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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia:
           A descriptive cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Abdulaziz A. AlBaker; Yazed Sulaiman H. Al-Ruthia; Mohammed AlShehri; Samar Alshuwairikh
      Pages: 1208 - 1216
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Abdulaziz A. AlBaker, Yazed Sulaiman H. Al-Ruthia, Mohammed AlShehri, Samar Alshuwairikh
      Background The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has shown steady growth in the dental workforce over the last 20years. Although the number of dental colleges has significantly increased in the last decade, there is not any study so far that described the status of the licensed dentist workforce in the kingdom. The present study aimed to explore the demographic distribution and professional characteristics of licensed dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) database to identify the number of licensed dentists in Saudi Arabia as well as their professional and demographic characteristics as of December 2016. The data was categorized based on gender, nationality, dental specialty, health sector, geographic location, and professional rank. Results The number of licensed dentists working in the kingdom as of December 2016 was 16887 dentists, and the vast majority of them are professionally registered as general dentists (70.27%). The percentage of general dentists among the professionally registered female dentists is significantly higher than their male counterparts (79.71% vs. 64.80%; P <0.001). Only 22.08% of the dentists working in the kingdom are Saudi. Most of the dentist workforce in the kingdom are male (61.06%). The mean age of the Saudi dentists is slightly but significantly younger than non-Saudi dentists (37.7vs. 40.7years; P <0.001). Over 80% of the Saudi dentists are working in the regions of Riyadh, Makkah, and Eastern province. About 66% of the Saudi dentists are working in the public health sector in comparison to only 20.46% of the non-Saudi dentists (P <0.001). Conclusions Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.005
  • Release and permeation profiles of spray-dried chitosan microparticles
           containing caffeic acid

    • Authors: Caroline Magnani Spagnol; Ana Melero Zaera; Vera Lucia Borges Isaac; Marcos Antonio Corrêa; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Caroline Magnani Spagnol, Ana Melero Zaera, Vera Lucia Borges Isaac, Marcos Antonio Corrêa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
      Caffeic acid (CA), a phenolic compound found in plants with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, induces collagen production and prevents premature aging of the skin. The objective of this study was to develop two types of chitosan microparticles (MP) containing CA and to relate the morphology with the release and permeation profiles. One type of MP was prepared from a hydroalcoholic solution (MPI) and the other from an aqueous solution (MPII). Their morphology and size was evaluated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The release profile of CA was evaluated using the cellulose membrane from the two MPs in Franz diffusion cells and the permeation profile was evaluated using human abdominal skin samples; the epidermal membranes were prepared by the heat-separation technique. MPII was spherical with a smooth surface, suitable for the controlled release of substances, whereas MPI was porous with non-internalized residual material. This result was consistent with their release and permeation profiles because MPII exhibited a slower and more controlled release than MPI. Thus, the method of preparation of MP and their composition influence the release profile of CA. Therefore, the production conditions must be closely controlled.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.021
  • Saudi Vigilance Program: Challenges and lessons learned

    • Authors: Adel Alharf; Nasser Alqahtani; Ghazi Saeed; Ali Alshahrani; Mubarak Alshahrani; Nasser Aljasser; Mohammed Alquwaizani; Saleh Bawazir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Adel Alharf, Nasser Alqahtani, Ghazi Saeed, Ali Alshahrani, Mubarak Alshahrani, Nasser Aljasser, Mohammed Alquwaizani, Saleh Bawazir
      Pharmacovigilance is vital to public health. Adopting a robust spontaneous reporting system for adverse drug events can counteract most hazards that arise from utilizing medicinal products. Prior to the establishment of the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), the number of pharmacovigilance-related activities in Saudi Arabia was limited. In 2009, the SFDA established the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center (Saudi Vigilance). The pharmacovigilance system has remarkably improved during the past few years. Several initiatives have been taken to improve the program’s performance. These initiatives include initiation of pharmacovigilance guidelines, enhancement of communication and reporting tools, training sessions for concerned staff and healthcare providers, and compliance from stakeholders. This review article provides an overview of what the Saudi Vigilance program is, focusing on the scope, mission and vision, hierarchy, operational themes, and overall work processes. Additionally, we will shed light on the challenges we encountered during the early phase and on our future plans.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.01.002
  • Recent updates of marine antimicrobial peptides

    • Authors: Mohammad H. Semreen; Mohammed I. El-Gamal; Shifaa Abdin; Hajar Alkhazraji; Leena Kamal; Saba Hammad; Faten El-Awady; Dima Waleed; Layal Kourbaj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad H. Semreen, Mohammed I. El-Gamal, Shifaa Abdin, Hajar Alkhazraji, Leena Kamal, Saba Hammad, Faten El-Awady, Dima Waleed, Layal Kourbaj
      Antimicrobial peptides are group of proteins showing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that have been known to be powerful agents against a variety of pathogens. This class of compounds contributed to solving the microbial resistance dilemma that limited the use of many potent antimicrobial agents. The marine environment is known to be one of the richest sources for antimicrobial peptides, yet this environment is not fully explored. Hence, the scientific research attention should be directed toward the marine ecosystem as enormous amount of useful discoveries could be brought to the forefront. In the current article, the marine antimicrobial peptides reported from mid 2012 to 2017 have been reviewed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.01.001
  • Quality of life and complementary and alternative medicine use among women
           with breast cancer

    • Authors: Hadeel Albabtain; Monira Alwhaibi; Khalid Alburaikan; Yousif Asiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hadeel Albabtain, Monira Alwhaibi, Khalid Alburaikan, Yousif Asiri
      Background Complementary and Alternative Medication (CAM) is commonly used among women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, few studies examine the prevalence of CAM and its’ relation to the patients’ QoL among women with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 women with breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The outcome measure of interest was the QoL. The correlation was used to assess the association between CAM use and QoL. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the factors that affect the use of CAM. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. Results CAM use was reported by 81.1% of the study participants. The most commonly used CAM therapy was spiritual therapy 70.5%, followed by honey 36.8%, olive oil 24.2% and 23.2% herbal therapy. We found that those who were undergoing cancer treatment had a significantly higher percentage of CAM usage as compared to those not undergoing cancer therapy (72.6% vs. 8.4%, P=0.008). With regards to QoL, there was a statistically significant difference between CAM users and non-CAM users in global health status (73.2% vs. 64.8%, P = 0.049). Conclusions CAM therapy was commonly used among women in our study sample which was correlated with higher overall global QoL. As CAM is widely used, health care providers may need to discuss the use of CAM with breast cancer women and be up to date on the benefits and risk of CAM use through well-equipped training programs and workshops.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.020
  • In vitro characterization of arylhydrazones of active methylene

    • Authors: Suresh Palanivel; Anastasia Zhurina; Phuong Doan; Jerome G. Chandraseelan; Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal; Fedor I. Zubkov; Kamran T. Mahmudov; Armando J. L. Pombeiro; Olli Yli-Harja; Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Suresh Palanivel, Anastasia Zhurina, Phuong Doan, Jerome G. Chandraseelan, Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal, Fedor I. Zubkov, Kamran T. Mahmudov, Armando J. L. Pombeiro, Olli Yli-Harja, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
      Arylhydrazones of active methylene compounds (AHAMCs) are potent chemotherapy agents for the cancer treatment. AHAMCs enhance the apoptotic cell death and antiproliferation properties in cancer cells. In this study, a series of AHAMCs, 13 compounds, was assayed for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, externalization of phosphatidylserine, heterogeneity and cellular calcium level changes. The in vitro cytotoxicity study against HEK293T cells suggests that AHAMCs have significant cytotoxic effect over the concentrations. Top 5 compounds, 5-(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazono)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (5), 4-hydroxy-5-(2-(2,4,6-trioxo-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-5(6H) ylidene)hydrazinyl)benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (6), 5-chloro-3-(2-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (8), 5-(2-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)hydrazinyl)-4-hydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (9) and 2-(2-sulfophenylhydrazo)malononitrile (10) were chosen for the pharmacodynamics study. Among these, compound 5 exhibited the better cytotoxic effect with the IC50 of 50.86±2.5 mM. DNA cleavage study revealed that 5 induces cell death through apoptosis and shows more effects after 24 and/or 48 h. Independent validation of apoptosis by following the externalization of phosphatidylserine using Annexin-V is also in agreement with the potential activity of 5. Single cell image analysis of Annexin-V bound cells confirms the presence of mixture of early, mid and late apoptotic cells in the population of the cells treated with 5 and a decreased trend in cell-to-cell variation over the phase was also identified. Additionally, intracellular calcium level measurements identified the Ca2+ up-regulation in compound treated cells. A brief inspection of the effect of the compound 5 against multiple human brain astrocytoma cells showed a better cell growth inhibitory effect at micro molar level. These systematic studies provide insights in the development of novel AHAMACs compounds as potential cell growth inhibitors for cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.018
  • Secondary metabolites isolated from Pinus roxburghii and interpretation of
           their cannabinoid and opioid binding properties by virtual screening and
           in vitro studies

