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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 551 journals)
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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Medication Discrepancies Identified During Medication Reconciliation Among
           Medical Patients at Tertiary Care Hospital

    • Authors: Isra Al-Rashoud; Maha Al-Ammari; Hisham Al-Jadhey; Abdulmalik Alkatheri; Gregory Poff; Tariq Aldebasi; Salah AbuRuz; Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Isra Al-Rashoud, Maha Al-Ammari, Hisham Al-Jadhey, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Gregory Poff, Tariq Aldebasi, Salah AbuRuz, Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy


      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.004
       
  • Propafenone Hcl Fast Dissolving Tablets containing Subliming Agent
           Prepared by Direct Compression Method

    • Authors: Saleh Abd El Rasoul; Gamal A. Shazly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Saleh Abd El Rasoul, Gamal A. Shazly
      Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crosspovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmelose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.003
       
  • TSA protects H9c2 cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis related to
           endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondrial injury

    • Authors: Zhiping Li; Yan Liu; Xinlun Dai; Qiangqiang Zhou; Xueli Liu; Zeyu Li; Xia Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zhiping Li, Yan Liu, Xinlun Dai, Qiangqiang Zhou, Xueli Liu, Zeyu Li, Xia Chen
      Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives: To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation. Results: TSA is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase which could significantly inhibit H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by Thapsigargin (TG). It also intervene the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. By immunofluorescence staining, we have shown that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with ER. However, treatments with TG and TSA could let it overlap with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation also confirmed the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion. Conclusions: TSA decreases ERS-induced cell apoptosis and mitochondrial injury may related to enhance the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.029
       
  • D-4F decreases the expression of Aβ protein through up-regulating long
           non coding RNA sirt1-as in SAMP8 mice

    • Authors: Xiao-Han Ding; Jie Han; Yuan Liu; Ying Jin; Ping Ye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiao-Han Ding, Jie Han, Yuan Liu, Ying Jin, Ping Ye
      Background and objective Cholesterol plays key roles on (Aβ) metabolism and production. D-4F is the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide which has been revealed a critical role in regulation cholesterol. We aimed at identifying the effects of D-4F on Aβ production in SAMP8 and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: SAMP8 mice (n=15) were randomized into three groups for treatment with D-4F given in drinking water: high-dose group (0.5mg/ml), low-dose group (0.3mg/ml) and control group (just drinking water). The heart, kidney, liver and brain were obtained from SAMP8 (9 of them included in the analysis). The long non-coding RNA sirt1-as was measured in all tissues. The immunohistochemistry, western blot qRT-PCR were performed to determine the sirt1-as and the relevant proteins or RNAs levels. Results: After treated with D-4F, the sirt1-as has been significantly upregulated in brain, rather than heart, kidney or liver. Specially, sirt1-as was significantly up-regulated by high dose of D-4F in the hippocampus area (p=0.007) compared with control group. Further analysis revealed that D-4F up-regulates the expression of SIRT1. We also found that D-4F treatment significantly increased the reverse cholesterol transport related proteins liver X receptor α (LXRα) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, p<0.05). Finally, the amyloid β-protein (Aβ protein) was statistically lower than that in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our observation indicated that D-4F decreases the expression of Aβ protein through up-regulating long non coding RNA sirt1-as and its downstream proteins which may involve in reverse cholesterol transport.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.017
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of a liposomal formulation of doxorubicin in rats

    • Authors: Zongyu Liu; Ye Bi; Yating Sun; Fei Hao; Jiahui Lu; Qingfan Meng; Robert J. Lee; Yaping Tian; Jing Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zongyu Liu, Ye Bi, Yating Sun, Fei Hao, Jiahui Lu, Qingfan Meng, Robert J. Lee, Yaping Tian, Jing Xie
      Background Measuring free drug concentration following systemic administration of a liposomal drug is a crucial aspect of the assessment of its in vivo behavior. Therefore we require an efficient method to separate free drug in the plasma from encapsulated drug. Objectives To study the pharmacokinetics of free doxorubicin (DOX) released from liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) in rats. Methods L-DOX was prepared with encapsulation efficiency of 90% and was injected intravenously into rats. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with UPLC–MS/MS was used to measure the concentration of F-DOX in rat plasma without disrupting the integrity of L-DOX. Results This method exhibited a linear range of F-DOX from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL. Recovery, precision, linearity and accuracy of this technique appear satisfactory for pharmacokinetic study. The constituents of F-DOX ranged from 5.35% to 14.09% of total DOX in plasma at each time point measured after L-DOX administration. Conclusion SPE method was suitable for studying the pharmacokinetics of F-DOX in rats receiving L-DOX.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.019
       
  • Effects Of Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment On Rho/Rho-Kinase
           Signalization Pathway In Mouse Brain

    • Authors: Halil Mahir Kaplan; Percin Pazarci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Halil Mahir Kaplan, Percin Pazarci
      Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) shows its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors which are on some tissues and neurons. Cannabinoid systems have role on cell proliferation and development of neurons. Furthermore, it is interesting that cannabinoid system and rho/rho-kinase signalization pathway, which have important role on cell development and proliferation, may have role on neuron proliferation and development together. Thus, a study is planned to investigate rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in the brain of chronic Δ9-THC treated mice. One group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC once to see effects of acute treatment. Another group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC three times per day for one month. After this period, rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in mice brains are analyzed by ELISA method. Chronic administration of Δ9-THC decreased the expression of rhoA while acute treatment has no meaningful effect on it. Administration of Δ9-THC did not affect expression of rho-kinase on both chronic and acute treatment. Administration of Δ9-THC increased rho-kinase activity on both chronic and acute treatment, however, chronic treatment decreased its activity with respect to acute treatment. This study showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment down-regulated rhoA expression and did not change the expression level of rho-kinase which is downstream effector of rhoA. However, it elevated the rho-kinase activity. Δ9-THC induced down-regulation of rhoA may cause elevation of cypin expression and may have benefit on cypin related diseases. Furthermore, use of rho-kinase inhibitors and Δ9-THC together can be useful on rho-kinase related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.002
       
  • The alleviative effects of metformin for lipopolysaccharide-induced acute
           lung injury and its underlying mechanism

    • Authors: Xiangcheng Zhang; Futai Shang; Liangliang Hui; Kui Zang; Gengyun Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiangcheng Zhang, Futai Shang, Liangliang Hui, Kui Zang, Gengyun Sun
      For patients who have sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) causes most of death. Metformin (Met) is an anti-hyperglycemic agent and it has extensive pharmacological properties. This study aimed to analyze the influence of Met on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced ALI. Met (1, 2, and 4 mg / kg) were injected and LPS was injected 30 min later. The data suggested Met can reduce release of inflammatory cytokines and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein expression, reduce lung wet / dry ratio, and significantly improve LPS-induced lung destruction during ALI. In addition, Met inhibits LPS-induced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, reduces MPO activity, and promotes AMPK-α1 expression in lung tissues. Our data suggested that metformin alleviates capillary injury during ALI via AMPK-α1.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.001
       
  • Phenylethanoid glycosides of cistanche on menopausal syndrome model in
           mice

