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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 552 journals)
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Journal Cover   Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 14]   Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • Active educational intervention as a tool to improve safe and appropriate
           use of antibiotics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mayadah B. Shehadeh , Ghadeer A.R.Y. Suaifan , Eman A. Hammad
      Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines, and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and post education. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics. Knowledge score was estimated by calculating the percentage of correct responses. The mean (SD) knowledge score pre education was 59.4% (20.3). However, post education the score was 65.9% (17.9), p <0.001(t-test). Knowledge scores classified as poor, adequate and good. Post education, participants within poor and adequate knowledge were significantly shifted to a category describing better knowledge, McNemar-χ2 = 28.7, df = 3, p< 0.001. It is concluded that using tailored education material targeting antibiotic need and use with a major aim of improving the public knowledge about antibiotics can be an effective and feasible strategy. This pilot study could be considered as the starting point for a wider scale public educational interventional study and national antibiotic campaign. However, the improvement in participant’s knowledge might not reflect an actual change in antibiotics-seeking behaviour or future retention of knowledge. Future research should seek to assess the impact of education on participant’s behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pravastatin chitosan nanogels-loaded erythrocytes as a new delivery
           strategy for targeting liver cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa , Mohamed M. Badran , Saeed A. AlQahtani , Fars K. Alanazi , Sabry M. Attia
      Chitosan nanogels (CNG) are developed as one of the most promising carriers for cancer targeting. However, these carriers are rapidly eliminated from circulation by reticuloendothelial system (RES), which limits their application. Therefore, erythrocytes (ER) loaded CNG as multifunctional carrier may overcome the massive elimination of nanocarriers by RES. In this study, erythrocytes loaded pravastatin–chitosan nanogels (PR–CNG–ER) were utilized as a novel drug carrier to target liver cancer. Thus, PR–CNG formula was developed in nanosize, with good entrapment efficiency, drug loading and sustained release over 48h. Then, PR–CNG loaded into ER were prepared by hypotonic preswelling technique. The resulting PR–CNG–ER showed 36.85% of entrapment efficiency, 66.82% of cell recovery and release consistent to that of hemoglobin over 48h. Moreover, PR–CNG–ER exhibited negative zeta potential, increasing of hemolysis percent, marked phosphatidylserine exposure and stomatocytes shape compared to control unloaded erythrocytes. PR–CNG–ER reduced cells viability of HepG2 cells line by 28% compared to unloaded erythrocytes (UER). These results concluded that PR–CNG–ER are promising drug carriers to target liver cancer.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary
           doses in a third level hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): David Calderón-Guzmán , Hugo Juárez-Olguín , Ernestina Hernández-García , Alejandro Medina-Andrade , Belen Juarez Tapia
      Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD) in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD) in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011) was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for
           hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sudha Chandelia , Mukesh Dhankar , Meetu Salhan
      Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM) in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1) less than 2years and (2) 2–5years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82%) and systemic sympathomimetics (48%). The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025). However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895). No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2years) vs. 85% (2–5years); p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Blood glucose control for patients with acute coronary syndromes in Qatar

