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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 14]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Evaluation of the impact of a prescribing guideline on the use of
           intraoperative dexmedetomidine at a tertiary academic medical center

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdullah M. Alhammad, Nour A. Baghdady, Rachel A. Mullin, Bonnie C. Greenwood
      Objective To evaluate usage patterns of dexmedetomidine in the operating room after implementation of a prescribing guideline. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the impact of a prescribing guideline on usage patterns of dexmedetomidine in the operating room at a tertiary, academic medical center during one-month period pre- (July 2010) and post-guideline (July 2011 and July 2012) implementation. Results A total of 267 patients received intraoperative dexmedetomidine during the study period. Dexmedetomidine use in surgical procedures decreased post-guideline implementation [5.7% (pre) vs. 1.9% and 3.3% (post)]. The most common guideline-based indication for intraoperative dexmedetomidine was for anesthesia during bariatric surgery (41% and 38% in 2011 and 2012, respectively). We estimated a cost-avoidance of $308,856 over the two-year period after guideline implementation. Conclusion Our results suggest that implementation of a prescribing guideline for the use of dexmedetomidine in the operating room is feasible and associated with improved utilization patterns.


      PubDate: 2016-01-17T01:51:02Z
       
  • Cross-National Analysis of Estimated Narcotic Utilization for Twelve
           Arabic Speaking Countries in the Middle East

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby, Kerry Wilbur
      Background Access to narcotics has been described as suboptimal in the Middle East. The objectives of this study were to characterize estimated narcotic use in twelve Arabic-speaking nations and compare across world regions. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional analysis of estimated average consumption of narcotic drugs in defined daily doses per million inhabitants, as provided by the International Narcotics Control Board Technical Reports (2008-2012). Five years of data (2008-2012) was extracted from reports for 12 Arabic-speaking countries; Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Egypt, and Yemen. Data was also obtained for world regions. Results In 2012, Bahrain and Kuwait had the highest estimates (364 and 352 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively), while Yemen and Iraq had the lowest (9 and 6 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively). North America, Oceania, and Europe had the highest rates (32,264, 9,978, and 7,937 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively), while Arabic-Countries were only ahead of Africa and Central America (128, 91, 87 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively). Conclusions Great variability was observed in estimates between 12 Arabic countries and even larger disparity when Arabic-Countries were benchmarked against world regions, suggesting a need for future studies to determine reasons for these discrepancies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-17T01:51:02Z
       
  • Stability of Erythropoietin repackaging in polypropylene syringes for
           clinical use

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Angela Marsili, Giorgia Puorro, Chiara Pane, Anna de Rosa, Giovanni Defazio, Carlo Casali, Antonio Cittadini, Giuseppe de Michele, Brunello Ettore Florio, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
      Introduction Epoetin alfa (Eprex®) is a subcutaneous, injectable formulation of short half-life recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). To current knowledge there are no published studies regarding the stability of rHuEPO once repackaging occurs (r-EPO) for clinical trial purposes. Materials and methods We assessed EPO concentration in Eprex® and r-EPO syringes at 0, 60, 90, and 120 days after repackaging in polypropylene syringes. R-EPO was administered to 56 patients taking part to a clinical trial in Friedreich Ataxia. Serum EPO levels were measured at baseline and 48 hours after r-EPO administration. Results No differences were found between r-EPO and Eprex® syringes, but both globally decreased in total EPO content during storage at 4°C. Patients receiving r-EPO had similar levels in EPO content as expected from previous trials in Friedreich Ataxia and from pharmacokinetics studies in healthy volunteers. Discussion We demonstrate that repackaging of EPO does not alter its concentration if compared to the original product (Eprex®). This is true both for repackaging procedures as for the stability in polypropylene tubes. The expiration date of r-EPO can be extended from 1 to 4 months after repackaging, in accordance to pharmacopeia rules.


      PubDate: 2016-01-17T01:51:02Z
       
  • Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Asim Ahmed Elnour, Abdulla Shehab
      The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Synthesis, molecular properties, toxicity and biological evaluation of
           some new substituted imidazolidine derivatives in search of potent
           anti-inflammatory agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Asif Husain, Aftab Ahmad, Shah Alam Khan, Mohd Asif, Rubina Bhutani, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi
      The aim of this study was to design and synthesize pharmaceutical agents containing imidazolidine heterocyclic ring in the hope of developing potent, safe and orally active anti-inflammatory agents. A number of substituted-imidazolidine derivatives (3a–k) were synthesized starting from ethylene diamine and aromatic aldehydes. The imidazolidine derivatives (3a–k) were investigated for their anticipated anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Bioactivity score, molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of the imidazolidine derivatives were calculated by online computer software programs viz. Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. The results of biological testing indicated that among the synthesized compounds only three imidazolidine derivatives namely 4-[1,3-Bis(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3g), 4-[1,3-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3i) and 4-(1,3-Bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylimidazolidin-2-yl)-phenyl-diethylamine (3j) possess promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. Additionally these derivatives displayed superior GI safety profile (low severity index) with respect to the positive control, Indomethacin. All synthesized compounds showed promising bioactivity score for drug targets by Molinspiration software. Almost all the compounds were predicted to have very low toxicity risk by Osiris online software. Compound number (3i) emerged as a potential candidate for further research as it obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five for drug likeness, exhibited promising biological activity in-vivo and showed no risk of toxicity in computer aided screening.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • An integrated Taguchi and response surface methodological approach for the
           optimization of an HPLC method to determine glimepiride in a
           supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rajendra Narayan Dash, Habibuddin Mohammed, Touseef Humaira
      We studied the application of Taguchi orthogonal array (TOA) design during the development of an isocratic stability indicating HPLC method for glimepiride as per TOA design; twenty-seven experiments were conducted by varying six chromatographic factors. Percentage of organic phase was the most significant (p <0.001) on retention time, while buffer pH had the most significant (p <0.001) effect on tailing factor and theoretical plates. TOA design has shortcoming, which identifies the only linear effect, while ignoring the quadratic and interaction effects. Hence, a response surface model for each response was created including the linear, quadratic and interaction terms. The developed models for each response found to be well predictive bearing an acceptable adjusted correlation coefficient (0.9152 for retention time, 0.8985 for tailing factor and 0.8679 for theoretical plates). The models were found to be significant (p <0.001) having a high F value for each response (15.76 for retention time, 13.12 for tailing factor and 9.99 for theoretical plates). The optimal chromatographic condition uses acetonitrile – potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0; 30mM) (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase. The temperature, flow rate and injection volume were selected as 35±2°C, 1.0mLmin−1 and 20μL respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be specific for analyzing glimepiride from a novel supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Pravastatin chitosan nanogels-loaded erythrocytes as a new delivery
           strategy for targeting liver cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Mohamed M. Badran, Saeed A. AlQahtani, Fars K. Alanazi, Sabry M. Attia
      Chitosan nanogels (CNG) are developed as one of the most promising carriers for cancer targeting. However, these carriers are rapidly eliminated from circulation by reticuloendothelial system (RES), which limits their application. Therefore, erythrocytes (ER) loaded CNG as multifunctional carrier may overcome the massive elimination of nanocarriers by RES. In this study, erythrocytes loaded pravastatin–chitosan nanogels (PR–CNG–ER) were utilized as a novel drug carrier to target liver cancer. Thus, PR–CNG formula was developed in nanosize, with good entrapment efficiency, drug loading and sustained release over 48h. Then, PR–CNG loaded into ER were prepared by hypotonic preswelling technique. The resulting PR–CNG–ER showed 36.85% of entrapment efficiency, 66.82% of cell recovery and release consistent to that of hemoglobin over 48h. Moreover, PR–CNG–ER exhibited negative zeta potential, increasing of hemolysis percent, marked phosphatidylserine exposure and stomatocytes shape compared to control unloaded erythrocytes. PR–CNG–ER reduced cells viability of HepG2 cells line by 28% compared to unloaded erythrocytes (UER). These results concluded that PR–CNG–ER are promising drug carriers to target liver cancer.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Development and evaluation of natural gum-based extended release matrix
           tablets of two model drugs of different water solubilities by direct
           compression