    • Authors: Shuo Tian; Mingsan Miao; Ming Bai; Zhenzhen Wei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Shuo Tian, Mingsan Miao, Ming Bai, Zhenzhen Wei
      Cistanche is the traditional and precious Chinese herbal, with two thousand years of use history in China. It has the effect on tonifying kidney, strong supplement to the liver and kidney, and replenishing essence and blood, known as the “desert ginseng”. Here, we explored the mechanism of Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (PGC) to the model mice of menopausal syndrome, as well as the therapeutic effect and characteristics of PGC to the menopausal syndrome. In this study, KM mice were reproduced by the complete resection of the ovaries on both sides of the back to establish the model mice of menopausal syndrome(MPS), and received distilled water or drugs, respectively. Model mice received distilled water. Mice received 200 mg/(kg·day) high doses of Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (HPGC), and 100 mg/(kg·day) medium doses of Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (MPGC), and 50mg/(kg·day) low doses of Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (LPGC). After 21 days, it could determine the number of independent activities and the number of standing, the latent period of first entering the dark room, and the electric number. It also calculated the viscera index of uterus, thymus, spleen, measured the levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the serum. Furthermore, it observed the pathological changes of uterus, thymus, spleen and pituitary of mice. The results showed that behavioral indicators: Compared with the model group(MG), HPGC, MPGC, LPGC could increase the independent activities (P<0.01); HPGC, MPGC could increase the number of standing, the latent period of first entering the dark room, and reduce the electric number (P<0.01); LPGC could increase the number of standing (P<0.05); Viscera index: Compared with MG, HPGC, MPGC could increase the viscera index of uterus, thymus, spleen (P<0.01); LPGC could increase the viscera index of uterus(P<0.05); Serum index: Compared with MG, all groups could decrease the levels of LH in the serum(P<0.01); HPGC, MPGC could improve the levels of E2, T and decrease the levels of LH, FSH in the serum(P<0.01); LPGC could improve the levels of E2 and decrease the levels of FSH in the serum (P<0.05). Meanwhile, it had the trend to improve the levels of T in the serum. Pathological changes: Compared with MG, HPGC could significant improve the pathological changes of uterus, thymus, spleen and pituitary of mice; other groups also has a certain effect. The results indicated that PGC could improve the sex hormone disorder of MPS, and restore the function of uterus, thymus and spleen, with better therapeutic effect on MPS.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.020
       
  • Oridonin Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis through Blocking the
           Notch Signaling

    • Authors: Shixin Xia; Xiulan Zhang; Caihong Li; Honglian Guan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Shixin Xia, Xiulan Zhang, Caihong Li, Honglian Guan
      Background Oridonin is a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens with potent anticancer activity. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of oridonin to inhibit growth and metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Methods: The effect of oridonin on proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell migration and invasion assays in human breast cancer cells. The inhibitive effect of oridonin in vivo was determined by using xenografted nude mice. In addition, the expression of Notch receptors (Notch 1-4) was detected by western blot. Results: Oridonin inhibited human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, oridonin significantly induced human breast cancer cells apoptosis. Furthermore, the oridonin treatment not only inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, but more significantly, decreased the expression of Notch 1-4 protein. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the inhibitive effect of oridonin is likely to be driven by the inhibition of Notch signaling pathway and the resulting increased apoptosis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.037
       
  • Characteristics studies of molecular structures in drugs

    • Authors: Wei Gao; Yiqiao Wang; B. Basavanagoud; Muhammad Kamran Jamil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Wei Gao, Yiqiao Wang, B. Basavanagoud, Muhammad Kamran Jamil
      In theoretical medicine, topological indices are defined to test the medicine and pharmacy characteristics, such as melting point, boiling point, toxicity and other biological activities. As basic molecular structures, hexagonal jagged-rectangle and distance-regular structure are widely appeared in medicine, pharmacy and biology engineering. In this paper, we study the chemical properties of hexagonal jagged-rectangle from the mathematical point of view. Several vertex distance-based indices are determined. Furthermore, the Wiener related indices of distance-regular structure are also considered.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.027
       
  • Effects of fuzheng paidu tablet immunization on AIDS BALB/c mice

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Ting Wang; Xin Lou; Ming Bai; Peng Xi; Baosong Liu; Bingjie Chang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Ting Wang, Xin Lou, Ming Bai, Peng Xi, Baosong Liu, Bingjie Chang
      Aim To establish a Friend murine leukemia virus (FLV)-induced immunodeficient BALB/C mouse model and investigate the effects of Fuzheng Paidu tablets on the body weight, thymus, spleen, and CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes of FLV-infected mice. FLV was passaged twice in BALB/c mice. The infected mice were divided into six groups of ten mice based on their weights. The groups included the normal control group; virus control group; AZT group; high- (2.8 g/kg), medium- (1.4 g/kg), and low-dose (0.7 g/kg) Fuzheng Paidu tablet groups; and Fuzheng Paidu decoction (10 g/kg) group. The mice were administered Fuzheng Paidu tablets via gavage for 21 days. The body weight and changes in the thymus, spleen, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of each mouse were measured. Results The splenic weight of the virus control group is significantly higher than that of the normal control group, with significant splenomegaly. In addition, the splenic inhibition indices of the AZT group and the high- and medium-dose Fuzheng Paidu tablet groups were approximately 93.80%, 37.80%, and 28.07%, respectively. Furthermore, the high and medium dose Fuzheng Paidu tablets could increase the thymus weights of the infected mice. Conclusion Fuzheng Paidu tablets could inhibit splenomegaly, lower the splenic indices, and increase the thymic weights and thymic indices of FLV-induced immunodeficient mice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T04:15:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.038
       
  • Acitretin modulates HaCaT cells proliferation through STAT1- and
           STAT3-dependent signaling

    • Authors: Xuan Qin; Chunna Chen; Yuan Zhang; Li Zhang; Yijie Mei; Xinchun Long; Rui Tan; Ledong Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xuan Qin, Chunna Chen, Yuan Zhang, Li Zhang, Yijie Mei, Xinchun Long, Rui Tan, Ledong Sun
      Acitretin has been a valuable option for the treatment of psoriasis, however, the molecular events of acitretin leading to the normalization of keratinocytes differentiation on psoriasis patients have not been fully explored. To investigate whether there were certain relationship between keratinocytes proliferation and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in psoriasis, and how acitretin modulated the signaling pathways. HaCaT cells, an in vitro immortal human keratinocyte cell line, was chosen as a in vitro model of psoriasis.. The small interfering RNA targeting STAT1 (siRNA-STAT1) and STAT3 (siRNA-STAT3) were subsequently transfected into the HaCaT cells which were treated with or without acitretin. We found that HaCaT cells proliferation and the expression of STAT1 or STAT3 were inhibited by acitretin, siRNA-STAT1 and siRNA-STAT3. Our experimental data shows that acitretin might inhibit HaCaT cells proliferation in psoriasis by decreasing the expression of STAT- and STAT3-dependent mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T03:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.034
       
  • Effect of different component ratio of astragalus total saponins and
           verbena total glycosides on the cerebral infarction area and serum
           biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat
           model

    • Authors: Erping Xu; Shuo Tian; Mingsan Miao; Xiao Cheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Erping Xu, Shuo Tian, Mingsan Miao, Xiao Cheng
      Our purpose is to study the effect of different component ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS) and Verbena Total Glycosides (VTG) on the cerebral infarction area and the serum biochemical indicators in the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Compared with the model group, different component ratio of ATS and VTG could significantly improve the neurological deficit scores to the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model, and the group of 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 got the best results; it could reduce the mortality of rat model to a certain extent, and the group of 5:5 group got the best results; it can significantly reduce the cerebral infarction area, and the group of 7:3, 5:5, 4:6 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of TNF-α, and the group of 8:2, 6:4 got the best results; it could significantly reduce the content of NO, and the group of 7:3, 5:5 got the best results; it could significantly increase the content of SOD, and the group of 6:4, 5:5 got the best results. This indicates that different component ratio of ATS and VTG may protect the damage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model to a certain extent, which are compared using the comprehensive weight method and the ratio of 5:5 was proved to be the optimal active ratio.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T03:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.042
       
  • Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by
           Magnetic Nanoparticle Composite Scaffolds under a pulsed electromagnetic
           Field

    • Authors: Jianghong Huang; Daming Wang; Jielin Chen; Wei Liu; Li Duan; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jianyi Xiong; Daping Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jianghong Huang, Daming Wang, Jielin Chen, Wei Liu, Li Duan, Wei You, Weimin Zhu, Jianyi Xiong, Daping Wang
      This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetic nanoparticle composite scaffold under a pulsed electromagnetic field on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which was achieved by examining the biological behaviors of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on the surface of the scaffolds. This may provide some experimental evidence for the use of magnetic nanoparticles in medical application. The magnetic nanoparticle composite scaffolds were evaluated and characterized by the following indexes: the cell proliferation was detected by the CCK-8 method, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was examined by a detection kit, and the expression of type I collagen and osteocalcin gene were evaluated by RT-PCR. The CCK-8 test showed that there was no significant difference in Group A (BMSCs-seeded magnetic scaffolds under the electromagnetic field), B (BMSCs-seeded magnetic scaffolds) and C (BMSCs cultured alone) (P > 0.05). The value for the ALP activity in Group A was higher than the other two groups. In addition, the RT-PCR results showed that the expression of type I collagen gene in Group A was enhanced (P < 0.05), suggesting that the magnetic nanoparticles combined with the pulsed electromagnetic field had a positive effect on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. However, the expression of osteocalcin was not significantly different in three groups (P > 0.05). To conclude, magnetic nanoparticles may induce the osteogenic differentiation with the action of the pulsed electromagnetic field.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T03:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.026
       