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby , Eman Elmekaty , Ibtihal Abdallah , Masa Habra , Khalid Al-Siyabi
      Background: Blood glucose is known to be elevated in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. However a gap in knowledge exists regarding effective management strategies once admitted to acute care units. It is also unknown what factors (if any) predict elevated glucose values during initial presentation. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to characterize blood glucose control in patients admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU) in Qatar and to determine predictive factors associated with high glucose levels (>10mmol/l) on admission to the CCU. Setting: All data for this study were obtained from the CCU at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Method: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients admitted to the CCU in Qatar from October 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2013, of which 283 were included. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, nationality, medical history, smoking status, type of acute coronary syndrome), capillary and lab blood glucose measurements, and use of insulin were extracted. Time spent in glucose ranges of <4, 4 to <8, 8 to <10, and >10mmol/1 was calculated manually. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess factors associated with high glucose on admission. The primary analysis was completed with capillary data and a sensitivity analysis was completed using laboratory data. Main outcome measure: Blood glucose values measured on admission and throughout length of stay in the CCU. Results: Capillary blood glucose data showed majority of time was spent in the range of >10mmol/l (41.95%), followed by 4–8mmol/l (35.44%), then 8–10mmol/l (21.45%), and finally <4mmol/l (1.16%). As a sensitivity analysis, laboratory data showed very similar findings. Diabetes, hypertension, and non-smoker status predicted glucose values >10mmol/l on admission (p <0.05) in a univariate analysis but only diabetes remained significant in a multivariate model (OR 23.3; 95% CI, 11.5–47.3). Conclusion: Diabetes predicts high glucose values on hospital admission for patients with ACS and patients are not being adequately controlled throughout CCU stay.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation, preclinical and clinical evaluation of a new submicronic
           arginine respiratory fluid for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary
           disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Virendra Pratap Singh Rathor , Pradeep Chugh , Rashid Ali , Anuj Bhatnagar , Syed Ehtaishamul Haque , Aseem Bhatnagar , Gaurav Mittal
      Inhalational drugs often suffer from low pulmonary deposition due to their micronized size. Aim of present study was development and evaluation of a novel submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation for treatment of cardiopulmonary complications associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Objectives were (a) to develop and characterize submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation, (b) pre-clinical safety/toxicity study in 2-animal species, (c) in vitro and in vivo evaluation in terms of respiratory fraction, and (d) clinical study to assess safety/efficacy in healthy volunteers/COPD patients. Formulation was optimized on the basis of particle size of aerosolized medication with particle size in the range of 400–500nm. Anderson cascade impaction (ACI) studies were performed to validate the advantage in terms of respirable fraction, which indicated a high respirable fraction (51.61±3.28) for the developed formulation. In vivo pulmonary deposition pattern of optimized formulation was studied using gamma scintigraphy in human volunteers using 99mTc-arginine as radiotracer. It clearly demonstrated a significant pulmonary deposition of the submicronic formulation in various lung compartments. Efficacy of the developed formulation was further assessed in COPD patients (n =15) by evaluating its effect on various cardiopulmonary parameters (spirometry, pulse-oxymetry, echocardiography and 6-min walk test). A marked improvement was seen in patients after inhalation of submicronic arginine in terms of their cardiopulmonary status. Results suggest that submicronic arginine respiratory fluid has the potential to be developed into an attractive therapeutic option for treating COPD associated cardiopulmonary complications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Patient’s medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing
           well'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari
      Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Usage of obesity health related websites among university students in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed I. Albarrak , Rafiuddin Mohammed , Nasriah Zakaria , Lujain M. Alyousef , Noura B. Almefgai , Hend D. Alqahatani , Hanan S. Alamek , Ahlam A. Alsulaiman
      Background & Objectives The present study was to investigate the use of the internet among university students accessing obesity health information and further to measure their satisfaction and in decision-making. Methods A cross sectional study, among students at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study received ethical clearance from Institutional Review Board, College of Medicine, KSU. Female and male of undergraduate and postgraduate, enrolled through a random sampling. The survey questionnaire were self-administered and consisted of two sections. Results A total of 448 students (177 males and 271 females) participated in this study. The response rate was 66.86. The study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity were more common among male compared to female students. Majority of the students (58.7%) were of normal Body Mass Index (BMI). It also revealed that 187 (41.7%) reported always acquire obesity health information from the internet whereas 203 (45.35) sometimes use the internet. Half of the respondents reported using a search engine to seek information. Forty-five percent reported spending at least an hour per week. Nearly 52.2% of participants are taking decision related to their lifestyle and showed statistical significant (P=0.0001). More than half of the students believed that the obesity information in the websites are very useful. Furthermore, 84.4% reported, language presented in the websites are easy to understand. With respect to quality, 46.9% rated as excellent whereas 39.5% as average. Interpretation & Conclusions The present study findings have demonstrated that university students are using internet in higher rates for finding obesity health information and are satisfied with the decision they are making. Finally, the study concludes that the internet online health information considered as an essential tool for health promotion among student population regarding weight control or managing obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Evaluation of rational use of medicines (RUM) in four government hospitals
           in UAE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amal Mahmood , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Abdel Azim Ahmed Ali , Nageeb A.G.M. Hassan , Abdulla Shehab , Akshaya Srikanth
      Rational: Studies conducted showed that there were gaps regarding the rational use of medicines (RUM). Aims and objectives: Evaluate RUM in main government hospitals in four emirates in UAE, using WHO prescribing indicators. Method: Multicenter prospective cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 4 hospitals in 4 different Emirates in UAE. Using consecutive random sampling method, a total of 1100 prescriptions (2741 prescribed drugs) were collected and analyzed from surveyed hospitals from April to October 2012. Index of Rational Drug Prescribing (IRDP) was used as an indicator of RUM. Results: The main finding of this study was that, the mean values of prescribing indicators of RUM in the surveyed hospitals were estimated to be within the WHO optimal values for generics (100.0 vs. 100.0), antibiotics (9.8±4.8 vs. ⩽30), injections (3.14±1.7 vs. ⩽10) and formulary (EML) prescribing (100.0 vs. 100.0). However, the only discrepancy was reported regarding the number of drugs per prescription which was found to be more than the WHO optimal value (2.49±0.9 vs. ⩽2); respectively. The mean IRDP was 4.55 which was less than the WHO optimal value of 5. Conclusions: Strategies and interventions are desirable to promote RUM and minimize the consequences of poly-pharmacy.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Assessment of potential drug–drug interactions and its associated
           factors in the hospitalized cardiac patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ghulam Murtaza , Muhammad Yasir Ghani Khan , Saira Azhar , Shujaat Ali Khan , Tahir M. Khan
      Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) may result in the alteration of therapeutic response. Sometimes they may increase the untoward effects of many drugs. Hospitalized cardiac patients need more attention regarding drug–drug interactions due to complexity of their disease and therapeutic regimen. This research was performed to find out types, prevalence and association between various predictors of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs) in the Department of Cardiology and to report common interactions. This study was performed in the hospitalized cardiac patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan. Patient charts of 2342 patients were assessed for pDDIs using Micromedex® Drug Information. Logistic regression was applied to find predictors of pDDIs. The main outcome measure in the study was the association of the potential drug–drug interactions with various factors such as age, gender, polypharmacy, and hospital stay of the patients. We identified 53 interacting-combinations that were present in total 5109 pDDIs with median number of 02 pDDIs per patient. Overall, 91.6% patients had at least one pDDI; 86.3% were having at least one major pDDI, and 84.5% patients had at least one moderate pDDI. Among 5109 identified pDDIs, most were of moderate (55%) or major severity (45%); established (24.2%), theoretical (18.8%) or probable (57%) type of scientific evidence. Top 10 common pDDIs included 3 major and 7 moderate interactions. Results obtained by multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association of the occurrence of pDDIs in patient with age of 60years or more (p <0.001), hospital stay of 7days or longer (p <0.001) and taking 7 or more drugs (p <0.001). We found a high prevalence for pDDIs in the Department of Cardiology, most of which were of moderate severity. Older patients, patients with longer hospital stay and with elevated number of prescribed drugs were at higher risk of pDDIs.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Evaluation and implementation of behavioral and educational tools that
           improves the patients’ intentional and unintentional non-adherence
           to cardiovascular medications in family medicine clinics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulla Shehab , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Shirina Al Swaidi , Akshaya S Bhagavathul , Farah Hamad , Omar Shehab , Mahmoud AbuMandil , AboBakr Abasaeed , Ahmed Dahab , Naama Al Kalbani , Rouda Abdulla , Sahar Asim , Pinar Erkekoglu , Saif Al Nuaimi , Aaesha Al Suwaidi
      Objective There are limited number of studies describing the reasons and interventions of non-adherence to cardiovascular medications in United Arab Emirates (UAE). We aimed to implement and evaluate the behavioral and educational tools that indicate the reasons of non-adherence in patients with cardiovascular diseases and improve patient’s adherence to their cardiovascular medications. Methods In this prospective interventional study, we recruited patients (n= 300) with cardiovascular diseases from three family medicine clinics in Al Ain, UAE in 2010. We assessed patients’ responses to a validated brief medication questionnaire (BMQ). Results At the end of the study, we observed a significant improvement in adherence. When we compared pre- and post-interventions, the mean (± standard deviation, SD) score for non-adherence to current regimen were 4.1 ±0.2 vs. 3.0 ±0.3 (p=0.034); indication of negative believes or motivational barriers scores were 1.8 ±0.4 vs. 0.9 ±0.1 (p=0.027); the indication of recall barrier scores were 1.6 ±0.1 vs. 0.8 ±0.1 (p= 0.014); and the indication of access barrier scores were 1.6 ±0.2 vs. 0.7 ±0.2 (p= 0.019). Mean blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein and postprandial blood glucose decreased significantly (p<0.01) post-intervention. Conclusion We reported that implemented multifaceted tools targeting patients, provider and healthcare system have improved the adherence to cardiovascular medications. Our interventions managed to improve patients’ clinical outcome via improving adherence to prescribed cardiovascular medications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Dissolution rate improvement of telmisartan through modified MCC pellets
           using 32 full factorial design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hetal Patel , Hiral Patel , Mukesh Gohel , Sanjay Tiwari
      Context Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is the most widely used excipient for the production of pellets but it retards the release of poorly water soluble drugs. Objective The present investigation reports incorporation of camphor, cross carmellose sodium (CCS) and spray dried lactose (SDL) into MCC pellets to enhance the dissolution rate of telmisartan. Materials and methods A full factorial design (32) was used in the study. Concentration of camphor and CCS were selected as independent variables whereas percentage porosity and percentage drug release at 60 minute were selected as dependent variables. Pellets were produced by extrusion–spheronization technique and evaluated for percentage yield, particle size analysis, flow characteristics, percentage porosity, drug content and in vitro drug release. Contour plots and 3-D surface plots were presented for graphical expression of the results. Results and discussion Pellet formulations exhibited acceptable morphological, flow and mechanical properties. As against to 38.54% drug release after 60 minutes with MCC pellets, pellets prepared with optimised formulation, composed of proper combination of MCC, SDL, camphor and CCS, released 100% drug after 60 min. Conclusion Our study underlines the fact that dissolution of telmisartan from MCC pellets can be successfully enhanced by incorporating water soluble excipient, disintegrant and pore formers.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Critical errors found during metered dose inhaler technique demonstration
           by Pharmacists

