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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 569 journals)
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Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Uncertainties around incretin-based therapies: A literature review

    • Authors: Bader Al Tulaihi; Samia Alhabib
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Bader Al Tulaihi, Samia Alhabib
      Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcomes that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method: This is a narrative review. Several databases were searched. Search terms used were MeSH and keywords with different combinations of Boolean operators according to the database but were comparable. Studies included were: randomized controlled trials, cohort and case-controlled studies, health technology report, meta-analysis, and systematic reviews. Results were analysed and reported in a narrative style with emphasis on the effectiveness and adverse effects of various types of incretin based therapies. Results: 17 articles were retrieved as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were heterogeneous in terms of interventions, participants, settings and outcomes. Studies varied in their quality and/or reporting of their findings conducted in several settings. There are two types of incretin: Glucose dependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1). There is no question that incretin-based glucose-lowering medications have demonstrated to be effective glucose-lowering drugs. They proved an evidence-based efficacy profile and appear to do so with significant effects to stimulate weight loss with minimal hypoglycaemia. However, there are few side effects that should not be overlooked when deciding to use such therapies. Conclusion: The findings of our review presented here, do not prove that these agents are unsafe, but it does suggest that the burden of evidence now rests with those who hope to persuade us of their safety. Continuous clinical monitoring and more research are essential to clarify the actions of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 on the normal and diabetic exocrine pancreas.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.009
  • Erythrocyte nanovesicles: Biogenesis, biological roles and therapeutic

    • Authors: Gamaleldin I. Harisa; Mohamed M. Badran; Fars K. Alanazi
      Pages: 8 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Mohamed M. Badran, Fars K. Alanazi
      Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cell signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological processes. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.010
  • The therapeutic usage of botulinum toxin (Botox) in non-cosmetic head and
           neck conditions – An evidence based review

    • Authors: Kamran Habib Awan
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kamran Habib Awan
      Botulinum toxin (Botox) is an exotoxin produced from Clostridium botulinum. It blocks the release of acetylcholine from the cholinergic nerve end plates resulting in inactivity of the muscles or glands innervated. The efficacy of Botox in facial aesthetics is well established; however, recent literature has highlighted its utilization in multiple non-cosmetic medical and surgical conditions. The present article reviews the current evidence pertaining to Botox use in the non-cosmetic head and neck conditions. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane databases limited to English Language articles published from January 1980 to December 2014. The findings showed that there is level 1 evidence supporting the efficacy of Botox in the treatment of laryngeal dystonia, headache, cervical dystonia, masticatory myalgia, sialorrhoea, temporomandibular joint disorders, bruxism, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and rhinitis. For chronic neck pain there is level 1 evidence to show that Botox is ineffective. Level 2 evidence exists for vocal tics and trigeminal. For stuttering, facial nerve paresis, Frey’s syndrome and oromandibular dystonia the evidence is level 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence in the published literature to demonstrate the beneficial role of Botox in a wide range of non-cosmetic conditions pertaining to the head and neck (mainly level 1 evidence). With more and more research, the range of clinical applications and number of individuals getting Botox will doubtlessly increase. Botox appears to justify its title as ‘the poison that heals’.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.024
  • Histatin peptides: Pharmacological functions and their applications in

    • Authors: Zohaib Khurshid; Shariq Najeeb; Maria Mali; Syed Faraz Moin; Syed Qasim Raza; Sana Zohaib; Farshid Sefat; Muhammad Sohail Zafar
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zohaib Khurshid, Shariq Najeeb, Maria Mali, Syed Faraz Moin, Syed Qasim Raza, Sana Zohaib, Farshid Sefat, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
      There are many human oral antimicrobial peptides responsible for playing important roles including maintenance, repairing of oral tissues (hard or soft) and defense against oral microbes. In this review we have highlighted the biochemistry, physiology and proteomics of human oral histatin peptides, secreted from parotid and submandibular salivary glands in human. The significance of these peptides includes capability for ionic binding that can kill fungal Candida albicans. They have histidine rich amino acid sequences (7–12 family members; corresponding to residues 12–24, 13–24, 12–25, 13–25, 5–11, and 5–12, respectively) for Histatin-3. However, Histatin-3 can be synthesized proteolytically from histatin 5 or 6. Due to their fungicidal response and high biocompatibility (little or no toxicity), these peptides can be considered as therapeutic agents with most probable applications for example, artificial saliva for denture wearers and salivary gland dysfunction conditions. The objectives of current article are to explore the human histatin peptides for its types, chemical and biological aspects. In addition, the potential for therapeutic bio-dental applications has been elaborated.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.04.027
  • Polymeric films as a promising carrier for bioadhesive drug delivery:
           Development, characterization and optimization

