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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 526 journals)
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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2575 journals]   [SJR: 0.252]   [H-I: 12]
  • Formulation and Characterization of 5-Fluorouracil enteric coated
           nanoparticles for sustained and localized release in treating Colorectal
           cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Shashank Tummala , M.N. Satish Kumar , Ashwati Prakash



      PubDate: 2014-12-15T00:24:03Z
       
  • Adiponectin Serum Levels Correlate with Insulin Resistance in Type 2
           Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Shereen Aleidi , Ala Issa , Haidar Bustanji , Mohammad Khalil , Yasser Bustanji
      The adipose tissue is not only an inert storage depot for lipids, but also it secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, known as adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Adiponectin is the most abundant of these adipocytokines and is known to have a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and to establish a correlation between adiponectin serum levels and the degree of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty participants were enrolled in this study; 61 type 2 diabetic patients and 19 apparently healthy subjects. Serum level of adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each participant. Data collection sheet was filled with all required information for each participant. Adiponectin level in the diabetic patients (5.05 ± 2.61 μg/ml) was lower than in non-diabetic healthy controls (5.71 ± 2.35μg/ml). When the results were compared according to gender, diabetic females showed significantly higher adiponectin levels (5.76 ± 2.64 μg/ml) than diabetic males (4.366 ± 2.43 μg/ml, p = 0.035). In addition, female diabetic patients with abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) ⩾88 cm) had lower adiponectin levels (5.58 ± 2.58μg/ml) than diabetic females without abdominal obesity (6.96±3.12μg/ml). The correlation analysis indicated that adiponectin had a significant positive correlation with age (r = -0.450, P < 0.001). In conclusion, female diabetic patients had a statistically significant higher adiponectin level than male diabetic patients which could indicate a gender effect. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to insulin resistance; as patients with abdominal obesity had lower serum levels of adiponectin.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Perception of Community Pharmacists towards Their Current Professional
           Role in the Healthcare System of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ibrahim Khalid Rayes , Mohamed Azmi Hassali , Abduelmula R Abduelkarem
      The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study is to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed towards business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Does self-reflection and peer-assessment improve Saudi pharmacy
           students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kazeem B. Yusuff
      Background The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. Objectives To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Method An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience Result Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P < 0.001). The majority of the students in the study group opined that the exposure to active pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. Conclusion The use of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer-assessment appeared to significantly improve examination performance, facilitate deep and constructive engagement with learning and fostered students’ confidence in the use of critical thinking and clinical decision-making.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Clinical Relevancy and Risks of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in
           Intensive Therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Aline Teotonio Rodrigues , Rebeca Stahlschmidt , Silvia Granja , Antonio Luis Eiras Falcão , Patricia Moriel , Priscila Gava Mazzola
      Purpose Evaluate the potential Drug-Drug Interactions (pDDI) found in prescription orders of adult intensive care unit (ICU) of a Brazilian public health system hospital; quantify and qualify the pDDI regarding their severity and risks to the critical patient, using the database from Micromedex®. Methods Prospective study (January to December of 2011) collecting and evaluating 369 prescription orders (convenient sampling), one per patient. Results During the study 1844 pDDIs were identified and distributed in 405 pairs (medication A x medication B combination). There was an average of 5.00 ± 5.06 pDDIs per prescription order, the most prevalent being moderate and important interactions, present in 74% and 67% of prescription orders, respectively. In total, there were 9 contraindicated, 129 important and 204 moderate pDDIs. Among them 52 had as management recommendation to “avoid concomitant use” or “suspension of medication”, while 306 had as recommendation “continuous and adequate monitoring “. Conclusion The high number of pDDIs found in the study combined with the evaluation of the clinical relevancy of the most frequent pDDIs in the ICU shows that moderate and important interactions are highly incident. As the majority of them demand monitoring and adequate management, being aware of these interactions is major information for the safe and individualized risk management.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Effect of HPMC and Mannitol on Drug Release and Bioadhesion Behavior on
           Buccal Discs of Buspirone Hydrochloride: In-vitro and In-vivo
           Pharmacokinetic Studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): A. Jaipal , M.M. Pandey , S.Y. Charde , P.P. Raut , K.V. Prasanth , R.G. Prasad
      Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in-vitro uptake of water due to formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10 fold increase in bioavailability in comparison to oral bioavailability of buspirone reported.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Microbiological quality of non-sterile pharmaceutical products

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): M. Ratajczak , M.M. Kubicka , D. Kamińska , P. Sawicka , J. Długaszewska
      In microbiological terms, pharmaceutical products can be divided into two groups: sterile and non-sterile. Non-sterile drugs must satisfy the appropriate microbiological purity criteria which are included in pharmacopoeial monographs. Pharmacopoeial studies are prepared specifically with a view to ensuring that the medicinal product is therapeutically effective and safe for the patient. The analysis comprised the results of microbiological purity tests performed before the products are marketed. Total of 1285 samples of non-sterile drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical plants in Polish were taken into study. The microbiological quality of drugs was assessed in accordance with the criteria included in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). An analysis of test results demonstrated that the percentage of non-compliant samples was 1,87%. The groups of drugs, which the most often did not satisfy EPs’ requirements, were drugs containing raw materials of natural origin (5,7%). The samples of studied drugs that did not meet the criteria contained in EP, exceed the maximum allowable microbiological count limits and contained microbes whose presence is prohibited. The most common non-compliance were: the excessive levels of the maximum acceptable fungal count (n=12) and the excessive the maximum acceptable aerobic microbial count (n=10).


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Characterization of New Eye Drops with Choline Salicylate and Assessment
           of Their Irritancy by In Vitro Short Time Exposure Tests

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Katarzyna Wróblewska , Małgorzata Kucińska , Marek Murias , Janina Lulek
      The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommends, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 minutes exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the Short Time Exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70).