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye, Kwadwo Amanor Mfoafo, Samuel Lugrie Kipo, Noble Kuntworbe, Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi
      The study was aimed at developing extended release matrix tablets of poorly water-soluble diclofenac sodium and highly water-soluble metformin hydrochloride by direct compression using cashew gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as release retardants. The suitability of light grade cashew gum as a direct compression excipient was studied using the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Thirteen tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium (∼100mg) and metformin hydrochloride (∼200mg) were prepared with varying amounts of cashew gum, xanthan gum and HPMC by direct compression. The flow properties of blended powders and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted in phosphate buffer (diclofenac: pH 7.4; metformin: pH 6.8) and the kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to five kinetic models. Cashew gum was found to be suitable for direct compression, having a good compressibility index (ICG) value of 5.173. The diclofenac and metformin matrix tablets produced generally possessed fairly good physical properties. Tablet swelling and drug release in aqueous medium were dependent on the type and amount of release retarding polymer and the solubility of drug used. Extended release of diclofenac (∼24h) and metformin (∼8–12h) from the matrix tablets in aqueous medium was achieved using various blends of the polymers. Drug release from diclofenac tablets fitted zero order, first order or Higuchi model while release from metformin tablets followed Higuchi or Hixson-Crowell model. The mechanism of release of the two drugs was mostly through Fickian diffusion and anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The study has demonstrated the potential of blended hydrophilic polymers in the design and optimization of extended release matrix tablets for soluble and poorly soluble drugs by direct compression.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets of
           Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohd Abdul Hadi, N.G. Raghavendra Rao, A. Srinivasa Rao
      In this present research work, the aim was to develop ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets-filled capsule system of Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. So Matrix-mini-tablets of Naproxen were prepared using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers by direct compression method which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. The compatibility was assessed using FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixtures. The prepared batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, drug content estimation, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. When FTIR and DSC studies were performed, it was found that there was no interaction between Naproxen and polymers used. The physicochemical properties of all the prepared matrix-mini-tablets batches were found to be in limits. The drug content percentage in the optimized formulation F18 was found to be 99.24±0.10%. Our optimized matrix-mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F18 releases Naproxen after a lag time of 2.45±0.97h and 27.30±0.86%, 92.59±0.47%, 99.38±0.69% at the end of 5, 8, 12h respectively. This formulation was also found to be stable as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Thus, a novel ileo-colonic targeted delivery system of Naproxen was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Enhanced ex vivo intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil
           nanosuspension: Preparation by combinative technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zenab Attari, Amita Bhandari, P.C. Jagadish, Shaila Lewis
      The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension based on combinative technology to enhance the intestinal absorption of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), a potent antihypertensive agent with limited oral bioavailability. Two combinative approaches were employed and then characterized. In vitro intestinal absorption of OLM nanosuspension and plain OLM was studied using non-everted rat intestinal sac model. Optimal OLM nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of ball milling and probe sonication using stabilizer, Poloxamer 407. The formula exhibited particle size of 469.9nm and zeta potential of −19.1mV, which was subjected to ex vivo studies. The flux and apparent permeability coefficient in intestine from OLM nanosuspension was higher than the plain drug, thereby suggesting better drug delivery.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Formulation, preclinical and clinical evaluation of a new submicronic
           arginine respiratory fluid for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary
           disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Virendra Pratap Singh Rathor, Pradeep Chugh, Rashid Ali, Anuj Bhatnagar, Syed Ehtaishamul Haque, Aseem Bhatnagar, Gaurav Mittal
      Inhalational drugs often suffer from low pulmonary deposition due to their micronized size. Aim of present study was development and evaluation of a novel submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation for treatment of cardiopulmonary complications associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Objectives were (a) to develop and characterize submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation, (b) pre-clinical safety/toxicity study in 2-animal species, (c) in vitro and in vivo evaluation in terms of respiratory fraction, and (d) clinical study to assess safety/efficacy in healthy volunteers/COPD patients. Formulation was optimized on the basis of particle size of aerosolized medication with particle size in the range of 400–500nm. Anderson cascade impaction (ACI) studies were performed to validate the advantage in terms of respirable fraction, which indicated a high respirable fraction (51.61±3.28) for the developed formulation. In vivo pulmonary deposition pattern of optimized formulation was studied using gamma scintigraphy in human volunteers using 99mTc-arginine as radiotracer. It clearly demonstrated a significant pulmonary deposition of the submicronic formulation in various lung compartments. Efficacy of the developed formulation was further assessed in COPD patients (n =15) by evaluating its effect on various cardiopulmonary parameters (spirometry, pulse-oxymetry, echocardiography and 6-min walk test). A marked improvement was seen in patients after inhalation of submicronic arginine in terms of their cardiopulmonary status. Results suggest that submicronic arginine respiratory fluid has the potential to be developed into an attractive therapeutic option for treating COPD associated cardiopulmonary complications.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Barriers associated with the Uptake of
           Influenza Vaccine among Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Y Mayet, Ghadeer K. Al-Shaikh, Hazem M Al-Mandeel, Nada A Alsaleh, Amani F Hamad
      Objective The study purpose was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and factors associated with the uptake of the influenza (flu) vaccination in women within Saudi Arabia during their pregnancy period. Methods A cross-sectional prospective survey was conducted on 1,085 pregnant women at the antenatal clinic over a period of 6 weeks with the provision of influenza vaccination. The questionnaire collected demographic and other data; it included 12 questions on their general knowledge and assessed their attitude towards influenza vaccination, and their awareness of vaccine risk and the potential benefits during pregnancy. The knowledge score obtained was then calculated and compared. Results A total of 998 patients took part in the questionnaire with a response rate of 92%. There was poor awareness that the flu vaccine is safe to administer during pregnancy (130, 13.1%) and that all pregnant women should receive the flu vaccine (190, 19.1%). Pregnant women with flu vaccine knowledge score of ⩽ 5 (range 0-12) were significantly less likely to take the vaccine (OR 3.78, 95% CI 2.68-5.26, p<0.001). There was a low uptake of the vaccine (178, 18.1%) and only 29 (3.0%) had previously been offered the flu vaccine by any doctor during their pregnancy. In addition, 255 (25.8%) were against taking the flu vaccine during pregnancy. Conclusion The knowledge and uptake of the influenza vaccine amongst Saudi pregnant women is low. One quarter was against the vaccine during pregnancy. Very few believed the flu vaccine to be safe during pregnancy. Rarely, physicians advise their clients to take flu vaccine.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Impact of a pharmacist led diabetes mellitus intervention on HbA1c,
           medication adherence and quality of life: A randomised controlled study