    • Authors: Pallavi Bassi; Gurpreet Kaur
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Pallavi Bassi, Gurpreet Kaur
      Bioadhesive films using tamarind seed polysaccharide were prepared for the treatment of candida vaginitis using nystatin as the model drug. Films were prepared by solvent casting method. A 32 factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (polymer and plasticizer concentration) on a range of dependent variables namely mechanical, swelling, interfacial, and bioadhesive properties through response surface methodological approach, using Design Expert® software. Formulation composition that provided the most desired and optimized results was selected using desirability approach. Nystatin was solubilized using Tween 60 and was incorporated into the selected film. Drug solubilization and dispersion were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The optimized film released 73.92±2.54% of nystatin at the end of 8h in simulated vaginal fluid and the release data showed best fit to Korsmeyer–Peppas model with R 2 of 0.9990 and the release mechanism to be super case-II. The optimized film also showed appropriate anti candida activity through appearance of zone of inhibition during antifungal activity testing study.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.003
  • Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their
           synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: Emerging strategy to
           combat drug resistant pathogens

    • Authors: Syed Baker; Azmath Pasha; Sreedharamurthy Satish
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Syed Baker, Azmath Pasha, Sreedharamurthy Satish
      The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV–Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed Bragg’s peak conferring the 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed 87.5% fold increased activity with antibiotic “bacitracin” against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15%, streptomycin with 10%, erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol with 9.4%. Thus the study concludes with biogenic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as an emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.011
  • Whose responsibility is medication reconciliation: Physicians, pharmacists
           or nurses? A survey in an academic tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Amna Al-Hashar; Ibrahim Al-Zakwani; Tommy Eriksson; Mohammed Al Za’abi
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Amna Al-Hashar, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Tommy Eriksson, Mohammed Al Za’abi
      Background: Medication errors occur frequently at transitions in care and can result in morbidity and mortality. Medication reconciliation is a recognized hospital accreditation requirement and designed to limit errors in transitions in care. Objectives: To identify beliefs, perceived roles and responsibilities of physicians, pharmacists and nurses prior to the implementation of a standardized medication reconciliation process. Methods: A survey was distributed to the three professions: pharmacists in the pharmacy and physicians and nurses in hospital in-patient units. It contained questions about the current level of medication reconciliation practices, as well as perceived roles and responsibilities of each profession when a standardized process is implemented. Value, barriers to implementing medication reconciliation and the role of information technology were also assessed. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results: There was a lack of clarity of current medication reconciliation practices as well as lack of agreement between the three professions. Physicians and pharmacists considered their professions as the main providers while nurses considered physicians followed by themselves as the main providers with limited roles for pharmacists. The three professions recognize the values and benefits of medication reconciliation yet pharmacists, more than others, stated limited time to implement reconciliation is a major barrier. Obstacles such as unreliable sources of medication history, patient knowledge and lack of coordination and communication between the three professions were expressed. Conclusions: The three health care professions recognize the value of medication reconciliation and want to see it implemented in the hospital, yet there is a lack of agreement with regard to roles and responsibilities of each profession within the process. This needs to be addressed by the hospital administration to design clear procedures and defined roles for each profession within a standardized medication reconciliation process.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.012
  • Design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel
           diaryl heterocyclic analogs as potential selective cyclooxygenase-2
           (COX-2) inhibitors

    • Authors: Deema A. Al-Turki; Mohamed A. Al-Omar; Laila A. Abou-zeid; Ihsan A. Shehata; Mohammed S. Al-Awady
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Deema A. Al-Turki, Mohamed A. Al-Omar, Laila A. Abou-zeid, Ihsan A. Shehata, Mohammed S. Al-Awady
      New series of 3,4-diaryl-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones and 3-alkylthio-4,5-diaryl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their activity as anti-inflammatory agents. Compounds 20, 21, 23 and 34 are highly selective inhibitors of COX-2 enzyme at a concentration of 100mM relative to celecoxib, the standard reference. (±)-3-(4-Phenoxy-phenyl)-5-phenyl-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones 23 exhibited the most active anti-inflammatory agent.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.07.001
  • Clinical Pharmacist interventions in Refill Clinic at Tertiary Care Eye
           Specialist Hospital