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Synthesis and Oral Hypoglycemic Effect of Novel Thiazine Containing
           Trisubstituted Benzenesulfonylurea Derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Alok Singh Thakur , Ravitas Deshmukh , Arvind Kumar Jha , P. Sudhir Kumar
      A new series of 3-(4-substitutedphenyl)-1-(4-(4,6-dimethyl-6H-1,3-thiazin-2-yl)phenylsul-fonyl)-1-substitutedlurea (5a-o) was synthesized by an effectual route via sulfonylcarbamates and explore the novel site for substitution in sulfonylurea as well as the way of thiazine can be prepared. The molecules were established by elemental analysis and spectroscopic viz. IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS techniques. All the fifteen derivatives were shown very prominent oral hypoglycemic effect at the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) in respect of standard drug glibenclamide and control. The hypoglycemic effect was studied using oral glucose tolerance test in normal and NIDDM in STZ-rat model. The compounds 5a, 5d, 5f, 5i, 5k and 5n were dominant out of fifteen derivatives for blood glucose lowering activity (more than 80%) when comparing with NIDDM control. These derivatives were either containing simply phenyl ring (5a, 5f and 5k) on to the second amine of sulfonylurea (R’= H) or nitro group at the para position in compound 5d, 5i and 5n (R’= NO2 ) to produce significant oral hypoglycemic effect. Other structural activity relationship are also observed regarding the heteroaromatic and substituted aromatic group at R and R’ position respectively.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their
           new avenues in pharmacological applications - An updated report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Palaniselvam Kuppusamy , Mashitah M. Yusoff , Natanamurugaraj Govindan
      The field of nanotechnology mainly encompasses with biology, physics, chemistry and material sciences and it develops novel therapeutic nanosized materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The biological syntheses of nanoparticles are being carried out by different macro-microscopic organisms such as plant, bacteria, fungi, seaweeds and microalgae. The biosynthesized nanomaterials have been effectively controlling the various endemic diseases with less adverse effect. Plant contains abundant natural compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and other nutritional compounds. These natural products are derived from various parts of plant such as leaves, stems, roots shoots, flowers, barks, seeds and so on. Recently, many studies have proven that the plant extracts act as a potential precursor for the synthesis of nanomaterial in non-hazardous ways. Since the plant extract contains various secondary metabolites, it acts as reducing and stabilizing agents for the bioreduction reaction to synthesized novel metallic nanoparticles. Even though, the non-biological methods (chemical and physical) are used in the synthesis of nanoparticles, which has a serious hazardous and high toxicity for living organisms. In addition, the biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is inexpensive, single step and eco-friendly methods. The plants are used successfully in the synthesis of various greener nanoparticles such as cobalt, copper, silver, gold, palladium, platinum, zinc oxide and magnetite. Also, the plant mediated nanoparticles are potential remedy for various diseases such as malaria, cancer, HIV, hepatitis and other acute diseases.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T03:13:27Z
       
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium alysson extracts in
           high cholesterol-fed rabbits

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Soha S. Essawy , Dina M. Abo-elmatty , Nabila M. Ghazy , Jihan M. Badr , Olov Sterner
      The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hexane (HEXA), chloroform (CHLORO), ethyl acetate (EA) and total alcoholic (T. ALCOH) extracts of Marrubium alysson in hypercholesterolemic-fed rabbits were evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male rabbits by high cholesterol diet (HCD) (350mg/kg) for 8weeks. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits were allocated into groups, treated with simvastatin (SIM 5mg/kg), different extracts of M. alysson at two doses of 250, 500mg/kg. A normal control group and an HCD control one were used for comparison. Lipid profile, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (ox-LDL-C), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and superoxide anion production (O2 −), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also evaluated. In addition, histological examination of ascending aorta was performed. We found dyslipidemia associated with significant increases in ox-LDL-C 123.5±9.8nmol MDA/mg non-HDL, MPO activity 0.08±0.05U/100mg tissue and O2 − production 3.5±0.3nmol cytochrome C reduced/min/g tissue×10−4 in hypercholerterolemic rabbits. In addition, there was a significant increase in CRP 6.6±0.49μmol/L and MCP-1 190.9±6.4pg/ml and its mRNA expression in HCD. Intima appeared thick with thick plaques surrounding the intima and luminal narrowing. SIM, EA and HEXA extracts of M. alysson had lipid lowering effect, decrease in ox-LDL-C, MPO, O2 −, CRP and MCP-1 mRNA expression with improvement of the pathological picture. M. alysson enhanced the stability of plaque, had lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Simple HPLC-UV method for the quantification of metformin in human plasma
           with one step protein precipitation

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Himal Paudel Chhetri , Panna Thapa , Ann Van Schepdael
      This study presents the optimization of a simple HPLC-UV method for the determination of metformin in human plasma. Ion pair separation followed by UV detection was performed on deproteinized human plasma samples. The separation was carried out on a Discovery Reversed Phase C-18 column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) with UV detection at 233nm. The mobile phase contained 34% acetonitrile and 66% aqueous phase. Aqueous phase contained 10mM KH2PO4 and 10mM sodium lauryl sulfate. Aqueous phase pH was adjusted to 5.2. The mobile phase was run isocratically. The flow rate of the mobile phase was maintained at 1.3ml/min. The linearity of the calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range of 0.125–2.5μg/ml and coefficient of determination (R 2) was found to be 0.9951. The lowest limit of quantification and detection was 125 and 62ng/ml respectively. No endogenous substances were found to interfere with the peaks of drug and internal standard. The intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variations was 6.97% or less for all the selected concentrations. The relative errors at all the studied concentrations were 5.60% or less. This method is time efficient and samples are easy to prepare with minimum dilution. So, it can be applied for monitoring metformin in human plasma.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Utilization of model-based meta-analysis to delineate the net efficacy of
           taspoglutide from the response of placebo in clinical trials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Han Qing Li , Jia Yin Xu , Liang Jin , Ji Le Xin
      The objective of this study was to develop quantitative models to delineate the net efficacy of taspoglutide on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from the response of placebo in type 2 diabetes patients, and further find pharmacodynamic potency of taspoglutide and FPG for half of maximum reduction responses of FPG and HbA1c, respectively. Several PD data about taspoglutide treatments for type 2 diabetes patients were digitalized from the published papers related with the clinical development of taspoglutide. The model based meta-analysis (MBMA) studies for FPG and HbA1c were performed with Monolix 4.2 software. The MBMA successfully described the effects of placebo and taspoglutide on pharmacological indexes of FPG and HbA1c through mono and multiple combination therapies in clinical trials. The pharmacodynamic potency (25.3 pmol/l) produced 50% of maximum responses of FPG (-2.39 mmol/l) from the responses of placebo for FPG (-0.371 mmol/l); the response change of FPG (-1.81 mmol/l) affected 50% of maximum response change (-1.74%) for HbA1c from the response of placebo (-0.253%). The leveraging prior knowledge from the longitudinal MBMA will be utilized to guide clinical development of taspoglutide and further support study designs including optimization of dose and duration of therapy.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Sampling time and indications appropriateness for therapeutically
           monitored drugs at a teaching university hospital in Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohammed Al Za’abi , Juhina Al Muqbali , Khalid Al Waili
      Objective To evaluate prospectively the appropriateness of indications, sampling time and outcome of TDM requests at a teaching university hospital in Oman. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted over four months period; October 2013 to January 2014 at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), an 855 bed university teaching hospital. Appropriateness criteria for indications and sampling time were defined a priori. The evaluated drug’s requests were carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, valporic acid, digoxin, gentamicin, amikacin, vancomycin, tobramycin, theophylline, lithium, and cyclosporine. Results Of 733 evaluated TDM requisitions, the majority were for antibiotics (75.0%) followed by antiepileptics (10.5%) and cyclosporine (8.9%). Most of the requests had appropriate indication (78.2%), however, only 28.5% had appropriate sampling time. Results were applied by dosage adjustments in 65.75% of requests and some of inappropriately sampled requests (15.3%) were used as basis for modifying dosage regimen. Of all reported plasma concentrations 42.3%, 41.2%, and 16.5% were within, below and above the reference range, respectively. Conclusion TDM service is much less than optimal in SQUH. A lot of efforts need to be carried out to improve TDM use in the developing countries as adjusting the doses on results that are based on wrong sampling time might expose patients to toxicity or therapeutic failure.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Galenic approaches in troubleshooting of glibenclamide tablet adhesion in
           compression machine punches