  • Effect of Motherwort Total Alkaloids on the Prostate Hyperplasia Mice
           Model of Pathological Changes of Related Tissue Morphology Induced by the
           Fetal Urogenital Sinus Implants

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Shuo Tian; Ming Bai; Liling Xiang; Jianlian Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Shuo Tian, Ming Bai, Liling Xiang, Jianlian Gao
      Aim The research was to study the effect of Motherwort total alkaloids on the prostate hyperplasia mice model of pathological changes of related tissue morphology. Results Compared with the model group(MG), Motherwort total alkaloid high, medium dose group(HD, MD) could significantly reduced the pathological changes of the prostate (P<0.01); Finasteride(FG) and Motherwort total alkaloid low dose group(LD) could significantly reduce the pathological changes of the prostate (P<0.05); Longbishu capsules(LG), Finasteride, Motherwort total alkaloid medium dose group could significantly reduce the pathological changes of the kidney (P<0.01); Motherwort total alkaloid low dose group could significantly reduce the pathological changes of the kidney (P<0.05); Motherwort total alkaloids could improve the pathological changes of the thymus and spleen. Conclusion Motherwort total alkaloid can improve the pathological changes of prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T03:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.030
       
  • The comparative study of clinical efficacy and safety of baclofen vs
           tolperisone in spasticity caused by spinal cord injury

    • Authors: Dejun Luo; Guoyong Wu; Yong Ji; Zhaoyao Zhang; Fayou He; Xiaping Mou; Qingmao Zhu; Bo Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Dejun Luo, Guoyong Wu, Yong Ji, Zhaoyao Zhang, Fayou He, Xiaping Mou, Qingmao Zhu, Bo Yang
      In the present study we compared the clinical efficacy and safety of baclofen vs tolperisone in spasticity caused by spinal cord injury. A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the present study and were divided into two groups with 75 patients in each group, receiving baclofen or tolperisone, respectively. We used Modified Ashworth Scale, Medical research council scale, Barthel Index, and Coefficient of efficacy to measure clinical efficacy. After 6-week treatment, both groups demonstrated significant improvement in muscle tone, muscle strength and functional outcome (Group I, 1.55±0.053, 2.79±0.032, 59.31±1.32; Group II, 1.57±0.053, 3.04±0.032, 73±1.32 respectively). There was no significant difference regarding improvement in muscle tone and muscle strength between the two groups (Group I, 1.055±0.053 vs Group II, 1.57±0.053; Group I, 2.79±0.032 vs Group II, 3.04±0.032, p > 0.05). However, the improvement in functional outcomes was greater in group II as compared to that in group I (Group I, 59.31±1.32 vs Group II, 73±1.32, p < 0.05). In addition, overall efficacy coefficient was greater for group II as compared to group I (Group I, 3.6 vs Group II, 2.3, p < 0.05). Group I had more side effects compared to Group II. Compared to baclofen, tolperisone offers greater improvement in activities of daily living compared to baclofen.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T03:27:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.041
       
  • The cytoprotective effects of Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase on injured
           huvecs and its underlying mechanism

    • Authors: Xiulan Zhang; Shixin Xia; Qiqi Xu; Jiandong Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiulan Zhang, Shixin Xia, Qiqi Xu, Jiandong Huang
      Endothelium toxicity has been involved in early endothelial dysfunction to show the pathogenesis of multiple cardiovascular disease that shows atherosclerosis and its complications. Saturated free fatty acids are the main inducing factors of endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines. In humans, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a restriction step to saturation to unsaturated fatty acid desaturation, which plays a beneficial role protecting endothelial cells against lipotoxicity. Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) is a newly identified FAD which shares 55% identity at the amino acid level with SCD-1. Whether Δ-17 FAD has similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was used to induce lipotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to establish a model of oxidative injury. Then HUVECs were transfected with FAD lentivirus to introduce cytoprotective effects. The alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis, nitric oxide content, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content, SOD enzyme content, LDH content, GSH-PX level, vascular growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Studies showed that ox-LDL-induced excess HUVEC apoptosis can be abrogated by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. The nitric oxide content, GSH-PX content, and SOD enzyme content were increased and the activity of MDA was suppressed by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. In addition, upregulation of Δ-17 FAD significantly increased VEGF expression. In vitro tube formation assay showed thatΔ-17 FAD promoted angiogenesis to a significant degree. These results suggest that Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase may have beneficial action in the prevention of ox-LDL-induced cellular damage.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.028
       
  • The first multiplication atom-bond connectivity index of molecular
           structures in drugs

    • Authors: Wei Gao; Yiqiao Wang; Weifan Wang; Li Shi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Wei Gao, Yiqiao Wang, Weifan Wang, Li Shi
      In the field of medicine, there are a large number of new drugs synthesis every year. Before entering the clinical stage, it needs a lot of work on drug testing of the various properties. Due to the lack of a large number of laboratory technician, laboratory equipment and reagents, the drug testing of many biochemical properties are not completed. Theoretical medicine provides a theoretical way for medical researchers to obtain the pharmaceutical properties of compounds by calculation tricks. In this paper, the first multiplication atom-bond connectivity index of several common drugs structure are studied, and the accurate expressions are determined. These theoretical conclusions provide practical guiding significance for pharmaceutical engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.021
       
  • The effects of MiR-223 on the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer
           cells to erlotinib and its underlying mechanisms

    • Authors: Xiaoyuan Du; Zhijing Wang; Xia Liu; Xueying Liu; Yuanyuan Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiaoyuan Du, Zhijing Wang, Xia Liu, Xueying Liu, Yuanyuan Wang
      As one of the main causes of global cancer-related causes of death, lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has received more attention in the near future. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. Previous studies have shown that miR-223 is present in various types of cancers, including lung cancer, as tumor suppressor miRNAs. In this study, we investigated the biological behavior of miR-223 in NSCLC. Thus, we used orotectin-resistant PC-9 (PC-9 / ER) cells to overexpress miR-223. The results showed that miR-223 significantly increased PC-9 / ER sensitivity to erlotinib. In addition, we established a lung cancer model of nude mice by injecting PC-9 / ER or PC-9 / ER cells infected with miR223. The results showed that mice injected with miR-223-infected cells had significantly smaller tumor volumes. In addition, we performed reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting to identify miR-223 target molecules and potential mechanisms. The results show that miR-223 is a local regulator of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs) acquired resistance. More importantly, the IGF-1R overexpression of miR-223 in NSCLC was downregulated. The inhibition of IGF-1R by miR-223 was attenuated by exogenous IGF-1 expression. Thus, miR 223 regulates PC-9 / ER resistance to erlotinib by modulating the IGF-1R / Akt / S6 signaling pathway. MiR-223 overexpression reverses the resistance of NSCLC to the epidermis and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.031
       
  • Melatonin alleviates acute spinal cord injury in rats through promoting on
           progenitor cells proliferation

    • Authors: Deyong Yue; Yunda Jiang; Zhongying Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Deyong Yue, Yunda Jiang, Zhongying Yang
      The previous studies have shown that melatonin is beneficial for nervous system after spinal cord injury (SCI). After SCI, the endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of melatonin on eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation in SCI rat model. SCI rat model was established by dropping a 10 g rod from the height of 25 mm. Then, the rats were randomly divided into the control group, the melatonin treated group, and the G3335 treated group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB scale) was used to evaluate the recovery of locomotor function after SCI. Flow cytometery was used to evaluate eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation. The rats in the melatonin treated group demonstrated significantly faster locomotor function recovery and more eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation. However, these effects were abolished in the G3335 treated group. Melatonin can effectively promote locomotor function recovery via improving eNSPCs proliferation and differentiation after SCI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.025
       