    • Authors: Sitah N. Alzuman; Abdullah S. Al-Humaidan
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sitah N. Alzuman, Abdullah S. Al-Humaidan
      Objective: To describe the role of Clinical Pharmacists in the Medication Refill Clinic area as a part of a multidisciplinary team in which he/she can provide education to patients and caregivers on the safe and appropriate use of medications, counsel on medication compliance, monitor and manage medication side effects, as well as screen for dangerous drug interactions. Methods: The data of this prospective, single-centered, chart review based study have been collected since the clinic launched in June 2011 till December 2013 in King Khalid Eye Specialist Hospital which is a Tertiary Hospital in KSA. Types of interventions documented during the patient–pharmacist visit are categorized as medication review and patient compliance. Key findings: Out of the total 16,417 patients, 3641 (22.2%) are noncompliant. The Clinical Pharmacist identified 18 intervention types. The most frequent interventions are as follows: Eye screening (24.8%), Counseling (13%), Physician/ER referral (12.4%), Therapeutic substitution/switch (10.8%), and Frequency changed (7%). Summary: This prospective analysis is a document evidence showing Clinical Pharmacist positive outcomes in the management of ophthalmic patients. Dissemination of this information would be valuable because it could raise the awareness of other Healthcare Professionals regarding Pharmacist as effective clinicians in care of ophthalmic patients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.07.002
  • Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers associated with the uptake of
           influenza vaccine among pregnant women

    • Authors: Ahmed Y. Mayet; Ghadeer K. Al-Shaikh; Hazem M. Al-Mandeel; Nada A. Alsaleh; Amani F. Hamad
      Pages: 76 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ahmed Y. Mayet, Ghadeer K. Al-Shaikh, Hazem M. Al-Mandeel, Nada A. Alsaleh, Amani F. Hamad
      Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and factors associated with the uptake of the influenza (flu) vaccination in women within Saudi Arabia during their pregnancy period. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey was conducted on 1085 pregnant women at the antenatal clinic over a period of 6 weeks with the provision of influenza vaccination. The questionnaire collected demographic and other data; it included 12 questions on their general knowledge and assessed their attitude toward influenza vaccination, and their awareness of vaccine risk and the potential benefits during pregnancy. The knowledge score obtained was then calculated and compared. Results: A total of 998 patients took part in the questionnaire with a response rate of 92%. There was poor awareness that the flu vaccine is safe to administer during pregnancy (130, 13.1%) and that all pregnant women should receive the flu vaccine (190, 19.1%). Pregnant women with flu vaccine knowledge score of ⩽5 (range 0–12) were significantly less likely to take the vaccine (OR 3.78, 95% CI 2.68–5.26, p <0.001). There was a low uptake of the vaccine (178, 18.1%) and only 29 (3.0%) had previously been offered the flu vaccine by any doctor during their pregnancy. In addition, 255 (25.8%) were against taking the flu vaccine during pregnancy. Conclusion: The knowledge and uptake of the influenza vaccine among Saudi pregnant women are low. One quarter was against the vaccine during pregnancy. Very few believed the flu vaccine to be safe during pregnancy. Rarely, physicians advise their clients to take flu vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.12.001
  • Cross-national analysis of estimated narcotic utilization for twelve
           Arabic speaking countries in the Middle East

    • Authors: Kyle John Wilby; Kerry Wilbur
      Pages: 83 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby, Kerry Wilbur
      Background Access to narcotics has been described as suboptimal in the Middle East. The objectives of this study were to characterize estimated narcotic use in twelve Arabic-speaking nations and compare across world regions. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional analysis of estimated average consumption of narcotic drugs in defined daily doses per million inhabitants, as provided by the International Narcotics Control Board Technical Reports (2008–2012). Five years of data (2008–2012) were extracted from reports for 12 Arabic-speaking countries: Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Egypt, and Yemen. Data were also obtained for world regions. Results In 2012, Bahrain and Kuwait had the highest estimates (364 and 352 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively), while Yemen and Iraq had the lowest (9 and 6 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively). North America, Oceania, and Europe had the highest rates (32,264, 9978, and 7937 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively), while Arabic-Countries were only ahead of Africa and Central America (128, 91, 87 defined daily doses per million inhabitants per day, respectively). Conclusions Great variability was observed in estimates between 12 Arabic countries and even larger disparity when Arabic-Countries were benchmarked against world regions, suggesting a need for future studies to determine reasons for these discrepancies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.01.001
  • Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the future