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Janine Boniatti , Ana Lúcia Pereira Cerqueira , Alexandre Carnevale de Souza , Cristiane Rodrigues Drago Hoffmeister , Maira Assis da Costa , Livia Deris Prado , Leandro Tasso , Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha
      This study aimed to examine the adhesion of glibenclamide 5mg tablets to the tools of compression machines. This problem is not commonly reported in the literature, since it is considered as tacit knowledge. The starting point was the implementation of three technical alternatives: changing the parameters of compression, evaluating the humidity of the powder blend and the manufacturer of the lubricant magnesium stearate. The adhesion was directly related to the characteristics of magnesium stearate from different manufacturers, and the feasibility of evaluating powder flow characteristics by different techniques that are not routinely followed in various pharmaceutical companies. In vitro dissolution tests showed that the magnesium stearate manufacturer can influence on the dissolution profile of glibenclamide tablets. This study presented various aspects of tablet adhesion to compression machine punches. Troubleshooting approaches can be, most of times, conducted based on previous experience, or an experimental research needs to be implemented in order to have confident results.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and
           tablet cutter

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Walid A. Habib , Abdulaziz S. Alanizi , Magdi M. Abdelhamid , Fars K. Alanizi
      Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content=6.43%, weight=8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for medications with a narrow therapeutic-toxic range. On the basis of our results, we recommend to avoid tablet splitting whenever possible or the use of an accurate tablet splitting device when splitting cannot be avoided.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Phytochemical and pharmacological study of Ficus palmata growing in Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Saleh Ibrahim Alqasoumi , Omer Ahmed Basudan , Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily , Maged Saad Abdel-Kader
      Phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Ficus palmata utilizing liquid–liquid fractionation and different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of a new isomer of psoralenoside namely, trans-psoralenoside (5) in addition to, one triterpene: germanicol acetate (1), two furanocoumarins: psoralene (2), bergapten (3), one aromatic acid vanillic acid (4) and the flavone glycoside rutin (6). Structures of the isolated compounds were established through physical, 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS data. The total extract and fractions of the plant were examined in vivo for its possible effects as hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antiulcer and anticoagulant activities in comparison with standard drugs. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed via serum biochemical parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. Tissue parameters such as non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein (TP) were also measured. In addition to tissue parameters, nephroprotective effect was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of sodium, potassium, creatinine and urea. Histopathological study for both liver and kidney cells was also conducted. Antiulcer activity was explored by observing stomach lesions after treatment with ethanol. Whole blood clotting time (CT) was taken as a measure for the anticoagulant activity of the extract. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions of the plant was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and ascorbic acid as standard.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Factors contributing to the identification and prevention of incorrect
           drug prescribing errors in outpatient setting

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Salma Al-Khani , Amani Moharram , Hisham Aljadhey
      Purpose Medication errors in prescribing are common and could lead to high morbidity and mortality. The objective of the current study was to explore factors that help pharmacists identify and thus prevent harm from incorrect drug prescribing errors in an ambulatory care setting. Methods At the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, a tertiary care referral hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, medication error reports from the pharmacy are initiated by the pharmacist and reviewed by the quality control department and medication safety officer. This was a retrospective study in the hospital ambulatory care pharmacies including incorrect drug error reports from January 2011 until September 2012. Reports were reviewed by two pharmacists to ensure the accuracy of data classification. Factors contributing to the identification of incorrect drug prescribing errors were identified. Results During the study period, a total of 2073 prescribing errors were included in the hospital Safety Reporting System. Incorrect drug prescribing errors identified by pharmacists comprised 203 reports (10%). Factors contributing to the identification of incorrect drug prescribing errors were: matching the drug with the indication for prescribing included in the prescription (34%), reviewing the patient’s medication history (27%), patient counseling and review of medication history (9%), patient counseling during dispensing (8%), others (15%), and not specified by the reporter (7%). Conclusions Pharmacists reviewing and matching the indication for prescribing the prescribed drug and reviewing patient medication history before dispensing were the major factors (60%) found that allowed pharmacists to detect and thus prevent incorrect drug prescribing errors. Therefore, including the indication in the prescription as a mandatory field is important for patient safety.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Application of SeDeM Expert system in formulation development of
           effervescent tablets by direct compression