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mubashra Butt, Adliah Mhd Ali, Mohd Makmor Bakry, Norlaila Mustafa
      Malaysia is situated in Western Pacific region which bears 36.17% of total diabetes mellitus population. Pharmacist led diabetes interventions have been shown to improve the clinical outcomes amongst diabetes patients in various parts of the world. Despite high prevalence of disease in this region there is a lack of reported intervention outcomes from this region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist led intervention on HbA1c, medication adherence, quality of life and other secondary outcomes amongst type 2 diabetes patients. Method: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n =73) attending endocrine clinic at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) were randomised to either control (n =36) or intervention group (n =37) after screening. Patients in the intervention group received an intervention from a pharmacist during the enrolment, after three and six months of the enrolment. Outcome measures such as HbA1c, BMI, lipid profile, Morisky scores and quality of life (QoL) scores were assessed at the enrolment and after 6months of the study in both groups. Patients in the control group did not undergo intervention or educational module other than the standard care at UKMMC. Results: HbA1c values reduced significantly from 9.66% to 8.47% (P =0.001) in the intervention group. However, no significant changes were noted in the control group (9.64–9.26%, P =0.14). BMI values showed significant reduction in the intervention group (29.34–28.92kg/m2; P =0.03) and lipid profiles were unchanged in both groups. Morisky adherence scores significantly increased from 5.83 to 6.77 (P =0.02) in the intervention group; however, no significant change was observed in the control group (5.95–5.98, P =0.85). QoL profiles produced mixed results. Conclusion: This randomised controlled study provides evidence about favourable impact of a pharmacist led diabetes intervention programme on HbA1c, medication adherence and QoL scores amongst type 2 diabetes patients at UKMMC, Malaysia.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Blood glucose control for patients with acute coronary syndromes in Qatar

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby, Eman Elmekaty, Ibtihal Abdallah, Masa Habra, Khalid Al-Siyabi
      Background: Blood glucose is known to be elevated in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. However a gap in knowledge exists regarding effective management strategies once admitted to acute care units. It is also unknown what factors (if any) predict elevated glucose values during initial presentation. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to characterize blood glucose control in patients admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU) in Qatar and to determine predictive factors associated with high glucose levels (>10mmol/l) on admission to the CCU. Setting: All data for this study were obtained from the CCU at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Method: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients admitted to the CCU in Qatar from October 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2013, of which 283 were included. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, nationality, medical history, smoking status, type of acute coronary syndrome), capillary and lab blood glucose measurements, and use of insulin were extracted. Time spent in glucose ranges of <4, 4 to <8, 8 to <10, and >10mmol/1 was calculated manually. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess factors associated with high glucose on admission. The primary analysis was completed with capillary data and a sensitivity analysis was completed using laboratory data. Main outcome measure: Blood glucose values measured on admission and throughout length of stay in the CCU. Results: Capillary blood glucose data showed majority of time was spent in the range of >10mmol/l (41.95%), followed by 4–8mmol/l (35.44%), then 8–10mmol/l (21.45%), and finally <4mmol/l (1.16%). As a sensitivity analysis, laboratory data showed very similar findings. Diabetes, hypertension, and non-smoker status predicted glucose values >10mmol/l on admission (p <0.05) in a univariate analysis but only diabetes remained significant in a multivariate model (OR 23.3; 95% CI, 11.5–47.3). Conclusion: Diabetes predicts high glucose values on hospital admission for patients with ACS and patients are not being adequately controlled throughout CCU stay.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Patient adherence to warfarin therapy and its impact on anticoagulation
           control

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ahmed Y. Mayet
      Warfarin is a commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant in Saudi Arabia and yet patient adherence to warfarin therapy and its impact on anticoagulation control have not been well researched here. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over 6weeks at the outpatient anticoagulant clinic on patients who were receiving warfarin. Adherence was assessed using the translated Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Levels of adherence were classed as low (score⩽7), or high (score=8) based on the scores. Good anticoagulation control was defined as percent Time INR in Therapeutic Range (TTR)⩾75% using the Rosendaal method. A total of 192 patients completed a questionnaire with a response rate of 68.1%. It was established that no association was found between adherence to warfarin therapy and INR control groups. Among the 89 (46.4%) patients who had high adherence, only 34 (38.2%) had an acceptable INR control. This was versus 103 (53.6%) patients who had low adherence but also 34 (33.0%) had good INR control. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis showed that when studying females and occupational status of unemployment, they were independently associated with poor INR control with an OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.10–4.92, and OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.12–6.61 respectively. MLR analysis also showed that age <50years alongside no formal education was independently associated with low adherence to warfarin therapy with an OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.29–5.52 and OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.01–6.93 respectively. The demographic background influences adherence and INR control, but no association was found between adherence and anticoagulation control.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Stability of chronic medicines in dosage administration aids. How much
           have been done'

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Joyce Zhen Yin Tan, Yu Heng Kwan
      Background The prevalence of chronic diseases is increasing in Asia, therefore compliance to the medications is of utmost importance to slow disease progression and improve outcomes. Dosage administration aids (DAAs) serve as important tool to improve the compliance of patients. However, there is a dearth of data on the stability of chronic medications in DAAs. Furthermore, data presented by our Western counterparts may not be applicable to us because of our extreme humidity and temperature. In this study, we aim to summarize the data available in the literature on the stability of chronic medications in DAA. Methods We performed a literature search using electronic databases and related keywords. Results In total, 24,336 articles were retrieved and 21 articles were found to be relevant to our topic. This commentary stratified drugs according to their treatment categories and key stability conclusions, DAA and conditions used and recommendations were presented. Conclusion Due to the lack of specific data, pharmacists have to exercise their professional judgment with the help from professional guidelines when using DAA in repackaging medication. Manufacturers and regulators can play a greater role in filling the gap needed to provide pharmacists with necessary information to fulfill their function.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Biomedical microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS): Revolution in drug
           delivery and analytical techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rishad R. Jivani, Gaurang J. Lakhtaria, Dhaval D. Patadiya, Laxman D. Patel, Nurrudin P. Jivani, Bhagyesh P. Jhala
      Advancement in microelectromechanical system has facilitated the microfabrication of polymeric substrates and the development of the novel class of controlled drug delivery devices. These vehicles have specifically tailored three dimensional physical and chemical features which together, provide the capacity to target cell, stimulate unidirectional controlled release of therapeutics and augment permeation across the barriers. Apart from drug delivery devices microfabrication technology’s offer exciting prospects to generate biomimetic gastrointestinal tract models. BioMEMS are capable of analysing biochemical liquid sample like solution of metabolites, macromolecules, proteins, nucleic acid, cells and viruses. This review summarized multidisciplinary application of biomedical microelectromechanical systems in drug delivery and its potential in analytical procedures.