  • Polysaccharide extracted from Chinese white wax scale ameliorates 2,
           4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in BALB/c
           Mice

    • Authors: Lin Lin; Yiwei Zhou; Huifang Li; Dejian Pang; Liyun Zhang; Xiao Lu; Zhengliang Chen; Xiaoshan Zhao; Daming Zuo; Ledong Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Lin Lin, Yiwei Zhou, Huifang Li, Dejian Pang, Liyun Zhang, Xiao Lu, Zhengliang Chen, Xiaoshan Zhao, Daming Zuo, Ledong Sun
      Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with high rates of morbidity and is associated with erythema, pruritus, scaling of affected areas of skin. It is extremely important to introduce a therapeutic agent which has significant anti-inflammatory effect with less side-effect for treatment of AD. This study evaluated the effect of a natural compound from herbal extracts, the crude polysaccharide extracted from the white wax scale (CWPS), on AD-like mice. Repeated applications of 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) were performed on ear and dorsal skin of BALB/c mice to induce AD-like symptoms and skin lesions. Oral administration of CWPS decreased serum IgE level and limited the infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils to the dermal tissues in the DNCB-induced AD mice. In addition, CWPS reduced Th1 and Th17 responses, leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro study also demonstrated that CWPS limited T cell activation and cytokines (i.e. IFN-γ and IL-17) production induced by DNCB. We conclude that CWPS attenuates DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesion through modulating T cell-elicited immune responses and CD4+ T cell polarization, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for AD.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.035
       
  • Sonographic diagnosis of umbilical arterial atresia and clinical
           significance

    • Authors: Jinhe Ren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jinhe Ren
      To evaluate the feasibility of antenatal sonographic diagnosis of umbilical arterial atresia and its clinical significance. Data of 5 cases with umbilical arterial atresia diagnosed in our hospital were studied retrospectively. The antenatal ultrasonogram of umbilical arterial atresia was obtain, and the pathological examination of umbilical cords and the prognosis of neonates were analyzed. Among 5 cases with umbilical arterial atresia in this group, 1 case with double umbilical arterial atresia was found with dead fetus in uterus, and the rest 4 cases with single umbilical arterial atresia were found with survival fetuses. In the latter 4 cases with live fetus, once umbilical arterial atresia was diagnosed, caesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy, and the 4 fetus were all healthy. The chromosome karyotypes and S/D value of umbilical arteries were showed normal in all 5 cases. Accurate antenatal diagnosis can be made according to the specific ultrasonogram of umbilical arterial atresia. Instant intervention should be performed upon observing umbilical arterial atresia with live fetus, so as to avoid dead fetus as much as possible.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.010
       
  • The influence of connective tissue growth factor on rabbit ligament injury
           repair

    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Junju Zheng; Jiayu Chen; Lipeng Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Wei Zhang, Junju Zheng, Jiayu Chen, Lipeng Huang
      Objectives The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is deemed to exhibit an impaired healing response and attempts at surgical repair have not been successful. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is reported to be associated with wound healing, probably through transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1). Methods A rabbit ACL injury model was used to study the effect of CTGF on ligament recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for detection of changes in RNA levels of TGF-β1, type 1 collagen (COL-I), type 2 collagen (COL-II), SRY-related high mobility group-box gene9 (Sox9), metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as well as matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP-13). And expression of related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results The current study showed that CTGF could promote the recovery of inured anterior cruciate ligament. It can up-regulate the mRNA and expression of TGF-β1, COL-I, COL-II, Sox9, as well as the tissue inhibitor of TIMP-1, and down-regulated the mRNA and expression of MMP-13, suggesting the curative effect of CTGF on injured rabbit ligament is through regulating these cellular factors. Conclusion This finding revealed the mechanism of CTFG’s healing role in injured tissues and provided new possibilities of treating injured tissues and wound healing by using CTFG.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.013
       
  • Study on apoptosis effect of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 induced by
           lycorine hydrochloride via death receptor pathway

    • Authors: Yubin Ji; Miao Yu; Zheng Qi; Di Cui; Guosong Xin; Bing Wang; Weiling Jia; Lin Chang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Yubin Ji, Miao Yu, Zheng Qi, Di Cui, Guosong Xin, Bing Wang, Weiling Jia, Lin Chang
      As research was conducted on the early apoptosis of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 caused by lycorine hydrochloride and the expression of the related apoptosis proteins. The early-period apoptosis rate of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 was tested with the AnnexinV/PI double staining and flow cytometry. The Western Blotting method was also used to detect the protein expression conditions of Fas, FasL, Caspase-8 and Bid. The results showed that the higher the dose, the higher the rate of apoptosis and that the rate of apoptosis was dependent on the dose; the relative protein activity of Fas, FasL, Caspase-8 and bid gradually rose with the increase of lycorine dosage and the activties revealed certain dose-independence. Results showed that lycorine hydrochloride could induce the apoptosis of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 through the death receptor pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.036
       
  • Dexmedetomidine attenuates neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury
           by suppressing NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS activation

    • Authors: Feng Liang; Miao Liu; Xin Fu; Xueying Zhou; Peng Chen; Fanglei Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Feng Liang, Miao Liu, Xin Fu, Xueying Zhou, Peng Chen, Fanglei Han
      The effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of DEX in neuropathic pain is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine-DEX an α2-adrenoceptor agonist could improve pain hypersensitivity and reduce inflammatory in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dex was intrathecally administrated 1-hour after operation. The paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) were measured on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after operation, respectively. On day 21, all the rats were decapitated to collect the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord to examine IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS mRNA levels using RT-PCR. The postoperative MWT and PWTL were significantly decreased in CCI, and DEX groups as compared to those before surgery and Sham group (P<0.05). And DEX reversed this trend (P<0.05). Interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6 mRNA expression significantly increased postsurgery in CCI group as compared to that of Sham group (P<0.05); DEX blocked increase IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 2B (NR2B), neuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels (P<0.05). DEX may alleviate neuropathic hypersensitivity and inflammation partially by inhibiting NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS expression in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain resulting from CCI of the sciatic nerve.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.039
       
  • Optimization extraction and bioactivities of polysaccharide from wild
           Russula Griseocarnosa

    • Authors: Ye Yuan; Yang Liu; Mengdi Liu; Qian Chen; Yuanyuan Jiao; Yan Liu; Zhaoli Meng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ye Yuan, Yang Liu, Mengdi Liu, Qian Chen, Yuanyuan Jiao, Yan Liu, Zhaoli Meng
      The extraction conditions and biological activities of polysaccharides from wild Russula griseocarnosa (PRG) were investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize extraction conditions. The optimal extraction parameters of PRG were as follows: extracting time 4 h, extraction temperature 77.3 °C and liquid-solid ratio 42.5 g/L. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that PRG exhibited antioxidant activities evidenced by reducing power to scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical. PRG showed the activity of anti-cervical carcinoma cells Hela and Siha. In conclusion this study offered an efficient extraction method of wild Russula griseocarnosa polysaccharide, and the results suggested PRG had good antioxidant and inhibitory activities against cervical carcinoma cells, and PRG could be developed as a novel natural functional food.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.018
       
  • Protective effect of chlorogenic acid on the focal cerebral ischemia
           reperfusion rat models