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Amjad Khan , Zafar Iqbal , Zahir Rehman , Fazli Nasir , Abad Khan , M. Ismail , Roohullah , Akhlaq Mohammad
      The SeDeM expert system is a pre formulation tool applied for the prediction of the suitability of a material for direct compression. This innovative tool provides an index of good compressibility of the material indicating its aptitude to be compressed by direct compression. In the study the SeDeM expert system has been applied for the prediction of the behavior of the material to be used in the formulation of effervescent tablets by direct compression. Different formulations were developed on the basis of the results of the SeDeM expert system. Various parameters for the material as per the SeDeM expert system were determined according to their official and reported methods. Powder blend for different formulations was evaluated for their rheological properties while tablets were evaluated for various official and unofficial tests. Suitability of the material for direct compression was successfully predicted using the SeDeM expert system. Domperidone was found unsuitable for direct compression. During formulation all excipients responded as they were predicted as per the SeDeM expert system. Tablets produced using the resultant formulations were having sufficient mechanical strength, free of premature effervescence and were capable to be scaled up for commercial manufacturing.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • A review of newer treatment approaches for type-2 diabetes: Focusing
           safety and efficacy of incretin based therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Regin Elsa George , Siby Joseph
      Diabetes resulting from both genetic and lifestyle factors causes high insulin deficiency or its resistance. As hyperglycemia and decreased insulin secretion and/or its sensitivity appear to be the primary defects associated with diabetes, available treatments focus on reducing those defects. A novel approach of treatment is to target the incretin mimetic hormones, which are secreted by intestinal cells in response to food intake, provoking glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreas. Efficacy and safety studies of dipetidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-IV), sitagliptin, vildagliptin and linagliptin provide similar improvements in HbA1c levels when compared with metformin, sulfonylureas or glitazones without contributing to weight gain and hypoglycemia. Caution is required when choosing the gliptin in people with renal or hepatic impairment and with a risk of pancreatitis. The glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues Exenatide and Liraglutide also have positive impact on glycemic control especially when used as a combination therapy. Another upcoming approach is using sodium-glucose co transporter two inhibitors in kidney, by exploring pathophysiology of renal glucose re absorption in the proximal tubule.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences about
           adverse drug reaction reporting in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Mansour Adam Mahmoud , Yazeed Alswaida , Thamir Alshammari , Tahir Mehmood Khan , Alian Alrasheedy , Mohamad Azmi Hassali , Hisham Aljadhey
      Objective To assess community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 147 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 147 pharmacists, of whom 104 responded to the survey, a 70.7% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29years. The majority (n =101, 98.1%) had graduated with a bachelorette degree and worked in chain pharmacies (n =68, 66.7%). Only 23 (22.1%) said they were familiar with the ADR reporting process, and only 21 (20.2%) knew that pharmacists can submit ADR reports online. The majority of the participants (n =90, 86.5%) had never reported ADRs. Reasons for not reporting ADRs most importantly included lack of awareness about the method of reporting (n =22, 45.9%), misconception that reporting ADRs is the duty of physician and hospital pharmacist (n =8, 16.6%) and ADRs in community pharmacies are simple and should not be reported (n =8, 16.6%). The most common approach perceived by community pharmacists for managing patients suffering from ADRs was to refer him/her to a physician (n =80, 76.9%). Conclusion The majority of community pharmacists in Riyadh have poor knowledge of the ADR reporting process. Pharmacovigilance authorities should take necessary steps to urgently design interventional programs in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacists regarding the ADR reporting process.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Use, attitudes and knowledge of medications among pregnant women: A Saudi
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Noha M. Zaki , Ahmed A. Albarraq
      Objective Medication use during pregnancy is a major concern for most women. The aim of the present study was to assess medication use, knowledge and beliefs about medications among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Methods More than 760 pregnant women, attending the obstetric clinic, filled a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were collected about their sociodemographic background, medication use during pregnancy, medication/pregnancy risk awareness, sources of drug information and beliefs about medications. Results Most women had a positive attitude toward medications in general but they believed pregnant women should be more cautious regarding drug-use during pregnancy. A significant association was found between participants’ education and occupation, and beliefs about medications. In this context, well educated women and those working in a health-related career demonstrated more correct beliefs about medications. Women with health-related occupations were more knowledgeable about the life saving effect of drugs on unborn children. Women indicated inadequate provision of drug-related information from physician and pharmacist; they rely on medication pamphlet to get such information. The most frequently used drugs were paracetamol and vitamins (13.2%). Most pregnant women (59.2%) were able to identify drugs to-be avoided in pregnancy that agreed roughly with FDA categories with 23 hits out of 32. They indicated that newborn anomalies (6.5%) were not attributed to drug-use during pregnancy. Conclusion During pregnancy, women were more conservative and skeptic toward medication, health-care professionals should be aware of such attitudes when advising pregnant women to take medication.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible tenorite nanoparticles and
           potential property against biofilm formation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Davoodbasha MubarakAli , Jegatheesan Arunkumar , Pratheesh Pooja , Gopalakrishnan Subramanian , Nooruddin Thajuddin
      To assess the anti-biofilm property of tenorite nanoparticles and to study their suitability as a possible coating material for medical implants. Tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by the optimized thermal decomposition method and characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and Uv-Vis analysis. Their influence on biofilm forming of microbes was studied by growing multi drug resistant bacterial strains in presence or absence of these nanoparticles at various concentrations. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian cells was studied at corresponding concentrations. The nanoparticles were found to be uniformly dispersed, spherical shaped and <50 nm size. They showed various degrees of anti-biofilm property against clinically isolated, biofilm forming multi drug resistant microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Burkholderia mallei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, Hep-2 cells showed excellent viability at tenorite nanoparticles concentration toxic to microbial growth. These results indicates that tenorite nanoparticles may be an ideal candidate for being utilized as coating on medical implants in general and dental implants in particular.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Targeted study to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factor status among
           patients and efficacy of statins in attaining goal lipid levels in a
           regional hospital in Sultanate of Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jimmy Jose , Faisal Abdullah Ali Al-Tamimi , Manal Mahmoud Helal , Beena Jimmy , Qasim Al Riyami , Ibrahim Al Busaidi
      Background and Objective Elevated LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is a major cause of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and LDL lowering therapy reduces the risk for CHD. The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prescribing pattern of statins based on cardio vascular risk factor category, pattern of lipid monitoring followed among the patients and extend of attainment of goal Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) observed among the patients. Methods A group of patient files (among those on statin agent during the year 2011) from Department of Medicine in Nizwa Hospital were selected randomly for targeted evaluation on the risk factor status of patients and efficacy of statins in attaining goal lipid levels. Goals LDL-C levels were estimated for each patient depending on their risk factor status. Subsequent follow ups of the patients were reviewed from the patient files and accordingly the attainment and maintenance of goal-LDL-C in the patients were evaluated. Results A total of 183 patients were randomly identified. Mean age of the evaluated patients was 63.6 ± 11.58 years. Evaluating the status of the patients on the presence of risk factors, majority (63.9%) of them had presence of CHD. Simvastatin was the most commonly used agent and titration of dose was done in only 3.3% of patients.Mean LDL-C level of the patient before initiation of treatment was 3.72± 1.48 mmol/L. Only in 59 (32.2%) of the total evaluated 183 patients, there was evidence of attaining goal-LDL-C levels. Among them, there was evidence of maintenance of goal LDL-C in 16 (27.1%) of the patients. Lipid levels differed significantly based on the presence or absence of CHD and CHD equivalent in the patients. Conclusion Statins were used less frequently for primary prevention of CHD. Absence of lipid monitoring; base line and follow up in a good number of patients as well as lack of dose titration among the patients was observed. Importance of adequate lipid monitoring and follow up to ensure attainment of goal LDL-C needs to be stressed to serve the objective of use of statins; primary and secondary prevention of CHD.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Study on requirements of bioequivalence for registration of pharmaceutical
           products in USA, Europe and Canada

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Upendra C. Galgatte , Vijay R. Jamdade , Pravin P. Aute , Pravin D. Chaudhari
      The present study was aimed to study the requirements of bioequivalence for the registration of pharmaceutical products in the USA, Europe and Canada. Before going into bioequivalence studies it is essential for the pharmaceutical industry to study the guidelines of bioequivalence for the respective country where the industry wants to market its products and thus enter into generic market. This study reviews the requirements of bioequivalence with study parameters such as study design, fasting or fed state studies, volunteers recruitment, study dose, sampling points, analytical method validation parameters, moieties to be measured in plasma, pharmacokinetic parameters, criteria for bioequivalence, GCP requirements etc, which are needed for the pharmaceutical industry to carry out bioequivalence studies and to file ANDA. Test products and reference products are needed for this study. Test products are usually manufactured by a sponsor and reference products are provided by the government laboratories of the respective countries. Sampling points also vary with respect to the regulatory guidelines of these countries. All these countries follow ICH GCP guidelines. The criterion of bioequivalence for these countries is 90% CI 80–125% for C max, AUC t , AUC0–∞.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T21:05:58Z
       
  • Kawasaki Disease with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency, Case
           Report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hesham Radi Obeidat , Sahar Al-Dossary , Abdulsalam Asseri
      IntKawasaki Disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. Coronary artery abnormalities are the most serious complication. Based on the literatures infusion of Intravenous Immunoglobulin of 2 grams/kg and high dose of oral Aspirin up to 100 mg/kg/day are the standard treatment for Kawasaki Disease in the acute stage, and should be followed by antiplatelet dose of aspirin for Thrombocytosis. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited X-linked hereditary disorder, and aspirin can induce hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. We report a case of 5 years and 8 months old male with KD and G6PD deficiency.