      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:19:22Z
       
  • Levetiracetam induced psoriasiform drug eruption: a rare case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Onur Serdar Gencler, Bilgen Gencler, Cemile Tugba Altunel, Nur Arslan
      Levetiracetam (LEV) is an established second generation anti-epileptic drug and LEV associated severe cutaneous reactions are rare. Here we report the case of psoriasiform drug eruption in a patient with newly diagnosed epilepsy who had been treated with levetiracetam. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with a psoriasiform eruption that appeared after the administration of LEV.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • The beneficial roles of Lupineus luteus and lifestyle changes in
           management of metabolic syndrome: A case study

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Fars K. Alanazi
      Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia. Here, we report a 43-year-old man with obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and mild liver dysfunctions. Lupid (Lupineus luteus) and therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) were suggested as therapeutic intervention for the present case for 6months. The body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), uric acid (UA) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were markedly decreased by 26.85%, 26.95%, 13%, 53.84%, 57.84%, 36.14%, 47.58% and 61.62% respectively, compared to those at baselines. However, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was markedly increased by 30.77%. The present results concluded that administration of lupin with TLC is good intervention for prevention and treatment of MetS.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Neonatal outcomes after oral administration of antenatal corticosteroid: A
           case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Doua AlSaad, Palli Valapila Abdulrouf, Hussain Parappil, Asma Tarannum, Binny Thomas
      The use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with reduction in morbidity and mortality rates in preterm delivery. A 34year-old pregnant woman, gravida 2 para1, was planned for elective cesarean section at 36weeks of gestation as ultrasound study showed intrauterine growth retardation. She has idiopathic thrombocytopenia and anemia, with suspected hypoplastic anemia. Due to mother’s low platelet count, antenatal intramuscular corticosteroids injection was avoided. Instead, oral dexamethasone was given for fetal lung maturity. Baby’s Apgar score at 1-min and 5-min was 9 and 10, respectively. The baby girl did not develop respiratory distress syndrome. She had mild transient tachypnea of newborn that needed only mild respiratory support with nasal cannula in room air.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Comparison of different serum sample extraction methods and their
           suitability for mass spectrometry analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari, Ahmed Ali Al-Hassan, Taibi B. Hadda, Mohamad Aljofan
      Mass spectrometry has been widely used, particularly in pharmacokinetic investigations and for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes. Like any other analytical method some difficulties exist in employing mass spectrometry, mainly when it is used to test biological samples, such as to detect drug candidates in mammalian serum, which is rich in proteins, lipids and other contents that may interfere with the investigational drug. The complexity of the serum proteome presents challenges for efficient sample preparation and adequate sensitivity for mass spectrometry analysis of drugs. Enrichment procedures prior to the drug analysis are often needed and as a result, the study of serum or plasma components usually demands either methods of purification or depletion of one or more. Selection of the best combination of sample introduction method is a crucial determinant of the sensitivity and accuracy of mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to determine the highest serum protein precipitation activity of five commonly used sample preparation methods and test their suitability for mass spectrometry. We spiked three small molecules into rabbit serum and applied different protein precipitation methods to determine their precipitation activity and applicability as a mass spectrometry introductory tool.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Synthesis and evaluation of the structural and physicochemical properties
           of carboxymethyl pregelatinized starch as a pharmaceutical excipient

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Sonia Lefnaoui, Nadji Moulai-Mostefa
      A pregelatinized starch (PGS) was derivatized with sodium chloroacetate (SCA) in alcoholic medium under alkaline condition to produce carboxymethyl pregelatinized starch (CMPGS) with various degrees of substitution (DS). Influence of the molar ratio of SCA to the glucopyranose units (SCA/GU), reaction time, temperature and the amount of sodium hydroxide on the degree of substitution (DS) and the reaction efficiency (RE) was studied. An optimal concentration of 30% of NaOH, for a reaction time of 1h at 50°C and molar ratio (SCA/GU) equal to 1.0, yielded an optimal DS of 0.55 and a RE of 55%. SEM micrographs revealed that the carboxymethylation assigned the structural arrangement of CMPGS and caused the granular disintegration. Wide angle diffraction X-ray (XRD) showed that the crystallinity of starch was obviously varied after carboxymethylation. New bands in FTIR spectra at 1417 and 1603cm−1 indicated the presence of carboxymethyl groups. The solubility and viscosity of CMPGS increased with an increase in the degree of modification. In order to investigate the influence of DS on physical and drug release properties, CMPGS obtained with DS in the range of 0.12–0.55 was evaluated as tablet excipient for sustained drug release. Dissolution tests performed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), with Ibuprofen as drug model (25% loading) showed that CMPGS seems suitable to be used as sustained release excipient since the drug release was driven over a period up to 8h. The in vitro release kinetics studies revealed that all formulations fit well with Korsmeyer-Peppas model and the mechanism of drug release is non-Fickian diffusion.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • In vitro and in vivo targeting effect of folate decorated paclitaxel
           loaded PLA–TPGS nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ha Phuong Thu, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Bui Thuc Quang, Ho Anh Son, Nguyen Linh Toan, Duong Tuan Quang
      Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for treating various types of cancer. However, the clinical application of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its poor water solubility and low therapeutic index. Thus, it requires an urgent solution to improve therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. In this study, folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLA–TPGS nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50nm in size with a narrow size distribution. Targeting effect of nanoparticles was investigated in vitro on cancer cell line and in vivo on tumor bearing nude mouse. The results indicated the effective targeting of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded copolymer nanoparticles on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Fabrication and in vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA nanoparticles
           for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): D. Nagasamy Venkatesh, Mahendran Baskaran, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Sai Sandeep Mannemala, Kollipara Radhakrishna, Sandip Goti
      Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5–5h) remain a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using PLGA and Poloxomer 407. The prepared NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro dissolution studies. Oral bioavailability studies were carried out in New Zealand rabbits by administering developed NFV PLGA-NPs and pure drug suspension. PLGA-NPs prepared by using 1:4 ratio of drug and PLGA, with a stirring rate of 1500rpm for 4h. The prepared NPs were in the size of 185±0.83nm with a zeta potential of 28.7±0.09mV. The developed NPs were found to be spherical with uniform size distribution. The drug content and EE of the optimized formulation were found to be 36±0.19% and 72±0.47% respectively. After oral administration of NFV PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was enhanced about 4.94 fold compared to NFV suspension as a control. The results describe an effective strategy for oral delivery of NFV loaded PLGA NPs that helps in enhancing bioavailability and reduce the frequency of dosing.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of repaglinide loaded floating
           microspheres prepared from different viscosity grades of HPMC polymer

