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 Atomic EnergyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.215 Number of Followers: 4      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1573-8205 - ISSN (Online) 1063-4258 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2350 journals]
• Emergency Heat Removal System for the Secondary Loop of a Fast Sodium
Reactor and its Efficiency Evaluation
• Authors: Yu. M. Ashurko
Pages: 1 - 7
Abstract: An emergency heat removal system (SAOT) that removes heat from the secondary loop of a fast sodium reactor by air cooling the surfaces of the piping and equipment of the heat-sink loops of the secondary loop is described and ways to optimize it are indicated. A method of evaluating the efficiency of such an SAOT is described, and the results of an evaluation for a fast sodium reactor are presented as an example showing that the system can be used in fast sodium reactors of any power capacity.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0366-9
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Method of Determining the Reliability of Real-Time In-reactor Monitoring
of VVER
• Authors: A. V. Semenikhin; Yu. V. Saunin; S. I. Ryasnyi
Pages: 8 - 13
Abstract: A methodological approach and the basic tenets for evaluating the reliability of in-reactor monitoring of VVER are presented. The method is based on the statistical analysis of indications in real time and includes methods for evaluating the admissible maximum error of the measurement channels used for monitoring as well as the average value and admissible deviation of indications in groups of parallel monitoring channels, as well as a method of evaluating reliability by comparing the values of a parameter with the regime values. In comparing the indications of a monitoring channel with the indications of other parallel channels, the median value is proposed as the baseline value. The developed method is implemented in the Diagnostika SVRK special software, which has been successfully tested during the commissioning of the No. 1 unit at the Novovoronezh NPP-2.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0367-8
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Heat Emission and Temperature Non-uniformity in Rod Bundles with Different
Spacing, Cooled by Heavy Liquid-Metal Coolant
• Authors: Yu. A. Kuzina; A. P. Sorokin
Pages: 14 - 21
Abstract: Heat emission and temperature non-uniformity along the perimeter of rods in free lattices of fuel elements with heavy liquid-metal coolant are studied. The experimental data for an assembly of smooth rods, assemblies of fuel elements with spiral ribbing, and transverse lattices are analyzed. The studies show that there is almost no temperature non-uniformity in a lattice of smooth fuel elements along its perimeter, which is in contrast to the high general azimuthal temperature non-uniformity in an assembly with spacing by spiral coils. Rib spacing resulted in significant reduction of heat emission. In an assembly with transverse spacer lattices, the heat emission increases only in the region containing the lattices; in the spaces between lattices, it is approximately equal to the heat emission in a bundle with smooth fuel elements. Inside a spacer lattice, periodic temperature non-uniformities appear along the perimeter of the fuel elements; these non-uniformities are due to the fuel elements touching the elements of the lattice. A relation is recommended for calculating heat emission (Nusselt numbers) and temperature non-uniformity along the perimeter of the fuel elements for the studied methods of spacing the fuel elements.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0368-7
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Hysteresis in Coolant Radiolysis in a Pressurized-Water Reactor and its
Effect on the Critical Hydrogen Concentration
• Authors: O. P. Arkhipov; S. A. Kabakchi
Pages: 22 - 27
Abstract: Mathematical modeling is used to investigate the effect of the thermophysical non-uniformity of the core in a reactor on the behavior of radiation-chemical processes in the first-loop water coolant of pressurizedwater power reactors. The problem of determining the critical hydrogen concentration in coolant that is sufficient to maintain the concentration of oxidizers in the coolant at a corrosion safe level is used as an example. It is shown that in a reactor the critical hydrogen concentration may not have a definite value but rather a range of values dependent on the radiation-chemical process and the reactor’s thermo- and neutron-physical parameters. Calculations also showed that the conditions under which oxidizer formation is suppressed can be determined accurately only with detailed three-dimensional modeling of thermophysical phenomena and radiation-chemical transformations in the entire core volume.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0369-6
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Swelling of Uranium Dioxide–Silumin Dispersion Fuel Composition in
Experimental Fuel Elements of the SM Reactor
• Authors: I. F. Gil’mutdinov; V. Yu. Shishin; F. N. Kryukov; S. V. Kuz’min; P. P. Silant’ev; I. A. Minduksheva; V. A. Starkov; V. V. Pimenov
Pages: 28 - 35
