages surrounding Magunguli waterfalls along un-gauged Myombwe River was assessed and matched with energy hydropower potential available. Estimation of the energy demand for the villages around was done by using diversity factor analysis covering common factors for grouped potential users. A questionnaire was used to find the number of potential electricity users in these twelve villages. Then diversified unit load and group diversity factors for classified loads were used to actual power demand. The study area has 3,747 households, while dispensaries are 8. In addition to that, there are 17 primary schools and 4 secondary schools. The current power demand of twelve villages is 1,569.24 kW. Energy demand forecast shows that, the demand will grow to 7,846.2 kW after four years will be 33,924.16 kW after 25 years. It was also noted that the average consumption for a household is 129.4 W. For education sector, the total demand is 122 kW at an average of 5,851 W per school. Commercial uses have the total demand of 790.34 kW while for public services total demand is 171.82 kW. With the gross head of 636 m and 1.98 m3/s discharge, hydropower potential of Myombwe River was realized to be 9,388.68 kW. Therefore, this power generation can suffice optimum energy demand of the twelve villages for 4 years. Thereafter, additional source of power may be required. Keywords: Hydropower potential, energy demand, un-gauged river.
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Relationship between Firm’s Financial Performance and Stock Returns:
Evidence from Oil and Gas Sector Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Saleh
Abstract: This work analyzes the extent to which determinants like net profit margin, return on assets and return on equity influence stock returns with reference to Oil and Gas sector of Pakistan. Five years’ secondary panel data from 10 companies has been used from 2010 to 2014. Unit root test, correlation analysis and OLS have been used to estimate the model under study. The findings revealed the data for all variables to be stationary. Also the variables are found to be strongly correlated. However, the variables net profit margin and return on assets have low yet negative influence on stock returns whereas return on equity has small but positive influence over it. The limitations include time constraints as well as difficulty to find data. The benefit of this work is that the data is recent which makes the results also recent and generally applicable. This will help future theorists and will pave way for more works in this field of study.Keywords: Financial performance indicators, of stock returns, net profit margin, return on assets, return on equity
Issue No: Vol. 5
- The Cost of Telecommunications Evolution in Nigeria
Authors: Ebinimi Tebepah
Abstract: One of the fastest growing segments of the ICT Sector is the Mobile Telecommunications and in the African Market, Nigeria has witnessed phenomenal growth since the full liberalisation of the Telecommunications Sector. Nigeria is now considered to be the leading Mobile Telecommunications Market in Africa in terms of Subscribers’ Base, Tele density and inflow of Foreign Direct Investment according to the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), which is the Organisation saddled with the regulatory responsibility of the sector. However, the rapid growth of Mobile Telecommunications is not without its challenges as the adoption of Mobile Communication Services in Nigeria means the rollout of several Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) operating on diesel fuels because so many parts of the Country lack reliable electricity supply. The costs associated with this form of power supply as stated in this article are:
environmental – it increases the carbon footprints of the industry through the emission of CO2 and adds to the effect of climate change;
economic – as the operating expenditure (OPEX) of telecommunications operators increases due to direct and indirect costs in powering the BTS sites; and
Security challenges – which mostly involves diesel fuel pilfering and vandalisation of BTS sites. With the understanding of the effects of the use fossil fuel generators to power BTS sites, it appears to be highly unsustainable if the current gains in the Nigerian telecommunications industry are to be sustained. Hence, it is important to have a comprehensive policy framework that embraces - sustainable renewable energies, as well as hybrid energy systems, enforcement of policy guidelines on security of telecommunications infrastructure, provides different funding options for renewable energies, and supports funding of research into renewable energies. This article attempts to provide an understanding of the effects of fossils fuels usage vis-à-vis telecommunications infrastructure and a roadmap for the regulatory agencies in charge of this Sector in addressing the various challenges. Keywords: Mobile Telecommunications; Renewable Energy; BTS; Fossil Fuel Power; Policy.
Issue No: Vol. 5
- ARIMA Modeling of Nigeria Crude Oil Production
Authors: Omekara; C.O., Okereke, O. E., Ire, K.I., Okamgba, C. O.
Abstract: This study discussed the ARIMA Model for crude oil production in Nigeria from January 2006 to March 2015. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that the quantity of crude oil produced determines the quantity to be either refined and sold or exported as crude which is the main stay of the Nigerian economy. Having a pre knowledge of the quantity of crude oil that may be produced with adequate budgeting can help the country have a viable economy. Multiplicative SARIMA (1,1,1)(0,1,1)12 model was proposed as the best model to be fitted to the crude oil production data. The forecast values from the fitted model agreed with the actual values therefore suggesting that the model could be used for forecasting future quantity of crude oil that may be produced in the country. Keywords: ARIMA model, Seasonality, Differencing, Crude oil Production.
Issue No: Vol. 5
- Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CSS) Technology as a Climate Change
Mitigation Option: What are the Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Its
Authors: Bayuasi Nammei Luki, Nusrat-Jahan Abubakar
Abstract: Climate change is a fact of life. This has resulted in increased efforts to develop new technologies that will help mitigate this phenomenon. It is against this backdrop that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology attracted a lot of interest as an option that can help capture CO2 in large quantities from fossil fuel plants and store it underground to prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere. The study seeks to assess the legal and regulatory frameworks for effective deployment of the CCS technology as a climate change mitigation measure. Secondary data in a form of books, articles, journals and other legal documents were used as the basis for qualitative analysis. The paper found out that though there are available some national and international legal instruments, some pertinent issues such as the long term liability, costs, environmental, legal, definition and classification of CO2, access and property rights as well as an intellectual Property Rights need to be addressed before Carbon Capture and Storage Technology can be deployed effectively as a climate change mitigation option. Keywords: Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage, Climate Change Mitigation, Legal and Regulatory Framework
Issue No: Vol. 5