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Lihua Cao; Ruiqi Li; Xiaoyan Fang; Yanyan Miao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Lihua Cao, Ruiqi Li, Xiaoyan Fang, Yanyan Miao
      Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the protective characteristic of chlorogenic acid, a natural glucosyl xanthone found in Lonicera Japonica on the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was built by blocking the left middle cerebral artery in rats by using the suture-occluded. Method Before operation, the corresponding drugs were given for each group once a day for 7 days. After 1h of final administration, the model was built, after operation, reperfusion was conducted for 22h, Before the reperfusion 10min tail vein injection of large, medium and small dose of chlorogenic acid and then mortality was calculated, and Neurological deficit score (NDS) was conducted, and serum was collected to measure the NSE level; a 2 mm thick brain slice located at the intersection of optic nerves was collected for TTC staining, and the percentage of cerebral infarction area was calculated; brain homogenate was collected to measure the ICAM-1, VCAM-1, EPO and HIF-1α levels in brain tissue of cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat models; NGF was detected using immunohistochemical method; the morphological changes in brain tissue was observed with HE staining. Results All focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat models were duplicated successfully. Every chlorogenic acid group with different dosage can significantly reduce the mortality, NDS and cerebral infarction area of rats, and significantly increase the EPO, HIF-1α and NGF levels in brain tissue; significantly improve the pathological lesions of hippocampus and cortex in brain tissue. Conclusion The results showed that chlorogenic acid could protect the focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury rat models by adjusting the inflammatory factor, hypoxia factor and nerve growth factor.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.023
       
  • The Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Lung and Pulmonary Artery
           Injuries in Acute Pulmonary Embolism Rat Model via platelet-derived growth
           factor-β

    • Authors: Bing Zhou; Gaozhong Sun; Fuyang Mei; Heyun Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bing Zhou, Gaozhong Sun, Fuyang Mei, Heyun Xu
      Objective To evaluate the effects of anticoagulant agent (low-molecular-weight heparin, LMWH) on the pulmonary artery intima hyperplasia of rats with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) by assaying platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGF-β). Methods A total of 90 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the sham, APE, and LMWH groups with 30 rats in each group. The APE rat models were established by injecting autologous blood clots via external jugular veins. In each group, six mice were sacrificed at the 1st day (D1), 4th day (D4), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), and 28th (D28) subsequent to the induction of APE to collect the lungs. Right ventricle pressure (RVP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) were measured. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses were used to assess PDGF-β expression at various time points. In addition, changes in lung pathology were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and electron microscope. Results The overall success rate of establishing APE rat models was 85.7% (60/70). There was no difference in mPAP between the sham group and the APE group at the D1, D4, D7, and D14. However, at the D28, mPAP in the APE group was significantly higher than that in the sham group. There was no difference among the three groups regarding RVP. PDGF-β expression were decreased in the LMWH group at all time points compared with the sham and APE groups (P<0.01). Furthermore, pulmonary embolism, alveolar wall necrosis and hemorrhage, and inflammation were significantly attenuated in the LMWH group compared with the sham and APE groups subsequent to the induction of APE. Conclusion LMWH attenuates lung and pulmonary artery injuries and improves prognosis. Decreased PDGF-β in the lungs may be the important factor in the effects observed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.024
       
  • Imperatorin protects H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cells from
           hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury through activation of ERK signaling
           pathway

    • Authors: Bihong Liao; Ruimian Chen; Feng Lin; Aihuan Mai; Jie Chen; Huimin Li; Shaohong Dong; Zhenglei Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bihong Liao, Ruimian Chen, Feng Lin, Aihuan Mai, Jie Chen, Huimin Li, Shaohong Dong, Zhenglei Xu
      Backgound: Imperatorin is a compound found in plants and has been widely used in Chinese medicine for many years. It has many pharmacological effects, including the recently reported anti-apoptotic function, however, the mechanism largely remains unclear. This study is aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Imperatorin’s anti-apoptotic function. Methods: A model of hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) treated h9c2 cardiomyoblasts was successfully constructed. The cells were treated with H/R condition, and followed by adding Imperatorin alone, Imperatorin with ERK inhibitor and/or ERK inhibitor alone, to examine the cell viability by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, cell apoptosis rate by flow cytometry, and ERK expression by Western-blot under different conditions. Results: The results showed that imperatorin exerted protective effect on h9c2 cells from H/R injure. It was also found that it not only increased cell viability but also reduced the apoptotic rate for H/R treated h9c2 cells. The experiments also demonstrated that imperatorin could upregulate the expression levels of both ERK1 and ERK2, which is a key step in ERK signaling pathway activation. Conclutions: These findings provided evidence that imperatorin could increase the cell viability and lower apoptotic rate in H/R treated h9c2 cells, and could also enhance the expression of ERK1/ERK2, demonstrating imperatorin’s protective effect on H/R injured h9c2 cells through ERK signaling pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.033
       
  • Anti-tumor Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Sargassum Fusiforme

    • Authors: Miao Yu; Yubin Ji; Zheng Qi; Di Cui; Guosong Xin; Bing Wang; Yue Cao; Dandan Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Miao Yu, Yubin Ji, Zheng Qi, Di Cui, Guosong Xin, Bing Wang, Yue Cao, Dandan Wang
      In this study, our purpose is to discover the correlation between polysaccharides sulfated structure and anti-tumor activity. Sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme were synthesized with the chlorosulfonic acid pyridine method. The inhibitory effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides and the application of MTT assay before and after chemical modification on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells in vitro were studied. Sulfated polysaccharide from sargassum fusiforme DS is 0.803. The modified polysaccharide has certain inhibitory effect on HepG-2 cells, and its inhibition on the cells growth has improved compared with the original SFPs.The sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme has the ability to enhance anti-tumor activities.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.007
       
  • Effects of the rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral
           ischemia reperfusion model in rats

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Xiaoli Yan; lin Guo; Shuai Shao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Xiaoli Yan, lin Guo, Shuai Shao
      Observe the effect of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats. The model group, nimodipine group, cerebral collaterals group, large, medium and small doses group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids were administered with corresponding drugs but sham operation group, model group were administered the same volume of 0.5%CMC, 1 times a day, continuous administration of 7 d. After 1h at 7 d to medicine, left incision in the middle of the neck of rats after anesthesia, we can firstly expose and isolate the left common carotid artery (CCA),then expose external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA),.Ligate the common carotid artery and the external carotid artery .Then temporarily clip internal carotid artery with arterial clamp. Besides, cut the incision of 0.2 mm from 5 cm of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Insert a thread Line bolt with more than 18-20 mm from bifurcation of CCA into the internal carotid artery until there is resistance. Then blocke the entrance of the middle cerebral artery and ligate internal carotid artery (The blank group only exposed the left blood vessel without Plugging wire). Finally gently pulled out the plug line after 2h.Results:Compared with the model mice, Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids can significantly relieve the injury of brain in hippocampus and cortex nerve cells; experimental rat focal cerebral ischemia to improve again perfusion model of nerve function defect score mortality; significantly reduce brain homogenate NOS activity and no content, MDA, IL-1, TNF-a, ICAM-1 content; increase in brain homogenate SOD and ATPase activity (P<0.05, P<0.01); reduce the serum S-100β protein content. Each dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids has a better Improvement effect on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.032
       
  • The effect of different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin on DM
           model of mice

    • Authors: Mingsan Miao; Jing Liu; Tan Wang; Xue Liang; Ming Bai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mingsan Miao, Jing Liu, Tan Wang, Xue Liang, Ming Bai
      This paper aims to study the effects of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on STZ induced Diabetes Mellitus (DM) model of mice, and to select a better proportion of active components. Its ultimate purpose is to lay a basis for the follow-up research on astragaloside-curcumin capsule. Increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method and comprehensive performance evaluation utlised to study the effect of different proportion of astragaloside and curcumin on DM mice models, which have an intravenous tail injection of STZ. The proportions of the two components are 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, 0:10 respectively. And we will screen out the optimal composition. Blood glycated serum protein (GSP), hepatic glycogen and insulin tested to observe pathological changes in the pancreas. The mice DM model was copied successfully. Compared with the model group, groups treated with the metformin and with different proportions of astragaloside and curcumin help lower the blood glucose levels and GSP levels, increase glycogen stores of model mice by different degrees, and avoid pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice. The ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal one, based on the comprehensive performance evaluation method, followed by the ratio of 4:6. The optimal proportion of DM models is 3:7, followed by 4:6. The ratio of total astragaloside and curcumin can lower blood glucose levels, GSP levels, promote the formation of glycogen, and improve the pathological changes of pancreas in the model mice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.009
       