Abstract: A variant of experimental dispersion fuel elements with a displacer and uranium dioxide-silumin fuel composition, which were proposed for modernizing the core of the SM reactor, was investigated. The fuel elements were irradiated in a wide spectrum of neutron- and thermophysical parameters of the reactor’s reflector channel. The fuel elements showed satisfactory radiation resistance at thermal flux density 5.8–8 MW/m 2 and burnup to 45%. The swelling of the fuel composition was analyzed. It is shown that of three possible components of the swelling the one due to gaseous fission products makes the main contribution, approximately 3/4 of the total amount. The interaction of the fuel components results in compaction of the kernel and promotes some compensation of the swelling, increasing as the interaction increases. These investigations show that the depth of burnup at the achieved thermal flux density for fuel elements with a displacer is not the limit.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0370-0
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Axial and Azimuthal Asymmetry of RBMK-1000 Fuel-Element Cladding Oxidation
• Authors: A. V. Sukhikh; S. S. Sagalov; S. V. Pavlov
Pages: 36 - 42
Abstract: The particularities of the axial and azimuthal asymmetry of nodular corrosion of RBMK-1000 fuel-element cladding operating in FA at power 1.7–2.2 MW are examined. The measured thickness of the oxides is compared with the concentration of the oxidative products of radiolysis in the coolant and the computed distribution of the thermophysical parameters in a fuel channel of the reactor. It is shown that the axial asymmetry of the oxidation of the fuel elements could be due to the temperature distribution in cladding and the non-uniform content of radiolytic oxygen and the radicals HO2 and $${\mathrm{O}}_2^{-}$$ over height in FA and the azimuthal distribution is due to the radial distribution of the fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The results of studies attesting the possibility of the appearance in the RBMK-1000 fuel channel of conditions where the corrosion rate of the cladding on the sections between the spacer grills is comparable to the oxidation rates of VVER-1000 fuel elements are presented.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0371-z
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Stability of Nickel Alloys in
Molten-Salt Nuclear Reactors
• Authors: A. I. Surenkov; V. V. Ignat’ev; S. S. Abalin; S. A. Konakov; V. S. Uglov
Pages: 43 - 49
Abstract: Choosing structural materials for molten-salt nuclear reactors is a high-priority problem. The results making it possible to choose the basic structural material for a molten-salt nuclear reactor are colligated in the present article. Forced and natural circulation setups operating under reactor and laboratory conditions with molten metal-fluoride salts with different compositions have been developed at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute: LiF–NaF–BeF2–PuF3, LiF–BeF2–UF4, and LiF–BeF2–ThF4–UF4. Corrosion tests were conducted with domestically produced corrosion-resistant steel (12Kh18N10T, EP-164) and specially developed nickel-based alloys (KhN80M-VI, KhN80MTYu, KhN80MTV, et al.) as well as the alloy Hastelloy (USA), MONICR (Czechoslovakia) and EM-721 (France) in the working temperature range 600–800°C and mechanical loads up to 80 MPa on the samples.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0372-y
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Radioecological State of the Agrosphere in the 30-km Zone of the Siberian
Chemical Combine During the Pre-Startup Period of a Prototype Power
Complex
• Authors: V. M. Solomatin; R. M. Aleksakhin; E. V. Spirin; I. B. Sorokin; A. I. Zhivago; L. I. Ryzhova
Pages: 50 - 53
Abstract: The results of radioecological monitoring of agricultural activities within the 30-km impact zone of the Siberian Chemical Combine are examined. The surface activity of 137Cs in soil and the specific activity of 137Cs in plants with similar indicators characteristic for NPP sites are analyzed and compared. The obtained data make it possible to evaluate the impact of a prototype electric power complex (PEPC) on the soil-and-vegetation cover and the products of agricultural activity, since the data make it possible to differentiate information on two basic parts – that associated with the activity of the Combine, on the one hand, and the other with the possible contribution of PEPC, on the other.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0373-x
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Non-Proliferation Regime and Export Control
• Authors: E. N. Avrorin; Yu. I. Churikov
Pages: 54 - 57
Abstract: The barriers required to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons are examined. The most important barriers are the nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty, the IAEA safeguard system, and the guiding principles of the Zangger committee and the nuclear suppliers groups. The principles of monitoring for the switching of nuclear materials from peaceful to military uses are fundamental and are applicable for nuclear power based on thermal as well as fast reactors.
