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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 556 journals)
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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Comparative assessment of saliva and plasma for drug bioavailability and
           bioequivalence studies in humans

    • Authors: Nasir M. Idkaidek
      Pages: 671 - 675
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Nasir M. Idkaidek
      Aims: To study the pharmacokinetics of selected drugs in plasma and saliva matrixes in healthy human volunteers, and to suggest using non-invasive saliva sampling instead of plasma as a surrogate in bioavailability and bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. Methods: Four different pilot BA/BE studies were done in 12–18 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3–5 half life values of metformin, tolterodine, rosuvastatin, and paracetamol after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma samples were assayed using LC-MSMS, and then pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis using Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (P eff) values were also optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug by Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using SimCYP program. Results: All studied drugs showed salivary excretion with strong correlation coefficients between saliva and plasma concentrations. The optimized P eff ranged 1.44–68.3×10−4 cm/s for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.17–1.5. Inter and intra individual variability of primary pharmacokinetic parameters in saliva matrix was either close to or higher than plasma matrix. This requires larger sample size in saliva studies for some drugs. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is a potential in BA/BE studies for saliva to be considered as a surrogate for plasma concentration, which goes along with drug regulations. The use of saliva instead of plasma in such studies makes them non-invasive, easy and with a lower clinical burden.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.002
       
  • Hybrid polymeric matrices for oral modified release of Desvenlafaxine
           succinate tablets

    • Authors: Wael Samy; Ayman Elnoby; Hanan M. El-Gowelli; Nazik Elgindy
      Pages: 676 - 687
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Wael Samy, Ayman Elnoby, Hanan M. El-Gowelli, Nazik Elgindy
      Purpose: Desvenlafaxine succinate (DSV) is a water soluble anti-depressant drug, which is rapidly absorbed after oral administration exaggerating its side effects. The current work aimed to prepare controllable release DSV matrix to reduce DSV side effects related to its initial burst. Methods: Fifteen DSV matrix formulations were prepared using different polymers, polymer/drug ratios and matrix excipients and characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water uptake and in vitro DSV release. The release kinetics were calculated to determine the drug release mechanism. Ex-vivo DSV absorption via rat intestinal mucosal cells and the calculation of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) were performed using everted sac technique. Results: Maltodextrin was the best matrix excipient (F7 and F10) showing acceptable decrease in the initial burst compared to the innovator. The addition of negatively charged polymers sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) or sodium alginate resulted in an interaction that was proved by DSC and IR findings. This interaction slowed DSV release. F10 showed an excellent absorption of more than 80% of DSV after 4h and the highest similarity factor with the innovator (84.7). Conclusion: A controllable release pattern of DSV was achieved using Methocel, Maltodextrin and SCMC. The obtained results could be used as a platform to control the release of cationic water soluble drugs that suffer from side effects associated with their initial burst after oral administration.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.005
       
  • Formulation and pharmacokinetics of multi-layered matrix tablets: Biphasic
           delivery of diclofenac

    • Authors: Ehab Mostafa Elzayat; Ali Abdelzaher Abdel-Rahman; Sayed Mohamed Ahmed; Fars Kaed Alanazi; Walid Abdulazim Habib; Hisham Suliman Abou-Auda; Adel Sakr
      Pages: 688 - 695
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ehab Mostafa Elzayat, Ali Abdelzaher Abdel-Rahman, Sayed Mohamed Ahmed, Fars Kaed Alanazi, Walid Abdulazim Habib, Hisham Suliman Abou-Auda, Adel Sakr
      The rapid availability of the drug at the site of action followed by maintaining its effect for a long period of time is of great clinical importance. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to prepare and evaluate multi-layered matrix tablets of diclofenac using Eudragit RL/RS blend to achieve both immediate and sustained therapeutic effects. Diclofenac potassium (25mg) was incorporated in an outer immediate release layer to provide immediate pain relief whereas diclofenac sodium (75mg) was incorporated in the inner core to provide extended drug release. Wet granulation was employed to prepare the inner core of the tablets that were further layered with an immediate release drug layer in the perforated pan coater. The in-vitro and in-vivo performance of the developed formulation was compared with the marketed products Voltaren® SR 75mg and Cataflam® 25mg. The in-vitro drug release of the prepared formulation showed similarity (f 2 =66.19) to the marketed product. The pharmacokinetic study showed no significant difference (p >0.05) in AUC0-24 and C max between the test and reference formulations. The AUC0-24 values were 105.36±83.3 and 92.87±55.53μgh/ml whereas the C max values were 11.25±6.87 and 12.97±8.45μg/ml, for the test and reference, respectively. The multi-layered tablets were proved to be bioequivalent with the commercially available tablets and were in agreement with the observed in-vitro drug release results. Stable physical characteristics and drug release profiles were observed in both long term and accelerated conditions stability studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.004
       
  • High-performance thin-layer chromatography based concurrent estimation of
           biomarkers ent-phyllanthidine and rutin in the dried aerial parts of
           Flueggea virosa

    • Authors: Nasir A. Siddiqui; Ramzi A. Mothana; Adnan J. Al-Rehaily; Perwez Alam; Muhammad Yousaf; Sarfaraz Ahmed; Abdulrahman Alatar
      Pages: 696 - 702
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Nasir A. Siddiqui, Ramzi A. Mothana, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily, Perwez Alam, Muhammad Yousaf, Sarfaraz Ahmed, Abdulrahman Alatar
      The biomarkers are needed to be defined for standardization purposes so that safe and effective herbal formulations can be catered to the society. There is an urgent need for statistical support of herbal drugs because most of the herbal products are still used in the non-standardized form. This study is based on the development of a simple and sensitive RP-HPTLC method for concurrent estimation of two biomarkers ent-phyllanthidine and rutin in the methanol extract of aerial parts of Flueggea virosa. The developed method was found to be simple, economic and sensitive. Separation and quantification were performed with acetonitrile: water (4:6 V/V) used as the mobile phase on glass-backed RP-HPTLC plate. Detection of absorption maxima and quantification was done at 310nm of UV region. The developed chromatographic system was found to give a sharp band for ent-phyllanthidine and rutin at Rf 0.73±0.01 and 0.68±0.01, respectively. The linearity ranges for ent-phyllanthidine, and rutin were found to be 200–1600ngband−1 and 100–1400ngband−1, respectively, with correlation coefficients (r 2 values) of 0.998 and 0.997, respectively. The percentage of ent-phyllanthidine and rutin was found to be 9.121±0.02% and 1.018±0.04% (w/w), respectively. The resolution of bands and separation of constituents in FVME exhibited the perfect optimization of the developed method. The validation statistics supports the proposed method for standardizing crude drugs as well as formulations of a natural product containing ent-phyllanthidine and rutin.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.09.006
       
  • Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. essential oil: Chemical composition and
           antimicrobial, insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities

    • Authors: Betul Demirci; Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu; Nurhayat Tabanca; Halide Edip Temel; Ulrich R. Bernier; Natasha M. Agramonte; Saleh Ibrahim Alqasoumi; Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily; Kemal Husnu Can Başer; Fatih Demirci
      Pages: 703 - 708
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Betul Demirci, Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu, Nurhayat Tabanca, Halide Edip Temel, Ulrich R. Bernier, Natasha M. Agramonte, Saleh Ibrahim Alqasoumi, Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily, Kemal Husnu Can Başer, Fatih Demirci
      The essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil was subsequently analyzed by both GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. Forty-five components representing 99.2% of the oil composition were identified. The most abundant compounds were camphene (38.5%), myrcene (17.5%), limonene (10.1%) and α-pinene (8.7%). Referring to the ethnobotanical utilization, an insecticidal assay was performed, where the oil repelled the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. at a minimum effective dose (MED of 0.035±0.010mg/cm2) compared to the positive control DEET (MED of 0.015±0.004mg/cm2). Additionally, the in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogens was determined using a microdilution method. The acetyl- and butyrylcholine esterase inhibitory activities were measured using the colorimetric Ellman method. The bioassay results showed that the oil was rather moderate in antimicrobial and cholinesterase inhibitions when compared to the standard compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.009
       
  • Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk
           prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Thamir M. Alshammari; Salman A. Alhindi; Ahmed M. Alrashdi; Imaan Benmerzouga; Mohamad Aljofan
      Pages: 709 - 714
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari, Salman A. Alhindi, Ahmed M. Alrashdi, Imaan Benmerzouga, Mohamad Aljofan
      Objective To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). Results A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Conclusions Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.001
       
  • Comparative study of antioxidant activity and validated RP-HPTLC analysis
           of rutin in the leaves of different Acacia species grown in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Perwez Alam; Mohamed F. Alajmi; Ahmed H. Arbab; Mohammad K. Parvez; Nasir A. Siddiqui; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Adnan J. Al-Rehaily; Mohammed S. Al-Dosari; Omer A. Basudan
      Pages: 715 - 723
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Perwez Alam, Mohamed F. Alajmi, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammad K. Parvez, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Omer A. Basudan
      The present study assessed the comparative antioxidant potential of the ethanol extract (EE) of leaves of four Acacia species (Acacia salicina, AS; Acacia laeta, AL; Acacia hamulosa AH; and Acacia tortilis, AT) grown in Saudi Arabia, including RP-HPTLC quantification of antioxidant biomarker rutin. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays showed the promising antioxidant activities of Acacia extracts: ASEE (IC50: 60.39 and 324.65μg/ml) >ALEE (IC50: 217.06 and 423.36μg/ml) >ATEE (IC50: 250.13 and 747.50μg/ml) >AHEE (IC50: 255.83 and 417.28μg/ml). This was comparable to rutin tested at 500μg/ml. Further, a RP- HPTLC densitometric method was developed (acetonitrile:water; 6:4; v/v) using glass-backed RP-18 silica gel F254 plate, and scanned at UV max 254nm. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. Analysis of the validated RP-HPTLC displayed an intense peak (R f =0.65±0.004) of rutin that was estimated (μg/mg dry weight) to be highest in ASEE (10.42), followed by ALEE (2.67), AHEE (1.36) and ATEE (0.31). Taken together, presence of rutin strongly supported the high antioxidant property of the tested Acacia species, especially Acacia salicina. The developed RP-HPTLC method therefore, affirms its application in the quality control of commercialized herbal drugs or formulation containing rutin.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.010
       
  • HIV pharmaceutical care in primary healthcare: Improvement in CD4 count
           and reduction in drug-related problems

    • Authors: C.G.R.C. Molino; Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale; Aline Teotonio Rodrigues; Patricia Moriel; Priscila Gava Mazzola
      Pages: 724 - 733
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): C.G.R.C. Molino, Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale, Aline Teotonio Rodrigues, Patricia Moriel, Priscila Gava Mazzola
      Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is complex and many factors contribute to a patient’s response to initial therapy including adherence, drug effectiveness, and tolerance. Close HAART follow-up is needed, particularly when there are concurrent therapies such as prophylactic antibiotics and medications for the treatment of comorbidities. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in reducing drug related problems in HIV/AIDS outpatients (intervention group) and in improving clinical parameters in the intervention group compared to the control group. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled intervention study with patients paired by gender and initial T CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4) count. HIV-infected patients of a public outpatient service were enrolled for the study by consecutive and convenience sampling. Patients selected for the study were divided into a control group and an intervention group. Both groups were followed for one year; however, only the intervention group received pharmaceutical care. The primary outcome was the drug related problem (DRP) analysis for the intervention group. Secondary outcomes were CD4 count and viral load evaluation for both groups. Results: There was a total of 143 patients enrolled in this study, with 53 (37.06%) patients in the control group and 90 (62.94%) patients in the intervention group. A total of 202 pharmacist interventions with 193 pharmacist-patient and 9 pharmacist-physician interventions were proposed. After one year of pharmaceutical care, a reduction of 38.43% between the initial and final DRP was found (p =0.0001). The most common DRPs found were related to medication safety. The intervention group showed a mean increase of 84% for the CD4 count in comparison with that observed in the control group. The viral load was not significantly different between the final and initial mean values for both groups. Conclusion: Pharmacist appointments enabled identification, prevention, and solving of drug related problems, especially those related to drug safety. Also, pharmacist interventions improved adherence and increased HAART effectiveness as suggested by the higher elevation in the CD4 count seen in the intervention group in comparison with the control group.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.004
       
  • LC-ESI-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from Eleutherococcus spp.
           inflorescences, structure-activity relationship as antioxidants,
           inhibitors of hyaluronidase and acetylcholinesterase

    • Authors: Daniel Załuski; Marta Olech; Rafał Kuźniewski; Robert Verpoorte; Renata Nowak; Helena D. Smolarz
      Pages: 734 - 743
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Daniel Załuski, Marta Olech, Rafał Kuźniewski, Robert Verpoorte, Renata Nowak, Helena D. Smolarz
      Nature is a source of many plant-based molecules used as pro- or drugs. Eleutherococcus species are native to Asia and the North Russia, and are traditionally used to treat various diseases. In turn, neither secondary metabolites of the species cultivated in the West Europe nor the bioactivity is known. No differences in the phenols and flavonoids content in the inflorescences were found. The richest in polyphenols was E. giraldii (5.18mg/g), while in flavonoids it was E. gracilistylus (1.80mg/g). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic and trans-caffeic acids have been identified as the most abundant compounds in E. gracilistylus, E. giraldii, E. senticosus (833.4; 855.6; 614.7 and 280.8; 156.0; 167.6μg/g DE). It was observed that all species were able to chelate Fe2+ with the EC50 value of 0.2, 0.6, 0.3mg/mL for E. gracilistylus, E. giraldii, E. senticosus, respectively. E. gracilistylus exhibited the strongest antiperoxidation and anti-DPPH∗ activity (EC50 3.2 and 0.48mg/mL). The weak inhibitory potential has been observed in case of AChE inhibition at the level of 16.17 and 12.2% for E. gracilistylus, E. giraldii. We report for the first time that the extracts inhibited Hyal activity in the range from 16.4 to 60.7%. To our best knowledge, no information was available on this activity of the inflorescences and this provides a background to study inflorescences in more detail. Considering the SAR, an antioxidant activity may be correlated with a high amount of protocatechuic and trans-caffeic acids and their chemical structure.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.002
       
  • Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi
           Arabia: Causes and solutions

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Wael Mansy; Mohammad Barasin; Yazeed Mohammad Ghawaa; Mohammed AlSultan; Mohammad A. Alsenaidy; Solaiman Alhawas; Sultan AlGhadeer
      Pages: 744 - 749
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Wael Mansy, Mohammad Barasin, Yazeed Mohammad Ghawaa, Mohammed AlSultan, Mohammad A. Alsenaidy, Solaiman Alhawas, Sultan AlGhadeer
      Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies’ purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.013
       
  • Isolation, biological evaluation and validated HPTLC-quantification of the
           marker constituent of the edible Saudi plant Sisymbrium irio L.