  • Effect of Gu Tong Xian capsule on expression level of type I, II collagen
           and BMP-2 mRNA in rabbits with fracture during long-distance running

    • Authors: Liang Li; Yueting Qiu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Liang Li, Yueting Qiu
      The study aims to analyze and investigate the effects of Gu Tong Xian Capsule on the expression level of type I, II collagen and BMP-2 mRNA in rabbits with fracture during long-distance running. 60 adult healthy rabbits were selected as research objects, and then randomly divided into three groups including model group, positive control group and treatment group, each containing 20 rabbits. The three groups were treated with saline gastric lavage, powder for fracture and trauma, and Gu Tong Xian capsule, respectively. The rabbits of the three groups were respectively sacrificed at 1st week, 2nd weeks and 4th week after operation for sample collection. After that, the expression levels of bone collagen type I, II and BMP-2 of three groups were measured and compared with each other. At all stages, the transcriptional level of type Ⅰ collagen mRNA in the treatment group were significantly higher than that in the positive control group and model group (p<0.05); Transcriptional level of type II collagen mRNA in the treatment group increased significantly in the first week, then gradually declined in the 2nd and 4th week, with significantly difference to the model group and the positive control group (p<0.05). In addition, the transcriptional level of bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2 mRNA at fracture site of the treatment group was higher than that of model group and positive control group (p <0.05). Gu Tong Xian Capsule can significantly promote fracture healing of experiment rabbits and reduce fracture healing time. Moreover, it can well regulate the expression levels of type I, II collagen and transcriptional level ofBMP-2 mRNA in experiment rabbits with fracture.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T16:05:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.016
       
  • New chroman-4-one/thiochroman-4-one derivatives as potential anticancer
           agents

    • Authors: Seref Demirayak; Leyla Yurttas; Nalan Gundogdu-Karaburun; Ahmet Cagri Karaburun; Ismail Kayagil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Seref Demirayak, Leyla Yurttas, Nalan Gundogdu-Karaburun, Ahmet Cagri Karaburun, Ismail Kayagil
      The synthesis of 3-[3/4-(2-aryl-2-oxoethoxy)arylidene]chroman/thiochroman-4-one derivatives (1-34) and evaluation of their anticancer activities were aimed in this work. Final compounds were obtained in multistep synthesis reactions using phenol/thiophenol derivatives as starting materials. For anticancer activity evaluation, all compounds were offered to National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA and selected ones were tested against sixty human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic diseases. The activity results were evaluated according to the drug screening protocol of the institute. Compounds containing thiochromanone skeleton exhibited higher anticancer activity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.040
       
  • Synthesis and anticancer activity of new quinazoline derivatives

    • Authors: Hatem A. Abuelizz; Mohamed Marzouk; Hazem Ghabbour; Rashad Al-Salahi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hatem A. Abuelizz, Mohamed Marzouk, Hazem Ghabbour, Rashad Al-Salahi
      In this study, a new series of quinazoline derivatives (3-26) was synthesized and characterized via physicochemical and spectral means.Treatment of 2-amino-5-methylbenzoic acid with butyl isothiocyanate resulted in the new 2-thioxoquinazolin-4-one (3). Alkylation and hydrazinolysis of the inherent thioxo group in (1-3) afforded the corresponding thioethers (4-23) and hydrazine derivatives (24 & 25), then 24 was further transformed into tricyclic derivative 26 via cyclocondesation reaction. Compounds 1 and 2, which were previously synthesized, were found to exhibit anticancer activity. The cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro against the HeLa and MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines, including 1 and 2 for comparison, using MTT assay. The treatment of the cells was performed with the synthesized compounds and gefitinib at 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 μM and incubated for 24 h in 50% DMSO. The IC50 values of the target compounds were reported in μM, using gefitinib as a standard. Our results indicated that all compounds exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxicity against both cell lines. While compounds 1-3 showed good activity, compounds 21-23 were found to be more potent than gefitinib. Thus, compounds 21-23 may be potential anticancer agents, with IC50 values ranging from 1.85 to 2.81 μM in relation to gefitinib (IC50 = 4.3 and 28.3 μM against HeLa and MDA-MB231 cells, respectively).

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.022
       
  • Investigation on the immunomodulatory activities of sarcodon imbricatus
           extracts in a cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressanted mouse
           model

    • Authors: Fanxin Meng; Panju Xu; Xue Wang; Yu Huang; Liyan Wu; Yiling Chen; Lirong Teng; Di Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fanxin Meng, Panju Xu, Xue Wang, Yu Huang, Liyan Wu, Yiling Chen, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
      Aims: Sarcodon imbricatus, an edible fungus, is widely used in Asian medicine because of its significant pharmacological activities. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharide-enriched S. imbricatus extracts (SP) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Results: Astragalus polysaccharide (AP) was used as a positive control. Compared with CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice, thirty-day SP treatment strongly enhanced the organ indexes of spleen and thymus and suppressed hind paw swelling. Both AP and SP increased the serum levels of immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, and IgM), and suppressed the overproduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Moreover, SP reduced methane dicarboxylic aldehyde levels, and increased the total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in both serum and liver tissues of CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. Conclusion: S. imbricatus extracts significantly improved immune function in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice via modulation of oxidative systems.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.006
       
  • Expression of CD44 standard form and variant isoforms in human bone marrow
           stromal cells

    • Authors: Xiaofeng Wang; Zhenwu Du; Xiaojun Liu; Yang Song; Guizhen Zhang; Zhitao Wang; Qingyu Wang; Zhongli Gao; Yajun Wang; Wei Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiaofeng Wang, Zhenwu Du, Xiaojun Liu, Yang Song, Guizhen Zhang, Zhitao Wang, Qingyu Wang, Zhongli Gao, Yajun Wang, Wei Wang
      Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSCs) can migrate from bone marrow to injured tissues, where they may differentiate into different types of new cells for replacement of dysfunctional cells. CD44 plays an important role in stem cell movement. The expression distribution of CD44 standard form (CD44S) and CD44 variants (CD44V) is closely related to cell movement and tissue migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of CD44S and CD44V in hBMSCs. The hBMSCs from four human subjects were cultured in vitro. Phenotypic properties were analyzed by flow cytometry, and adipocyte and osteoblast differentiations were evaluated at passage 4. The expressions of CD44S and CD44V were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Results showed that hBMSCs were successfully cultured, with positive expressions of markers of mesenchymal cells (CD90, CD73, CD105), and negative expressions of markers of hematopoietic cells (CD34, CD45). The cultured hBMSCs can be induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Q-PCR results showed that the expression of CD44S was significantly higher than the expressions of different CD44V isoforms in different samples. These results revealed significant differences in the distributions of CD44S and CD44V gene expressions, demonstrating a dominant CD44S expression in hBMCSs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.011
       
  • Effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix extract on mRNA expression of
           TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen of HSC-T6 cell

    • Authors: Bo Shi; Jingjing Shi; Huazhen Qin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bo Shi, Jingjing Shi, Huazhen Qin
      To study the effect of medicated serum of Curcumae Radix (Yujin) on the mRNA expression of Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1(TIMP-1), Matrix metalloproteinases-13 (MMPs-13) and aI-collagen of Hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) cell. Twenty SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Yujin group (16.2 g Kg-1), medium dose of Yujin group (8.1 g Kg-1), low dose of Yujin group (4.05 g Kg-1) and blank control group (with the same volume of 0.9% saline). Yujin extract or 0.9% saline were administered daily by gavage to rats for 4d, after once administration of full-day dose for 1h on the fourth day, ether anaesthesia was given, and blood was taken from abdominal aortic in asepsis condition for preparation of medicated serum. HSC-T6 cells were divided into 5 groups: high dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medium dose medicated serum of Yujin group, low dose medicated serum of Yujin group, medicated serum of blank control group and negative control group(added with the same volume of PBS instead of rat serum), after 48h of simultaneous acting on HSC-T6 cells in all groups by the medicated serum with a concentration of 10%, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen was analyzed with RT-PCR. Compared with the negative control group, the mRNA expression level of TIMP-1, MMPs-13 and aI-collagen in all experimental groups increased significantly. Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of aI-collagen and TIMP-1 was obviously inhibited in all medicated serum of Yujin groups (P<0.01),meanwhile, the mRNA expression level of MMPs-13 was effectively improved(P<0.05). The medicated serum of Yujin had an effect on the production and degradation of Extracellular matrix (ECM) of HSC-T6 cell.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.015
       