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Megha Sharma, Seema Kohli, Agnimitra Dinda
      During the study repaglinide encapsulated floating microspheres were formulated and characterized for enhancing residence time of drug in git and thereby increasing its bioavailability. Floating microspheres of ethylcellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) (5 and 100cps) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. During process optimization various parameters were studied such as: drug: polymer ratio, polymer ratio, concentration of emulsifier and stirring speed. Selected optimized formulations were studied for SEM, entrapment, floating behavior, drug release and kinetics. In-vivo floating ability (X-ray) study and in-vivo antidiabetic activity were performed on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Microspheres prepared with different viscosity grade HPMC were spherical shaped with smooth surface. Size of microspheres was in the range of 181.1–248μm. Good entrapment and buoyancy were observed for 12h. X-ray image showed that optimized formulation remained buoyant for more than 6h. Optimized formulation treated group shows significant (p <0.01) reduction in blood glucose level as compared to pure drug treated group. Repaglinide loaded floating microspheres expected to give new choice for safe, economical and increased bioavailable formulation for effective management of NIDDM.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Influence of different types of low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose on
           tableting, disintegration, and floating behaviour of floating drug
           delivery systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Péter Diós, Tivadar Pernecker, Sándor Nagy, Szilárd Pál, Attila Dévay
      The object of the present study is to evaluate the effect of application of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) 11 and B1 as excipients promoting floating in gastroretentive tablets. Directly compressed tablets were formed based on experimental design. Face-centred central composite design was applied with two factors and 3 levels, where amount of sodium alginate (X 1) and L-HPC (X2 ) were the numerical factors. Applied types of L-HPCs and their 1:1 mixture were included in a categorical factor (X 3). Studied parameters were floating lag time, floating time, floating force, swelling behaviour of tablets and dissolution of paracetamol, which was used as a model active substance. Due to their physical character, L-HPCs had different water uptake and flowability. Lower flowability and lower water uptake was observed after 60min at L-HPC 11 compared to L-HPC B1. Shorter floating times were detected at L-HPC 11 and L-HPC mixtures with 0.5% content of sodium alginate, whereas alginate was the only significant factor. Evaluating results of drug release and swelling studies on floating tablets revealed correlation, which can serve to help to understand the mechanism of action of L-HPCs in the field development of gastroretentive dosage forms.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Enhancement of dissolution rate of class II drugs (Hydrochlorothiazide); a
           comparative study of the two novel approaches; solid dispersion and
           liqui-solid techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Amjad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Yasar Shah, Lateef Ahmad, Ismail, Zia Ullah, Aman Ullah
      Liqui-solid technique and solid dispersion formation are two novel approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of BCS class II drugs. Liqui-solid compact converts a liquid drug or drug solution into a free flowing powder with enhanced dissolution rate. In case of solid dispersion drug is molecularly dispersed in a hydrophilic polymer in solid state. In the present study, Liqui-solid and solid dispersion techniques were applied to enhance the dissolution of the Hydrochlorothiazide. Three formulations of Hydrochlorothiazide were prepared by liqui-solid technique using micro crystalline cellulose as carrier material and colloidal silicon dioxide as coating material. Water, poly ethylene glycol-400 and Tween-60 were used as solvent system. Solid dispersions of Hydrochlorothiazide were prepared by solvent fusion method using PEG-4000 as carrier polymer. Tablets were subjected to evaluation of various physical and chemical characteristics. Dissolution profiles of tablets prepared by the novel techniques were compared with marketed conventional tablets. Model independent techniques including similarity factor, dissimilarity factor and dissolution efficiency were applied for comparison of dissolution profiles. The results obtained indicated that liqui-solid compact formulations were more effective in enhancing the dissolution rate compared with solid dispersion technique. The liqui-solid compacts improved the dissolution rate up to 95% while the solid dispersion increased it to 88%.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Public’s perception and satisfaction on the roles and services
           provided by pharmacists – Cross sectional survey in Sultanate of
           Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Jimmy Jose, Marwa Nasser Al Shukili, Beena Jimmy
      Background and objectives: An important factor that will help in advancement of the pharmacy services in any country would be to understand the public needs, expectation and satisfaction. There are limited published studies conducted in Sultanate of Oman regarding the perception and satisfaction of public on the role and services provided by pharmacists. The present study was conducted to assess the perception and satisfaction of general public in Sultanate of Oman on the roles, and services received from the pharmacists. Methods: The survey was conducted among public in the Governorates of A’Dahera and Muscat in Oman during 2013. The questionnaire had items to assess two aspects: perception on the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists and satisfaction on the services provided. The responses to the questions marked in a five point Likert scale were assessed using a scoring scheme. Accordingly, the median perception, and satisfaction score and median total score for the participants were estimated. The median scores of the participants were related with the demographics of the participants and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Results: A total of 390 completed questionnaires were obtained. The median total score of the participants based on all the questions was 79 (Inter Quartile Range (IQR), 12) which represents a moderate score. The median perception and satisfaction scores were 44 (IQR 5) and 34 (IQR 7) which represent a good and moderate score, respectively. Perception of the participants differed based on employment status, frequency of visit to pharmacy and governorate represented by participants while satisfaction was influenced by educational qualification and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Conclusions: Public had a good perception regarding the roles of the pharmacists while they were only moderately satisfied with the services provided. Steps have to be taken to improve the services and relationship of pharmacists, and thereby improve the satisfaction of the customers. An extended study in a broader population involving more governorates will provide an enhanced representation regarding this important aspect.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Mahmoud I. Abdel-Aziz, Mostafa A. Sayed Ali, Ayman K.M. Hassan, Tahani H. Elfaham
      The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembolic episodes. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to determine independent risk factors that can keep patients outside target INR range. Patients who were newly initiated warfarin on hospital admission were given low initiation dose (2.8mg±0.9). They were more likely to have INR values below 1.5 during hospital stay, 13 (27.7%) patients compared with 9 (12.3%) previously treated patients, respectively (p =.034). We found that the best predictors of achieving below target INR range relative to within target INR range were; shorter hospital stay periods (OR, 0.82 for every day increase [95% CI, 0.72–0.94]), being a male patient (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.05–7.69]), concurrent infection (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07–0.59]) and new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission (OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 1.28–10.9]). Gender, new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission, shorter hospital stay periods and concurrent infection can have a significant effect on discharge INRs. Initiation of warfarin without giving loading doses increases the risk of having INRs below 1.5 during hospital stay and increases the likelihood of a patient to be discharged with INR below target range. Following warfarin dosing nomograms and careful monitoring of the effect of various factors on warfarin response should be greatly considered.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Systemic delivery of β-blockers via transdermal route for
           hypertension