      PubDate: 2014-11-20T18:14:18Z
       
  • Consumers’ perceptions on the contribution of community pharmacists
           in the dispensing process at Dawadmi

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hamoud Saud Alotaibi , Malik Abdelhalim Abdelkarim
      Background Community pharmacies are widely distributed and developments in this sector will greatly improve pharmaceutical health care delivery. Objectives To provide consumers’ perceptions towards the contribution of community pharmacists in the dispensing process. Method The study was performed from mid-October to mid-November 2013 in Dawadmi, KSA. Structured face-to-face questionnaire with randomly selected 100 consumers at different community pharmacies. The questionnaire composed of nine closed questions about consumers’ perceptions toward the pharmacists’ role, counselling quality and dispensing errors in community pharmacies. Results Consumers perceive that pharmacists are not committed to dispense medications with prescription (72%), it is embarrassing to ask questions to the pharmacist in the current pharmacy premises (48%), pharmacists do not give enough counselling about their medications (48%) and they previously encountered a dispensing error (26%). Conclusion The professional performance of community pharmacists in dispensing is below the expected. Majority of consumers perceive that community pharmacists are violating pharmacy law and giving them insufficient medicine information while dispensing. Authorities should stimulate both pharmacists’ and consumers’ awareness by educational campaign, improve standards for the profession and penalize violators. It is a necessity for community pharmacies to develop consultation areas to assure privacy, improve counselling quality, and reduce dispensing errors.


      PubDate: 2014-11-20T18:14:18Z
       
  • Stealth Amphotericin B Nanoparticles For Oral Drug Delivery: In Vitro
           Optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bushra T. AL-Quadeib , Mahasen A. Radwan , Lidija Siller , Benjamin Horrocks , Matthew C. Wright
      Purpose Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective anti-fungal and anti-leishmanialagent. However, AmB has low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and adverse effects (e.g. nephrotoxicity). The objectives of this study were to improve the oral bioavailabilityby entrapping AmB inpeglyated (PEG) poly lactide co glycolide copolymer (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs). The feasibility of different surfactants and stabilizers on the mean particle size (MPS) and entrapment efficiency were also investigated. Materials and Methods NPs of AmB were prepared by a modified emulsification diffusion method employing a vitamin E derivative as a stabilizer. Physicochemical properties and particle size characterization were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vitro dissolution profiles were performed for all formulated AmB NPs. Results MPS of the preparedspherical particles of AmBranged from 26.4 ± 2.9 to 1068± 489.8 nm. An increased stirring rate favoured AmB NPs with a smaller MPS. There was a significant reduction in MPS, drug content and drug release, when AmB NPs were prepared using thediblock polymer PLGA-PEG with 15% PEG. addition of three emulsifying agentspoly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Vitamin E (TPGS) and pluronic F-68 to AmB formulations led to a significant reduction in particle size and increase in drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) compare to addition of PVP alone.FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated a successful loading of AmB to peglyated PLGA-PEG copolymers. PLGA-PEG Copolymer entrapment efficiency of AmB was increased up to 56.7%, with 92.7% drug yield. After a slow initial release, between 20-54% of AmB was released in vitro within 24 hours phosphate buffer containing 2% sodium deoxycholate and were best fit Korsmeyer-Peppas model. In conclusion, PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer with 15% PEGproduced a significant reduction (> 70%) in MPS with highest drug content. The percentage of PEG in the copolymer and the surfactant/stabilizer used had a direct effect on AmB releasein vitro, entrapment efficiency and MPS. These formulations are feasible, effectiveand improves alternative to other carriers for oral delivery of AmB.


      PubDate: 2014-11-20T18:14:18Z
       
  • Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilised ellagic
           acid-phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amelia M. Avachat , Vijay G. Patel
      Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after formation of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. The formulations were optimized on basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimised SNEDDS of ellagic acid-phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 106 ± 0.198 nm and cloud point at 83–85°C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA.


      PubDate: 2014-11-20T18:14:18Z
       
  • Hospital pharmacists’ self-evaluation of their competence and
           confidence in conducting pharmacy practice research

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Awaisu , Dana Bakdach , Reem Hasan Elajaz , Manal Zaidan
      Objectives Research is essential to the advancement of pharmacy practice and healthcare. Pharmacists have a pivotal role to play in this strategy. However, there is a paucity of data about hospital pharmacists’ competence and ability in conducting health-related research. This study primarily aims to determine the research demographics of hospital pharmacists in Qatar and to assess the pharmacists’ perceptions of their competence and confidence to conduct research. Methods A multi-centered survey using a 70-item piloted questionnaire was conducted among a randomly selected sample of pharmacists practicing at seven HMC-managed hospitals. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were applied using IBM–SPSS® version 20. Key findings A total of 120 participants responded to the survey (67% response rate). Over 60% of the participants did not have any previous research experience. At least 20% of the respondents self-reported inadequate competence and/or confidence in developing research protocols, critically appraising the literature, undertaking and applying appropriate statistical techniques, and interpreting research findings. The level of education along with the current hospital of practice had significant effects on pharmacists’ self-assessed competence (p<0.05). Overall, 85% of the participants were interested in pursuing postgraduate studies or research-related training. Conclusions A large proportion of hospital pharmacists in Qatar self-assessed themselves as having deficiencies in several domains of research process or competencies, although they recognized the value of research in advancing pharmacy practice. These findings have important implications for developing informal research training programs and promoting the pursuit of formal postgraduate programs to bridge the knowledge gaps found among hospital-practicing pharmacists.


      PubDate: 2014-11-03T12:11:24Z
       
  • Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions by medication antidote signals and
           comparison of their sensitivity with common methods of ADR detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Lateef M Khan , Sameer E Al-Harthi , Huda M Alkreathy , Abdel-Moneim M Osman , Ahmed S Ali
      Objective To determine the PPVs of selected ten medication antidote signals in recognizing potential ADRs and comparison of their sensitivity with manual chart analysis, and voluntary reporting recognizing the same ADRs. Method The inpatient EMR database of internal medicine department was utilized for a period of one year, adult patients prescribed at least one of the ten signals, were included in the study, recipient patients of antidote signals were assessed for the occurrence of an ADR by Naranjo’s tool of ADR evaluation. PPVs of each antidote signal were verified. Result PPV of Methylprednisolone and Phytonadione was 0.28, Metoclopramide and Potassium Chloride - 0.29, Dextrose 50%, Promethazine, Sodium Polystyrene and Loperamide - 0.30, Protamine and Acetylcysteine - 0.33. In comparison of confirmed ADRs of antidote signals with other methods, Dextrose 50%, Metoclopramide, Sodium Polystyrene, Potassium Chloride, Methylprednisolone and Promethazine seem to be extremely significant (P value >0.0001), while ADRs of Phytonadione, Protamine, Acetylcysteine and Loperamide were insignificant. Conclusion Antidote medication signals have definitive discerning evaluation value of ADRs over routine methods of ADR detection with high detection rate with minimum cost; Their integration with hospital EMR database and routine patient safety surveillance enhances transparency, time-saving and facilitates ADR detection.