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Adnan , Shahid Karim , Shamshir Khan , Naser Al Wabel



      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Alignment independent 3D-QSAR, quantum calculations and molecular docking
           of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fereshteh Shiri , Somayeh Pirhadi , Jahan B. Ghasemi
      Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD) and the enhanced replacement method (ERM) were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRID independent descriptors (GRIND) approach. After variable selection, GRIND descriptors were correlated with activity values (pIC50) by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an r2 pred of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap) implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug
           reactions reporting and pharmacovigilance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kingston Rajiah , Mari Kannan Maharajan , Shashina Nair
      Pharmacy students’ knowledge about adverse drug reaction reporting can impact their attitude towards patient care and issues on patient safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perception of pharmacy students about adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance and to study their willingness to report. A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire was conducted among the university students. The demographic details of the respondents were studied. The number of female respondents was comparatively higher than the male respondents. There were no significant differences by gender regarding the knowledge on adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance except with the knowledge of post-marketing surveillance for which male students appeared to be more knowledgeable than female students. The results showed that the pharmacy students had sufficient knowledge and there are significant differences in perception among the students on adverse drug reaction reporting.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Enhanced ex vivo intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil
           nanosuspension: Preparation by combinative technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zenab Attari , Amita Bhandari , P.C. Jagadish , Shaila Lewis
      The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension based on combinative technology to enhance the intestinal absorption of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), a potent antihypertensive agent with limited oral bioavailability. Two combinative approaches were employed and then characterized. In vitro intestinal absorption of OLM nanosuspension and plain OLM was studied using non-everted rat intestinal sac model. Optimal OLM nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of ball milling and probe sonication using stabilizer, Poloxamer 407. The formula exhibited particle size of 469.9nm and zeta potential of −19.1mV, which was subjected to ex vivo studies. The flux and apparent permeability coefficient in intestine from OLM nanosuspension was higher than the plain drug, thereby suggesting better drug delivery.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Development and evaluation of natural gum-based extended release matrix
           tablets of two model drugs of different water solubilities by direct
           compression