    • Authors: Hisham Aljadhey; Yousef Asiri; Yaser Albogami; George Spratto; Mohammed Alshehri
      Pages: 88 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey, Yousef Asiri, Yaser Albogami, George Spratto, Mohammed Alshehri
      Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for accreditation of experiential sites, and the use of technology to track experiential activities and assessments. Conclusion: Several challenges for improving pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia were discussed by stakeholders. To tackle these challenges facing most pharmacy schools in the Kingdom, national efforts need to be considered by involving all stakeholders.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.02.001
  • Assessment of novel oral anticoagulant use within a community teaching

    • Authors: Sultan Alghadeer; Lori Hornsby
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sultan Alghadeer, Lori Hornsby
      Background: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are considered to be at least as effective and safe as warfarin with several advantages such as predictable pharmacokinetics, allowing for standardized dosing without monitoring, a lack of food interactions and fewer drug interactions; however, their misuse could potentially result in patient harm. Objective: To evaluate the appropriate use of the NOACs within a community teaching hospital. Setting: A community teaching hospital in the United States. Method: A retrospective chart review of patients that were prescribed dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban at our institution from October 2012 through November 2014 was conducted. Main outcome measure: The primary objective was to determine the percentage of patients that were appropriately prescribed NOACs. Secondary objectives were to determine the number of patients who were inappropriately transitioned from warfarin or parenteral anticoagulants to a NOAC or vice versa, the number of incidents when a NOAC was held or discontinued inappropriately before a procedure and the number of bleeding or thrombotic events while taking a NOAC. Results: Of the 113 patients receiving therapy with an NOAC, appropriate prescribing was observed in 79.7%. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban were appropriately prescribed in 73.8%, 88.3%, and 85.8% of patients respectively. Lack of renal dose-adjustment in patients with reduced renal function was the most common reason for inappropriate use (8.8%). Ten out of 38 patients (26%) were inappropriately transitioned from/to other anticoagulants. Two out of six patients underwent a procedure without holding NOACs as recommended prior to surgery. Of all patients receiving NOACs, a total of 3 bleeding incidents were observed, one with each NOAC. Conclusion: The NOACs were appropriately prescribed for the majority of patients within our institution. Future efforts however should focus on ensuring appropriate dose adjustments for renal impairment, procedures for transitioning between NOACs and parenteral anticoagulants, and adequate withholding times for NOACs prior to surgery in order to optimize the management of NOACs usage within our institution.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.02.002
  • Compatibility study of paracetamol, chlorpheniramine maleate and
           phenylephrine hydrochloride in physical mixtures

    • Authors: G.G.G. de Oliveira; A. Feitosa; K. Loureiro; A.R. Fernandes; E.B. Souto; P. Severino
      Pages: 99 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): G.G.G. de Oliveira, A. Feitosa, K. Loureiro, A.R. Fernandes, E.B. Souto, P. Severino
      Paracetamol (PAR), phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) are commonly used in clinical practice as antipyretic and analgesic drugs to ameliorate pain and fever in cold and flu conditions. The present work describes the use of thermal analysis for the characterization of the physicochemical compatibility between drugs and excipients during the development of solid dosage forms. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the thermal stability of the drug and of the physical mixture (drug/excipients) in solid binary mixtures (1:1). DSC thermograms demonstrated reproducible melting event of the prepared physical mixture. Starch, mannitol, lactose and magnesium stearate influence thermal parameters. Information recorded from the derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) and TGA curves demonstrated the decomposition of drugs in well-defined thermal events, translating the suitability of these techniques for the characterization of the drug/excipients interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.05.001
  • Bioactivity and chemical characterization of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk.
           growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ghada Ahmed Fawzy; Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel; Shagufta Perveen; Shabana Iqrar Khan; Fatma Abdulaziz Al-Omary
      Pages: 104 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ghada Ahmed Fawzy, Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel, Shagufta Perveen, Shabana Iqrar Khan, Fatma Abdulaziz Al-Omary
      Acalypha is an important genus of the Euphorbiaceae family. The genus is represented by five species in Saudi Arabia. Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. Fl. Aeg is traditionally used as a cure for stomachache, dyspepsia, rheumatism, dermatitis, and swellings of the body. The present study endeavors to provide a phytochemical and biological evaluation of the plant, with the aim of relating activity to constituting secondary metabolites in the plant. Column chromatographic separation of the methanol extract led to the isolation of four compounds namely 2-methyl-5,7-dihydroxychromone 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside 1, acalyphin 2, apigenin 3 and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside 4. The plant extracts and the isolated compounds were subjected to biological assays to screen peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ agonistic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Results proved for the first time, the PPARγ activator effect of acalyphin, as well as its promising anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to the dual PPAR activator effect of the chromone glucoside. The plant extracts and isolated compounds were non-cytotoxic to the tested cell lines. Thus A. fruticosa could be a valuable source of important therapeutics that may hold clinical prospect.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.05.004
  • New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of
           Albizia lebbeck flowers