    • Authors: Rola M. Labib; Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri; Fadia S. Youssef; Samir A. Ross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rola M. Labib, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Fadia S. Youssef, Samir A. Ross
      Pinus roxburghii is highly popular as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent; however its exact mechanism of action was not fully elucidated. We aimed to interpret the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethanol extract of Pinus roxburghii bark (PRE) and its isolated compounds by both in silico molecular modelling and in-vitro cannabinoid and opioid binding activities evaluation for the first time. Comprehensive phytochemical investigation of PRE resulted in the isolation of sixteen compounds that were fully elucidated using 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Four of which namely 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (1), 2,4,7-trihydroxyxanthone (2), isopimaric acid (9) and 3-methoxy-14-serraten-21-one (10) were first to be isolated from PRE. In silico molecular modelling was done using Accelry’s discovery studio 2.5 on the cannabinoid receptor (CB1) and the different opioid receptors (mu, kappa and delta). Results showed that the different isolated constituents exhibited variable degrees of binding with the different examined receptors that undoubtedly explained the observed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PRE. Thus in vitro evaluation of cannabinoid (CB1, CB2) and opioid (μ, κ, δ) binding activities for the isolated compounds was done. PRE and ursolic acid (11) showed a good CB1 receptor binding activity with 66.8 and 48.1% binding, respectively. Isopimaric acid (9) showed good CB2 and mu receptors binding activity estimated by 58.1 and 29.1% binding, respectively. Meanwhile, querectin-3-O-rhamnoside (7) exhibited a moderate κ-opioid receptor activity showing 56.0% binding. Thus, PRE could offer a natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory candidate through the synergistic action of all its components.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.017
  • Investigation of nepetolide as a novel lead compound: Antioxidant,
           antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic
           activities and molecular docking evaluation

    • Authors: Tanzeel ur Rehman; Arif-ullah Khan; Azar Abbas; Javid Hussain; Farman Ullah Khan; Kimberly Stieglitz; Shamsher Ali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Tanzeel ur Rehman, Arif-ullah Khan, Azar Abbas, Javid Hussain, Farman Ullah Khan, Kimberly Stieglitz, Shamsher Ali
      In the present study, we describe various pharmacological effects and computational analysis of nepetolide, a tricyclic clerodane-type diterpene, isolated from Nepeta suavis. Nepetolide concentration-dependently (1.0–1000 µg/mL) exhibited 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with maximum effect of 87.01 ± 1.85%, indicating its antioxidant potential, as shown by standard drug, ascorbic acid. It was moderately active against bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus. In brine shrimp’s lethality model, nepetolide potently showed cytotoxic effect, with LC50 value of 8.7 µg/mL. When evaluated for antitumor activity in potato disc tumor assay, nepetolide exerted tumor inhibitory effect of 56.5 ± 1.5% at maximum tested concentration of 1000 µg/mL. Nepetolide at 20 mg/kg reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation (P < .001 vs. saline group) in rat paw. Nepetolide dose-dependently (100–500 mg/kg) decreased acetic acid evoked writhes, as exhibited by diclofenac sodium. In-silico investigation of nepetolide was carried out against cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor and lipoxygenase-2 targets. Virtual screening through Patchdock online docking server identified primarily hydrophobic interactions between ligand nepetolide and receptors proteins. Enhanced hydrogen bonding was predicted with Autodock showing 6–8 hydrogen bonds per target. These results indicate that nepetolide exhibits antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and should be considered as a lead compound for developing drugs for the remedy of oxidative stress-induced disorders, microbial infections, cancers, inflammations and pain.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.019
  • Top 10 most used drugs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2010–2015

    • Authors: Osama A. AlKhamees; Khaled A. AlNemer; Mohammed W. Bin Maneea; Faisal A. AlSugair; Bassam H. AlEnizi; Adel A. Alharf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Osama A. AlKhamees, Khaled A. AlNemer, Mohammed W. Bin Maneea, Faisal A. AlSugair, Bassam H. AlEnizi, Adel A. Alharf
      Medications usage has become a significant part of contemporary life. Many studies indicate that there is an excessive use and a considerable waste of medicines. This descriptive study aims at identifying the most used medicines in Saudi Arabia from 2010 to 2015 according to the statistics of specialized companies in the field. Comparison of the most commonly used drugs with those in the United States aims at clarifying similarities and differences. The results showed that the use of antibiotics and analgesics still accounted for the bulk, followed by proton pump inhibitors and anti-diabetics respectively, then anti-hyperlipidemic agents and erectile dysfunction treatments. The causes of this overuse vary according to the studies concerned between the self-medications and the over-prescription of the medication and the failure of the diagnostic and treatment procedures (malpractice). The recommendations are the strict application of prescribed and non–prescribed dispensing systems and the further establishment and application of national guides in the diagnosis and treatment of communicable diseases. The repetition of such studies is useful in reviewing health policies and regulations related to health practice in general and pharmacological policies in particular.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.009
  • Changes in the utilization of osteoporosis drugs after the 2010 FDA
           bisphosphonate drug safety communication

    • Authors: Bander Balkhi; Enrique Seoane-Vazquez; Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bander Balkhi, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio
      Introduction In October 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a safety communication regarding the risks of atypical fractures of the femur, with bisphosphonates drugs. This study evaluated the impact of the bisphosphonates FDA safety communication on the utilization of osteoporosis medications in Medicaid programs. Methods Osteoporosis drugs utilization data from the July 2006 to June 2014 were extracted from the national Summary Files from the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). We performed an interrupted time series analyses to evaluate trends in utilization of osteoporosis drugs before and after the 2010 FDA safety commination. Results Time-series analyses of osteoporosis drug utilization in Medicaid program revealed a significant downward trend associated with the 2010 FDA bisphosphonates safety communication. Before the FDA safety communication was issued, the utilization rate was slightly decreased between 2006 and 2010. In the year following the FDA safety communication the bisphosphonate DDDs per 1000 beneficiaries of fell 22% yearly until the end of study period. Conclusions The 2010 FDA bisphosphonates safety communication appeared to have influenced Osteoporosis utilization in Medicaid recipients. The 2010 FDA bisphosphonates safety communication was associated with a significant reduction in the utilization of bisphosphonates in the Medicaid program.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.005
  • Association between satisfaction with and adherence to warfarin therapy on
           the control of international normalized ratio: A hospital-based study in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Balkhi Balkhi; Mabrouk Al-Rasheedi; Abuabker Ibrahim Elbur; Ahmad Alghamadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Balkhi Balkhi, Mabrouk Al-Rasheedi, Abuabker Ibrahim Elbur, Ahmad Alghamadi
      Background High satisfaction with, and adherence to, warfarin therapy are linked to better international normalized ratio (INR) control and good therapeutic outcomes. Objective This study was conducted to identify the association between satisfaction with, and adherence to, warfarin therapy and the control of the INR within the target therapeutic range. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to August 31, 2016, at the Anticoagulation Clinic in the Cardiology Center at King Fahad Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. All adult patients included in the study were 18-years-old or older and were on warfarin therapy for 6 months or more. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results A total of 298 patients were included. Of them, 194 patients (65.1%) were males and 152 (51.0%) were classified as satisfied with their warfarin therapy. Secondary educational level and above (P = .001) and being non-Saudi (P = .026) were identified as determinants of a high level of satisfaction. Ninety-five (31.8%) participants were classified as adherent to the therapy, and satisfaction with treatment was the only predictor of adherence (P = .009). One hundred thirty-six patients (45.6%) achieved their target INR range. Satisfaction (P = .038) and adherence (P = .023) were significantly associated with better INR control. Conclusion Substantial efforts are needed to improve patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment through different strategies in order to achieve the target therapeutic goal for warfarin treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.010
  • Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and
           lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    • Authors: Aleksandra Amelian; Katarzyna Wasilewska; Małgorzata Wesoły; Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska; Katarzyna Winnicka
      Pages: 1144 - 1150
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Aleksandra Amelian, Katarzyna Wasilewska, Małgorzata Wesoły, Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska, Katarzyna Winnicka
      Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release) revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.06.001
  • Prediction of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein localization in host
           mitochondria and cytoplasm and possible involvements in lung cancer
           etiology: a computational approach