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye , Kwadwo Amanor Mfoafo , Samuel Lugrie Kipo , Noble Kuntworbe , Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi
      The study was aimed at developing extended release matrix tablets of poorly water-soluble diclofenac sodium and highly water-soluble metformin hydrochloride by direct compression using cashew gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as release retardants. The suitability of light grade cashew gum as a direct compression excipient was studied using the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Thirteen tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium (∼100mg) and metformin hydrochloride (∼200mg) were prepared with varying amounts of cashew gum, xanthan gum and HPMC by direct compression. The flow properties of blended powders and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted in phosphate buffer (diclofenac: pH 7.4; metformin: pH 6.8) and the kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to five kinetic models. Cashew gum was found to be suitable for direct compression, having a good compressibility index (ICG) value of 5.173. The diclofenac and metformin matrix tablets produced generally possessed fairly good physical properties. Tablet swelling and drug release in aqueous medium were dependent on the type and amount of release retarding polymer and the solubility of drug used. Extended release of diclofenac (∼24h) and metformin (∼8–12h) from the matrix tablets in aqueous medium was achieved using various blends of the polymers. Drug release from diclofenac tablets fitted zero order, first order or Higuchi model while release from metformin tablets followed Higuchi or Hixson-Crowell model. The mechanism of release of the two drugs was mostly through Fickian diffusion and anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The study has demonstrated the potential of blended hydrophilic polymers in the design and optimization of extended release matrix tablets for soluble and poorly soluble drugs by direct compression.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets of
           Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohd Abdul Hadi , N.G. Raghavendra Rao , A. Srinivasa Rao
      In this present research work, the aim was to develop ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets-filled capsule system of Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. So Matrix-mini-tablets of Naproxen were prepared using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers by direct compression method which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. The compatibility was assessed using FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixtures. The prepared batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, drug content estimation, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. When FTIR and DSC studies were performed, it was found that there was no interaction between Naproxen and polymers used. The physicochemical properties of all the prepared matrix-mini-tablets batches were found to be in limits. The drug content percentage in the optimized formulation F18 was found to be 99.24±0.10%. Our optimized matrix-mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F18 releases Naproxen after a lag time of 2.45±0.97h and 27.30±0.86%, 92.59±0.47%, 99.38±0.69% at the end of 5, 8, 12h respectively. This formulation was also found to be stable as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Thus, a novel ileo-colonic targeted delivery system of Naproxen was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Anxiolytic profile of fluoxetine as monitored following repeated
           administration in animal rat model of chronic mild stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Farhan , Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
      Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS. Animals of stressed and unstressed group were administrated with fluoxetine at dose of 1.0mg/kgs well as 5.0mg/kg repeatedly for 07days 1h before exposed to CMS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate that repeated treatment with fluoxetine could attenuate CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Results: Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Fluoxetine administration induced hypophagia in unstressed as well as CMS rats. Acute and repeated administration of fluoxetine increased motor activity in familiar environment but only repeated administration increased exploratory activity in open field. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine were greater in unstressed rats. These anxiolytic effects were produced as result of repeated administration not on acute administration of fluoxetine at 1.0mg/kg as well as 5.0mg/kg. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that CMS exposure resulted into behavioral deficits and produced depressive-like symptoms. Fluoxetine, an SSRI, administration attenuated behavioral deficits induced by CMS. Anxiolytic effects of repeated fluoxetine administration were greater in unstressed than CMS animals.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • An integrated Taguchi and response surface methodological approach for the
           optimization of an HPLC method to determine glimepiride in a
           supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rajendra Narayan Dash , Habibuddin Mohammed , Touseef Humaira
      We studied the application of Taguchi orthogonal array (TOA) design during the development of an isocratic stability indicating HPLC method for glimepiride as per TOA design; twenty-seven experiments were conducted by varying six chromatographic factors. Percentage of organic phase was the most significant (p <0.001) on retention time, while buffer pH had the most significant (p <0.001) effect on tailing factor and theoretical plates. TOA design has shortcoming, which identifies the only linear effect, while ignoring the quadratic and interaction effects. Hence, a response surface model for each response was created including the linear, quadratic and interaction terms. The developed models for each response found to be well predictive bearing an acceptable adjusted correlation coefficient (0.9152 for retention time, 0.8985 for tailing factor and 0.8679 for theoretical plates). The models were found to be significant (p <0.001) having a high F value for each response (15.76 for retention time, 13.12 for tailing factor and 9.99 for theoretical plates). The optimal chromatographic condition uses acetonitrile – potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0; 30mM) (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase. The temperature, flow rate and injection volume were selected as 35±2°C, 1.0mLmin−1 and 20μL respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be specific for analyzing glimepiride from a novel supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Molecular modeling, synthesis, characterization and pharmacological
           evaluation of benzo[d]oxazole derivatives as non-steroidal
           anti-inflammatory agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ashok. K. Shakya , Avneet Kaur , Belal O. Najjar , Rajashri Naik
      A series of N-(2-(4-chlorobenzyl)benzo[d]oxazol-5-yl)-3-substituted-propanamide (3a-3n) were synthesized and evaluated for their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory potential. The structure of the compounds were elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H NMR and MS) analysis. The synthesized compounds (at a dose of 20 mg/kg b. wt. p.o.) have shown their ability to provide 45.1 to 81.7% protection against carrageenan-induced paw edema, in comparison to diclofenac sodium (69.5%) and ibuprofen (64.7%). The most active compounds 3a, 3l and 3n were screened for chronic anti-inflammatory activity (cotton-pellet-induced granuloma) and to study their ulcerogenic activity. Compounds 3a, 3l and 3n showed 48.4, 39.3 and 44.0% protection against cotton pellets-induced granuloma compared to diclofenac sodium (60.2%). The tested compounds were less ulcerogenic than the ibuprofen. Molecular modeling studies suggest that these compounds have strong interaction with the COX-2 enzyme, which is responsible for the activity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Development and statistical optimization of nefopam hydrochloride loaded
           nanospheres for neuropathic pain using Box-Behnken design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): S. Sukhbir , S. Yashpal , A. Sandeep
      Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition like neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 35 Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetric (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres. Desirability function scrutinized by design-expert software for optimized formulation was 0.920. Optimized batch of NFH-NS had mean particle size 328.36 nm ± 2.23,% entrapment efficiency (% EE) 84.97 ± 1.23,% process yield 83.60 ± 1.31 and% drug loading (% DL) 21.41 ± 0.89. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) validated size, charge and shape of nanospheres, respectively. In-vitro drug release study revealed biphasic release pattern from optimized nanospheres. Korsmeyer peppas was found excellent kinetics model with release exponent less than 0.45. Chronic constricted injury (CCI) model of optimized NFH-NS in wistar rats produced significant difference in neuropathic pain behavior (p < 0.05) as compared to free NFH over 10 hrs indicating sustained action. Long term and accelerated stability testing of optimized NFH-NS revealed degradation rate constant 1.695 × 10-4 and shelf-life 621 days at 25 ± 2°C/60% ± 5% RH.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Methods of synthesis of hydrogels … A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Faheem Akhtar , Muhammad Hanif , Nazar Muhammad Ranjha
      Hydrogels are being investigated recently for the bioactive molecules (in particular pharmaceutical proteins) controlled release, such as matrices, and for the living cells encapsulation. Biodegradable nature of hydrogels has created much interest for drug delivery systems. The original three-dimensional structure disintegrates into nontoxic substances to ascertain an excellent biocompatibility of the gel. Chemical cross-linking is the highly resourceful method for the formation of hydrogels having an excellent mechanical strength. Cross-linkers used in hydrogel preparation should be extracted from the hydrogels before use due to their reported toxicity. Physically cross-linked methods for preparation of hydrogel are the alternate solution of cross-linker toxicity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray
           powder diffraction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Adeyinka Aina , Manish Gupta , Yamina Boukari , Andrew Morris , Nashiru Billa , Stephen Doughty
      The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress—A concise review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ullah Asmat , Khan Abad , Khan Ismail
      Human body is continuously exposed to different types of agents that results in the production of reactive species called as free radicals (ROS/RNS) which by the transfer of their free unpaired electron causes the oxidation of cellular machinery. In order to encounter the deleterious effects of such species, body has got endogenous antioxidant systems or it obtains exogenous antioxidants from diet that neutralizes such species and keeps the homeostasis of body. Any imbalance between the RS and antioxidants leads to produce a condition known as “oxidative stress” that results in the development of pathological condition among which one is diabetes. Most of the studies reveal the inference of oxidative stress in diabetes pathogenesis by the alteration in enzymatic systems, lipid peroxidation, impaired Glutathione metabolism and decreased Vitamin C levels. Lipids, proteins, DNA damage, Glutathione, catalane and superoxide dismutase are various biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress induced complications of diabetes may include stroke, neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. The basic aim of this review was to summarize the basics of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles:
           The UAE experiences

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mirai Mourad Sadek , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Naama M.S. Al Kalbani , Akshaya B. Srikanth , Mohamed Baraka , Alaa Mohammed Abdul Aziz , Abdulla Shehab
      Background The pharmaceutical care and ‘extended’ roles are still not practiced optimally by community pharmacists. Several studies have discussed the practice of community pharmacy in the UAE and have shown that most community pharmacists only counsel patients. However, UAE, have taken initiatives to allow and prepare community pharmacists to practice ‘extended’ roles. Aim of the review The aim was to review the current roles of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objective The objective was to encourage community pharmacists towards extending their practice roles. Methods In 2010, Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) surveyed community pharmacists, using an online questionnaire, on their preferences towards extending their counseling roles and their opinion of the greatest challenge facing the extension of their counseling roles. Results Following this survey, several programs have been developed to prepare community pharmacists to undertake these extended counseling roles. In addition to that, HAAD redefined the scope of pharmacist roles to include some extended/enhanced roles. Abu Dhabi Health Services (SEHA) mission is to ensure reliable excellence in healthcare. It has put clear plans to achieve this; these include increasing focus on public health matters, developing and monitoring evidence-based clinical policies, training health professionals to comply with international standards to deliver world-class quality care, amongst others. Prior to making further plans to extend community pharmacists’ roles, and to ensure the success of these plans, it is imperative to establish the views of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi on practicing extended roles and to gain understanding and information on what pharmacists see as preferred change strategies or facilitators to change. Conclusions In an attempt to adapt to the changes occurring and to the growing needs of patients and to maximize the utilization of community pharmacists’ unique structured strategies are needed to be introduced to the community pharmacy profession. Keys Community pharmacist, role extension, Health Services Abu Dhabi (HAAD)