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Abdul Ahad, Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea, Naseem Akhtar, Mohammad Raish, Mohd. Aqil
      Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease worldwide. Moreover, management of hypertension requires long-term treatment that may result in poor patient compliance with conventional dosage forms due to greater frequency of drug administration. Although there is availability of a plethora of therapeutically effective antihypertensive molecules, inadequate patient welfare is observed; this arguably presents an opportunity to deliver antihypertensive agents through a different route. Ever since the transdermal drug delivery came into existence, it has offered great advantages including non-invasiveness, prolonged therapeutic effect, reduced side effects, improved bioavailability, better patient compliance and easy termination of drug therapy. Attempts were made to develop the transdermal therapeutic system for various antihypertensive agents, including β-blockers, an important antihypertensive class. β-blockers are potent, highly effective in the management of hypertension and other heart ailments by blocking the effects of normal amounts of adrenaline in the heart and blood vessels. The shortcomings associated with β-blockers such as more frequent dose administration, extensive first pass metabolism and variable bioavailability, make them an ideal candidate for transdermal therapeutic systems. The present article gives a brief view of different β-blockers formulated as transdermal therapeutic system in detail to enhance the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance. Constant improvement in this field holds promise for the long-term success in technologically advanced transdermal dosage forms being commercialized sooner rather than later.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Safety of pregabalin among hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic
           pruritus

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Tahir Mehmood Khan, Abdul Aziz Alhafez, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, David Wu Bin Chia
      Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and probability of adverse events associated with the use of 75mg pregabalin post hemodialysis (pHD) among patients with UP. Methods: A cross-sectional study done among the hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic pruritus (UP) Aljaber Kidney Center (AJKC), Al-Ahsa, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Assessment for the safety profile of pregabalin was done using Naranjo’s algorithm. A predictive model was developed using binary multiple logistic regression to explore association of patients’ demographics and risk factors with the occurrence of AEs. Throughout statistical significance level was considered significant at 0.05. Key findings: Assessment of safety of pregabalin revealed that somnolence and dizziness were the two frequent adverse events followed by constipation, weight gain and edema. However, it was noticed that female patients aged less than 50years were found to be at a higher risk in comparison with men. Moreover, those patients having one comorbid complication (i.e. hypertension or diabetes mellitus alone) were at a higher risk of somnolence, weight gain and dry mouth. Conclusion: Naranjo’s quantification for the possibility and probability of adverse events reflect that all the events were probable. Age, gender and comorbid medical conditions are some of the factors that might have clinical association with the occurrence of the AEs.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Preparation, validation and user-testing of pictogram-based patient
           information leaflets for hemodialysis patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Uday Venkat Mateti, Anantha Naik Nagappa, Ravindra Prabhu Attur, Manohar Bairy, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Surulivelrajan Mallayasamy, Rajesh Vilakkathala, Vasudev Guddattu, Rajesh Balkrishnan
      Background: Patient information leaflets are universally-accepted resources to educate the patients/users about their medications, disease and lifestyle modification. Objectives: The objective of the study was to prepare, validate and perform user-testing of pictogram-based patient information leaflets (P-PILs) among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: The P-PILs are prepared by referring to the primary, secondary and tertiary resources. The content and pictograms of the leaflet have been validated by an expert committee consisting of three nephrologists and two academic pharmacists. The Baker Able Leaflet Design has been applied to develop the layout and design of the P-PILs. Results: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design without control group was conducted on 81 HD patients for user-testing of P-PILs. The mean Baker Able Leaflet Design assessment score for English version of the leaflet was 28, and 26 for Kannada version. The overall user-testing knowledge assessment mean scores were observed to have significantly improved from 44.25 to 69.62 with p value <0.001. Conclusion: The overall user opinion of content and legibility of the leaflets was good. Pictogram-based patient information leaflets can be considered an effective educational tool for HD patients.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Cost-minimization analysis of imipenem/cilastatin versus meropenem in
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Imraan Joosub, Andy Gray, Analyn Crisostomo, Abdul Salam
      Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the costs of management of moderate to severe infections in patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin (IC) and meropenem (MEM). Pharmacoeconomic studies in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The current hospital formulary contains 2 carbapenems: IC and MEM. These antibiotics share a similar spectrum of activity. There are conflicting reviews with regard to the relative cost-effectiveness of these two agents. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 88 patients of IC versus MEM in moderate to severe infections was performed, applying cost-minimization analysis (CMA) methods. In accordance with CMA methods, the assumption of equivalent efficacy was first demonstrated by literature retrieved and appraised. Adult patients (⩾18years old) diagnosed with moderate to severe infections, including skin and skin structure infections (SSIs), sepsis, intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), who were prescribed IC 500mg every six hours intravenously (2g per day) or MEM 1g every eight hours (3g per day), were included in the study. Only direct costs related to the management of the infections were included, in accordance with a payer perspective. Results: Overall there was no difference in the mean total daily costs between IC (SAR 4784.46, 95% CI 4140.68, 5428.24) and MEM (4390.14, 95% CI 3785.82, 4994.45; p =0.37). A significantly lower medicine acquisition cost per vial of IC was observed when compared to MEM, however there was a significantly higher cost attached to administration sets used in the IC group than the MEM group. Consultation, nursing and physician costs were not significantly different between the groups. No differences were observed in costs associated with adverse drug events (ADEs). Conclusion: This study has shown that while acquisition costs of IC at a dose of 500mg q6h may be lower than for MEM 1g q8h, mean total costs per day were not significantly different between IC and MEM, indicating that medicine costs are only a small element of the overall costs of managing moderate to severe infections.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of
           combinational therapy with metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 6
      Author(s): Abdulrahman S. Alanazi
      Combinational therapies are often required in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Among the important candidates, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPPIs) and metformin combination (DPPI-MET) have shown promising endeavors. In order to examine the efficacy and safety of such a combination therapy in T2DM patients finding inadequate control with metformin, this systematic review and meta-analysis has been conducted. Literature search was made in multiple electronic databases. Inclusion criteria included; RCTs examining the efficacy and safety of DPPI-MET against placebo-MET or MET-only groups of T2DM patients by observing changes in disease endpoints including HbA1c and FPG, and the length of trial be at least 12weeks. Mean differences based meta-analyses were performed and heterogeneity assessment was carried out. Nineteen studies were selected and included in the meta-analyses. DPPI-MET significantly improved all disease endpoints and the difference could be noticed up to 2years in the majority of outcome measures. In comparison with PBO-MET, the DPPI-MET combinational therapy resulted in the percent HbA1c changes from baseline with a mean difference [95% CI] of −0.77 [−0.86, −0.69] in 3-month (P <0.00001), −0.67 [−0.76, −0.59] in 6-month (P <0.00001), −0.67 [−0.88, −0.47] in 1-year (P <0.00001) and −0.36 [−0.53, −0.20] in 2-year trials (P <0.0003). Reduction in body weight and safety profile in the treated and control groups were not different. A combinational therapy with DPPI and metformin significantly improves diabetes clinical indicators and this effect has been observed for up to 2years herein. Safety and tolerability of DPPI-MET combination have been found well-manageable with a very similar adverse event profile in both treated and control groups.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T20:41:01Z
       