    • Authors: Aws Alshamsan; Shahanavaj Khan; Ahamad Imran; Ibrahim A. Aljuffali; Khalid Alsaleh
      Pages: 1151 - 1157
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Aws Alshamsan, Shahanavaj Khan, Ahamad Imran, Ibrahim A. Aljuffali, Khalid Alsaleh
      Collecting evidence suggests that the intercellular infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in lungs contributes to the etiology of lung cancer. Many proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae outmanoeuvre the various system of the host. The infection may regulate various factors, which can influence the growth of lung cancer in affected persons. In this in-silico study, we predict potential targeting of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic comportments of host cell and their possible involvement in growth and development of lung cancer. Various cellular activities are controlled in mitochondria and cytoplasm, where the localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins may alter the normal functioning of host cells. The rationale of this study is to find out and explain the connection between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. A sum of 183 and 513 proteins were predicted to target in mitochondria and cytoplasm of host cell out of total 1112 proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae. In particular, many targeted proteins may interfere with normal growth behaviour of host cells, thereby altering the decision of program cell death. Present article provides a potential connection of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein targeting and proposed that various targeted proteins may play crucial role in lung cancer etiology through diverse mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.007
  • Comparative anticancer and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of
           Acacia salicina, Acacia laeta, Acacia hamulosa and Acacia tortilis grown
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Omer A. Basudan; Afzal Hussain; Fohad Mabood Husain; Azmat Ali Khan
      Pages: 1248 - 1252
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Mohamed F. Alajmi, Perwez Alam, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Omer A. Basudan, Afzal Hussain, Fohad Mabood Husain, Azmat Ali Khan
      The standardized ethanol extract (EE) of aerial parts of four Acacia species [A. salicina (ASEE), A. laeta (ALEE), A. hamulosa (AHEE), and A. tortilis (ATEE)] were examined in order to compare their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. All the extracts were standardized by UPLC- PDA method using rutin as standard compound. The extracts ALEE, AHEE and ATEE were found to contain rutin along with several other phytoconstituents while rutin was absent in ASEE. All the extracts showed varying level of antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition ranged from 11 to 21mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The ALEE and ATEE showed relatively high antimicrobial potency (MIC=0.2 to 1.6mgmL−1) in comparison to other extracts. All the extracts were found to reduce the biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain significantly in comparison to the untreated control. The cytotoxic property of ASEE, ALEE, AHEE, ATEE were evaluated against HepG2 (Liver), HEK-293 (Kidney), MCF-7 (Breast) and MDA-MB 231 (Breast) cancer cells. Of these, ALEE, AHEE and ATEE exhibited moderate cytotoxic property against human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2; IC50=46.2, 39.2 and 42.3μgmL−1, respectively) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; IC50=57.2, 55.3 and 65.7μgmL−1, respectively). The ATEE and ALEE showed moderate cytotoxicity against HEK-293 (kidney) cells with IC50=49.1 and 53.5μgmL−1, respectively. Since, Acacia species (A. laeta and A. hamulosa) contains numerous polyphenols which might prove to be highly cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents, we suggest that these species can be further subjected to the isolation of more cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.010
  • Role of Chitosan on Controlling the Characteristics and Antifungal
           Activity of Bioadhesive Fluconazole Vaginal Tablets

    • Authors: Rawan A. Fitaihi; Fadilah S. Aleanizy; Samar Elsamaligy; Hanaa A. Mahmoud; Mohsen A. Bayomi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rawan A. Fitaihi, Fadilah S. Aleanizy, Samar Elsamaligy, Hanaa A. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Bayomi
      Vaginal fluconazole (FLZ) prolonged release tablets containing chitosan in physical blends with other bioadhesive polymers were designed. Chitosan was mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), guar gum or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at different ratios and directly compressed into tablets. In-vitro release profiles of FLZ were monitored at pH 4.8. Compressing chitosan with HPMC at different ratios slowed FLZ release, however, time for 80% drug release (T80) did not exceed 4.3 h for the slowest formulation (F11). Adding of chitosan to guar gum at 1:2 ratio (F3) showed delayed release with T80 17.4 h while, in presence of PVP at 1:2:1 ratio (F5), T80 was 8.8 h. A blend of chitosan and NaCMC at 1:2 ratio (F15) showed prolonged drug release with T80 11.16 h. Formulations F5 and F15 showed fair physical characteristics for the powder and tablets and were subjected to further studies. Fast swelling was observed for F15 that reached 1160.53 ±13.02% in 4 hours with 2h bioadhesion time to mouse peritoneum membrane compared with 458.83±7.09% swelling with bioadhesion time exceeding 24 h for F5. Extensive swelling of F15 could indicate possible dehydration effect on vaginal mucosa. Meanwhile, antifungal activity against C. albicans was significantly high for F5.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:44:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.016
  • Antioxidants as precision weapons in war against cancer chemotherapy
           induced toxicity- exploring the armoury of obscurity

    • Authors: Kanchanlata Singh; Mustansir Bhori; Yasar Arfat Kasu; Ganapathi Bhat; Thankamani Marar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kanchanlata Singh, Mustansir Bhori, Yasar Arfat Kasu, Ganapathi Bhat, Thankamani Marar
      Cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for almost 13% of deaths in the world. Among the conventional cancer treatments, chemotherapy is most frequently carried out to treat malignant cancer rather than localised lesions which is amenable to surgery and radiotherapy. However, anticancer drugs are associated with a plethora of side effects. Each drug, within every class, has its own set of adverse reactions which may cause patient incompliance and deterioration of the quality of life. One of the major causes of adverse reactions, especially for drugs targeting DNA, is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent build up of oxidative stress. To curb these undesired side effects, several dietary supplements have been tested, amongst which antioxidants have gained increasing popularity as adjuvant in chemotherapy. However, many oncologists discourage the use of antioxidant rich food supplements because these may interfere with the modalities which kill cancer by generating free radicals. In the present review, all studies reporting concomitant use of several antioxidants with chemotherapy are indiscriminately included and discussed impartially. The effect of supplementation of thirteen different antioxidants and their analogues as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy has been compiled in this article. The present review encompasses a total of 174 peer-reviewed original articles from 1967 till date comprising 93 clinical trials with a cumulative number of 18,208 patients, 56 animal studies and 35 in vitro studies. Our comprehensive data suggests that antioxidant has superior potential of ameliorating chemotherapeutic induced toxicity. Antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy also promises higher therapeutic efficiency and increased survival times in patients.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.013
  • Effect of neat and binary vehicle systems on the solubility and cutaneous
           delivery of piperine

    • Authors: Abdullah Hasan Alomrani; Faisal Ibraheem Alhazza; Khalid Mohammed AlGhamdi; Gamal Mohamed El Maghraby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdullah Hasan Alomrani, Faisal Ibraheem Alhazza, Khalid Mohammed AlGhamdi, Gamal Mohamed El Maghraby
      Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by depigmentation disorders due to lack of melanin production. Piperine, an alkaloid extracted from black piper, is active in melanocytes proliferation. To achieve this, the drug has to reach the melanocytes which exist in the deep layer of the epidermis. Higher drug concentration can be obtained after application of optimized formulation to skin. Accordingly, the aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vehicles on skin penetration of piperine as the first step in development of optimized formulation. The tested vehicles include ethanol (Eth), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), and oleic acid (OA) and their combinations. Water was used as the control and skin permeation was monitored using rabbit ear model skin. The highest piperine solubility (48.6 mg/ml) and flux (40.8 μg/cm2 h) was achieved by Eth and the lowest piperine flux (1.17 μg/cm2 h) was reported for PEG. PG and OA showed piperine flux values comparable to that of the control. Among different combination systems, Eth-OA (75:25) binary system had the highest piperine flux (59.3 μg/cm2 h) followed by Eth-OA (50:50) (32.3 μg/cm2 h) and PG-OA (90:10) (22.7 μg/cm2 h). The study thus introduced a vehicle system as the first step in the development of topical formulation of piperine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.015
  • Simultaneous determination of naltrexone and bupropion in their
           co-formulated tablet utilizing green chromatographic approach with
           application to human urine

    • Authors: Sherif A. Abdel-Gawad; Rania M. El-Gamal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sherif A. Abdel-Gawad, Rania M. El-Gamal
      A rapid, simple and accurate micellar HPLC-method was adopted and validated for concurrent quantification of naltrexone hydrochloride (NTX) and bupropion hydrochloride (BUP). The proposed method was conducted on RP-18 LiChrosorb® column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5-µm particle size) at 25 °C, as a stationary phase and a mixture of 0.175 M sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 0.3% triethanolamine (TEA) and 12% n-propanol in 0.02 M ortho (o)-phosphoric acid of pH 3.5 as a developing system. It was pumped at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min, with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. The linearity ranges were 0.5–15.0 µg/mL and 1.2–18.0 µg/mL, with detection limits of 0.10 and 0.31 µg/mL and quantification limits of 0.30 and 0.93 µg/mL for NTX and BUP, respectively. The studied drugs were successfully quantified by applying the proposed method in their co-formulated tablet. The cited method was also applied for in-vitro quantification of BUP in spiked human urine without prior extraction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.014
  • A novel protocol for bacterial ghosts’ preparation using tween 80