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation development and Evaluation of Medicated Chewing Gum of
           Anti-emetic Drug

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansi Paradkar , Balaram Gajra , Bhautik Patel
      Context Medicated chewing gum(MCG) of Domperidone Maleate(DM) was developed by direct compression method with the goal to achieve quick onset of action and to improve patient compliance. Objective Formulation development of MCG of DM and optimization of the formulation by screening of different excipients. Material and methods MCG containing DM was prepared by screening different concentrations of sweeteners, flavouring agents, softening agents, lubricants and anti-adherents by changing one variable at a time. Performance evaluation was carried out by evaluating size, shape, thickness, taste, scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, in vivo drug release study, ex vivo buccal permeation study and by studying statistical analysis for quality. Results and discussion The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties like chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 minutes indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action. Conclusion The developed formulation of medicated chewing gum can be a better alternative to mouth dissolving and conventional tablet formulation. It may be proved as a promising approach to improve the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes by transmembrane pH gradient
           to reduce toxicity towards H9c2 Cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed Alyane , Gillian Barratt , Mesbah Lahouel
      The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Entrapped DOX in liposome has been shown to reduce cardiotoxicity. Results showed that about 92% of the total drug was encapsulated in liposome. The release experiments showed a weak DOX leakage in both culture medium and in PBS, more than 98% and 90% of the encapsulated DOX respectively was still retained in liposomes after 24h of incubation. When the release experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer pH5.3, the leakage of DOX from liposomes reached 37% after 24h of incubation. Evaluation of cellular uptake of the liposomal DOX indicated the possible endocytosis of liposomes because the majority of visible fluorescence of DOX was mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas the nuclear compartment showed a weak intensity. When using unloaded fluorescent-liposomes, the fluorescence was absent in nuclei suggests that liposomes can not cross the nuclear membrane. MTT assay and measurement of LDH release suggest that necrosis is the form of cellular death predominates in H9c2 cells exposed to high doses of DOX, while for weak doses apoptosis could be the predominate form. Entrapped DOX reduced significantly DOX toxicity after 3 and 6h of incubation, but after 20h entrapped DOX is more toxic than free one.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T01:20:43Z
       
  • In vitro and in vivo targeting effect of folate decorated paclitaxel
           loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ha Phuong Thu , Nguyen Hoai Nam , Bui Thuc Quang , Ho Anh Son , Nguyen Linh Toan , Duong Tuan Quang
      Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for treating various types of cancer. However, the clinical application of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its poor water solubility and low therapeutic index. Thus, it requires an urgent solution to improve therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. In this study, folate decorated paclitaxel loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles were prepared by a modified emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50 nm in size with a narrow size distribution. Targeting effect of nanoparticles was investigated in vitro on cancer cell line and in vivo on tumor bearing nude mouse. The results indicated the effective targeting of folate decorated paclitaxel loaded copolymer nanoparticles on cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T01:11:52Z
       
  • Preparation and in vitro evaluation of enteric-coated tablets of
           rosiglitazone sodium