      PubDate: 2014-11-03T12:11:24Z
       
  • Microparticles as Controlled Drug Delivery Carrier for the treatment of
           Ulcerative Colitis: A brief review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nidhi , Muzamil Rashid , Veerpal Kaur , Supandeep Singh Hallan , Sourabh Sharma , Neeraj Mishra
      Ulcerative colitis is the chronic relapsing multifactorial gastrointestinal inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by bloody or mucus diarrohea, tenesmus, bowel dystension, anaemia. The annual incidence for ulcerative colitis in Asia, North America and Europe was found to be 6.3, 19.2 and 24.3 per 100,000 person-years. The major challenge in the treatment of ulcerative colitis is appropriate local targeting and drug related side-effects. To overcome these challenges, microparticulate systems seems to be a promising approach for controlled and sustained drug release after oral administration. The main goal of this article is to explore the role of microparticles in ulcerative colitis for the appropriate targeting of drugs to colon. There are different approaches which has been studied over the last decade, including prodrugs, polymeric approach, time released system, pH sensitive system, which shows the site specific drug delivery to colon. Among these approaches, microparticulate drug delivery system has been gaining an immense importance for local targeting of drug to colon at a controlled and sustained rate. Combined approaches such as pH dependent and time dependent system provide the maximum release of drug into colon via oral route. This article embraces briefly about pathophysiology, challenges and polymeric approaches mainly multiparticulate systems for site specific drug delivery to colon in sustained and controlled manner so that drug related side-effects by reducing dosage frequency can be minimised.


      PubDate: 2014-10-25T10:59:22Z
       
  • Influence of different types of low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose on
           tableting, disintegration, and floating behaviour of floating drug
           delivery systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Péter Diós , Tivadar Pernecker , Szilárd Pál , Attila Dévay
      The object of the present study is to evaluate the effect of application of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) 11 and B1 as excipients promoting floating in gastroretentive tablets. Directly compressed tablets were formed based on experimental design. Face-centred central composite design was applied with two factors and 3 levels, where amount of sodium alginate (X1 ) and L-HPC (X2 ) were the numerical factors. Applied types of L-HPCs and their 1:1 mixture were included in a categorical factor (X3 ). Studied parameters were floating lag time, floating time, floating force, swelling behaviour of tablets and dissolution of paracetamol, which was used as a model active substance. Due to their physical character, L-HPCs had different water uptake and flowability. Lower flowability was observed and lower water uptake after 60 minutes at L-HPC 11 compared to L-HPC B1. Shorter floating times were detected at L-HPC 11 and L-HPC mixtures with 0.5% content of sodium alginate, whereas alginate was the only significant factor. Evaluating results of drug release and swelling studies on floating tablets revealed correlation, which can serve to help to understand the mechanism of action of L-HPCs in the field development of gastroretentive dosage forms.


      PubDate: 2014-10-11T04:12:58Z
       
  • Vancomycin therapy in critically ill patients on continuous renal
           replacement therapy; are we doing enough'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ali S. Omrani , Alaa Mously , Marylie P. Cabaluna , John Kawas , Mohammed M. Albarrak , Wafa A. Alfahad
      BACKGROUND Recommendations regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring in critically ill patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are limited. This is a retrospective study to assess the adequacy of current vancomycin dosing and monitoring practice for patients on CRRT in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS Retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted between 1 April 2011 and 30 March 2013 to critical care and received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT. RESULTS A total of 68 patients received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. Fifty one percent were males and median (range) age was 62.5 (19 – 90) years. Median APACHE II score was 33.5 (22 - 43) and median Charlson Comorbidity Score of 4 (0 - 8). The mean (± standard deviation) dose of vancomycin was 879.9 mg (± 281.2 mg) for an average duration of 5.9 days (± 3.7 days). All patient received continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). A total of 55 vancomycin level readings were available from the study population, ranging from 6.6 to 41.3, with wide variations within the same sampling time frames. Vancomycin levels of >15 mg/L or were achieved at least once in 24 patients (75.0%), but only 11 patients (34.3%) had 2 or more serum vancomycin level readings of 15 mg/L or more. Conclusion Therapeutic vancomycin levels are difficult to maintain in critically ill patients who are receiving IV vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT. Aggressive dosing schedules and frequent monitoring is required to ensure adequate vancomycin therapy in this setting.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T14:07:46Z
       
  • Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application:
           Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Amal El Sayeh F. Abou el Ela , Maha A. Hassan , Dalia A. El- Maraghy
      The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n =0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • SEDDS of gliclazide: Preparation and characterization by in-vitro, ex-vivo
           and in-vivo techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tanzina Sharmin Nipun , S.M. Ashraful Islam
      In the study, self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of gliclazide, a poorly soluble drug, was developed and evaluated by in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo techniques. Oil and surfactant were screened out according to their solubilizing capacity. Among the tested components Transcutol HP and Tween-80 showed good solubilizing capacity. These two components were used in different ratios to prepare gliclazide SEDDS. The SEDDS formulations were transparent and clear. Droplet size of the emulsion was determined by Laser Diffraction Technology of Malvern. Formulation F1 containing 1:1 (m/m) mixture of Transcutol HP/Tween-80 showed minimum mean droplet size (50.959μm). In-vitro drug release from F1 was higher (99% within 20min) than other formulations. The developed SEDDS was also evaluated for ex-vivo permeability profile by using chicken intestinal sac. Formulation F1 showed optimal drug diffusion. In-vivo performance of SEDDS was evaluated in albino mice using plasma glucose level as a pharmacodynamic marker parameter. The test formulation (F1) showed significant reduction in plasma glucose level, after oral administration. So SEDDS may be an alternative technique for the oral administration of gliclazide.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Dosage uniformity problems which occur due to technological errors in
           extemporaneously prepared suppositories in hospitals and pharmacies

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Éva Kalmár , Jason Richard Lasher , Thomas Dean Tarry , Andrea Myers , Gerda Szakonyi , György Dombi , Gabriella Baki , Kenneth S. Alexander
      The availability of suppositories in Hungary, especially in clinical pharmacy practice, is usually provided by extemporaneous preparations. Due to the known advantages of rectal drug administration, its benefits are frequently utilized in pediatrics. However, errors during the extemporaneous manufacturing process can lead to non-homogenous drug distribution within the dosage units. To determine the root cause of these errors and provide corrective actions, we studied suppository samples prepared with exactly known errors using both cerimetric titration and HPLC technique. Our results show that the most frequent technological error occurs when the pharmacist fails to use the correct displacement factor in the calculations which could lead to a 4.6% increase/decrease in the assay in individual dosage units. The second most important source of error can occur when the molding excess is calculated solely for the suppository base. This can further dilute the final suppository drug concentration causing the assay to be as low as 80%. As a conclusion we emphasize that the application of predetermined displacement factors in calculations for the formulation of suppositories is highly important, which enables the pharmacist to produce a final product containing exactly the determined dose of an active substance despite the different densities of the components.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Influence of the use of phosphate binders on serum levels of calcium
           phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis:
           A retrospective and prospective study