    • Authors: Sameh Rabea; Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit; Fars K. Alanazi; Aymen S. Yassin; Nayera A. Moneib; Abd Elgawad M. Hashem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sameh Rabea, Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit, Fars K. Alanazi, Aymen S. Yassin, Nayera A. Moneib, Abd Elgawad M. Hashem
      Bacterial ghosts (BGs) can be prepared by both genetic and chemical means. Genetic method include using lysis gene E. Chemical method include incubation with numerous agents for a short time at their minimum inhibitory or minimum growth concentrations (MIC or MGC). The aim of this study is to prepare the BGs with a new protocol via exposing the bacterial cells to tween 80 for an extended period of time followed by sudden reduction of the surrounding pH. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium ATCC 13311 was used for this purpose. The cells were incubated in 7% v/v tween 80 solution in Muller-Hinton broth for 24 h at 37 °C then pH was decreased to 3.6 by adding lactic acid for one hour. The bacterial pellets were separated by high speed centrifugation, and then washed three times by half normal saline solution. High quality BGs were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealing punctured cells with intact outer shells and at least one intramembranous tunnel. The absence of vital cells was confirmed by subculturing. The release of respective amounts of proteins and DNA is another evidence of ghost’s production. In addition, the integrity of cells was proved by visualization of Gram-stained cells using light microscopy. In conclusion, this new protocol is simple, economic and feasible for BGs preparation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.006
  • Chitosan-based zinc oxide nanoparticle for enhanced anticancer effect in
           cervical cancer: A physicochemical and biological perspective

    • Authors: Henghui Wu; Juxin Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Henghui Wu, Juxin Zhang
      In this study, chitosan-assembled zinc oxide nanoparticle (CZNP) was successfully prepared for evaluated for its anticancer efficacy against cervical cancer cells. The CZNP particles were nanosized and spherical in shape. The zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZNP) and CZNP showed significant cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that the enhanced cytotoxicity was mainly attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the cancer cells. The apoptosis assay further revealed that apoptosis was the main reason behind the cell killing effect of the zinc oxide nanoparticles. The apoptosis was further confirmed by the nuclear chromatin assay. Live dead assay showed increased red fluorescent cell for CZNP treated cancer cells. Overall, metal oxide present in nanoparticulate dimensions will be advantageous in imparting the cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cell.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.010
  • Phytochemical standardization and biological activities of certain desert
           plants growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Muneera S. Al-Saleem; Amani S. Awaad; Monerah R. Alothman; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muneera S. Al-Saleem, Amani S. Awaad, Monerah R. Alothman, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Calendula tripterocarpa, Centarea sinaica, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Koelpinia linearis, Plectranthus arabicus, Plectranthus asirensis and Tripleurospermum auriculatum determined. The best antibacterial activity; 41.8 ± 0.23 mm, 39.7 ± 0.25 mm, 35.8 ± 0.58 mm, 34.7 ± 0.51 mm and 32.7 ± 0.25 mm was obtained by Plectranthus arabicus against Klebsiella pneumonia, Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Stroptococcus pyogenes and Plectranthus arabicus against Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. While the highest antifungal activity; 35.9 ± 1.15 mm, 34.6 ± 0.34, 30.6 ± 0.26 mm and 29.9 ± 0.63 mm was obtained by Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Geotricum candidum, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. The antitumor activity (IC50) obtained by Centarea sinaica; 3.1 ± 6.9 µg/ml, 14.3 ± 3.1 µg/ml and 22.7 ± 4.1 µg/ml was better than activity of vinblastine sulphate; 5.9 ± 0.4 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), cervical carcinoma (Hela) and colorectal carcinoma (CACO), respectively. Plectranthus arabicus alcoholic extract showed higher antitumor activity; 15.3 ± 5.3 µg/ml, 28.6 ± 3.6 µg/ml and 24.3 ± 4.1 µg/ml than vinblastine; 21.2 ± 0.9 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against prostate carcinoma (Pc3), cervical carcinoma (Hela) and colorectal carcinoma (CACO), respectively. Also, the antitumor activity of Plectranthus asirensis against cervical carcinoma (Hela) (37.1 ± 2.6 µg/ml) was potent than vinblastine sulphate (59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml). The obtained results of LD50 and sub-chronic toxicity revealed that the plants have no toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.011
  • Simvastatin enhances irinotecan-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer via
           inhibition of MCL-1

    • Authors: Mohammad A.Y. Alqudah; Hebah T. Mansour; Nizar Mhaidat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad A.Y. Alqudah, Hebah T. Mansour, Nizar Mhaidat
      Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors around the world. Hyperlipidemia is considered as one of the most important risk factors for the development of prostate cancer. Simvastatin is widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and was previously shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer types including lung, colon, pancreas, breast, and prostate cancer. In this study we aimed to explore the potential role of simvastatin in enhancing irinotecan-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving this potential effect of simvastatin were also explored. PC3 cells were treated with simvastatin, irinotecan or combination. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry technique was used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Western blot was used for detection of protein expression. Results showed that simvastatin has a significant anti-proliferative activity on PC3 cells. Combined treatment of simvastatin with irinotecan exhibited a significant inhibition of PC3 cell growth compared to each treatment alone. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PC3 cell treatment with simvastatin and irinotecan combination demonstrated a remarkable increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and those accumulated at G0/G1 phase when compared to each treatment alone. Moreover, induction of apoptosis was caspase-independent. Western blot showed that apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of GRP-78 level and downregulation of Mcl-1 levels in a time-dependent manner. The results of this study demonstrated that combined treatment of simvastatin with chemotherapeutic agents such as irinotecan resulted in enhancement of growth inhibition and induction of prostate cancer cell apoptosis.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.012
  • Roles of some antioxidants in modulation of cardiac myopathy induced by
           sodium nitrite via down-regulation of mRNA expression of NF-κB, Bax, and
           flt-1 and suppressing DNA damage

    • Authors: Laila Mohamed Fadda; Hala A. Attia; Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed; Hanaa Mahmoud Ali; Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hala A. Attia, Nouf Mohamed Al-Rasheed, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal Mohamed Al-Rasheed
      The underlying pathology of cardiac damage involves various molecular and signaling pathways. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the role of Quercetin (Querc), alone or in combination with Melatonin (Melat) against cardiac damage induced by sodium nitrite (Sod nit), as well as to elucidate different signaling pathways. Querc and Melat were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), followed by induction of hypoxia in rats by using a single dose of Sod nit (60 mg/kg, s.c.). Treatment with Sod nit significantly decreased hemoglobin (Hb) levels in blood. Pretreatment of hypoxic rats with Querc and/or Melat elevated the declined Hb concentration. The forementioned antioxidants also successfully ameliorated the alteration of heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and markers of cardiac injury, including troponin T (Trop. T), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the rats serum. Furthermore, RT-PCR revealed that these antioxidants successfully modulated mRNA expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, and flt-1. They also regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the apoptosis marker caspase 3, and oxidative DNA damage in cardiac tissue, compared to Sod nit-intoxicated rats. The present biochemical results are reinforced by histopathological examination. In Conclusion: The results reflected that treatment with Querc in combination with Melat was most effective in improving Sod nit-toxicity induced cardiac damage, thus confirming the promising role of this combination as an effective treatment for cardiac damage induced by other cardio-toxic agents.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.008
  • Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from
           Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    • Authors: Azza A. Matloub; Mona M. AbouSamra; Alaa H. Salama; Maha Z. Rizk; Hanan F. Aly; Ghada Ibrahim Fouad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Azza A. Matloub, Mona M. AbouSamra, Alaa H. Salama, Maha Z. Rizk, Hanan F. Aly, Ghada Ibrahim Fouad
      The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes) for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs%) were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25g), poloxamer 407 (0.25g) and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and total lipid (TL) compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the changes in histopathological lesions and to evaluate the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid regulator such as polysaccharide loaded cubosomes instead of fluvastatin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.007
  • Corrigendum to “Community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and
           experiences about adverse drug reaction reporting in Saudi Arabia”
           [Saudi Pharm. J. 22(5) (2014) 411–418]

    • Authors: Mansour Adam Mahmoud; Yazed Alsowaida; Thamir Alshammari; Tahir Mehmood Khan; Alian Alrasheedy; Mohamad Azmi Hasssali; Hisham Aljadhey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansour Adam Mahmoud, Yazed Alsowaida, Thamir Alshammari, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Alian Alrasheedy, Mohamad Azmi Hasssali, Hisham Aljadhey

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.009
  • Isolation, identification and anti-candidal activity of filamentous fungi
           from Saudi Arabia soil

    • Authors: Nouf M. Al-Enazi; Amani S. Awaad; Monerah R. Al-Othman; Nour K. Al-Anazi; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nouf M. Al-Enazi, Amani S. Awaad, Monerah R. Al-Othman, Nour K. Al-Anazi, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Ten fungal strains; namely, Penicillium melinii, Petriella setifera, Aspergillus pseudo-niger, Alternaria chlamydospora, Pythium nayoroense, Phoma glomerata, Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor racemosus, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Rhizopus azygosporus were isolated from soil. The extra- and intra-cellular extracts of the fungal strains grown on malt extract and yeast-extract sucrose media were screened for their anticandidal activity against different clinically-isolated Candida species. Most of the fungal extracts showed activity against different Candida species. However, the fungal strains grew on malt extract showed greater activities than those grew on yeast extract sucrose media. The activity of the intracellular was higher than the extracellular metabolites. All fungal extracts (extra and intra) were similar in chemical constituent; they contained carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpens, tannins and traces of coumarins. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones and cardenolides were no detected. The intra-cellular extracts contained more compounds than the extra-cellular extracts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.003
  • Preparation and activity of glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid

    • Authors: Gangliang Huang; Hao Cheng; Yang Liu; Jinchuan Hu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gangliang Huang, Hao Cheng, Yang Liu, Jinchuan Hu
      The glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid was prepared with bromo-α-d-galactose and acetylsalicylic acid. It indicated that the glycosylated acetylsalicylic acid had lower cytotoxicity than underivatized acetylsalicylic acid, and might selectively display anticancer activity in this situation that had enzyme or no enzyme.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.001
  • Evaluation of Counseling Services at Community Pharmacies in Qassim
           Province, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Abubakr A. Alfadl; Alian A. Alrasheedy; Musaad S. Alhassun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abubakr A. Alfadl, Alian A. Alrasheedy, Musaad S. Alhassun
      Introduction Pharmacists have a unique opportunity to promote good health through assuring the best use of medicines. One of the most important tools to achieve this is counseling. Counseling plays an important role, not only in enhancing compliance but also in reducing complications of nonadherence. Therefore, for improving the quality of services delivered by community pharmacists, it is essential to understand the exact situation of counseling services delivered to patients. Aims and objectives To date, there is insufficient information about the quality of counseling services delivered to patients in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. This study aims to fill this gap through evaluating the counseling skills and counseling content delivered by pharmacists in a sample of community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia as a necessary pre-step for judging the need for intervention. Methods The study was conducted at eleven community pharmacies in Qassim province. A convenient sample of community pharmacies was chosen based on acceptance to participate. To gather information, a form was prepared based on the core and complementary drug use indicators for evaluation of drug use in healthcare settings developed by the WHO. The study was conducted through observing the counseling services performed by the community pharmacists who participated in the study. Results Two hundred and thirty-five forms were completed in eleven community pharmacies. A total of 44.4% of the counseling skills was found to be performed adequately, while only 20.1% of the counseling contents were performed adequately. Conclusions The overall standard of counseling services provided to patients to improve usage of their medications, and consequently, their well-being was poor.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.002
  • A representative of arylcyanomethylenequinone oximes efectively inhibits
           growth and formation of hyphae in Candida albicans and influences the
           activity of protein kinases in vitro

    • Authors: Maciej Masłyk; Monika Janeczko; Oleg M. Demchuk; Anna Boguszewska-Czubara; Hieronim Golczyk; Anna Sierosławska; Anna Rymuszka; Aleksandra Martyna; Konrad Kubiński
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Maciej Masłyk, Monika Janeczko, Oleg M. Demchuk, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Hieronim Golczyk, Anna Sierosławska, Anna Rymuszka, Aleksandra Martyna, Konrad Kubiński
      In this study, we applied various assays to reveal new activities of phenylcyanomethylenequinone oxime - 4-(hydroxyimino) cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene](phenyl)ethanenitrile (4-AN) for potential anti-microbial applications. These assays demonstrated (a) the antimicrobial effect on bacterial and fungal cultures, (b) the effect on the in vitro activity of the kinase CK2, (c) toxicity towards human erythrocytes, the Caco-2 cancer cell line, and embryonic development of Zebrafish. We demonstrated the activity of 4-AN against selected bacteria and Candida spp. The MIC ranging from 4 µg/ml to 125 µg/ml proved effective in inhibition of formation of hyphae and cell aggregation in Candida, which was demonstrated at the cytological level. Noteworthy, 4-AN was found to inhibit the CK2 kinase with moderate potency. Moreover, at low concentrations, it did not exert any evident toxic effects on human erythrocytes, Caco-2 cells, or Zebrafish embryos. 4-AN can be a potential candidate as a novel drug against Candida infections.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.12.004
  • Concurrent analysis of bioactive triterpenes oleanolic acid and β-amyrin
           in antioxidant active fractions of Hibiscus calyphyllus, Hibiscus
           deflersii and Hibiscus micranthus grown in Saudi Arabia by applying
           validated HPTLC method

    • Authors: Nasir A. Siddiqui; Hanan M. Al-Yousef; Tawfeq A. Alhowiriny; Perwez Alam; Wafaa H.B. Hassan; Musarat Amina; Afzal Hussain; Sahar Abdelaziz; Rehab H. Abdallah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nasir A. Siddiqui, Hanan M. Al-Yousef, Tawfeq A. Alhowiriny, Perwez Alam, Wafaa H.B. Hassan, Musarat Amina, Afzal Hussain, Sahar Abdelaziz, Rehab H. Abdallah
      In this study, we developed a validated HPTLC method for concurrent analysis of two natural antioxidant triterpenes, oleanolic acid (OA) and β-amyrin (BA) in the biologically active fractions (petroleum ether, toluene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) of aerial parts of three Hibiscus species (H. calyphyllus, H. deflersii and H. micranthus). The chromatography was conducted on normal HPTLC (ready to use glass-plate coated with silica gel 60 F254) plate with chloroform and methanol (97:3, V/V) used as mobile phase. The derivatization of the developed plate was done with p-anisaldehyde and scanned at λmax = 575 nm. Well resolved and intense peaks of OA and BA were obtained at Rf = 0.36 and 0.57, respectively. The linear regression equation/correlation coefficient (r2) for OA and BA were Y = 6.65x + 553.35/0.994 and Y = 9.177x + 637.23/0.998, respectively in the linearity range of 100–1200 ng/spot indicated good linear relationship. The low values of %RSD for intra-day/inter-day precision of OA (1.45–1.61/1.38–1.59) and BA (1.52–1.57/1.50–1.53) suggested that the method was precise. The recovery/RSD (%) values for OA and BA were found to be 99.21–99.62/1.39–1.95 and 98.75–99.70/1.56–1.80, respectively assures the reasonably good accuracy of the proposed method. Fifteen samples were analyzed to check the content of OA and BA by using the developed HPTLC methods. The content of OA in different samples were found to be 3.87 (HmP) > 1.212 (HcP) > 0.673 (HdC) > 0.493 (HdP) > 0.168 (HdE) > 0.059 (HcC) > 0.015 (HcE) > 0.008 (HmT) µg/mg of the dried weight of extract. However the content of BA was found as: 2.293 (HmP) > 1.852 (HdT) > 0.345 (HdC) > 0.172 (HmT) > 0.041 (HdE) > 0.008 (HcC) µg/mg of the dried weight of extract. Some Hibiscus species fractions exhibited good antioxidant potential like: HcE (IC50 = 17.6 ± 1.8) > HdB (IC50 = 32.16 ± 0.9) > HmP (IC50 = 80.4 ± 4.5) > HmT (IC50 = 99.7 ± 8.2) when compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 = 14.2 ± 0.5), while other fractions exhibited only mild antioxidant capability. The developed HPTLC method can be further exploited for analysis of these markers in the quality assessment of raw material as well as herbal formulations available in the market.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T12:06:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.013
  • P-Glycoprotein Polymorphism and Levothyroxine Bioavailability in
           Hypothyroid Patients

    • Authors: Ezgi Öztaş; Alejandro Parejo Garcia-Saavedra; Fatih Yanar; Beyza Özçinar; Nihat Aksakal; Sevim Purisa; Gül Özhan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ezgi Öztaş, Alejandro Parejo Garcia-Saavedra, Fatih Yanar, Beyza Özçinar, Nihat Aksakal, Sevim Purisa, Gül Özhan
      Objectives P-glycoprotein (P-gp) contributes to the disposition of a wide variety of drugs; therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P-gp coding gene might affect its activity. It is well known that personalized medicine, instead of empirical treatment, is a clinically important approach for enhancing responses among patients. Indeed, there is a need to evaluate the association between SNPs of P-gp encoded multidrug resistance genes (MDR1, ABCB1), and the dosage requirements of these drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the dosage of Levothyroxine (L-T4) and three common SNPs (C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T). Methods Genotyping was done using a real-time PCR platform with DNA samples isolated from the venous blood of ninety post thyroidectomy hypothyroid patients. Thyroid hormone levels were measured as routine biochemistry laboratories in the Medical School of Istanbul University. Results In the genotype analysis, the minor allele frequencies were 0.48 for C1236T, 0.51 for G2677T/A, and 0.51 for C3435T. In the haplotype-based analysis, T1236T2677T3435 and C1236G2677C3435 were observed as major haplotypes (50.2 and 32.6%, respectively), in agreement with previous studies. The administered dose of L-T4 to achieve physiological thyroid hormone levels was found to be similar in all genotypes and haplotypes, indicating that there is no significant association between MDR1 polymorphisms and L-T4 doses. Conclusion Because of conflicted previous reports about the genetic contribution of MDR1 polymorphisms to drug disposition, further studies with large numbers of participants are required to clarify this influence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T10:00:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.012
  • Antitumor activity of extract and isolated compounds from Drechslera
           rostrata and Eurotium tonophilum