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Xin-mei Pan , Jie Li , Run Gan , Xiang-nan Hu
      The aim of this study was to prepare the rosiglitazone sodium enteric-coated tablets and investigate its release rate.The rosiglitazone sodium enteric-coated tablet was prepared by single punch tablet press using substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The release rate from the enteric-coated tablet of rosiglitazone sodium was evaluated. The release rate study showed that few rosiglitazone sodium was released from enteric coated formulation within 2 h in simulated gastric juice, while it released more than 80% of the labeled amount in 30 min in simulated intestinal juice. The preparing method of rosiglitazone sodium enteric-coated tablets was simple and had a good reproducibility. The release condition and determined methods could be used for the routine determinations of rosiglitazone sodium enteric-coated tablets.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • A review of polymers as multifunctional excipients in drug dosage form
           technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bożena Karolewicz
      In the article, groups of multifunctional polymers used in drug dosage form technology were classified and evaluated. These compounds, in addition to their basic function as excipients, may have additional properties, e.g. stimuli sensitivity, enzyme inhibition, intestinal epithelium penetration enhancement, efflux pump inhibition, taste-masking, pharmacological activity and the ability to interact with enzymes responsible for drug metabolism. While classifying specific groups of multifunctional polymers, special emphasis was placed on the advantages of using them when designing new drug. Such advantages include, i.a., increasing substance bioavailability, improving substance stability during formulation and the possibility of obtaining forms of controlled or localized release to a specific site in the organism.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Irfan , Sumeira Rabel , Quratulain Bukhtar , Muhammad Imran Qadir , Farhat Jabeen , Ahmed Khan
      Over the past few decades, tendency towards innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting towards designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs). These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability. This drug delivery system has numerous advantages over conventional fast disintegrating tablets as they can be used for dysphasic and schizophrenic patients and are taken without water due to their ability to disintegrate within a few seconds releasing medication in mouth. Various approaches are employed for formulating ODFs and among which solvent casting and spraying methods are frequently used. Generally, hydrophilic polymers along with other excipients are used for preparing ODFs which allow films to disintegrate quickly releasing incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within seconds. Orally disintegrating films have potential for business and market exploitation because of their myriad of benefits over orally disintegrating tablets. This present review attempts to focus on benefits, composition, approaches for formulation and evaluation of ODFs. Additionally, the market prospect of this innovative dosage form is also targeted.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Microsponges based novel drug delivery system for augmented arthritis
           therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Riyaz Ali M. Osmani , Nagesh H. Aloorkar , Dipti J. Ingale , Parthasarathi K. Kulkarni , Umme Hani , Rohit R. Bhosale , Dandasi Jayachandra Dev
      The motive behind present work was to formulate and evaluate gel containing microsponges of diclofenac diethylamine to provide prolonged release for proficient arthritis therapy. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was implied using Eudragit RS-100 and microsponges with varied drug-polymer ratios were prepared. For the sake of optimization, diverse factors affecting microparticles physical properties were too investigated. Microsponges were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRPD and particle size analysis, and evaluated for morphology, drug loading and in-vitro drug release as well. There were no chemical interactions between drug and polymers used as revealed compatibility studies outcomes. The drug polymer ratio reflected notable effect on drug content, encapsulation efficiency and particle size. SEM results revealed spherical microsponges with porous surface, and had 7.21 μm mean particle size. The microsponges were then incorporated in gel; which exhibited viscous modulus along with pseudoplastic behavior. In-vitro drug release results depicted that microsponges with 1:2 drug-polymer ratio were more efficient to give extended drug release of 75.88% at the end of 8 h; while conventional formulation get exhausted incredibly earlier by releasing 81.11% drug at the end of 4 h only. Thus the formulated microsponge-based gel of diclofenac diethylamine would be a promising alternative to conventional therapy for safer and efficient treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Synthesis, molecular properties, toxicity and biological evaluation of
           some new substituted Imidazolidine derivatives in search of potent
           Anti-inflammatory agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Asif Husain , Aftab Ahmad , Shah Alam Khan , Mohd Asif , Rubina Bhutani , Fahad A. Al-Abbasi
      The aim of this study was to design and synthesize pharmaceutical agents containing imidazolidine heterocycyclic ring in hope of developing potent, safe and orally active anti-inflammatory agents. A number of substituted-imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were synthesized starting from ethylene diamine and aromatic aldehydes. The imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were investigated for their anticipated anti-inflammatory, ulcerogenic and analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Bioactivity score, molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of the imidazolidine derivatives were calculated by online computer software programs viz. Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. The results of biological testing indicated that among the synthesized compounds only three imidazolidine derivatives namely 4-[1,3-Bis(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3g), 4-[1,3-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine(3i) and 4-(1,3-Bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylimidazolidin-2-yl)-N,N-diethylbenzamine (3j) possess promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. Additionally these derivatives displayed superior GI safety profile (low severity index) with respect to the positive control, Indomethacin. All synthesized compounds showed promising bioactivity score for drug targets by Molinspiration software. Almost all the compounds were predicted to have very low toxicity risk by Osiris online software. Compound number (3i) emerged as a potential candidate for further research as it obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five for drug likeness, exhibited promising biological activity in vivo and showed no risk of toxicity in computer aided screening.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Oral Antimicrobial Peptides: Types and Role in the Oral Cavity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zohaib Khurshid , Mustafa Naseem , Zeeshan Sheikh , Shariq Najeeb , Sana Shahab , Muhammad Sohail Zafar
      Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a wide-ranging class of host-defense molecules that act early to contest against microbial invasion and challenge. These are small cationic peptides that play an important in the development of innate immunity. In the oral cavity, the AMPs are produced by the salivary glands and the oral epithelium and serve defensive purposes. The aim of this review is to discuss the types and functions of oral AMPs and their role in combating microorganisms and infections in the oral cavity.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Impact of a pharmacist led diabetes mellitus intervention on HbA1c,
           medication adherence and quality of life: a randomised controlled study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mubashra Butt , Adliah Mhd Ali , Mohd Makmor Bakry , Norlaila Mustafa
      Malaysia is situated in Western Pacific region which bears 36.17 % of total diabetes mellitus population. Pharmacist led diabetes interventions have been shown to improve the clinical outcomes among diabetes patients in various parts of the world. Despite high prevalence of disease in this region there is a lack of reported intervention outcomes from this region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist led intervention on HbA1c, medication adherence, quality of life and other secondary outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients. Method Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 73) attending endocrine clinic at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) were randomised to either control (n = 36) or intervention group (n = 37) after screening. Patients in the intervention group received an intervention from a pharmacist during the enrolment, after three and six months of the enrolment. Outcome measures such as HbA1c, BMI, lipid profile, Morisky scores and quality of life (QoL) scores were assessed at the enrolment and after 6 months of the study in both groups. Patients in the control group did not undergo intervention or educational module other than the standard care at UKMMC. Results HbA1c values reduced significantly from 9.66 % to 8.47 % (P = 0.001) in the intervention group. However, no significant changes was noted in the control group (9.64 % to 9.26%, P = 0.14). BMI values showed significant reduction in the intervention group (29.34 kg/m2 to 28.92 kg/m2; P = 0.03) and lipid profiles were unchanged in both groups. Morisky adherence scores significantly increased from 5.83 to 6.77 (P = 0.02) in the intervention group; however, no significant change was observed in the control group (5.95 to 5.98, P = 0.85). QoL profiles produced mixed results. Conclusion This randomised controlled study provides evidence about favourable impact of a pharmacist led diabetes intervention programme on HbA1c, medication adherence and QoL scores among type 2 diabetes patients at UKMMC, Malaysia.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Pharmacist, the Pharmaceutical Industry and Pharmacy Education in Saudi
           Arabia”: A Questionnaire-based Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ghada Saleh , Naser L. Rezk , Laila Laika , Anna Ali , Ashraf Elmetwally
      Background In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not receive practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm. D degree) in pharmacy (OR=2.7 [95% CI 1.1 – 6.3]). Conclusion Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Fabrication and In vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA Nanoparticles
           for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): D. Nagasamy Venkatesh , Mahendran Baskaran , V.V.S. Narayana Reddy Karri , Sai Sandeep Mannemala , Kollipara Radhakrishna , Sandip Goti
      Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5 to 5 h) remains a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using PLGA and Poloxomer 407. The prepared NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro dissolution studies. Oral bioavailability studies were carried out in New Zealand rabbits by administering developed NFV PLGA-NPs and pure drug suspension. PLGA-NPs prepared by using 1:4 ratio of drug and PLGA, with a stirring rate of 1500 rpm for 4 h. The prepared NPs were in the size of 185±0.83nm with a zeta potential of 28.7±0.09 mV. The developed NPs were found to be spherical with uniform size distribution. The drug content and EE of the optimized formulation was found to be 36±0.19% and 72±0.47% respectively. After oral administration of NFV PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was enhanced about 4.94 fold compared to NFV suspension as a control. The results describe an effective strategy for oral delivery of NFV loaded PLGA NPs that helps in enhancing bioavailability and reduce the frequency of dosing.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
  • Full Factorial Design for Optimization, Development and Validation of Hplc
           Method to Determine Valsartan in Nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Lalit Kumar , M. Sreenivasa Reddy , Renuka S. Managuli , K. Girish Pai
      High performance thin layer chromatographic method was optimized, developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. In this study the 20 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile in the 57:43 ratio were used as mobile phase for the analysis of valsartan. Full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of variable factors. The responses were peak area, tailing factor and number of theoretical plates. The quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually as well as in interaction was most significant (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0086, respectively) on peak area, the quadratic effect of pH of buffer was also most significant effect (p < 0.0001) on tailing factor (5%) while the quadratic effect of flow rate and wavelength individually was significant (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0265, respectively) on the number of theoretical plates. The high-performance thin layer chromatographic separation was performed at the flow rate 1.0 min/mL, UV detector wavelength 250 nm and pH of the buffer 3.0 as optimized parameters using design of experiments. The Rf values of valsartan was found to be 10.177 min. Percent recovery in terms of accuracy for the prepared valsartan nanoparticles was found in the range of 98.57 to 100.27%.