  • Evaluation of a biosimilar recombinant alpha epoetin in the management of
           anemia in hemodialysis patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Fatemeh Beiraghdar, Yunes Panahi, Behzad Einollahi, Eghlim Nemati, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Arash Hassanzadeh, Hamid T. Khosroshahi, Sima A. Azar, Javid Safa, Sadroddin R. Hashemi, Jalal Etemadi, Eisa T. Marzony, Hamid Noshad
      Background: The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietins (rHuEPOs) in the treatment of anemia with different etiologies is proven. Development of biosimilar rHuEPO products with lower cost and wider availability is important for the care of anemic patients. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the bioequivalence and safety of a biosimilar rHuEPO (Pastopoitin®) and compare it with the innovator product Eprex®, as a standard rHuEPO. Methods: One hundred and seven anemic patients on stable hemodialysis were recruited to this randomized double-blind comparative trial and assigned to either subcutaneous Pastopoitin (n =50) or Eprex (n =57). Each study group received rHuEPO at a dose of 80–120IU/kg/week in 2–3 divided doses for a period of 3months. Hematologic parameters including Hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, EBC, platelet, MCV, MCH and MCHC were checked every 2weeks. Blood iron, ferritin, TIBC, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes (Na, K, Ca and P) were evaluated monthly over the 3months. Results: A significant increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit and RBC was observed by the end of study in both Pastopoitin and Eprex groups (p < 0.001). However, these factors were not significantly different between the groups, neither at baseline nor at the end of study (p > 0.05). Likewise, the groups were comparable regarding MCV, MCH, MCHC, iron, ferritin, TIBC, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes at baseline as well as at the end of trial. Adverse events were not serious and occurred with the same frequency in the study groups. Conclusion: Pastopoitin showed comparable efficacy and safety profile with Eprex in anemic patients on hemodialysis. Hence, Pastopoitin may be considered as a rHuEPO with a lower cost and wider availability compared with the innovator product Eprex.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Full factorial design for optimization, development and validation of HPLC
           method to determine valsartan in nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Lalit Kumar, M. Sreenivasa Reddy, Renuka S. Managuli, Girish Pai K.
      High performance liquid chromatographic method was optimized, developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. In this study the 20mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile in the 57:43 ratio were used as mobile phase for the analysis of valsartan. Full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of variable factors. The responses were peak area, tailing factor and number of theoretical plates. The quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually as well as in interaction were most significant (p <0.0001 and p <0.0086, respectively) on peak area; the quadratic effect of pH of buffer was also most significant effect (p <0.0001) on tailing factor (5%) whereas the quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually was significant (p =0.0006 and p =0.0265, respectively) on the number of theoretical plates. The high-performance liquid chromatographic separation was performed at the flow rate 1.0min/mL, UV detector wavelength 250nm and pH of the buffer 3.0 as optimized parameters using design of experiments. The retention time values of valsartan were found to be 10.177min. Percent recovery in terms of accuracy for the prepared valsartan nanoparticles was found in the range of 98.57–100.27%.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Akathisia with Erythromycin: Induced or precipitated'

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ankur Sachdeva, Ruchika Rathee
      Objective: A 28-year-old male diagnosed with schizophrenia, maintaining well on Olanzapine, developed akathisia soon after addition of Erythromycin for Pityriasis Rosea. This prompted us to evaluate the relationship of Erythromycin and akathisia. Method: We report the case and the literature focusing on akathisia as a possible adverse event of Erythromycin. Results: Akathisia resolved after Erythromycin was stopped following 5days of treatment. Akathisia was possibly induced or precipitated with use of Erythromycin. Possible etiological reasons of this clinically significant association are discussed. Conclusion: Erythromycin, by itself, may induce akathisia or precipitate akathisia in individuals by interfering with metabolism of other culprit drugs.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Quality in the pharmaceutical industry – A literature review

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Reham M. Haleem, Maissa Y. Salem, Faten A. Fatahallah, Laila E. Abdelfattah
      Objectives The aim of this study is to: a. Highlight the most important guidelines and practices of quality in the pharmaceutical industry. b. Organize such guidelines and practices to create a guide to pave the way for other researchers who would like to dig deeper into these guidelines and practices. Design A review was conducted of 102 publications; 56 publications were concerned with the pharmaceutical quality directly while 46 publications were concerned with the general quality practices. The content of those sources was analyzed and the following themes were identified: a. Research theme 1: Guidelines of the pharmaceutical quality. b. Research theme 2: General practices recently applied in the pharmaceutical industry. Main outcome measures The following guidelines were identified and reviewed: WHO guidelines, FDA guidelines, EU guidelines and ICH guidelines in the research theme I. In research theme II; the following topics were identified and reviewed: quality risk management, quality by design, corrective actions and preventive actions, process capability analysis, Six Sigma, process analytical technology, lean manufacturing, total quality management, ISO series and HACCP. Results Upon reviewing the previously highlighted guidelines and the practices that are widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry, it was noticed that there is an abundant number of papers and articles that explain the general guidelines and practices but the literature lack those describing application; case studies of the pharmaceutical factories applying those guidelines and significance of those guidelines and practices. Conclusions It is recommended that the literature would invest more in the area of application and significance of guidelines and practices. New case studies should be done to prove the feasibility of such practices.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Design, optimization and evaluation of glipizide solid
           self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery for enhanced solubility and dissolution
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rajendra Narayan Dash, Habibuddin Mohammed, Touseef Humaira, Devi Ramesh
      A solid self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system (solid SNEDDS) has been explored to improve the solubility and dissolution profile of glipizide. SNEDDS preconcentrate was systematically optimized using a circumscribed central composite design by varying Captex 355 (Oil), Solutol HS15 (Surfactant) and Imwitor 988 (Co-surfactant). The optimized SNEDDS preconcentrate consisted of Captex 355 (30%w/w), Solutol HS15 (45%w/w) and Imwitor 988 (25%w/w). The saturation solubility (SS) of glipizide in optimized SNEDDS preconcentrate was found to be 45.12±1.36mg/ml, indicating an improvement (1367 times) of glipizide solubility as compared to its aqueous solubility (0.033±0.0021mg/ml). At 90% SS, glipizide was loaded to the optimized SNEDDS. In-vitro dilution of liquid SNEDDS resulted in a nanoemulsion with a mean droplet size of 29.4nm. TEM studies of diluted liquid SNEDDS confirmed the uniform shape and size of the globules. The liquid SNEDDS was adsorbed onto calcium carbonate and talc to form solid SNEDDS. PXRD, DSC, and SEM results indicated that, the presence of glipizide as an amorphous and as a molecular dispersion state within solid SNEDDS. Glipizide dissolution improved significantly (p <0.001) from the solid SNEDDS (∼100% in 15min) as compared to the pure drug (18.37%) and commercial product (65.82) respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Attitude of future healthcare provider towards vitamin D significance in
           relation to sunlight exposure