    • Authors: Fatmah A.S. Alasmary; Amani S. Awaad; Mehnaz Kamal; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Mohamed E. Zain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fatmah A.S. Alasmary, Amani S. Awaad, Mehnaz Kamal, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Mohamed E. Zain
      Total extracts of Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonophilum in addition of two isolated compounds from their cultures [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (H1) and 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone (H2)] were tested for their antitumor activity using four human carcinoma cell lines. Antitumor activity was assessed by performing MTT assay to check the % cell viability. The % viability of HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and HepG-2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells decreased after treatment with Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonophilum extracts, these effects were ranged from 059.0± 0.1 to 217.0 ± 0.3 µg/ml on all types of cancer cells. The best activity was recorded for Eurotium tonpholium extract (054.5 ± 0.3, 059.0 ± 0.5 and 059.0 ± 0.1 for HEp-2, Hela, and HepG-2 respectively). The isolated compounds (H1&H2) were found to be responsible about the activities because they recorded the lowest IC50 on tested cell lines with range of 9.5–20.3 μg/ml. Vinblastine sulphate was used as a reference standard and showed in vitro anticancer activity. This study demonstrated that all extracts and isolated compounds have antitumor activity against HCT-116, HeLa, HEp-2 and HepG-2 cells.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T10:00:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.011
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
  • Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    • Authors: Areej M. Assaf; Reem Al-Abbassi; Maysaa Al-Binni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Areej M. Assaf, Reem Al-Abbassi, Maysaa Al-Binni
      Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T22:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.009
  • Drive-thru pharmacy service: Assessments of awareness, perception and
           barriers among pharmacists in Jordan

    • Authors: Rana Abu Farha; Khawla Abu Hammour; Eman Alefishat; Hiba Alsaeed; Sajida Alma'aiah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rana Abu Farha, Khawla Abu Hammour, Eman Alefishat, Hiba Alsaeed, Sajida Alma'aiah
      Objective Drive-thru pharmacy services have become widely recognized service worldwide. Despite its proven success, there were doubts in its ability to maintain safe practice. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the awareness, perception and barriers of drive-thru pharmacy services among pharmacists in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Amman-Jordan between February-May 2017. During the study period, 226 pharmacists were approached. Pharmacists were interviewed to assess their perception toward drive-thru services, and to assess their opinions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this system using validated questionnaire. Results Although the majority of pharmacists reported that they were aware about the concept of drive-thru pharmacy service (n=194, 85.5%), but only 27.9% (n=63) reported that they are willing to register with this service. The most important advantage of drive-thru pharmacy service was serving sick patients, elderly, disabled people or women with child in the car (n=166, 88.0%). Most of pharmacists agreed that drive-thru pharmacy service may negatively affect the image of pharmacy profession (n=168, 74.6%), and it makes pharmacists feel more like a fast food worker than apharmacist (n=147, 65.9%). Pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies showed better perception to drive-thru pharmacy service compared to pharmacists who are working in independent community pharmacies (p-value=0.004). Conclusion Most of the study pharmacists showed relatively poor perception toward drive-thru pharmacy service and were unwilling to use this service. More effort is needed to better introduce the concept of drive-thru pharmacy service among pharmacists in Jordan since the benefit of this service is well established across the world.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.008
  • Comparative Nutritional Value And Antimicrobial Activities Between Three
           Euphorbia Species Growing In Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Amani S. Awaad; Monerah R. Alothman; Yara M. Zain; Ghada M. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Dena A. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amani S. Awaad, Monerah R. Alothman, Yara M. Zain, Ghada M. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Dena A. Hassan
      Plants are excellent sources of nutrition and highly bioactive substances that might use in the development of new drugs and pharmaceutical agents. Three species of the Genus Euphorbia (Family Euphorpiaceae), namely; Euphorbia granulata Forssk, Euphorbia helioscobia L., and Euphorbia hirta Linn growing in Ryiadh, KSA were air-dried, powdered, and their active materials were extracted with alcohol. The nutritional value phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the plants were determined. The chemical contents were similar in the three species; however, lipid profile of the plants showed that the stearic acid and lignoceric acid were detected only in E. helioscopia and E. hirta, while palmitoleic acid was detected only in E. hirta. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were 52.48%, 69.39% and 66.52% in Euphorbia granulate, Euphorbia helioscobia, E. hirta, respectively. Three compounds, 1-ethoxypentacosane, heptacosan-1-ol and β-sitosterol were isolated from the three plant extracts and identified using different spectroscopic analysis. The percentage of crude protein was 43.65%, 25.00% and 18.75% in E. granulata, E. helioscobia, and E. hirta, respectively. The free amino acids and amino acid composition were quantitatively determined using amino acid analyzer. All the plant extracts were active against bacterial and fungal test organisms, however, the antimicrobial activity were varied according to both the Euphorbia species and the test organism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.007
  • The pharmaceutical applications of a biopolymer isolated from Trigonella
           foenum-graecum seeds: Focus on the freeze-dried matrix forming capacity

    • Authors: Sonia Iurian; Elena Dinte; Cristina Iuga; Cătălina Bogdan; Iuliana Spiridon; Lucian Barbu-Tudoran; Andreea Bodoki; Ioan Tomuţă; Sorin E. Leucuţa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sonia Iurian, Elena Dinte, Cristina Iuga, Cătălina Bogdan, Iuliana Spiridon, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Andreea Bodoki, Ioan Tomuţă, Sorin E. Leucuţa
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the funtion of fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) as potential matrix forming agent for orodispersible pharmaceutical lyophilisates. The FSM was isolated and characterized. FSM colloidal dispersions were prepared and the rheological evaluation was performed. Oral lyophilisates (OLs) with different FSM concentrations, containing meloxicam as model drug were prepared by freeze drying method. The OLs were characterized and compared to gelatin containing tablets, prepared under the same conditions. The FSM dispersions revealed shear thinning flow type. Based on colloidal dispersions' rheological properties, five FSM concentrations were taken forward to the lyophilization step. Completely dry and elegant tablets were obtained. Texture analysis indicated highly porous structures, confirmed by SEM analysis, which explain the fast disintegration properties. All the prepared tablets disintegrated in less than 47 s. The disintegration process was prolonged by the increase in FSM content, due to the high viscosity the polymer creates in aqueous media. FSM tablets presented longer disintegration times, as compared to gelatin tablets, but also higher crushing strength. Considering the fast disintegration and the high crushing strength, FSM is a good candidate as matrix forming agent for fast disintegrating dosage forms or other freeze-dried preparations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.006
  • Prevalence, management and control of hypertension in older adults on
           admission to hospital

    • Authors: T.M. Alhawassi; I. Krass; L.G. Pont
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): T.M. Alhawassi, I. Krass, L.G. Pont
      Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and management of hypertension among older adults on admission to hospital and to assess the choice of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy in light of relevant comorbid conditions using the national treatment guideline. Materials and Methods A retrospective cross sectional study of 503 patients aged 65 years or older admitted to a large metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney Australia was conducted. The main outcome measures were prevalence of hypertension, blood pressure (BP) control, antihypertensive medication use and the appropriateness of antihypertensive medications. Results Sixty nine percent (n=347) of the study population had a documented diagnosis of hypertension and of these, approximately one third were at target BP levels on admission to hospital. Some concerns regarding choice of antihypertensive noted with 51% of those with comorbid diabetes and 30% of those with comorbid heart failure receiving a potentially inappropriate antihypertensive agent. Conclusions Despite the use of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy, many older adults do not have optimal BP control and are not reaching target BP levels. New strategies to improve blood pressure control in older populations especially targeting women, those with a past history of myocardial infarction and those on multiple antihypertensive medications are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.004
  • Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Among Physicians Working in Private and
           Government Hospitals in Kuwait

    • Authors: F.M. Alsaleh; J. Lemay; R.R. Al Dhafeeri; S. AlAjmi; E.A. Abahussain; T. Bayoud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): FM. Alsaleh, J. Lemay, RR. Al Dhafeeri, S. AlAjmi, EA. Abahussain, Bayoud T
      Introduction To improve patient safety and care, the identification and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) should be systematic and mandatory for all healthcare professionals (HCPs). Physicians remain the main HCPs with direct patient care whose role in ADRs reporting should not be ignored. Objective To document the awareness and attitude of physicians working in private and government hospitals in Kuwait with regard to pharmacovigilance (PV) and ADR reporting and to identify their practices of reporting ADRs. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a paper-based 25-item questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Results A total of 1017 questionnaires were distributed to the eligible physicians in the government and private hospitals, giving a response rate of 84.2% and 80.7%, respectively (an overall response rate of 83.8%). Private physicians exhibited a better knowledge profile with regards to the purpose of PV (75.2% vs 64.8%; p= 0.002) and the correct ADR definition (75.8% vs 65.3%; p= 0.001). The majority of physicians showed good attitude towards reporting ADRs, nevertheless, private physicians had a significantly stronger belief that reporting ADRs is a professional obligation (93.4% vs 85.5%; p=0.001). Three quarters of the study population (74.6%) had identified an ADR during their daily practice, however, only a small proportion (34.2%) confirms having ever reported ADRs. Regardless, significantly more private physicians had done so (42.4% vs 29.6%; p<0.001). ADR reporting was significantly higher in physicians who knew the correct ADRs to be reported (adjusted OR = 1.86, p= 0.036), and those who were aware of any center or ADR reporting system in Kuwait (adjusted OR = 2.88, p= 0.020). Conclusions A national PV center empowered by clear legislation on “how” and “what” to report should improve physicians’ reporting practices and hence is required in the country. This should be combined with constant training and education in this regard.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.002
  • The Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Glucose Control Among Diabetic