      PubDate: 2015-03-05T23:11:53Z
       
  • In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of repaglinide loaded floating
           microspheres prepared from different viscosity grades of HPMC polymer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Megha Sharma , Seema Kohli , Agnimitra Dinda
      During the study repaglinide encapsulated floating microspheres were formulated and characterized for enhancing residence time of drug in git and there by increasing its bioavailability. Floating microspheres of ethylcellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) (5 & 100 cps) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. During process optimization various parameters were studied such as: drug: polymer ratio, polymer ratio, concentration of emulsifier and stirring speed. Selected optimized formulations were studied for SEM, entrapment, floating behavior, drug release and kinetics. In-vivo floating ability (X-ray) study and in-vivo antidiabetic activity was performed on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Microspheres prepared with different viscosity grade HPMC were spherical shaped with smooth surface. Size of microspheres was in the range of 181.1 – 248 μm. Good entrapment and buoyancy was observed for 12 hrs. X-ray image showed that optimized formulation remained buoyant for more than 6 hrs. Optimized formulation treated group shows significant (p<0.01) reduction in blood glucose level as compared to pure drug treated group. Repaglinide loaded floating microspheres expected to give new choice for safe, economical and increased bioavailable formulation for effective management of NIDDM.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Patient Adherence to Warfarin Therapy and Its Impact on Anticoagulation
           Control

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Y. Mayet
      Background Warfarin is a commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant in Saudi Arabia and yet patient adherence to warfarin therapy and its impact on anticoagulation control has not been well researched here. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted over 6 weeks at the outpatient anticoagulant clinic on patients who were receiving warfarin. Adherence was assessed using the translated Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Levels of adherence were classed as low (score ⩽7), or high (score=8) based on the scores. Good anticoagulation control was defined as percent Time INR in Therapeutic Range (TTR) ⩾75% using the Rosendaal method. Results A total of 192 patients completed a questionnaire with a response rate of 68.1%. It was established that no association was found between adherence to warfarin therapy and INR control groups. Among the 89 (46.4%) patients who had high adherence, only 34 (38.2%) had an acceptable INR control. This was versus 103 (53.6%) patients who had low adherence but also 34 (33.0%) had good INR control. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis showed that when studying females and occupational status of unemployment, they were independently associated with poor INR control with an OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.10 – 4.92, and OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.12 – 6.61 respectively. MLR analysis also showed that age < 50 years alongside no formal education were independently associated with low adherence to warfarin therapy with an OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.29 – 5.52 and OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 6.93 respectively. Conclusions The demographic background influences adherence and INR control, but no association was found between adherence and anticoagulation control.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Cost-Minimization Analysis of Imipenem/Cilastatin versus Meropenem in
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Imraan Joosub , Andy Gray , Analyn Crisostomo , Abdul Salam
      Aim The aim of this study was to compare the costs of management of moderate to severe infections in patients treated with imipenem/ cilastatin (IC) and meropenem (MEM). Pharmacoeconomic studies in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The current hospital formulary contains 2 carbapenems: IC and MEM. These antibiotics share a similar spectrum of activity. There are conflicting reviews with regard to the relative cost-effectiveness of these two agents. Methods A retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 88 patients of IC versus MEM in moderate to severe infections was performed, applying cost-minimization analysis (CMA) methods. In accordance with CMA methods, the assumption of equivalent efficacy was first demonstrated by literature retrieved and appraised. Adult patients (⩾ 18 years old) diagnosed with moderate to severe infections, including skin and skin structure infections (SSIs), sepsis, intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), who were prescribed IC 500mg every six hours intravenously (2 gram per day) or MEM 1 gram every eight hours (3 gram per day), were included in the study. Only direct costs related to the management of the infections were included, in accordance with a payer perspective. Results Overall there was no difference in the mean total daily costs between IC (SAR 4784.46, 95% CI 4140.68, 5428.24) and MEM (4390.14, 95% CI 3785.82, 4994.45;, p = 0.37). A significantly lower medicine acquisition cost per vial of IC was observed when compared to MEM, however there was a significantly higher cost attached to administration sets used in the IC group than the MEM group. Consultation, nursing and physician costs were not significantly different between the groups. No differences were observed in costs associated with adverse drug events (ADEs). Conclusion This study has shown that while acquisition costs of IC at a dose of 500mg q6h may be lower than for MEM 1 gram q8h, mean total costs per day were not significantly different between IC and MEM, indicating that medicine costs are only a small element of the overall costs of managing moderate to severe infections.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Factors Influencing Warfarin Response in Hospitalized Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mahmoud I. Abdel-Aziz , Mostafa A. Sayed Ali , Ayman K.M. Hassan , Tahani H. Elfaham
      Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Methods Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembolic episodes. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to determine independent risk factors that can keep patients outside target INR range. Results Patients who were newly initiated warfarin on hospital admission were given low initiation dose (2.8 mg ±0.9). They were more likely to have INR values below 1.5 during hospital stay, 13 (27.7%) patients compared with 9 (12.3%) previously treated patients, respectively (p = .034). We found that the best predictors of achieving below target INR range relative to within target INR range were; shorter hospital stay periods (OR, 0.82 for every day increase [95% CI, 0.72-0.94]), being a male patient (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.05-7.69]), concurrent infection (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07-0.59]) and new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission (OR, 3.73[95% CI, 1.28-10.9]). Conclusion Gender, new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission, shorter hospital stay periods and concurrent infection can have a significant effect on discharge INRs. Initiation of warfarin without giving loading doses increases the risk of having INRs below 1.5 during hospital stay and increases the likelihood of a patient to be discharged with INR below target range. Following warfarin dosing nomograms and careful monitoring of the effect of various factors on warfarin response should be greatly considered.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Akathisia with Erythromycin: Induced or Precipitated '

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ankur Sachdeva , Ruchika Rathee
      Objective A 28-year-old male diagnosed with schizophrenia, maintaining well on Olanzapine, developed akathisia soon after addition of Erythromycin for Pityriasis Rosea. This prompted us to evaluate the relationship of erythromycin and akathisia. Method We report the case and the literature focusing on akathisia as a possible adverse event of erythromycin Results Akathisia resolved after Erythromycin was stopped following 5 days of treatment. Akathisia was possibly induced or precipitated with use of Erythromycin. Possible etiological reasons of this clinically significant association were discussed. Conclusion Erythromycin, by itself, may induce akathisia or precipitate akathisia in individuals by interfering with metabolism of other culprit drugs.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Levetiracetam induced psoriasiform drug eruption: a rare case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Onur Serdar Gencler , Bilgen Gencler , Cemile Tugba Altunel , Nur Arslan