    • Authors: Shaza M. Al-Massarani; Ali A. El Gamal; Perwez Alam; Ebtesam S. Al-Sheddi; Mai M. Al-Oqail; Nida N. Farshori
      Pages: 750 - 759
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ali A. El Gamal, Perwez Alam, Ebtesam S. Al-Sheddi, Mai M. Al-Oqail, Nida N. Farshori
      Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic purification of the n-hexane fraction of the aerial parts of the edible Saudi plant Sisymbrium irio led to the isolation of β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2) and β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside (3). The cytotoxic effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were tested against three cancer cell lines viz., MCF-7, HCT-116 and HepG2, using the crystal violet staining (CVS) method, while the antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacterial strains, was also estimated using the broth microdilution assay. The n-hexane fraction showed potent cytotoxic activities against all tested human cancer cell lines (IC50: 11.7–13.4μg/mL), while the dichloromethane fraction was particularly potent against HCT-116 cells (IC50: 5.42μg/mL). On the other hand, the n-hexane and EtOAc fractions demonstrated significant inhibitory activities against the Gram positive bacteria S. pyogenes and C. perfringens; and the Gram negative bacterium S. enteritidis. Our results warrant the therapeutic potential of S. irio as nutritional supplement to reduce the risk of contemporary diseases. Additionally, a validated high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the quantitative analysis of biomarker β-sitosterol glucoside (isolated in high quantity) from the n-hexane fraction. The system was found to furnish a compact, sharp, symmetrical and high resolution band for β-sitosterol glucoside (Rf =0.43±0.002). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for β-sitosterol glucoside was found to be 21.84 and 66.18ngband−1, respectively. β-sitosterol glucoside was found to be present only in n-hexane fraction (2.10μg/mg of dried fraction) while it was absent in the other fractions of S. irio which validated the high cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of n-hexane fraction of S. irio.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.012
       
  • Using an integrated information system to reduce interruptions and the
           number of non-relevant contacts in the inpatient pharmacy at tertiary
           hospital

    • Authors: Saleh Binobaid; Mohammed Almeziny; Ip-Shing Fan
      Pages: 760 - 769
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Saleh Binobaid, Mohammed Almeziny, Ip-Shing Fan
      Patient care is provided by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals intended for high-quality and safe patient care. Accordingly, the team must work synergistically and communicate efficiently. In many hospitals, nursing and pharmacy communication relies mainly on telephone calls. In fact, numerous studies have reported telephone calls as a source of interruption for both pharmacy and nursing operations; therefore, the workload increases and the chance of errors raises. This report describes the implementation of an integrated information system that possibly can reduce telephone calls through providing real-time tracking capabilities and sorting prescriptions urgency, thus significantly improving traceability of all prescriptions inside pharmacy. The research design is based on a quasi-experiment using pre-post testing using the continuous improvement approach. The improvement project is performed using a six-step method. A survey was conducted in Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC) to measure the volume and types of telephone calls before and after implementation to evaluate the impact of the new system. Beforehand of the system implementation, during the two-week measurement period, all pharmacies received 4466calls and the majority were follow-up calls. Subsequently of the integrated system rollout, there was a significant reduction (p >0.001) in the volume of telephone calls to 2630calls; besides, the calls nature turned out to be more professional inquiries (p >0.001). As a result, avoidable interruptions and workload were decreased.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.005
       
  • Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet
           using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    • Authors: M. Kaleemullah; K. Jiyauddin; E. Thiban; S. Rasha; S. Al-Dhalli; S. Budiasih; O.E. Gamal; A. Fadli; Y. Eddy
      Pages: 770 - 779
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): M. Kaleemullah, K. Jiyauddin, E. Thiban, S. Rasha, S. Al-Dhalli, S. Budiasih, O.E. Gamal, A. Fadli, Y. Eddy
      Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f 2) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f 2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p-values of 1.00 and 0.995 respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.006
       
  • Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil
           and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative
           bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans

    • Authors: Bouzid Djihane; Nouioua Wafa; Soltani Elkhamssa; De Haro Juan Pedro; Angeles Esteban Maria; Zerroug Mohamed Mihoub
      Pages: 780 - 787
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Bouzid Djihane, Nouioua Wafa, Soltani Elkhamssa, De Haro Juan Pedro, Angeles Esteban Maria, Zerroug Mohamed Mihoub
      The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%), α-Curcumene (11.41%), Geranyl acetate (10.05%), Limonene (6.07%), Nerol (5.04%), Neryl acetate (4.91%) and α-Pinene (3.78%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Ascochyta rabiei. H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79μgml−1. A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325μgml−1 and 12.65μgml−1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325μgml−1 to 50.6μgml−1 and a fungicide minimum concentration of 50.6μgml−1. This antimicrobial activity could be attributed to the essential oil chemical composition. Thus this study represents a first step in the study of the chemical composition of H. italicum (Roth) G. Don collected from north Algeria and its antimicrobial properties.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.001
       
  • Analysis of inorganic and organic constituents of myrrh resin by GC–MS
           and ICP-MS: An emphasis on medicinal assets

    • Authors: Syed Rizwan Ahamad; Abdul Rahman Al-Ghadeer; Raisuddin Ali; Wajhul Qamar; Suliman Aljarboa
      Pages: 788 - 794
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Abdul Rahman Al-Ghadeer, Raisuddin Ali, Wajhul Qamar, Suliman Aljarboa
      The aim of the present investigation was to explore the constituents of the Arabian myrrh resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The organic and inorganic composition of the myrrh gum resin has been investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis executed by ICP-MS reveals the presence of various inorganic elements in significant amount in the myrrh resin. The elements that were found to be present in large amounts include calcium, magnesium, aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, chromium, bromine and scandium. The important organic constituents identified in the myrrh ethanolic extract include limonene, curzerene, germacrene B, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, and spathulenol,. The present work complements other myrrh associated investigations done in the past and provides additional data for the future researches.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.011
       
  • Ovulation induction by metformin among obese versus non-obese women with
           polycystic ovary syndrome

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Hazem Al-Mandeel; Hisham AlSanawi; Wael Mansy; Reem AlGasem; Lama AlMutairi
      Pages: 795 - 800
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Hazem Al-Mandeel, Hisham AlSanawi, Wael Mansy, Reem AlGasem, Lama AlMutairi
      Objectives There is some evidence that the efficacy of metformin as an ovulation stimulation agent depends on the body mass index (BMI) of the treated anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to examine the likelihood of successful ovulation among obese (BMI ⩾30kg/m2) versus non-obese (BMI <30kg/m2) women with PCOS. Methods A total of 243 medical charts of women with PCOS who visited King Khaled University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Patients’ sociodemographic, laboratory, and medical data were collected. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the patients’ baseline data and successful ovulation among the obese and non-obese anovulatory women with PCOS, respectively. Results One hundred and nine women with PCOS who were prescribed metformin for ⩾3months were included in the study. Almost 60% of the women who were included in the study were obese. The likelihood of ovulation among obese women with PCOS was 77.9% (odds ratio=0.221, 95% CI 0.052–0.947, P =0.042) less than that in their non-obese counterparts. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that metformin is more effective as an ovulation stimulation agent when administered to non-obese women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise should be emphasized upon as an integral part of any treatment plan for PCOS.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.001
       
  • New constituents triterpene ester and sugar derivatives from Panax ginseng
           Meyer and their evaluation of antioxidant activities