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0374-9
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Laser Method of Measuring the Steam Content of Coolant in Water Nuclear
Power Reactors
• Authors: S. K. Mankevich; E. P. Orlov
Pages: 58 - 61
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0375-8
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Prizma-DSP Code Calculations of the Fission-Point Distribution in the
OECD/NEA Proposed Test2 System
• Authors: Ya. Z. Kandiev; L. V. Lobanova; E. V. Serova
Pages: 62 - 68
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0376-7
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Isotopic Kinetics Problems on a Complete Elemental Basis of the
Fission-Product Yield
• Authors: E. F. Mitenkova; E. V. Solov’eva; V. B. Manichev; E. O. Fel’dman
Pages: 69 - 73
PubDate: 2018-05-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0377-6
Issue No: Vol. 124, No. 1 (2018)

• Automatic Modeling of VVER-1000 Power Maneuvers
• Authors: A. A. Dubov
Pages: 365 - 370
Abstract: A special version of the IR code is described. The purpose of this code is to generate recommendations for the reactor operator when operating in a maneuvering regime, automate boron regulation, and study the maneuvering characteristics of VVER-1000 fuel loads. The results of modeling of operation in a daily load schedule are presented for the example of a stationary run of VVER-TOI. The impact of variation of the parameters of power maneuvers (run, operating time a reduced power, loading rate) on the boron regulation parameters is analyzed.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0354-0
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Effect of Cellular Lattices, Heat-Exchange Intensifiers, and Coolant
Mixing on the Critical Power of VVER FA
• Authors: Yu. F. Selivanov; V. M. Loshchinin; I. V. Razzhivin
Pages: 376 - 383
Abstract: The results of one stage in the development of methods for increasing the critical power of water-cooled nuclear reactors – the capacity of a reactor installation with sharp degradation of the heat exchange characteristics of the coolant (crisis of heat exchange) – are presented. This stage included experimental determination of the effect on the crisis of heat exchange of arranging heat-exchange intensifiers in FA and transverse mixing of the coolant flow, for which lattices assembled from properly shaped cellular elements where used. The FA models consisted of an assembly of 19 fuel-element simulators with a non-uniform distribution of heat emission along the length. Freon-12 was used as the coolant. The models of the FA differed by the type of intensifier lattices and the number of FA arranged along the length. The efficacy of the influence of lattices on the critical power as a result of the intensification of heat exchange and transverse mixing of the coolant was determined separately. The optimal rigging of FA with lattices was determined experimentally.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0356-y
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Effect of Moderator–Coolant Chemical Interaction on Accident Development
in the No. 4 Unit of the Chernobyl NPP
• Authors: D. S. Pashkevich; E. D. Fedorovich; V. V. Kapustin
Pages: 384 - 388
Abstract: The accident in the No. 4 unit of the Chernobyl NPP destroyed the reactor and enclosures and resulted in atmospheric emissions of fission products, irradiated fuel, moderator, and other radioactive materials. The large-scale destruction could have been due to the chemical interaction of the coolant (water) and moderator (graphite) with carbon monoxide and hydrogen forming at temperatures above 1000 K. The results of calculations of the composition of a thermodynamically equilibrium mixture in the system of elements C–H–O and measurements of the characteristic graphite-water interaction time at ~1500 K are presented and this time is compared with the characteristic development time of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0357-x
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Mechanism and Conditions for Continuous Hydride Layer Formation in
• Authors: V. V. Novikov; O. V. Khomyakov; Yu. N. Devyatko