      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • The beneficial roles of Lupineus luteus and lifestyle changes in
           management of metabolic syndrome: A case study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa , Fars K. Alanazi
      Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia. Here, we report a 43-year-old man with obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and mild liver dysfunctions. Lupid (Lupineus luteus) and therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) were suggested as therapeutic intervension for the present case for 6 months. The body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), uric acid (UA) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were markedly decreased by 26.85%, 26.95%, 13 %, 53.84%, 57.84%, 36.14 %, 47.58 % and 61.62 % respectively, compared to those at baselines. However, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was markedly increased by 30.77%. The present results concluded that administration of lupin a with TLC are good intervention for prevention and treatment of MetS.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Evaluation of a Biosimilar Recombinant Alpha Epoetin in the Management of
           Anemia in Hemodialysis Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fatemeh Beiraghdar , Yunes Panahi , Behzad Einollahi , Eghlim Nemati , Amirhossein Sahebkar , Arash Hassanzadeh , Hamid T. Khosroshahi , Sima A. Azar , Javid Safa , Sadroddin R. Hashemi , Jalal Etemadi , Eisa T. Marzony , Hamid Noshad
      Background The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietins (rHuEPOs) in the treatment of anemia with different etiologies is proven. Development of biosimilar rHuEPO products with lower cost and wider availability is important for the care of anemic patients. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the bioequivalence and safety of a biosimilar rHuEPO (Pastopoitin®) and compare it with the innovator product Eprex®, as a standard rHuEPO. Methods One hundred and seven anemic patients on stable hemodialysis were recruited to this randomized double-blind comparative trial and assigned to either subcutaneous Pastopoitin (n = 50) or Eprex (n = 57). Each study group received rHuEPO at a dose of 80-120 IU/kg/week in 2-3 divided doses for a period of 3 months. Hematologic parameters including Hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, EBC, platelet, MCV, MCH and MCHC were checked every 2 weeks. Blood iron, ferritin, TIBC, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes (Na, K, Ca and P) were evaluated monthly over the 3 months. Results A significant increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit and RBC was observed by the end of study in both Pastopoitin and Eprex groups (p < 0.001). However, these factors were not significantly different between the groups, neither at baseline nor at the end of study (p > 0.05). Likewise, the groups were comparable regarding MCV, MCH, MCHC, iron, ferritin, TIBC, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes at baseline as well as at the end of trial. Adverse events were not serious and occurred with the same frequency in the study groups. Conclusion Pastopoitin showed comparable efficacy and safety profile with Eprex in anemic patients on hemodialysis. Hence, Pastopoitin may be considered as a rHuEPO with a lower cost and wider availability compared with the innovator product Eprex.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Neonatal Outcomes after Oral Administration of Antenatal Corticosteroid: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Doua AlSaad , Palli Valapila Abdulrouf , Hussain Parappil , Asma Tarannum , Binny Thomas
      The use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with reduction in morbidity and mortality rates in preterm delivery. A 34 year-old pregnant woman, gravida 2 para1, was planned for elective cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation as ultrasound study showed intrauterine growth retardation. She has idiopathic thrombocytopenia and anemia, with suspected hypoplastic anemia. Due to mother’s low platelet count, antenatal intramuscular corticosteroids injection was avoided. Instead, oral dexamethasone was given for fetal lung maturity. Baby’s Apgar score at 1-min and 5-min was 9 and 10, respectively. The baby girl did not develop respiratory distress syndrome. She had mild transient tachypnea of newborn that needed only mild respiratory support with nasal cannula in room air.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Public’s perception and satisfaction on the roles and services
           provided by pharmacists - Cross sectional survey in Sultanate of Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jimmy Jose , Marwa Nasser Al Shukili , Beena Jimmy
      Background and Objectives An important factor that will help in advancement of the pharmacy services in any country would be to understand the public needs, expectation and satisfaction. There are limited published studies conducted in Sultanate of Oman regarding the perception and satisfaction of public on the role and services provided by pharmacists. The present study was conducted to assess the perception and satisfaction of general public in Sultanate of Oman on the roles, and services received from the pharmacists. Methods The survey was conducted among public in the Governorates of A’Dahera and Muscat in Oman during 2013. The questionnaire had items to assess two aspects; perception on the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists and satisfaction on the services provided. The responses to the questions marked in a five point likert scale were assessed using a scoring scheme. Accordingly, the median perception, and satisfaction score and median total score for the participants was estimated. The median scores of the participants were related with the demographics of the participants and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Results A total of 390 completed questionnaires were obtained. The median total score of the participants based on all the questions was 79 (Inter Quartile Range (IQR), 12) which represents a moderate score. The median perception and satisfaction score was 44 (IQR 5) and 34 (IQR 7) which represent a good and moderate score, respectively. Perception of the participants differed based on employment status, frequency of visit to pharmacy and governorate represented by participants; while satisfaction was influenced by educational qualification and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Conclusions Public had a good perception regarding the roles of the pharmacists while they were only moderately satisfied with the services provided. Steps have to be taken to improve the services and relationship of pharmacists and thereby improve the satisfaction of the customers. An extended study in a broader population involving more governorates will provide an enhanced representation regarding this important aspect.


      PubDate: 2015-02-28T21:57:57Z
       
  • Design, optimization and evaluation of glipizide solid
           self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery for enhanced solubility and dissolution
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rajendra Narayan Dash , Mohammed Habibuddin , Touseef Humaira , Devi Ramesh
      A solid self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system (Solid SNEDDS) has been explored to improve the solubility and dissolution profile of glipizide. SNEDDS preconcentrate was systematically optimized using a circumscribed central composite design by varying Captex 355 (Oil), Solutol HS15 (Surfactant) and Imwitor 988 (Co-surfactant). The optimized SNEDDS preconcentrate consisted of Captex 355 (30% w/w), Solutol HS15 (45% w/w) and Imwitor 988 (25% w/w). The saturation solubility (SS) of glipizide in optimized SNEDDS preconcentrate was found to be 45.12 ± 1.36 mg/ml, indicating an improvement (1367 times) of glipizide solubility as compared to its aqueous solubility (0.033 ± 0.0021 mg/ml). At 90% SS, glipizide was loaded to the optimized SNEDDS. In-vitro dilution of liquid SNEDDS resulted in a nanoemulsion with a mean droplet size of 29.4 nm. TEM studies of diluted liquid SNEDDS confirmed the uniform shape and size of the globules. The liquid SNEDDS was adsorbed onto calcium carbonate and talc to form solid SNEDDS. PXRD, DSC, and SEM results indicated that, the presence of glipizide as an amorphous and as a molecular dispersion state within solid SNEDDS. Glipizide dissolution improved significantly (p < 0.001) from the solid SNEDDS (∼100% in 15 minutes) as compared to the pure drug (18.37%) and commercial product (65.82) respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-02-23T21:31:22Z
       
 
 
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