    • Authors: Mansour S Almetwazi; Ahmad O Noor; Diena M Almasri; Ioana Popovici; Tariq Alhawassi; Khalid A Alburikan; Catherine A Harrington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansour Almetwazi
      Objective To evaluate the association between the level of vitamin D and glycemic control among patients with diabetes. Research design and Method We analyzed data collected from NHANES 2003-2006. We included only non-pregnant adult diabetic persons 18 years or older. Participants who had vitamin D level less than 20ng/ml were considered as having vitamin D deficiency. Participants were considered to have a glucose control if the HbA1c level was less than 7% [53 mmol/L]. We used student’s t test to compare the difference in HbA1c means between people with Diabetes with and without a vitamin D deficiency. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the relationship between glucose control and vitamin D deficiency. We used race/ethnicity, BMI, age, gender, type of diabetic medication used, having health insurance or not, and comorbid conditions (hypertension, anemia, cholesterol, liver disease, and kidney disease) as control variables. Results The study population included a total of 929 non-institutionalized, non-pregnant, diabetic adult persons. About 57% of patients with diabetes had a vitamin D deficiency. Blacks (non-Hispanic patients) with diabetes had the highest rate of vitamin D deficiency (79%). The unadjusted means of HbA1c were significantly different between diabetic patients with no vitamin D deficiency and those with a vitamin D deficiency (7.06% [54 mmol/L], 7.56 % [59 mmol/L], respectively, P<0.0001). Multivariate adjustment showed a small but not significant, increase in odds (11%) of having uncontrolled diabetes in patients with a vitamin D deficiency after adjustment for other factors. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with diabetes. We found no significant association between vitamin D level and glycemic control in patients with diabetes after adjustment for control variables.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.001
  • Sulfanilamide in solution and liposome vesicles; in vitro release and
           UV-stability studies

    • Authors: Sanja Petrović; Ana Tačić; Saša Savić; Vesna Nikolić; Ljubiša Nikolić; Sanela Savić
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sanja Petrović, Ana Tačić, Saša Savić, Vesna Nikolić, Ljubiša Nikolić, Sanela Savić
      The main goal of this study was to develop a liposome formulation with sulfanilamide and to investigate the liposomes impact on its release and stability to the UV-A/UV-B and UV-C irradiation. Liposome dispersions with incorporated sulfanilamide were prepared by thin-film hydration method and liposomes role to the sulfanilamide release was investigated by using a dialysis method. Comparatively, sulfanilamide in phosphate buffer solution was subject to release study as well to the UV irradiation providing for the possibilities of kinetics analysis. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that 20% of sulfanilamide was released from liposomes within 1h that is approximately twice as slower as in the case of dissolved sulfanilamide in phosphate buffer solution. The kinetic release process can be described by Korsmeyer–Peppas model and according to the value of diffusion release exponent it can be concluded that drug release mechanism is based on the phenomenon of diffusion. The sulfanilamide degradation in phosphate buffer solution and liposomes is related to the formation of UV-induced degradation products that are identified by UHPLC/MS analysis as: sulfanilic acid, aniline and benzidine. The UV-induced sulfanilamide degradation in the phosphate buffer solution and liposome vesicles fits the first- order kinetic model. The degradation rate constants are dependent on the involved UV photons energy input as well as sulfanilamide microenvironment. Liposome microenvironment provides better irradiation sulfanilamide stability. The obtained results suggest that liposomes might be promising carriers for delayed sulfanilamide delivery and may serve asa basis for further research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.003
  • Quantitative and qualitative analysis for Standardization of Euphorbia
           cuneata Vahl

    • Authors: S. Amani Awaad; Monerah R. Alothman; Yara M. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Esraa A. Alothman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Awaad S. Amani, Monerah R. Alothman, Yara M. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Esraa A. Alothman
      Euphorbia cuneata Vahl very promising plant belongs to Family Euphorbiaceae The present study was carried out on the Euphorbia cuneata Vahl to standardize its components. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis showed variable phytochemical groups. Examination of Successive Extraction showed that there are different color, constancy, phytochemical groups and yield in each extract, the highest percentage was found in ethanol (10.7± 1.01) and the lowest one in ether (1.66± 0.31). Analysis of primary and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia cuneata Vahl revealed that the primary metabolites percent (carbohydrate, lipid and protein 6.25± 1.11, 5.12± 1.40, 7.15± 1.31 W/w respectively) were lower than secondary metabolites (flavonoids, phenolic and tannins 11.26± 1.02, 9.15± 1.21and 5.23± 1.29 W/w respectively). The Pharmacopoeia Constants were determined. Amino acids analysis of the arial parts reported the presence of 15 amino acids with different percentage in different types (Total, free and protein hydrolysate). Arginine represented the highest concentration (20.86).

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T11:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.08.001
  • Comparison of two analgesics used for pain relief after placement of
           orthodontic separators

    • Authors: Nasser Al Qahtani; Abdulaziz Al Wakeel; Abdullah Al Zamil; Shahad Al Turki; Ghaida Al Dawsari; Aljazi Al Jabaa; Sahar Al Barakati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nasser Al Qahtani, Abdulaziz Al Wakeel, Abdullah Al Zamil, Shahad Al Turki, Ghaida Al Dawsari, Aljazi Al Jabaa, Sahar Al Barakati
      Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of two analgesics: paracetamol (500 mg) and ibuprofen (400 mg) on pain and routine life of the patients after placement of orthodontic separators. Methodology Ninety patients aged 11-41 years undergoing fixed comprehensiveorthodontic treatment requiring placement of different orthodontic separators participated in the study. Following placement of separators, the participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: paracetamol (500 mg) given every 6 hours for 3 days, ibuprofen (400 mg) given every 8 hours for 2 days and control group in which no analgesic was given. A questionnaire comprising of 7 questions was distributed to the participants and were asked to report their feeling of pain. The collected data were tabulated and the statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, chi-square test, and t-test with a significance level of p<0.05. Results In general, the level of pain was high for all groups in the first three days. Then it was gradually reduced until the 7th day of the study. Few patients reported feeling of pain during their sleep whereas a significant reduction of the pain was reported during eating and chewing after the 3rd day of separators. However, some participants felt continuous pain on the 1st and 2nd days and it was reduced gradually on the 3rd day until the 7th day following application of separators. Conclusion The patients prescribed ibuprofen did not report any problem with tooth movement along with significant reduction in pain as compared to paracetamol. Pain relief medication after placement of separators should be taken only if patient feels intolerable pain but not as routine practice.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T07:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.010
  • Development, stability and in vitro delivery profile of new
           loratadine-loaded nanoparticles

    • Authors: Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Jonatas Lobato Duarte; Hady Keita; Heitor Rivero da Silva; Adriana Maciel Ferreira; Edgar Hernandez Sosa; Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado, Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Jonatas Lobato Duarte, Hady Keita, Heitor Rivero da Silva, Adriana Maciel Ferreira, Edgar Hernandez Sosa, Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho
      Purpose: Loratadine is used as antihistaminic without side effects in nervous systems. This drug is a weak base and it is absorbed from the intestine. The nitrogen of the pyridine ring is protonated in the stomach affecting the oral bioavailability. The aim of this paper was obtaining, characterize and evaluate the release profiles and the stability of a gastroresistant loratadine nanosuspension. Methods: The nanosuspension was prepared by the solvent displacement evaporation method, using three different polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, Kollicoat® MAE 100P and PEG 4000) and Polysorbate 80. Dynamic Light Scattering was used for evaluating the particle size (PS), zeta potential, and conductivity of the nanosuspension. Loratadine release profiles were evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The shelf and accelerated stability were assessed during three months. Results: Nanosuspension particle size was 45.94±0.50nm, with a low polydispersion index (PdI, 0.300). Kollicoat® MAE 100P produced a hard and flexible coating layer. In simulated intestinal fluids, the 100 percent of loratadine was released in 40min, while in simulated stomach fluids the release was lesser than 5%. Nanosuspension presented a good physicochemical stability showing a reduction in PS and PdI after three months (43.29±0.16 and 0.250; respectively). Conclusions: A promissory loratadine nanosuspension for loratadine intestinal delivery was obtained, by using a low energy method, which is an advantage for a possible scale up for practical purpose.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.008
  • Antiproliferative activity of Spinasterol isolated of Stegnosperma
           halimifolium (Benth, 1844)