Pages: 389 - 398
Abstract: Local hydrogenation of zirconium fuel-element cladding, resulting in the formation of continuous hydrides, as a rule occurs when coolant or other hydrogen-containing compound finds its way beneath the fuel-element cladding irradiated in the core of a water moderated and cooled reactor. In this article, the set of processes occurring during hydrogenation of zirconium cladding is analyzed, and estimates are given for the parameters of these processes. The conditions and mechanism of formation of a continuous hydride over the thickness of zirconium cladding are established. It is shown that the duration of the nucleation of the hydride is determined primarily by the time to local destruction of the oxide film on the inner surface of the zirconium cladding of the fuel elements. The shortest possible time for continuous hydride to grow through the thickness of fuel-element cladding is determined.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0358-9
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Computational Errors in the Calculation of Long Radioactive Decay Chains
• Authors: R. I. Bakin; A. A. Kiselev; A. M. Shvedov; A. V. Shikin
Pages: 406 - 411
Abstract: For safety security of objects utilizing atomic energy, the effect of numerical errors on the calculation of the activity and integrals of the activity in time when using Bateman’s formula and Siewers’ algorithm to calculate radioactive decay chains is investigated. The smallest errors obtain when using Siewers’ algorithm and Bateman’s formula together with long arithmetic. It is shown that the standard calculations of radioactive decay chains according to Bateman’s formula with double precision lead to significant errors. However, these errors have almost no effect on the dose characteristics of mixtures of radionuclides. The analysis is based on data contained in ICRP Publication No. 107.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0360-2
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Monte-Carlo Method of Calculating Weakly Coupled Systems Using the
PRIZMA-DSP Code
• Authors: Ya. Z. Kandiev; L. V. Lobanova; V. G. Orlov; E. V. Serova
Pages: 412 - 417
Abstract: A Monte Carlo method implemented in the PRIZMA-DSP code to calculate multiplying systems, including weakly coupled systems, is described. In the code, the basis of the method is a sequential calculation of a prescribed chain of active generations, which is described by, first and foremost, the dominant ratio of the system. The fission points of the running generation serve as a source for constructing neutron trajectories, new fission points arising on a trajectory are transmitted unchanged to calculate the next generation, and so on. In the calculation of the active generation, Keff and made-to-order linear-fractional functions are evaluated. In order for the distribution to become established, a passive calculation with prescribed chain length is made before the active calculation. In addition, after the calculation of each generation the operation of random mixing of the entire set of fission points and their distribution over the nuclei is performed in order to obtain a uniform distribution. At the start of the calculation, a special rejection procedure performs a pre-set number of preliminary computational iterations so that an arbitrary zeroth distribution over all nuclei goes to a distribution obtained via a characteristic function.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0361-1
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Role of Fast-Reactor Reflector Neutrons in Increasing Fission Chain
Reaction Resistance to Rapid Runaway
• Authors: G. G. Kulikov; A. N. Shmelev; E. G. Kulikov; V. A. Apse; N. V. Chubko
Pages: 424 - 425
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0363-z
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

• Correction to: Neutron yield of the reactions Li 6 (t, n) and Li 7 (t, n)
• Pages: 432 - 432
Abstract: The first author’s name should read A. K. Valter.
PubDate: 2018-04-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10512-018-0365-x
Issue No: Vol. 123, No. 6 (2018)

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