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lusi Setiani Agus , Imam Effendi , Syamsudin Abdillah
      Hypercalcemia–hyperphosphatemia is an unavoidable consequence of end-stage chronic kidney disease and common in hemodialytic patients. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one type of phosphate binder used widely and prescribed in patients undergoing hemodialysis, aiming to control the levels of calcium and phosphate. These drugs are most effective if taken with meals. This study aimed to evaluate the use of phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients and the factors that influence the success of phosphate binder therapy by experimental studies with retrospective data collection through the medical records and prospectively through the questionnaire and interviews with patients. The research was conducted in the Unit Hemodialysis building floor 8 of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The data were collected in a retrospective way for two months (January–February 2013) and a prospective study in March–April 2013. Patients included were stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients who underwent hemodialysis in hemodialysis ward of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Patients who had data of serum levels at the beginning of the use of calcium phosphate and the final data in 2013 got the phosphate binder therapy. Results Ninety six patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease who underwent hemodialysis had been using phosphate binder for 3years in average. Patient evaluation showed that hypocalcemia was obtained in 23%; normokalemia in 42.7% and hypercalcemia in 34.3%. While the percentage of patients with hipofosfatemia14, 6%, normofosfatemia 32.3% and 53.1% hyperphosphatemia. Results obtained by the prospective analysis of factors that affect the success of the use of phosphate binder therapy are related to how the routine use of phosphate binders is made by the patient. Chi square test showed a significance of 0.000 (p <0.05), the effect of 54%. Conclusion We can conclude there are many events happening such as hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients that use phosphate binders. Monitoring of serum levels of calcium phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis should be performed every month. Education and the role of clinical staff required to assist compliance and therapeutic efficacy of phosphate binder are necessary.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Antiepileptic drugs toxicity: A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in
           patient with phenytoin prophylaxis post-cranial radiation for brain
           metastases

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Khalid AlQuliti , Basem Ratrout , Alaa AlZaki
      Background Treatment of epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is effective and remains the principal mode of management. A group of adverse effects and drug toxicity can develop immediately or later in the course of treatment. AEDs also have the potential of precipitating idiosyncratic adverse effects including serious cutaneous, hematological and hepatic events. Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but severe cutaneous adverse reactions are related to or caused by a variety of medications including AEDs, they carry a high mortality and morbidity rate, accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment may improve the prognosis. Objective To characterize the clinical features and methods of differentiating Stevens–Johnson syndrome from toxic epidermal necrolysis using a case study and to identify other factors that may contribute to this critical illness. Conclusion Clinical knowledge of potential sever adverse reaction of AEDs is essential and may overcome treatment failure with major impact on health-related quality of life in people with epilepsy.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Chemical delivery systems and soft drugs: Retrometabolic approaches of
           drug design

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yashumati Ratan Bhardwaj , Ashutosh Pareek , Vivek Jain , Dharma Kishore
      Inclusion of metabolic considerations in the drug design process leads to significant development in the field of chemical drug targeting and the design of safer drugs during past few years which is a part of an approach now designated as Retro metabolic drug design (RMDD). This approach represents systematic methodologies that integrate structure–activity and structure–metabolism relationships and are aimed to design safe, locally active compounds with an improved therapeutic index. It embraces two distinct methods, chemical delivery systems and a soft drug approach. Present review recapitulates an impression of RMDD giving reflections on the chemical delivery system and the soft drug approach and provides a variety of examples to embody its concepts. Successful application of such design principles has already been applied to a number of marketed drugs like esmolol; loteprednol etc., and many other candidates like beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, alkylating agents, antimicrobials etc., are also under investigation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • An overview on in situ micronization technique – An emerging novel
           concept in advanced drug delivery

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): K.R. Vandana , Y. Prasanna Raju , V. Harini Chowdary , M. Sushma , N. Vijay Kumar
      The use of drug powders containing micronized drug particles has been increasing in several pharmaceutical dosage forms to overcome the dissolution and bioavailability problems. Most of the newly developed drugs are poorly water soluble which limits dissolution rate and bioavailability. The dissolution rate can be enhanced by micronization of the drug particles. The properties of the micronized drug substance such as particle size, size distribution, shape, surface properties, and agglomeration behaviour and powder flow are affected by the type of micronization technique used. Mechanical communition, spray drying and supercritical fluid (SCF) technology are the most commonly employed techniques for production of micronized drug particles but the characteristics of the resulting drug product cannot be controlled using these techniques. Hence, a newer technique called in situ micronization is developed in order to overcome the limitations associated with the other techniques. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on in situ micronization techniques. The properties of the resulting drug substance obtained by in situ micronization were also compared.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Use of fine particle ethylcellulose as the diluent in the production of
           pellets by extrusion-spheronization

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rama Mallipeddi , Kalyan K. Saripella , Steven H. Neau
      The effect of small ethylcellulose particle size on the manufacture and properties of pellets produced by extrusion-spheronization was investigated. A factorial design revealed the effects of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), polyethylene oxide (PEO), water, and spheronization speed and time on pellet properties. Response surface modeling allowed optimization of the responses with expansion to a central composite design. Pellet yield, size, shape, friability and drug release profile were studied, along with surface and interior morphology. Pellets were spherical irrespective of the formulation and process variables and exhibited physical and mechanical characteristics appropriate for further processing. Yield in the 12/20 mesh cut was lower with FPEC than observed with coarse particle ethylcellulose (CPEC), but FPEC-containing pellets were more rugged and the PEO to obtain optimal pellets was lower for FPEC compared to CPEC. Immediate release products were obtained and ethylcellulose particle size was of no consequence to drug release. Observed responses for the optimized product agreed with predicted values, demonstrating the success of the optimization procedure. These results suggest that FPEC is a good diluent for extrusion-spheronization.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Synthesis and evaluation of a pyrazinoic acid prodrug in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): João Paulo-dos Santos Fernandes , Fernando Rogerio Pavan , Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite , Veni Maria Andres Felli
      Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused mainly by infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis affecting more than ten million people around the world. Despite TB can be treated, the rise of MDR-TB and XDR-TB cases put the disease in a worrying status. As pyrazinamide-resistant strains exhibit low or none pyrazinamidase activity, it is proposed that the active form of pyrazinamide (PZA) is pyrazinoic acid (POA), although this acid has poor penetration in mycobacteria. In this work, we present a convenient one-pot synthesis of 2-chloroethyl pyrazinoate, and its activity in M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294) in MIC assay using the MABA technique. The obtained MIC of the compound was 3.96g/mL, and discussion about the activity profile of some previously evaluated pyrazinoates is also performed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Do insulin cartridges really provide a lower risk of potential diabetes
           complications than traditional vials'