  • Effect of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes
           in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats

    • Authors: Maliha Sarfraz; Tanweer Khaliq; Junaid Ali Khan; Bilal Aslam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Maliha Sarfraz, Tanweer Khaliq, Junaid Ali Khan, Bilal Aslam
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats to show the preventive and ameliorating effects in hyperglycemic rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control rats, diabetic control rats, glibenclamide treated rats, black pepper treated rats, ajwa seed treated rats and black pepper plus ajwa seed treated rats. Hyperglycemia was induced in the treatments groups by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at 150mg/kg body weight. The extracts were administered via oral incubation, doses were glibenclamide 10mg/kg, black pepper 50 mg/kg, ajwa seed 500 mg/kg and their mixture 500mg/kg body weight for a period of 8 weeks. Serum glucose, AST, ALT and ALP were assayed using spectrophotometric method. Results showed that ajwa seed and mixture significantly reduced glucose level. AST level was significantly reduced by mixture treated group. No significant difference was observed between different aqueous extract treated group in ALT and ALP level. The study indicates that black pepper and ajwa seed extract to some extend normalized the glucose and liver enzyme activities in alloxanized diabetic rats.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.004
       
  • The intervention effect of different distribution ratio of astragalus
           total saponins and curcumin on the DM rats model

    • Authors: Xiaoli Yan; Xiao Li; Miaosan Miao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xiaoli Yan, Xiao Li, Miaosan Miao
      Through the study of the effect of different ratio of Astragalus Total Saponins (ATS) and curcumin on Diabetes Mellitu (DM) model rats, we want to improve the screening model of the distribution ratio in Chinese Medicine, screening out the optimal proportion of the prevention and control of DM. By injecting streptozotocin (STZ) in the tail vein of rats to induct the DM rats model, we measured the dynamic change, insulin and insulin antibody(IAA) levels, glycosylated serum protein (GSP) content, lipid metabolism and the changes of renal pathology in DM model rats. The different distribution ratio of ATS and Curcumin can significantly reduce GSP, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL); significantly increased serum insulin levels and high density lipoprotein (HDL) content, significantly decreased IAA level on the DM rats model induced by STZ. Different proportions of ATS and Curcumin have a good therapeutic effect on DM model rats, and 6:4 is the optimal proportion for the prevention and treatment of DM.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.014
       
  • History of Gumboro (Infectious Bursal Disease) in Pakistan

    • Authors: Rai Shafqat Ali Khan; Sanaullah Sajid; Mudasser Habib; Waqas Ali; M. Salah-ud-Din Shah; Maliha Sarfraz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rai Shafqat Ali Khan, Sanaullah Sajid, Mudasser Habib, Waqas Ali, M. Salah-ud-Din Shah, Maliha Sarfraz
      Infectious Bursal Disease is the second important viral disease of poultry which affects the young growing pullets. The end fate appears in huge economic losses to poultry industry. Throughout the world, cheapest source of animal protein is chicken meat. It was initially reported in Europe; soon it spreads worldwide and causes drastic losses. In Pakistan, first of all this disease was reported in 1971. It is the first review to track the IBDV history in Pakistan. It provides comprehensive details of forty six years researchers work in controlling this important disease. Different scientists worked to fill the gap areas to achieve the goal. Present review covers all the research aspects being explored in Pakistan since first report.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.005
       
  • Impacts of triamcinolone acetonide on femoral head chondrocytic structures
           in lumbosacral plexus block

    • Authors: Dashou Wang; Qian Chen; Fengjun Cai; Qi Pan; Xuesong Li; Qianming Wu; Yong Gan; Fei Meng; Ping Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Dashou Wang, Qian Chen, Fengjun Cai, Qi Pan, Xuesong Li, Qianming Wu, Yong Gan, Fei Meng, Ping Luo
      Objective To investigate impacts of triamcinolone acetonide (TRI) on femoral head chondrocytic (FHC) structures when used for lumbosacral plexus block (LPB). Methods: A total of 32 6-month-old New Zealand white rabbits were selected (averagely weighing 2.75-3.25 kg) and added TRI into nerve block solution for LPB. The rabbit were randomly divided into four groups: group A1: 2.5 ml × 2 times, group A2 2.5 ml × 4 times, group B1 5 ml × 2 times, and group B2 5 ml × 4 times; the time interval among the injection was 5 days, and the structural changes of FHC were the observed using 50/100/200 light microscope; the modified Mankin pathological scoring was also performed for the evaluation. Results: There exhibited significant microscopic changes of FHC structures between the rabbits performed LPB and the normal rabbits, among which group B2 exhibited the most serious FHC damages, and the Mankin pathological score in group B2 was much higher than those in the other three groups, and the scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group. Conclusions: The addition of TRI in LPB can damage the FHC structures, and large-dose (5 ml/once) and long-course (four times) will result in more serious injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.012
       
  • The application of graphene oxidized combining with decellularized
           scaffold to repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats

    • Authors: Qiaoling Wang; Jinlong Chen; Qingfei Niu; Xiumei Fu; Xiaohong Sun; Xiaojie Tong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Qiaoling Wang, Jinlong Chen, Qingfei Niu, Xiumei Fu, Xiaohong Sun, Xiaojie Tong
      This paper combined the decellularized scaffold of sciatic nerve of rats with graphene oxidized (GO), studied and facilitated the regeneration of sciatic nerve of rats, and provided the basis for the clinical application of nanomaterials. GO was prepared through improving Hammer’s Method. Fourier Infrared Spectrum was used to scan and detect the functional groups in GO of sample by using the pellet method, the microcosmic morphological appearance of GO was observed by using the scanning electron microscope. The GO/decellularized scaffold were prepared and operation bridging of injured sciatic nerve was conducted by using the oscillation mixing method. BL-420F Biofunctional Experiment System was used to detect nerve action potential and the maximum tension value of muscles, and the fiber structure of nerve was observed under H-7650 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Scanning electron microscope observed that GO presented a folded and curly single-layer sheet structure. It was soluble in water through ultrasound, brownish, the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer detected the absorption peaks of carbonyl, hydroxy and carboxy, proving that the surface of GO material had many functional groups containing oxygen. Decellularized scaffold combining with GO was applied to repair injury of sciatic nerve, the nerve action potential, maximum tension value of muscle, wet weight value of gastrocnemius, thickness of gastrocnemius, thickness of myelin sheath and diameter of axon of the decellularized scaffold combining with GO group were obviously higher than the decellularized scaffold group and the self-rotating group, approaching to the normal value. All the data were represented by means ± standard deviation ( x ¯ ± s) and processed by adopting SPSS 11.0 software. Comparisons among groups were analyzed by variance, and the comparison of two means was detected by student t. The detection level adoptsed α = 0.05, when P < 0.05, it could be considered that there were significant differences. GO could combine with the biomaterial-decellularized scaffold to repair the injury of sciatic nerve and facilitate the regeneration of injured nerve. This provided new thoughts and theoretical & experimental bases for nanomaterials to be applied to clinic treatment of repair of nerve injury.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T14:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.008
       
  • Optimized Furosemide Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    • Authors: Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim; Amal El Sayeh F. Abou El Ela
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim, Amal El Sayeh F. Abou El Ela
      Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing furosemide (FUR) were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32) full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1) and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2) on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1) was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1) and CCS (X2) on ODTs disintegration time (Y1) were insignificant (p>0.05). Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively), but only its effect on D30 is significant (p =0.0004). Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.002
       
  • Relationship between health literacy and body mass index among Arab women
           with polycystic ovary syndrome