    • Authors: Shaza M. Al-Massarani; Ali A. El Gamal; Mohamed F. Abd El Halim; Mansour S. Al-Said; Maged S. Abdel-Kader; Omer A. Basudan; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Pages: 110 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ali A. El Gamal, Mohamed F. Abd El Halim, Mansour S. Al-Said, Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Omer A. Basudan, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid–liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside]-(2E,6E-)-farnesol (6) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and benzyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside (2); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β-d-glucopyranoside (3) and linalyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4); (2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-l arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), two oligoglycosides, n-hexyl-α-l arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (creoside) (7) and n-octyl α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) (8); and ethyl fructofuranoside (10). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.05.006
  • Chitosan treatment abrogates hypercholesterolemia-induced
           erythrocyte’s arginase activation

    • Authors: Gamaleldin I. Harisa; Sabry M. Attia; Khairy M.A. Zoheir; Fars K. Alanazi
      Pages: 120 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Sabry M. Attia, Khairy M.A. Zoheir, Fars K. Alanazi
      This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of chitosan (CS) against hypercholesterolemia (HC) induced arginase activation and disruption of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis using erythrocytes as cellular model. Human erythrocytes were isolated and classified into eight groups. Next, cells were treated with l-arginine (l-ARG), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), CS or CS+ l-ARG in the presence of normal plasma or cholesterol enriches plasma. Then, erythrocytes were incubated at 37°C for 24h. The present results revealed that, HC induced significant increase of cholesterol inclusion into erythrocytes membrane compared to control. Moreover, HC caused significant decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity similar to l-NAME; however, arginase activity and arginase/NOS ratio significantly increased compared to control. On contrast, treatment of HC with, l-arginine, CS or CS plus l-arginine prevents HC induced cholesterol loading into erythrocytes membrane, NOS inhibition and arginase activation. This study suggested that CS could be protective agent against HC induced disruption of erythrocyte’s oxidative status and arginase activation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.05.007
  • Development and validation of bioanalytical UHPLC-UV method for
           simultaneous analysis of unchanged fenofibrate and its metabolite
           fenofibric acid in rat plasma: Application to pharmacokinetics

    • Authors: Rayan G. Alamri; Kazi Mohsin; Ajaz Ahmad; Mohammad Raish; Fars K. Alanazi
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rayan G. Alamri, Kazi Mohsin, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohammad Raish, Fars K. Alanazi
      A simple, precise, selective and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a lipid regulating agent fenofibrate and its metabolite fenofibric acid in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed-phase Acquity® BEH C18 column using methanol–water (65:35, v/v) as the mobile phase. The isocratic flow was 0.3ml/min with rapid run time of 2.5min and UV detection was at 284nm. The method was validated over a concentration range of 100–10000ng/ml (r 2 ⩾0.9993). The selectivity, specificity, recovery, accuracy and precision were validated for determination of fenofibrate/fenofibric acid in rat plasma. The lower limits of detection and quantitation of the method were 30 and 90ng/ml for fenofibrate and 40 and 100ng/ml for fenofibric acid, respectively. The within and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 5%. The validated method has been successfully applied to measure the plasma concentrations in pharmacokinetics study of fenofibrate in an animal model to illustrate the scope and application of the method.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.05.008
  • Towards safety of oral anti-cancer agents, the need to educate our