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mohammad G. Al-Sharayri , Tariq M. Aljbori , Qusai M. Migdadi , Marwa B. Al-Omoush , Ayman R. Jaarah
      Scope Recently, many publicly funded healthcare organizations suffered from an economical crisis. This forced some organizations to utilize less costly alternatives where possible. Insulin cartridges and vials are examples. Many patients are questioning the difference between the two alternatives as they contain the same active ingredient. Objective To find out if insulin cartridges really provide a lower risk of potential diabetes complications than traditional vials. Method A questionnaire was used to ask two random samples of diabetic patients about the development of some diabetes complications. The first sample (n =41) consisted of patients using cartridges; the second sample (n =40) consisted of patients using vials. Patients were randomly selected from the endocrine clinic and the out-patient pharmacy in Al-Hussein Hospital in King Hussein Medical Center in Amman- Jordan. Results 44% of respondents in the first sample did not suffer from any complication; on the other hand, the percentage was only 15% of respondents in the second sample. All respondents (100%) in the first sample suffered from only 2 complications or less; however, 25% of the respondents in the second sample suffered from 3 or more complications. Nephropathy complications, were slightly higher in the first sample; 22% compared to 15% in the second sample. On the other hand, all complications reported in the second sample were higher; 30% for neuropathy, 65% for retinopathy complications and 42.5% for extremities damage compared to only 9.7%, 7.3% and 26.8% respectively in the first sample. Conclusion In general, respondents who were using cartridges reported a lesser incidence of diabetes complications. Although many organizations suffered from an economical crisis, the cost-effectiveness aspect should be taken into consideration when purchasing medical alternatives. This will provide higher quality of life for patients and eventually lower hidden and future costs for the organizations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A
           qualitative study

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey , Mansour Adam Mahmoud , Mohamed Azmi Hassali , Alian Alrasheedy , Amjad Alahmad , Fahad Saleem , Aziz Sheikh , Michael Murray , David W. Bates
      Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology proven to decrease medication errors, and promotion and implementation of national patient safety initiatives. Conclusions Healthcare professionals have identified major challenges and opportunities for medication safety in Saudi Arabia. Policy makers and practitioners should consider these factors when designing future programs aimed at improving the safe use of medications.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Community pharmacist perception and attitude toward ethical issues at
           community pharmacy setting in central Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mohamed N. Al-Arifi
      Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the community pharmacist perceptions and attitudes toward ethical issues at community pharmacy setting in Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative survey of community pharmacists was conducted and the survey questions were pre-tested by a pharmacist with extensive experience in ethical issues. Based on the result of a pilot study the questionnaire was used with some modifications and the final questionnaire was sent to the participants by handing over in person, mail or Email. Results 45.7% Often discuss ethical issues with their patients, while only 2.1% never discuss it. 40.6% often record the ethical concern whereas only 1.9% of them never do so. 31.5% reported that patients initiate ethical issues. Discussion 28.3% of the pharmacists initiate the discussion. The barriers that limit discussing ethical issues with their patients were lack of time due to other obligations assigned to the community pharmacist (69.2%), lack of reliable resources (10.7%), not interested in the subject (10.1%), lack of knowledge on ethical issues (4.8%), and other reasons (5.3%). Recourses are books (37.7%), internet web sites (31.1%), and brochures (26.8%). Only a minority of respondents had access to computer databases (15.8%) and other resources (1.3%). Most perceived ethical problems were: being asked for hormonal contraception, dispensing a drug for unreported indication (69.2%), dispensing dose of medicine for a child that is outside the SNF limits (68.9%), unwanted professional behavior about controlled drugs (66.6%), a colleague insisting on unethical behavior (65.0%), a colleague has done something unethical for the first time (64.7%), suspecting that a child is being abused (63.3%) prescribing on private scripts for suspected medications of possible abuse (60.7%) and terminally ill patient asks for a diagnosis or prognosis (52.9%). Conclusion The findings of this study assured the need of Saudi health authorities to implement a code of ethics for pharmacy practicing to cover all aspects of ethical issues.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • A prospective study on Adverse Drug Reactions of antibiotics in a tertiary
           care hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Shamna , C. Dilip , M. Ajmal , P. Linu Mohan , C. Shinu , C.P. Jafer , Yahiya Mohammed
      Adverse reactions are the recognized hazards of drug therapy and they can occur with any class of drugs and many studies revealed that the incidence is more in case of antibiotics. The main aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions of antibiotics in inpatients of a tertiary care hospital. A prospective spontaneous reporting study by active and passive methods was carried out for a period of six months. A total of 49 ADRs were reported during the study period with male predominance (53.06%) and geriatric age group. More number of ADRs was from General Medicine and Pediatric departments in which the most affected organ systems were the GIT (38.77%) and the skin (30.61%). The antibiotic classes mostly accounted were cephalosporins (34.69%) followed by fluoroquinolones and others in which type A reactions were more compared to type B and 59.18% of them were predictable. The severity assessment revealed that most of them were moderate (63.26%) followed by mild and severe reactions. Of the reported reactions, 55.10% were definitely preventable and causality assessment was done which showed that 71.42% of the reactions were probable, possible (18.36%), definite (10.20%) and no reactions were unlikely. The study concluded that Adverse Drug Reactions to antibiotics are common and some of them resulted in increased healthcare cost due to the need of some interventions and increased length of hospital stay. The health system should promote the spontaneous reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions to antibiotics, proper documentation and periodic reporting to regional pharmacovigilance centers to ensure drug safety.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
  • Pharmacy education instruction: Preference and practices, Saudi
           students’ perception

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mirghani A. Yousif , Ahmed S. Eldalo , Mustafa A. Abd Allah , Mohammed A. Al-Sawat , Haitham M. Al-Wahaibi , Abd Allah S. Al-Osaimi , Salman H. Al-Gethami
      Aim/Background The methods of instruction in pharmacy education are crucial and meant to suit the professional development and encompass the advanced variety of services and functions provided by the pharmacists to serve individual patients. The aim of this study was to determine the students’ opinions on the adopted and preferred methods of instruction in pharmacy colleges in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods Opinions of Saudi pharmacy students regarding the adopted methods of learning were measured using a pretested questionnaire combined with Likert-type scales. Results Three hundred pharmacy students were interviewed. Direct type of lecturing was dominant (53.7%). The most frequently used language of instruction was combined English and Arabic (48.8%), that was mostly preferred by 52.5% of the students. Handouts were the most adopted post-lecture learning method (48.3%), while only 5.9% used student’s self-written notes. A cocktail of traditional and electronic aids was used as admitted by 68.7% and 59.3% of the students who preferred this lecture delivery method. Almost half (49.3%) of the students agreed of having a routine fair guidance and support when referring to their lecturers. Conclusion The study outcomes had revealed a practical guidance to be considered for instituting preferred modes of instruction to upgrading students’ capacities for better understanding and acquiring academic and professional skills.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T13:50:09Z
       
 
 
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