    • Authors: Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero; Moisés Navarro-Navarro; Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos; Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez; Manuel Jiménez-Estrada; Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero, Moisés Navarro-Navarro, Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Cancer is the major cause of death in the world, representing a significant public health problem. Plants have been shown as a great source of secondary metabolites with anticancer activity. The aim of this work was evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extracts, chemical fractions and the compound spinasterol isolated of medicinal plant Stegnosperma halimifolium. The methanolic extracts of stem, leaf and stem/leaf was obtained by maceration. The methanolic extract of stem was purified by successive extractions with solvents as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The n-hexane fraction was separated by column chromatographic and monitored by thin layer chromatographic. The compound spinasterol was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectrometry. Methanolic extracts, chemical, chromatographic fractions and spinasterol was evaluated against RAW 264.7, M12.C3.F6, PC-3, LS-180, A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines by the standardized method MTT for determinate the antiproliferative activity. Methanolic extract of stem shown the better antiproliferative activity against the murine macrophage cancer cell line RAW 264.7. n-Hexane chemical fraction shown antiproliferative activity against human alveolar cancer cell line A549 and RAW 264.7. Was isolated and characterized a compound by NMR 1H and 13C, revealing the presence of sterol spinasterol. Spinasterol shown to have antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cell line HeLa and RAW 264.7, indicating that spinasterol can be a responsible compound of antiproliferative activity found in the methanolic extract of Stegnosperma halimifolium.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.001
  • The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils against
           Pseudomonas spp. isolated from fish

    • Authors: Miroslava Kačániová; Margarita Terentjeva; Nenad Vukovic; Czeslaw Puchalski; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury; Simona Kunová; Alina Klūga; Marián Tokár; Maciej Kluz; Eva Ivanišová
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Miroslava Kačániová, Margarita Terentjeva, Nenad Vukovic, Czeslaw Puchalski, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Simona Kunová, Alina Klūga, Marián Tokár, Maciej Kluz, Eva Ivanišová
      Natural products of plant origin, which include essential oils (EO) could be used as a growth inhibitor of pathogenic and spoilage microflora in food. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of 21 EO against 10 Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater fish. The chemical composition of EO was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The disc diffusion method and detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for the determination of the antimicrobial activity. All the EO tested exhibited antimicrobial activity, however, Cinnamomum zeylanicum EO was the most effective against Pseudomonas spp. both according to the disc diffusion and MIC methods. The EOs of Cymbopogon nardus, Origanum vulgare, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus serpyllum showed the highest antioxidant activity of 93.86 μg, 83.47 μg, 76.74 μg and 74.28 μg TEAC/mL. Application of EO could be an effective tool for inhibition of growth of Pseudomonas spp. on fish.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.005
  • Ibuprofen Nanocrystals Developed by 22 Factorial Design Experiment: a New
           Approach for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

    • Authors: A.R. Fernandes; N.R. Ferreira; J.F. Fangueiro; A.C. Santos; F.J. Veiga; C. Cabral; A.M. Silva; E.B. Souto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): A.R. Fernandes, N.R. Ferreira, J.F. Fangueiro, A.C. Santos, F.J. Veiga, C. Cabral, A.M. Silva, E.B. Souto
      The reduction of the particle size of drugs of pharmaceutical interest down to the nano-sized range has dramatically changed their physicochemical properties. The greatest disadvantage of nanocrystals is their inherent instability, due to the risk of crystal growth. Thus, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer is crucial to obtain long-term physicochemically stable nanocrystals. High pressure homogenization has enormous advantages, including the possibility of scaling up, lack of organic solvents and the production of small particles diameter with low polydispersity index. The sequential use of high shear homogenization followed by high pressure homogenization, can modulate nanoparticles’ size for different administration routes. The present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of two formulations composed of different surfactants produced by High Shear Homogenization followed by hot High Pressure Homogenization. To build up the surface response charts, a 22 full factorial design experiment, based on 2 independent variables, was used to develop optimized formulations. The effects of the production process on the mean particle size and polydispersity index were evaluated. The best ibuprofen nanocrystal formulations were obtained using 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% PVP K30 (F1) and 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% Span 80 (F2). The estimation of the long-term stability of the aqueous suspensions of ibuprofen nanocrystals was studied using the LUMISizer. The calculated instability index suggests that F1 was more stable when stored at 4°C and 22°C, whereas F2 was shown to be more stable when freshly prepared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.004
  • Medicinal Benefits of Nigella sativa in Bronchial Asthma: A Literature

    • Authors: Abdulrahman Koshak; Emad Koshak; Michael Heinrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulrahman Koshak, Emad Koshak, Michael Heinrich
      Nigella sativa L. (NS) seeds, known as black seed, is a spice and a traditional herbal medicine used in various diseases including bronchial asthma. This review aimed to assess the studies supporting the medicinal use of NS in asthma and to highlight future research priorities. Various medical databases were searched for the effects of NS and its active secondary metabolites in asthma inflammation and outcomes. There were fourteen preclinical studies describing multiple effects of NS in animal or cellular models of asthma including bronchodilation, anti-histaminic, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukotrienes and immunomodulatory effects. Furthermore, seven clinical studies showed improvements in different asthma outcomes including symptoms, pulmonary function and laboratory parameters. However, often these studies are small and used ill-defined preparations. In conclusion, NS could be therapeutically beneficial in alleviating airway inflammation and the control of asthma symptoms, but the evidence remains scanty and is often based on poorly characterised preparations. Accordingly, well-designed large clinical studies using chemically well characterised NS preparation are required.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.002
  • Comparison of the safety information on drug labels in three developed
           countries: the USA, UK and Canada

    • Authors: Thamir M. Alshammari; Venkat Ratnam Devadasu; Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari, Venkat Ratnam Devadasu, Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      The safety information on drug labels of a company marketing the same drugs in different countries is sometimes different. The aim of the present study is to understand the differences in the volume and content of safety information on the drug labels from the same manufacturers in three developed countries: the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. This study involved the calculation of the proportion of total safety information (PSI) and of contraindications (PCI) in comparison to all information on the label and the percentage of boxed warnings (PBW) among the 100 labels studied from each country. The PSI on the labels of different countries is different with USA labels bearing lesser value PSI and UK labels bearing higher value PSI. The qualitative information provided on these drug labels from each country in ‘contraindications’ sections, ‘boxed/serious warnings’ and ‘overdosage’ sections presented differences in the information provided on most of the labels. We have found distinct differences between the safety information available on drug labels in terms of volume and content. We conclude that the safety information for the same products should be standardised across all countries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.006
  • Anti-ulcerogenic and Anti-Ulcerative colitis (UC) activities of seven
           amines derivatives

    • Authors: Amani S.Awaad; Ahmed M. Alafeefy; Fatmah A. S. Alasmary; Reham M. El-Meligy; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amani S.Awaad, Ahmed M. Alafeefy, Fatmah A. S. Alasmary, Reham M. El-Meligy, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The Novel target compounds (CP-1-7) were synthesized and tested at doses up to 1000 mg/kg for their entitled activities. They exerted promising results without any behavioral changes and mortality in mice. Therefore, according to the results obtained in our study, it could be categorized as highly safe agents for treating UC since substances possessing LD50 higher than 50 mg/kg are considered nontoxic. They also possessed a potent anti-ulcerogenic activity with different potentials. The most effective compound was CP-4, it produced 97.7% ulcer protection of control followed by CP-3, which produced 90.3% protection, while the standard drug ranitidine (100 mg/kg) produced 49.2% protection. Compound CP-1 showed lowest activity among the current series, it produced 55.5% protection. The target compounds were significantly more effective than the standard in reducing ulcer index. The anti-ulcerative colitis activity was tested using acetic acid induced colitis model. The curative effect of the tested compounds at a dose of 50 mg/kg oral administration on rats showed a potent anti-ulcerative colitis activity with different potentials. They induced a significant decrease in ulcer score, ulcer area, ulcer index and weight/length of the colon specimens. The percent protection of control colitis ranged from 66.8% for CP-7 to 22.3% for CP-5; however the percent protection for dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) was 59.3%. The effect of the tested compounds CP-7 and CP-3 at dose 50 mg/kg were significantly more effective than dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) in reducing all parameters. Liver functions were not affected as there is no effect on the activity of both AST and ALT in animals that received the compounds, so the compounds didn’t reveal hepatotoxic manifestation. Although, the results on kidney functions showed that, CP-1 slightly elevated blood urea concentration and CP-3 & CP-4 slightly elevated serum creatinine; no apparent nephrotoxic manifestations were recorded.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.003
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