    • Authors: Ill-Min Chung; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Seung Hyun Kim; Praveen Nagella; Azmat Ali Khan; Mohd Ali; Ateeque Ahmad
      Pages: 801 - 812
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ill-Min Chung, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Seung Hyun Kim, Praveen Nagella, Azmat Ali Khan, Mohd Ali, Ateeque Ahmad
      Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a well-known herb and used in the old established system of Oriental remedy, especially in Japan, China and Korea. Four new compounds characterized as (cis)- 7β,11α,19,21-tetra-O-decanoyl-18, 22β-dihydroxy-dammar-1-en-3-one (1), 3β,4α,12β-trihydroxystigmast-5-en-21-yl octadecan-9′,12′-dienoate (2), dammar-12, 24-dien-3α, 6β, 15α-triol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-L-arabinopyranoside (3) and dammar-24-en-3α, 6β, 16α, 20β-tetraol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-D-arabinopyranoside (4) were isolated and established from the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the roots of P. ginseng. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions. Natural compounds indicative a great reservoir of materials and compounds with evolved biological activity, including antioxidant. Compounds 1–4 were investigated in vitro for antioxidant potential using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging actions, and the decision showed the compounds 3and 4 have probablyessential antioxidant properties than the compounds 1and 2 presented weak activity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.002
       
  • A case of severe erythema nodosum induced by methimazole

    • Authors: Selma Emre; Didem Ozdemir; Sibel Orhun; Goknur Kalkan; Sertac Sener
      Pages: 813 - 815
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Selma Emre, Didem Ozdemir, Sibel Orhun, Goknur Kalkan, Sertac Sener
      Erythema nodosum (EN), is the most common variant of septal panniculitis and is possibly a delayed hypersensitivity reaction triggered by a wide range of antigenic stimuli. Hypersensitivity reactions due to medications have been recognized as a cause of 3–10% of EN cases. Case reports of EN associated with the anti-thyroid drugs are quite rarely reported in the literature even if there is a common use of anti-thyroid drugs. We report an EN case due to methimazole. The complaints of patients arose immediately fifteen days after the beginning of methimazole treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first of an erythema nodosum induced by methimazole.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.003
       
  • Vaccine on-demand service: One shot or a sustainable prevention'

    • Authors: Bander S. Balkhi; Hisham Aljadhey; Tariq M. Alhawassi
      Pages: 816 - 817
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Bander S. Balkhi, Hisham Aljadhey, Tariq M. Alhawassi


      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.007
       
  • Antiproliferative activity of Spinasterol isolated of Stegnosperma
           halimifolium (Benth, 1844)

    • Authors: Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero; Moisés Navarro-Navarro; Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos; Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez; Manuel Jiménez-Estrada; Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero, Moisés Navarro-Navarro, Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Cancer is the major cause of death in the world, representing a significant public health problem. Plants have been shown as a great source of secondary metabolites with anticancer activity. The aim of this work was evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extracts, chemical fractions and the compound spinasterol isolated of medicinal plant Stegnosperma halimifolium. The methanolic extracts of stem, leaf and stem/leaf was obtained by maceration. The methanolic extract of stem was purified by successive extractions with solvents as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The n-hexane fraction was separated by column chromatographic and monitored by thin layer chromatographic. The compound spinasterol was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectrometry. Methanolic extracts, chemical, chromatographic fractions and spinasterol was evaluated against RAW 264.7, M12.C3.F6, PC-3, LS-180, A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines by the standardized method MTT for determinate the antiproliferative activity. Methanolic extract of stem shown the better antiproliferative activity against the murine macrophage cancer cell line RAW 264.7. n-Hexane chemical fraction shown antiproliferative activity against human alveolar cancer cell line A549 and RAW 264.7. Was isolated and characterized a compound by NMR 1H and 13C, revealing the presence of sterol spinasterol. Spinasterol shown to have antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cell line HeLa and RAW 264.7, indicating that spinasterol can be a responsible compound of antiproliferative activity found in the methanolic extract of Stegnosperma halimifolium.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.001
       
  • The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils against
           Pseudomonas spp. isolated from fish

    • Authors: Miroslava Kačániová; Margarita Terentjeva; Nenad Vukovic; Czeslaw Puchalski; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury; Simona Kunová; Alina Klūga; Marián Tokár; Maciej Kluz; Eva Ivanišová
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Miroslava Kačániová, Margarita Terentjeva, Nenad Vukovic, Czeslaw Puchalski, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Simona Kunová, Alina Klūga, Marián Tokár, Maciej Kluz, Eva Ivanišová
      Natural products of plant origin, which include essential oils (EO) could be used as a growth inhibitor of pathogenic and spoilage microflora in food. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of 21 EO against 10 Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater fish. The chemical composition of EO was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The disc diffusion method and detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for the determination of the antimicrobial activity. All the EO tested exhibited antimicrobial activity, however, Cinnamomum zeylanicum EO was the most effective against Pseudomonas spp. both according to the disc diffusion and MIC methods. The EOs of Cymbopogon nardus, Origanum vulgare, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus serpyllum showed the highest antioxidant activity of 93.86 μg, 83.47 μg, 76.74 μg and 74.28 μg TEAC/mL. Application of EO could be an effective tool for inhibition of growth of Pseudomonas spp. on fish.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.005
       
  • Ibuprofen Nanocrystals Developed by 22 Factorial Design Experiment: a New
           Approach for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

    • Authors: A.R. Fernandes; N.R. Ferreira; J.F. Fangueiro; A.C. Santos; F.J. Veiga; C. Cabral; A.M. Silva; E.B. Souto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): A.R. Fernandes, N.R. Ferreira, J.F. Fangueiro, A.C. Santos, F.J. Veiga, C. Cabral, A.M. Silva, E.B. Souto
      The reduction of the particle size of drugs of pharmaceutical interest down to the nano-sized range has dramatically changed their physicochemical properties. The greatest disadvantage of nanocrystals is their inherent instability, due to the risk of crystal growth. Thus, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer is crucial to obtain long-term physicochemically stable nanocrystals. High pressure homogenization has enormous advantages, including the possibility of scaling up, lack of organic solvents and the production of small particles diameter with low polydispersity index. The sequential use of high shear homogenization followed by high pressure homogenization, can modulate nanoparticles’ size for different administration routes. The present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of two formulations composed of different surfactants produced by High Shear Homogenization followed by hot High Pressure Homogenization. To build up the surface response charts, a 22 full factorial design experiment, based on 2 independent variables, was used to develop optimized formulations. The effects of the production process on the mean particle size and polydispersity index were evaluated. The best ibuprofen nanocrystal formulations were obtained using 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% PVP K30 (F1) and 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% Span 80 (F2). The estimation of the long-term stability of the aqueous suspensions of ibuprofen nanocrystals was studied using the LUMISizer. The calculated instability index suggests that F1 was more stable when stored at 4°C and 22°C, whereas F2 was shown to be more stable when freshly prepared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.004
       
  • Medicinal Benefits of Nigella sativa in Bronchial Asthma: A Literature
           Review

    • Authors: Abdulrahman Koshak; Emad Koshak; Michael Heinrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulrahman Koshak, Emad Koshak, Michael Heinrich
      Nigella sativa L. (NS) seeds, known as black seed, is a spice and a traditional herbal medicine used in various diseases including bronchial asthma. This review aimed to assess the studies supporting the medicinal use of NS in asthma and to highlight future research priorities. Various medical databases were searched for the effects of NS and its active secondary metabolites in asthma inflammation and outcomes. There were fourteen preclinical studies describing multiple effects of NS in animal or cellular models of asthma including bronchodilation, anti-histaminic, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukotrienes and immunomodulatory effects. Furthermore, seven clinical studies showed improvements in different asthma outcomes including symptoms, pulmonary function and laboratory parameters. However, often these studies are small and used ill-defined preparations. In conclusion, NS could be therapeutically beneficial in alleviating airway inflammation and the control of asthma symptoms, but the evidence remains scanty and is often based on poorly characterised preparations. Accordingly, well-designed large clinical studies using chemically well characterised NS preparation are required.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.002
       
  • Comparison of the safety information on drug labels in three developed
           countries: the USA, UK and Canada