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Aysha Zia Qureshi, Zubia Zia, Mehnaz Nuruddin Gitay, Muhammad Umair Khan, Muhammad Saad Khan
      Objective: Nature is the kindest of all to provide man with all the necessary components for a healthy life at easily accessible lengths. The deprivation arises with unawareness and lack of correct measures to extract the benefits. Medical education makes the youth aware of the numerous disorders and diseases, as well as their preventions and treatments. This awareness needs to be realized and implemented in the society, and it is not possible without the advisers acting on the same lines. Since doctors are the most trusted and their advice is adopted without much thought, it is extremely inevitable to analyze the attitude of medical students of various levels to understand the cause of their negligence toward their own deficiencies, the focus for this study being vitamin D (VD). Method: A cross sectional descriptive study was done on undergraduate medical students of health profession from different universities of Pakistan to access the awareness regarding VD deficiency associated with sunlight. Informed consent was duly signed by each participant after which self-constructed questionnaire was provided to them and data are collected. SPSS 17 was used for Statistical analysis. Results: Final students are well aware of VD significance, take food rich in VD but still suffer from fatigue and muscular pain. No treatment was taken for fatigue and muscular pain by majority of these sufferers and those who took treatment were VD supplement. The health sufferers were mostly those who avoided sunlight highlighting the role of VD in maintaining an active lifestyle as well as the significance of sunlight in maintaining VD levels. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in spite of awareness, the role of sunlight exposure and the proper time and duration of exposure cannot be ignored to create a healthy and active society.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Detection of adverse drug reactions by medication antidote signals and
           comparison of their sensitivity with common methods of ADR detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Lateef M. Khan, Sameer E. Al-Harthi, Huda M. Alkreathy, Abdel-Moneim M. Osman, Ahmed S. Ali
      Objective To determine the PPVs of selected ten medication antidote signals in recognizing potential ADRs and comparison of their sensitivity with manual chart analysis, and voluntary reporting recognizing the same ADRs. Method The inpatient EMR database of internal medicine department was utilized for a period of one year, adult patients prescribed at least one of the ten signals, were included in the study, recipient patients of antidote signals were assessed for the occurrence of an ADR by Naranjo’s tool of ADR evaluation. PPVs of each antidote signal were verified. Result PPV of Methylprednisolone and Phytonadione was 0.28, Metoclopramide and Potassium Chloride – 0.29, Dextrose 50%, Promethazine, Sodium Polystyrene and Loperamide – 0.30, Protamine and Acetylcysteine – 0.33. In comparison of confirmed ADRs of antidote signals with other methods, Dextrose 50%, Metoclopramide, Sodium Polystyrene, Potassium Chloride, Methylprednisolone and Promethazine seem to be extremely significant (P value>0.0001), while ADRs of Phytonadione, Protamine, Acetylcysteine and Loperamide were insignificant. Conclusion Antidote medication signals have definitive discerning evaluation value of ADRs over routine methods of ADR detection with a high detection rate with a minimum cost; Their integration with hospital EMR database and routine patient safety surveillance enhances transparency, time-saving and facilitates ADR detection.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not
           stable'

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Somchai Sawatdee, Chaveng Pakawatchai, Kwanjai Nitichai, Teerapol Srichana, Hirihattaya Phetmung
      Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma
           instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Waqas Akram, Maryam S.E. Hussein, Sohail Ahmad, Mohd N. Mamat, Nahlah E. Ismail
      There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60–1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • The possible antianginal effect of allopurinol in vasopressin-induced
           ischemic model in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yahya A. Al-Zahrani, Sameer E. Al-Harthi, Lateef M. Khan, Hani M. El-Bassossy, Sherif M. Edris, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar
      The anti-anginal effects of allopurinol were assessed in experimental model rats of angina and their effects were evaluated with amlodipine. In the vasopressin-induced angina model, oral administration of allopurinol in dose of 10mg/kg revealed remarkably analogous effects in comparison with amlodipine such as dose-dependent suppression of vasopressin-triggered time, duration and severity of ST depression. In addition, allopurinol produced dose dependent suppression of plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, systolic blood pressure, cardiac contractility and cardiac oxygen consumption; while in contrast, amlodipine minimally suppressed the elevation of plasma MDA level. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression, serum nitrate were strikingly increased, however lipid profile was significantly reduced. Seemingly, allopurinol was found to be more potent than amlodipine – a calcium channel antagonist. To conclude, it was explicitly observed and verified that on the ischemic electrocardiography (ECG) changes in angina pectoris model in rats, allopurinol exerts a significant protective effects, reminiscent of enhancement of vascular oxidative stress, function of endothelial cells, improved coronary blood flow in addition to the potential enhancement in myocardial stress. Moreover, our findings were in conformity with several human studies.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Antiproliferative effects of aspirin and diclofenac against the growth of
           cancer and fibroblast cells: In vitro comparative study

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer, Huda G. Hameed, Majid M. Mahmood
      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to compare the cytotoxic effect of aspirin with diclofenac on the growth of HeLa cell, mammary cell carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines in the culture media. The cells are cultured in RPMI-1640 culture media supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Aspirin (5mg/well) and diclofenac (0.625mg/well) significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa, rhabdomyosarcoma and fibroblast cells. The cytotoxic effect of aspirin against rhabdomyosarcoma is significantly (p <0.001) higher than that of diclofenac with a potency approximated 2.6. It concludes that aspirin and diclofenac inhibit the growth of fibroblast and cancer cell by inhibiting the up-regulation of cyclooxygenases enzymes in cancer cells. Aspirin is more effective than diclofenac against the growth of rhabdomyosarcoma cell line.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • The role of pharmacists in developing countries: The current scenario in
           the United Arab Emirates

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ibrahim Khalid Rayes, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Abduelmula R. Abduelkarem
      Pharmacy practice has passed several rounds of advancements over the past few years. It had changed the traditional positioning criteria of pharmacists as business people into patient-centered healthcare professionals. This worldwide shift is increasingly accumulating pressure on UAE pharmacists to turn up into better level of service providing accompanied with higher demand of inter-personal skills and intellectual capabilities. This can be accomplished through stressing the significance of continuing pharmacy education in basic sciences as well as social and administrative pharmacy techniques and its collaboration in elevating the quality of pharmacy practice in the UAE.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
  • Synthesis and oral hypoglycemic effect of novel thiazine containing
           trisubstituted benzenesulfonylurea derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Alok Singh Thakur, Ravitas Deshmukh, Arvind Kumar Jha, P. Sudhir Kumar
      A new series of 3-(4-substituted phenyl)-1-(4-(4,6-dimethyl-6H-1,3-thiazin-2-yl)phenylsulfonyl)-1-substituted urea (5a–o) was synthesized by an effectual route via sulfonylcarbamates and explores the novel site for substitution in sulfonylurea as well as the way of thiazine can be prepared. The molecules were established by elemental analysis and spectroscopic viz. IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS techniques. All the fifteen derivatives were shown very prominent oral hypoglycemic effect at the dose of 40mg/kg body weight (p.o.) in respect of standard drug glibenclamide and control. The hypoglycemic effect was studied using oral glucose tolerance test in normal and NIDDM in STZ-rat model. The compounds 5a, 5d, 5f, 5i, 5k and 5n were dominant out of fifteen derivatives for blood glucose lowering activity (more than 80%) when comparing with NIDDM control. These derivatives were either containing simply phenyl ring (5a, 5f and 5k) on to the second amine of sulfonylurea (R′= H) or nitro group at the para position in compound 5d, 5i and 5n (R′= NO2 ) to produce significant oral hypoglycemic effect. Other structural activity relationship is also observed regarding the heteroaromatic and substituted aromatic group at R and R′ position respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-10-09T01:34:59Z
       
 
 
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