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Bander Balkhi; Sultan AlGhadeer; Wael Mansy; Hisham AlSanawi; Reem AlGasem; Lama AlMutairi; Ibrahim Sales
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Bander Balkhi, Sultan AlGhadeer, Wael Mansy, Hisham AlSanawi, Reem AlGasem, Lama AlMutairi, Ibrahim Sales
      Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) puts patients at higher risk for obesity and diabetes. Poor health literacy is also associated with these conditions. Notably, weight loss is associated with improved ovulation and pregnancy rates for women with PCOS. In this study the association between health literacy and body mass index (BMI) among women with PCOS was examined. Methods The health literacy of women with PCOS was measured using the Arabic version of the single item literacy screener (SILS) at a university medical center. Sociodemographic and medical information was collected by interviewing the participants and reviewing their medical records, respectively. The relationship between health literacy and BMI was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Health literacy was assessed in 127 women with PCOS from September 2015 to February 2016. Only 16.54% of participants had limited health literacy. The mean BMI for all participants was 30.57 (kg/m2), and the mean age was 27.40years. Further, most of the participants (74%) had a high school diploma or a higher degree. Almost 56% of the participants were taking metformin, and 11.81% had hypothyroidism. After controlling for age, education, hypothyroidism diagnosis, and the use of metformin, participants with high BMI were 10% less likely to have a good health literacy level (OR=0.904; 95% CI=0.829–0.987; P =0.0238). Conclusion Improving the health literacy of patients with PCOS may have a positive impact on their BMI and eventually lead to favorable health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.003
       
  • Toxicity evaluation of methoxy poly(ethylene
           oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) polymeric micelles following multiple
           oral and intraperitoneal administration to rats

    • Authors: Ziyad Binkhathlan; Wajhul Qamar; Raisuddin Ali; Hala Kfoury; Mohammed Alghonaim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ziyad Binkhathlan, Wajhul Qamar, Raisuddin Ali, Hala Kfoury, Mohammed Alghonaim
      Methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) copolymers are amphiphilic and biodegradable copolymers designed to deliver a variety of drugs and diagnostic agents. The aim of this study was to synthesize PEO-b-PCL block copolymers and assess the toxic effects of drug-free PEO-b-PCL micelles after multiple-dose administrations via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration in rats. Assembly of block copolymers was achieved by co-solvent evaporation method. To investigate the toxicity profile of PEO-b-PCL micelles, sixty animals were divided into two major groups: The first group received PEO-b-PCL micelles (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for seven days, while the other group received the same dose of micelles by ip injections daily for seven days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, half of the animals from each group were sacrificed and blood and organs (lung, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen) were collected. Remaining animals were observed for further 14 days and was sacrificed at the end of the third week, and blood and organs were collected. None of the polymeric micelles administered caused any significant effects on relative organ weight, animal body weight, leucocytes count,% lymphocytes, liver and kidney toxicity markers and organs histology. Although the dose of copolymers used in this study is much higher than those used for drug delivery, it did not cause any significant toxic effects in rats.Histological examination of all the organs confirmed the nontoxic nature of the micelles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T12:10:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.001
       
  • Medication Safety Officer Preparatory Course: Outcomes and Experiences

    • Authors: Hisham Aljadhey; Salma Alkhani; Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey, Salma Alkhani, Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Purpose Few hospitals employ a medication safety officer. A medication safety officer preparatory course was planned using a structured curriculum to prepare pharmacists with the knowledge and skills to start medication safety officer activities. The current study aims to assess the outcome, as change in knowledge, of a hospital medication safety officer preparatory course. Methods We conducted a three-day course in February 2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to provide attendees with the essential knowledge and skills to become a medication safety officer. Teaching methodologies included didactic teaching, group discussions, case presentations, and an independent study of medication safety materials. The content of the course focused on the various roles of a medication safety officer, the importance of medication safety in a health care setting, the incidence of adverse drug events in a hospital setting, strategies to identify and prevent adverse events, the use of root cause analysis and failure mode and effect analysis, the role of an officer in hospital accreditation, and ways for promoting safety culture. Assessment of the course outcome was accomplished by comparing scores of knowledge level before and after the course. The knowledge level was assessed by a 20-item exam which was developed and validated by course instructors. Results Twenty-one participants attended the course and completed both the baseline and after-course assessment questionnaires. The majority was male (N=14,%=66.7) with a job experience of 1 to 5 five years (N=10,%=47.6). The knowledge score increased from 14.3 ±1.90 (mean ± standard deviation) at baseline to 18.5 ±1.43 after successfully completing the course (P<0.001). Conclusion A three-day medication safety officer preparatory course has been shown to significantly improve attendee knowledge about medication safety. Educating health care professionals is an important tool to help ensure the safety of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.002
       
  • A novel monocyclic triterpenoid and a norsesquaterpenol from the aerial
           parts of Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J. F. Gmel with cell proliferative
           potential

    • Authors: Mansour S. Al Said; Nasir A. Siddiqui; Mohamed Ahmed Mukhair; Mohd.K. Parvez; Perwez Alam; Mohd. Ali; Anzarul Haque
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansour S. Al Said, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Mohamed Ahmed Mukhair, Mohd.K. Parvez, Perwez Alam, Mohd. Ali, Anzarul Haque


      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.008
       
  • Chemometric evaluation of the efficacy of locally administered
           chlorhexidine in patients with periodontal disease

    • Authors: Liljana Bogdanovska; Ana Poceva Panovska; Mirjana Popovska; Aneta Dimitrovska; Rumenka Petkovska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Liljana Bogdanovska, Ana Poceva Panovska, Mirjana Popovska, Aneta Dimitrovska, Rumenka Petkovska
      The process of assessment of drug efficacy produces multivariate data which are difficult to interpret. The interpretation and extraction of relevant data requires application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis. The aim of our study was evaluation of the efficacy of local treatment with chlorhexidine (CHX) in patients suffering from periodontal disease by chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis. Several algorithms were used: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The PCA models identified the examined variables as suitable for monitoring the periodontal disease progression at the same time revealing mutual relationship among them. The developed PLS-DA model successfully distinguished patients treated with CHX from non-treated patients. The OPLS-DA model revealed differences in the mechanism of action of the two widely applied treatments in periodontal disease, local administration of CHX and local administration of doxycycline (DOX). The approach presented in this study opens the possibility of application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis for assessment of treatment efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T09:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.006
       
  • Melatonin attenuates thiocyanate-induced vasoconstriction in aortic rings

    • Authors: Alexander M. Prusa; Christian A. Plass
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Alexander M. Prusa, Christian A. Plass
      Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN-) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN- levels are increased. Melatonin, a non-toxic indolamine with various physiologic functions, is believed to protect against inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that melatonin serves as free radical scavenger and represents a potent antioxidant. Therefore, it is believed that melatonin with its atheroprotective effects may be useful either as a sole therapy or in conjunction with others. The aim of this study was to quantify the thiocyanate-induced vasomotor response in aortic tissue and further to examine the potential of melatonin in affecting the generated vasoreactivity. Aortic rings of adult male normotensive Wistar rats were cut into 4-mm rings. Following the administration of thiocyanate in various concentrations, vasomotor response of aortic vessel segments was measured. To assess the effect of melatonin on vasomotor activity, organ bath concentrations were modulated from 60 to 360 pM, which corresponds to physiologic plasma up to the levels of patients with regular oral intake of 3 mg of melatonin as a supplement. Thirty-six rat aortic rings were studied. When exposed to thiocyanate, vessel segments revealed vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner. In rings which were preincubated with melatonin at a concentration of 360 pM, a 56.5% reduction of effect size could be achieved (4.09±1.22 mN versus 9.41±1.74 mN, P<0.0001). Additionally, administration of 360 pM melatonin at a norepinephrine concentration of 80 mM resulted in a relaxation of 10.9±2.2%. The vasodilatatory effect of melatonin was significantly reduced to 1.3±0.5% when concentration of norepinephrine was doubled (P<0.002). This study indicates that vessel segments that were exposed to thiocyanate responded with a dose-dependent vasoconstriction. The effect could be markedly attenuated in segments preincubated in melatonin.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T09:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.007
       
 
 
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