    • Authors: Thamir M. Alshammari; Venkat Ratnam Devadasu; Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari, Venkat Ratnam Devadasu, Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      The safety information on drug labels of a company marketing the same drugs in different countries is sometimes different. The aim of the present study is to understand the differences in the volume and content of safety information on the drug labels from the same manufacturers in three developed countries: the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. This study involved the calculation of the proportion of total safety information (PSI) and of contraindications (PCI) in comparison to all information on the label and the percentage of boxed warnings (PBW) among the 100 labels studied from each country. The PSI on the labels of different countries is different with USA labels bearing lesser value PSI and UK labels bearing higher value PSI. The qualitative information provided on these drug labels from each country in ‘contraindications’ sections, ‘boxed/serious warnings’ and ‘overdosage’ sections presented differences in the information provided on most of the labels. We have found distinct differences between the safety information available on drug labels in terms of volume and content. We conclude that the safety information for the same products should be standardised across all countries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.006
       
  • Anti-ulcerogenic and Anti-Ulcerative colitis (UC) activities of seven
           amines derivatives

    • Authors: Amani S.Awaad; Ahmed M. Alafeefy; Fatmah A. S. Alasmary; Reham M. El-Meligy; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amani S.Awaad, Ahmed M. Alafeefy, Fatmah A. S. Alasmary, Reham M. El-Meligy, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The Novel target compounds (CP-1-7) were synthesized and tested at doses up to 1000 mg/kg for their entitled activities. They exerted promising results without any behavioral changes and mortality in mice. Therefore, according to the results obtained in our study, it could be categorized as highly safe agents for treating UC since substances possessing LD50 higher than 50 mg/kg are considered nontoxic. They also possessed a potent anti-ulcerogenic activity with different potentials. The most effective compound was CP-4, it produced 97.7% ulcer protection of control followed by CP-3, which produced 90.3% protection, while the standard drug ranitidine (100 mg/kg) produced 49.2% protection. Compound CP-1 showed lowest activity among the current series, it produced 55.5% protection. The target compounds were significantly more effective than the standard in reducing ulcer index. The anti-ulcerative colitis activity was tested using acetic acid induced colitis model. The curative effect of the tested compounds at a dose of 50 mg/kg oral administration on rats showed a potent anti-ulcerative colitis activity with different potentials. They induced a significant decrease in ulcer score, ulcer area, ulcer index and weight/length of the colon specimens. The percent protection of control colitis ranged from 66.8% for CP-7 to 22.3% for CP-5; however the percent protection for dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) was 59.3%. The effect of the tested compounds CP-7 and CP-3 at dose 50 mg/kg were significantly more effective than dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) in reducing all parameters. Liver functions were not affected as there is no effect on the activity of both AST and ALT in animals that received the compounds, so the compounds didn’t reveal hepatotoxic manifestation. Although, the results on kidney functions showed that, CP-1 slightly elevated blood urea concentration and CP-3 & CP-4 slightly elevated serum creatinine; no apparent nephrotoxic manifestations were recorded.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.003
       
  • Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and
           lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    • Authors: Aleksandra Amelian; Katarzyna Wasilewska; Małgorzata Wesoły; Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska; Katarzyna Winnicka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Aleksandra Amelian, Katarzyna Wasilewska, Małgorzata Wesoły, Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska, Katarzyna Winnicka
      Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release) revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:10:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.06.001
       
  • Prediction of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein localization in host
           mitochondria and cytoplasm and possible involvements in lung cancer
           etiology: A computational approach

    • Authors: Aws Alshamsan; Shahanavaj Khan; Ahamad Imran; Ibrahim A. Aljuffali; Khalid Alsaleh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Aws Alshamsan, Shahanavaj Khan, Ahamad Imran, Ibrahim A. Aljuffali, Khalid Alsaleh
      Collecting evidence suggests that the intercellular infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in lungs contributes to the etiology of lung cancer. Many proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae outmanoeuvre the various system of the host. The infection may regulate various factors which can influence the growth of lung cancer in affected persons. In this in-silico study, we predict potential targeting of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic comportments of host cell and their possible involvement in growth and development of lung cancer. Various cellular activities are controlled in mitochondria and cytoplasm, where the localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins may alter the normal functioning of host cells. The rationale of this study is to find out and explain the connection between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. A sum of 183 and 513 proteins were predicted to target in mitochondria and cytoplasm of host cell out of total 1112 proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae. In particular, many targeted proteins may interfere with normal growth behaviour of host cells, thereby altering the decision of program cell death. Present article provides a potential connection of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein targeting and proposed that various targeted proteins may play crucial role in lung cancer etiology through diverse mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T05:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.007
       
  • Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of nitrofurazone
           analogues containing hydrazide-hydrazone moiety

    • Authors: Łukasz Popiołek; Anna Biernasiuk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Łukasz Popiołek, Anna Biernasiuk
      In this research we synthesized and tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity 21 nitrofurazone analogues. The compounds we obtained were identified on the basis of 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The in vitro screening of antimicrobial properties of synthesized compounds revealed a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Compounds 28, 29, 32-43, and 45-48 showed very high bactericidal effect towards Staphylococcus spp. ATTC and Bacillus spp. ATTC (MIC = 0.002 – 7.81 µg/ml and MBC = 0.002 – 31.25 µg/ml). The levels of activity of several compounds were far better than those of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin or cefuroxime.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T05:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.006
       
  • Knowledge of Community Pharmacists about the Risks of Medication Use
           during Pregnancy in Central region of Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ziyad Alrabiah; Mohamed N. Al-Arifi; Sultan M. Alghadeer; Syed Wajid; Ali AlQahtani; Naif Almotari; AbdAllh AlHwerani; Salmeen D. Babelghiath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ziyad Alrabiah, Mohamed N. Al-Arifi, Sultan M. Alghadeer, Syed Wajid, Ali AlQahtani, Naif Almotari, AbdAllh AlHwerani, Salmeen D. Babelghiath
      Background Community pharmacists (CPs) are the most accessible health care provider to the public, and they have huge duties to improve medication use especially among the pregnant women in their community. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge of CPs about the medication safety during pregnancy. Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey was carried out over practicing community pharmacists in a capital of Saudi Arabia (SA). Pharmacists were asked about the safety of each medicine during pregnancy. It involved both prescription-only medications (POM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Both descriptive and analytic statistics were utilized. For descriptive analysis, results were expressed as numbers, percentages and mean (± SD and 95% CI). Results The response rate was (71.1%). Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed that alprazolam is not safe while 22% of respondents believed that it is used on basis of risk-benefit assessment. Also, most of CPs (65.2%) said that amoxicillin is safe, but a very few of CPs (11.7%) knew that tetracycline should be used only if potential benefits may outweigh the risk. Among non-prescribed analgesics, majority of CPs (92.6%) knew that acetaminophen is safe. About dietary supplements, 48.4% of CPs reported that Vitamin A supplements are not safe. There was significant difference observed between age groups of CPs in scores of knowledge test (P = 0.001). Conclusion Community Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers who can help pregnant women with their medications use there are still gaps in knowledge where educational interventions are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T05:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.005
       
  • Medication Discrepancies Identified During Medication Reconciliation Among
           Medical Patients at Tertiary Care Hospital

    • Authors: Isra Al-Rashoud; Maha Al-Ammari; Hisham Al-Jadhey; Abdulmalik Alkatheri; Gregory Poff; Tariq Aldebasi; Salah AbuRuz; Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Isra Al-Rashoud, Maha Al-Ammari, Hisham Al-Jadhey, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Gregory Poff, Tariq Aldebasi, Salah AbuRuz, Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy


      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.004
       
  • Propafenone Hcl Fast Dissolving Tablets containing Subliming Agent
           Prepared by Direct Compression Method

    • Authors: Saleh Abd El Rasoul; Gamal A. Shazly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Saleh Abd El Rasoul, Gamal A. Shazly
      Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crosspovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmelose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.003
       
  • D-4F decreases the expression of Aβ protein through up-regulating long
           non coding RNA sirt1-as in SAMP8 mice

    • Authors: Xiao-Han Ding; Jie Han; Yuan Liu; Ying Jin; Ping Ye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiao-Han Ding, Jie Han, Yuan Liu, Ying Jin, Ping Ye
      Background and objective Cholesterol plays key roles on (Aβ) metabolism and production. D-4F is the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide which has been revealed a critical role in regulation cholesterol. We aimed at identifying the effects of D-4F on Aβ production in SAMP8 and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: SAMP8 mice (n=15) were randomized into three groups for treatment with D-4F given in drinking water: high-dose group (0.5mg/ml), low-dose group (0.3mg/ml) and control group (just drinking water). The heart, kidney, liver and brain were obtained from SAMP8 (9 of them included in the analysis). The long non-coding RNA sirt1-as was measured in all tissues. The immunohistochemistry, western blot qRT-PCR were performed to determine the sirt1-as and the relevant proteins or RNAs levels. Results: After treated with D-4F, the sirt1-as has been significantly upregulated in brain, rather than heart, kidney or liver. Specially, sirt1-as was significantly up-regulated by high dose of D-4F in the hippocampus area (p=0.007) compared with control group. Further analysis revealed that D-4F up-regulates the expression of SIRT1. We also found that D-4F treatment significantly increased the reverse cholesterol transport related proteins liver X receptor α (LXRα) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, p<0.05). Finally, the amyloid β-protein (Aβ protein) was statistically lower than that in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our observation indicated that D-4F decreases the expression of Aβ protein through up-regulating long non coding RNA sirt1-as and its downstream proteins which may involve in reverse cholesterol transport.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.017
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin in rats

    • Authors: Zongyu Liu; Ye Bi; Yating Sun; Fei Hao; Jiahui Lu; Qingfan Meng; Robert J. Lee; Yaping Tian; Jing Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zongyu Liu, Ye Bi, Yating Sun, Fei Hao, Jiahui Lu, Qingfan Meng, Robert J. Lee, Yaping Tian, Jing Xie
      Background Measuring free drug concentration following systemic administration of a liposomal drug is a crucial aspect of the assessment of its in vivo behavior. Therefore we require an efficient method to separate free drug in the plasma from encapsulated drug. Objectives To study the pharmacokinetics of free doxorubicin (DOX) released from liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) in rats. Methods L-DOX was prepared with encapsulation efficiency of 90% and was injected intravenously into rats. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with UPLC–MS/MS was used to measure the concentration of F-DOX in rat plasma without disrupting the integrity of L-DOX. Results This method exhibited a linear range of F-DOX from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL. Recovery, precision, linearity and accuracy of this technique appear satisfactory for pharmacokinetic study. The constituents of F-DOX ranged from 5.35% to 14.09% of total DOX in plasma at each time point measured after L-DOX administration. Conclusion SPE method was suitable for studying the pharmacokinetics of F-DOX in rats receiving L-DOX.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.019
       
  • Effects Of Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment On Rho/Rho-Kinase
           Signalization Pathway In Mouse Brain

    • Authors: Halil Mahir Kaplan; Percin Pazarci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Halil Mahir Kaplan, Percin Pazarci
      Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) shows its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors which are on some tissues and neurons. Cannabinoid systems have role on cell proliferation and development of neurons. Furthermore, it is interesting that cannabinoid system and rho/rho-kinase signalization pathway, which have important role on cell development and proliferation, may have role on neuron proliferation and development together. Thus, a study is planned to investigate rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in the brain of chronic Δ9-THC treated mice. One group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC once to see effects of acute treatment. Another group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC three times per day for one month. After this period, rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in mice brains are analyzed by ELISA method. Chronic administration of Δ9-THC decreased the expression of rhoA while acute treatment has no meaningful effect on it. Administration of Δ9-THC did not affect expression of rho-kinase on both chronic and acute treatment. Administration of Δ9-THC increased rho-kinase activity on both chronic and acute treatment, however, chronic treatment decreased its activity with respect to acute treatment. This study showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment down-regulated rhoA expression and did not change the expression level of rho-kinase which is downstream effector of rhoA. However, it elevated the rho-kinase activity. Δ9-THC induced down-regulation of rhoA may cause elevation of cypin expression and may have benefit on cypin related diseases. Furthermore, use of rho-kinase inhibitors and Δ9-THC together can be useful on rho-kinase related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.002
       
  • Sonographic diagnosis of umbilical arterial atresia and clinical
           significance

    • Authors: Jinhe Ren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jinhe Ren
      To evaluate the feasibility of antenatal sonographic diagnosis of umbilical arterial atresia and its clinical significance. Data of 5 cases with umbilical arterial atresia diagnosed in our hospital were studied retrospectively. The antenatal ultrasonogram of umbilical arterial atresia was obtain, and the pathological examination of umbilical cords and the prognosis of neonates were analyzed. Among 5 cases with umbilical arterial atresia in this group, 1 case with double umbilical arterial atresia was found with dead fetus in uterus, and the rest 4 cases with single umbilical arterial atresia were found with survival fetuses. In the latter 4 cases with live fetus, once umbilical arterial atresia was diagnosed, caesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy, and the 4 fetus were all healthy. The chromosome karyotypes and S/D value of umbilical arteries were showed normal in all 5 cases. Accurate antenatal diagnosis can be made according to the specific ultrasonogram of umbilical arterial atresia. Instant intervention should be performed upon observing umbilical arterial atresia with live fetus, so as to avoid dead fetus as much as possible.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.010
       
  • The influence of connective tissue growth factor on rabbit ligament injury
           repair

    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Junju Zheng; Jiayu Chen; Lipeng Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Wei Zhang, Junju Zheng, Jiayu Chen, Lipeng Huang
      Objectives The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is deemed to exhibit an impaired healing response and attempts at surgical repair have not been successful. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is reported to be associated with wound healing, probably through transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1). Methods A rabbit ACL injury model was used to study the effect of CTGF on ligament recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for detection of changes in RNA levels of TGF-β1, type 1 collagen (COL-I), type 2 collagen (COL-II), SRY-related high mobility group-box gene9 (Sox9), metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as well as matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP-13). And expression of related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results The current study showed that CTGF could promote the recovery of inured anterior cruciate ligament. It can up-regulate the mRNA and expression of TGF-β1, COL-I, COL-II, Sox9, as well as the tissue inhibitor of TIMP-1, and down-regulated the mRNA and expression of MMP-13, suggesting the curative effect of CTGF on injured rabbit ligament is through regulating these cellular factors. Conclusion This finding revealed the mechanism of CTFG’s healing role in injured tissues and provided new possibilities of treating injured tissues and wound healing by using CTFG.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.013
       
  • Optimization extraction and bioactivities of polysaccharide from wild
           Russula Griseocarnosa

    • Authors: Ye Yuan; Yang Liu; Mengdi Liu; Qian Chen; Yuanyuan Jiao; Yan Liu; Zhaoli Meng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ye Yuan, Yang Liu, Mengdi Liu, Qian Chen, Yuanyuan Jiao, Yan Liu, Zhaoli Meng
      The extraction conditions and biological activities of polysaccharides from wild Russula griseocarnosa (PRG) were investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize extraction conditions. The optimal extraction parameters of PRG were as follows: extracting time 4 h, extraction temperature 77.3 °C and liquid-solid ratio 42.5 g/L. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that PRG exhibited antioxidant activities evidenced by reducing power to scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical. PRG showed the activity of anti-cervical carcinoma cells Hela and Siha. In conclusion this study offered an efficient extraction method of wild Russula griseocarnosa polysaccharide, and the results suggested PRG had good antioxidant and inhibitory activities against cervical carcinoma cells, and PRG could be developed as a novel natural functional food.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.018
       
  • Anti-tumor Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Sargassum Fusiforme

    • Authors: Miao Yu; Yubin Ji; Zheng Qi; Di Cui; Guosong Xin; Bing Wang; Yue Cao; Dandan Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Miao Yu, Yubin Ji, Zheng Qi, Di Cui, Guosong Xin, Bing Wang, Yue Cao, Dandan Wang
      In this study, our purpose is to discover the correlation between polysaccharides sulfated structure and anti-tumor activity. Sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme were synthesized with the chlorosulfonic acid pyridine method. The inhibitory effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides and the application of MTT assay before and after chemical modification on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells in vitro were studied. Sulfated polysaccharide from sargassum fusiforme DS is 0.803. The modified polysaccharide has certain inhibitory effect on HepG-2 cells, and its inhibition on the cells growth has improved compared with the original SFPs.The sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme has the ability to enhance anti-tumor activities.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.007
       
  • The effect of different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin on DM
           model of mice

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Jing Liu; Tan Wang; Xue Liang; Ming Bai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Jing Liu, Tan Wang, Xue Liang, Ming Bai
      This paper aims to study the effects of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on STZ induced Diabetes Mellitus (DM) model of mice, and to select a better proportion of active components. Its ultimate purpose is to lay a basis for the follow-up research on astragaloside-curcumin capsule. Increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method and comprehensive performance evaluation utlised to study the effect of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on DM mice models, which have an intravenous tail injection of STZ. The proportions of the two components are 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, 0:10 respectively. And we will screen out the optimal composition. Blood glycated serum protein (GSP), hepatic glycogen and insulin tested to observe pathological changes in the pancreas. The mice DM model was copied successfully. Compared with the model group, groups treated with the metformin and with different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin help lower the blood glucose levels and GSP levels, increase glycogen stores of model mice by different degrees, and avoid pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice. The ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal one, based on the comprehensive performance evaluation method, followed by the ratio of 4:6. The optimal proportion of DM models is 3:7, followed by 4:6. The ratio of total astragaloside and curcumin can lower blood glucose levels, GSP levels, promote the formation of glycogen, and improve the pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.009
       
  • Effect of Gu Tong Xian capsule on expression level of type I, II collagen
           and BMP-2 mRNA in rabbits with fracture during long-distance running

    • Authors: Liang Li; Yueting Qiu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Liang Li, Yueting Qiu
      The study aims to analyze and investigate the effects of Gu Tong Xian Capsule on the expression level of type I, II collagen and BMP-2 mRNA in rabbits with fracture during long-distance running. 60 adult healthy rabbits were selected as research objects, and then randomly divided into three groups including model group, positive control group and treatment group, each containing 20 rabbits. The three groups were treated with saline gastric lavage, powder for fracture and trauma, and Gu Tong Xian capsule, respectively. The rabbits of the three groups were respectively sacrificed at 1st week, 2nd weeks and 4th week after operation for sample collection. After that, the expression levels of bone collagen type I, II and BMP-2 of three groups were measured and compared with each other. At all stages, the transcriptional level of type Ⅰ collagen mRNA in the treatment group were significantly higher than that in the positive control group and model group (p<0.05); Transcriptional level of type II collagen mRNA in the treatment group increased significantly in the first week, then gradually declined in the 2nd and 4th week, with significantly difference to the model group and the positive control group (p<0.05). In addition, the transcriptional level of bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2 mRNA at fracture site of the treatment group was higher than that of model group and positive control group (p <0.05). Gu Tong Xian Capsule can significantly promote fracture healing of experiment rabbits and reduce fracture healing time. Moreover, it can well regulate the expression levels of type I, II collagen and transcriptional level ofBMP-2 mRNA in experiment rabbits with fracture.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.016
       
  • Investigation on the immunomodulatory activities of sarcodon imbricatus
           extracts in a cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressanted mouse
           model

    • Authors: Fanxin Meng; Panju Xu; Xue Wang; Yu Huang; Liyan Wu; Yiling Chen; Lirong Teng; Di Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fanxin Meng, Panju Xu, Xue Wang, Yu Huang, Liyan Wu, Yiling Chen, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
      Aims: Sarcodon imbricatus, an edible fungus, is widely used in Asian medicine because of its significant pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharide-enriched S. imbricatus extracts (SP) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Results: Astragalus polysaccharide (AP) was used as a positive control. Compared with CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice, thirty-day SP treatment strongly enhanced the organ indexes of spleen and thymus and suppressed hind paw swelling. Both AP and SP increased the serum levels of immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, and IgM), and suppressed the overproduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Moreover, SP reduced methane dicarboxylic aldehyde levels, and increased the total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in both serum and liver tissues of CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. Conclusion: S. imbricatus extracts significantly improved immune function in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice via modulation of oxidative systems.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.006
       
  • Expression of CD44 standard form and variant isoforms in human bone marrow
           stromal cells

    • Authors: Xiaofeng Wang; Zhenwu Du; Xiaojun Liu; Yang Song; Guizhen Zhang; Zhitao Wang; Qingyu Wang; Zhongli Gao; Yajun Wang; Wei Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiaofeng Wang, Zhenwu Du, Xiaojun Liu, Yang Song, Guizhen Zhang, Zhitao Wang, Qingyu Wang, Zhongli Gao, Yajun Wang, Wei Wang
      Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSCs) can migrate from bone marrow to injured tissues, where they may differentiate into different types of new cells for replacement of dysfunctional cells. CD44 plays an important role in stem cell movement. The expression distribution of CD44 standard form (CD44S) and CD44 variants (CD44V) is closely related to cell movement and tissue migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of CD44S and CD44V in hBMSCs. The hBMSCs from four human subjects were cultured in vitro. Phenotypic properties were analyzed by flow cytometry, and adipocyte and osteoblast differentiations were evaluated at passage 4. The expressions of CD44S and CD44V were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Results showed that hBMSCs were successfully cultured, with positive expressions of markers of mesenchymal cells (CD90, CD73, CD105), and negative expressions of markers of hematopoietic cells (CD34, CD45). The cultured hBMSCs can be induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Q-PCR results showed that the expression of CD44S was significantly higher than the expressions of different CD44V isoforms in different samples. These results revealed significant differences in the distributions of CD44S and CD44V gene expressions, demonstrating a dominant CD44S expression in hBMCSs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.011
       
  • Effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix extract on mRNA expression of
           TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen of HSC-T6 cell

    • Authors: Bo Shi; Jingjing Shi; Huazhen Qin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bo Shi, Jingjing Shi, Huazhen Qin
      To study the effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix (Yujin) on the mRNA expression of Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1(TIMP-1), Matrix metalloproteinases-13 (MMPs-13) and aI-collagen of Hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cell. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Yujin group (16.2 g Kg-1), medium dose of Yujin group (8.1 g Kg-1), low dose of Yujin group (4.05 g Kg-1) and blank control group (with the same volume of 0.9% saline). Yujin extract or 0.9% saline were administered daily by gavage to rats for 4d, after once administration of full-day dose for 1h on the fourth day, ether anaesthesia was given, and blood was taken from abdominal aortic in asepsis condition for preparation of medicated serum. HSC-T6 cells were divided into 5 groups: high dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medium dose medicated serum of Yujin group, low dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medicated serum of blank control group and negative control group(added with the same volume of PBS instead of rat serum), after 48h of simultaneous acting on HSC-T6 cells in all groups by the medicated serum with a concentration of 10%, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen was analyzed with RT-PCR. Compared with the negative control group, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen in all experimental groups increased significantly. Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of aI-collagen and TIMP-1 was obviously inhibited in all medicated serum of Yujin groups (P<0.01),meanwhile, the mRNA expression level of MMPs-13 was effectively improved(P<0.05). The medicated serum of Yujin had an effect on the production and degradation of Extracellular matrix (ECM) of HSC-T6 cell.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.015
       
  • Effect of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes
           in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats

    • Authors: Maliha Sarfraz; Tanweer Khaliq; Junaid Ali Khan; Bilal Aslam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Maliha Sarfraz, Tanweer Khaliq, Junaid Ali Khan, Bilal Aslam
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats to show the preventive and ameliorating effects in hyperglycemic rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control rats, diabetic control rats, glibenclamide treated rats, black pepper treated rats, ajwa seed treated rats and black pepper plus ajwa seed treated rats. Hyperglycemia was induced in the treatments groups by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at 150mg/kg body weight. The extracts were administered via oral incubation, doses were glibenclamide 10mg/kg, black pepper 50 mg/kg, ajwa seed 500 mg/kg and their mixture 500mg/kg body weight for a period of 8 weeks. Serum glucose, AST, ALT and ALP were assayed using spectrophotometric method. Results showed that ajwa seed and mixture significantly reduced glucose level. AST level was significantly reduced by mixture treated group. No significant difference was observed between different aqueous extract treated group in ALT and ALP level. The study indicates that black pepper and ajwa seed extract to some extend normalized the glucose and liver enzyme activities in alloxanized diabetic rats.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.004
       
  • The intervention effect of different distribution ratio of astragalus
           total saponins and curcumin on the DM rats model

    • Authors: Xiaoli Yan; Xiao Li; Miaosan Miao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiaoli Yan, Xiao Li, Miaosan Miao
      Through the study of the effect of different ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS) and curcumin on Diabetes Mellitu (DM) model rats, we want to improve the screening model of the distribution ratio in Chinese Medicine, screening out the optimal proportion of the prevention and control of DM. By injecting streptozotocin (STZ) in the tail vein of rats to induct the DM rats model, we measured the dynamic change, insulin and insulin antibody(IAA) levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP) content, lipid metabolism and the changes of renal pathology in DM model rats. The different distribution ratio of ATS and Curcumin can significantly reduce GSP, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL); significantly increased serum insulin levels and high density lipoprotein (HDL) content, significantly decreased IAA level on the DM rats model induced by STZ. Different proportions of ATS and Curcumin have a good therapeutic effect on DM model rats, and 6:4 is the optimal proportion for the prevention and treatment of DM.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.014
       
  • History of Gumboro (Infectious Bursal Disease) in Pakistan

    • Authors: Rai Shafqat Ali Khan; Sanaullah Sajid; Mudasser Habib; Waqas Ali; M. Salah-ud-Din Shah; Maliha Sarfraz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rai Shafqat Ali Khan, Sanaullah Sajid, Mudasser Habib, Waqas Ali, M. Salah-ud-Din Shah, Maliha Sarfraz
      Infectious Bursal Disease is the second important viral disease of poultry which affects the young growing pullets. The end fate appears in huge economic losses to poultry industry. Throughout the world, cheapest source of animal protein is chicken meat. It was initially reported in Europe; soon it spreads worldwide and causes drastic losses. In Pakistan, first of all this disease was reported in 1971. It is the first review to track the IBDV history in Pakistan. It provides comprehensive details of forty six years researchers work in controlling this important disease. Different scientists worked to fill the gap areas to achieve the goal. Present review covers all the research aspects being explored in Pakistan since first report.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.005
       
  • Impacts of triamcinolone acetonide on femoral head chondrocytic structures
           in lumbosacral plexus block

    • Authors: Dashou Wang; Qian Chen; Fengjun Cai; Qi Pan; Xuesong Li; Qianming Wu; Yong Gan; Fei Meng; Ping Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Dashou Wang, Qian Chen, Fengjun Cai, Qi Pan, Xuesong Li, Qianming Wu, Yong Gan, Fei Meng, Ping Luo
      Objective To investigate impacts of triamcinolone acetonide (TRI) on femoral head chondrocytic (FHC) structures when used for lumbosacral plexus block (LPB). Methods: A total of 32 6-month-old New Zealand white rabbits were selected (averagely weighing 2.75-3.25 kg) and added TRI into nerve block solution for LPB. The rabbit were randomly divided into four groups: group A1: 2.5 ml × 2 times, group A2 2.5 ml × 4 times, group B1 5 ml × 2 times, and group B2 5 ml × 4 times; the time interval among the injection was 5 days, and the structural changes of FHC were the observed using 50/100/200 light microscope; the modified Mankin pathological scoring was also performed for the evaluation. Results: There exhibited significant microscopic changes of FHC structures between the rabbits performed LPB and the normal rabbits, among which group B2 exhibited the most serious FHC damages, and the Mankin pathological score in group B2 was much higher than those in the other three groups, and the scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group. Conclusions: The addition of TRI in LPB can damage the FHC structures, and large-dose (5 ml/once) and long-course (four times) will result in more serious injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.012
       
  • The application of graphene oxidized combining with decellularized
           scaffold to repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats

    • Authors: Qiaoling Wang; Jinlong Chen; Qingfei Niu; Xiumei Fu; Xiaohong Sun; Xiaojie Tong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Qiaoling Wang, Jinlong Chen, Qingfei Niu, Xiumei Fu, Xiaohong Sun, Xiaojie Tong
      This paper combined the decellularized scaffold of sciatic nerve of rats with graphene oxidized (GO), studied and facilitated the regeneration of sciatic nerve of rats, and provided the basis for the clinical application of nanomaterials. GO was prepared through improving Hammer’s Method. Fourier Infrared Spectrum was used to scan and detect the functional groups in GO of sample by using the pellet method, the microcosmic morphological appearance of GO was observed by using the scanning electron microscope. The GO/decellularized scaffold were prepared and operation bridging of injured sciatic nerve was conducted by using the oscillation mixing method. BL-420F Biofunctional Experiment System was used to detect nerve action potential and the maximum tension value of muscles, and the fiber structure of nerve was observed under H-7650 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Scanning electron microscope observed that GO presented a folded and curly single-layer sheet structure. It was soluble in water through ultrasound, brownish, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer detected the absorption peaks of carbonyl, hydroxy and carboxy, proving that the surface of GO material had many functional groups containing oxygen. Decellularized scaffold combining with GO was applied to repair injury of sciatic nerve, the nerve action potential, maximum tension value of muscle, wet weight value of gastrocnemius, thickness of gastrocnemius, thickness of myelin sheath and diameter of axon of the decellularized scaffold combining with GO group were obviously higher than the decellularized scaffold group and the self-rotating group, approaching to the normal value. All the data were represented by means ± standard deviation ( x ¯ ± s) and processed by adopting SPSS 11.0 software. Comparisons among groups were analyzed by variance, and the comparison of two means was detected by student t. The detection level adoptsed α = 0.05, when P < 0.05, it could be considered that there were significant differences. GO could combine with the biomaterial-decellularized scaffold to repair the injury of sciatic nerve and facilitate the regeneration of injured nerve. This provided new thoughts and theoretical & experimental bases for nanomaterials to be applied to clinic treatment of repair of nerve injury.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.008
       
 
 
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