    • Authors: Sanaa Saeed Mekdad; Adher Dhaya AlSayed
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sanaa Saeed Mekdad, Adher Dhaya AlSayed
      Introduction: The global prevalence of cancer is rising. Use of oral anticancer medications has expanded exponentially. Knowledge about these medications as well as safe handling guidelines has not kept abreast with the rapidity these medications are applied in clinical practice. They pose serious hazards on all personal involved in handling these medications as well as on patients and their caregivers. We addressed the gaps in knowledge and safe handling of oral anticancer agents among pharmacists in institutional based cancer care. Materials and Methods: We used a 41 item questionnaire to explore three domains, pharmacists’ knowledge, safe handling practice and confidence and self-improving strategies towards these agents among pharmacists in multicentre specialized cancer care. Results: Participants included 120 pharmacists dedicated to handle and dispense oral anticancer agents. About 20% of Pharmacists have adequate knowledge about oral anticancer agents. Less than 50% apply safe handling principles adequately. Only a quarter are confident in educating cancer patients and their caregivers about Oral Anti-Cancer Agents. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ knowledge about Oral Anticancer agents needs to be improved. Safe handling and dispensing practice of these medications should be optimized. Pharmacists’ confidence towards educating patients and their caregiver needs to be addressed. Enhancing safety of oral anticancer agents should be a priority. Involving all key players, research and quality improving projects are needed to improve all aspects of the safety of oral anticancer agents.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.007
  • Toxic keratitis after use of wrongly labeled non-ophthalmic medication

    • Authors: Mohammad A. Al-Amry; Nada Al-Abdan; Saleh A. AL-Othaimeen
      Pages: 141 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohammad A. Al-Amry, Nada Al-Abdan, Saleh A. AL-Othaimeen
      We present a 24-year-old female with trauma to her right eye. The patient was prescribed topical Tobramicin-dexamethasone eye drops but the pharmacy dispensed diclofenac diethyl amine ointment. The patient presented to the emergency room with lid edema, conjunctival injection and a corneal epithelial defect and toxic keratitis. The patient was successfully managed with copious irrigation, bandage contact lens and topical antibiotic therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.008
  • Evaluation of the impact of a prescribing guideline on the use of
           intraoperative dexmedetomidine at a tertiary academic medical center

    • Authors: Abdullah M. Alhammad; Nour A. Baghdady; Rachel A. Mullin; Bonnie C. Greenwood
      Pages: 144 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Abdullah M. Alhammad, Nour A. Baghdady, Rachel A. Mullin, Bonnie C. Greenwood
      Objective: To evaluate usage patterns of dexmedetomidine in the operating room after implementation of a prescribing guideline. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the impact of a prescribing guideline on usage patterns of dexmedetomidine in the operating room at a tertiary, academic medical center during one-month period pre- (July 2010) and post-guideline (July 2011 and July 2012) implementation. Results: A total of 267 patients received intraoperative dexmedetomidine during the study period. Dexmedetomidine use in surgical procedures decreased post-guideline implementation [5.7% (pre) vs. 1.9% and 3.3% (post)]. The most common guideline-based indication for intraoperative dexmedetomidine was for anesthesia during bariatric surgery (41% and 38% in 2011 and 2012, respectively). We estimated a cost-avoidance of $308,856 over the two-year period after guideline implementation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that implementation of a prescribing guideline for the use of dexmedetomidine in the operating room is feasible and associated with improved utilization patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.01.002
  • Corrigendum to “Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing
           antibacterial activity” [Saudi Pharm. J. 24 (2016) 140–146]

    • Authors: Pasha Azmath; Syed Baker; Devaraju Rakshith; Sreedharamurthy Satish
      First page: 148
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Pasha Azmath, Syed Baker, Devaraju Rakshith, Sreedharamurthy Satish

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.03.001
  • Halloysite nanotubes as carriers of Vancomycin in alginate-based wound

    • Authors: Joanna Kurczewska; Paulina Pecyna; Magdalena Ratajczak; Marzena Gajęcka; Grzegorz Schroeder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Joanna Kurczewska, Paulina Pecyna, Magdalena Ratajczak, Marzena Gajęcka, Grzegorz Schroeder
      The influence of an inorganic support – halloysite nanotubes – on the release rate and biological activity of the antibiotic encapsulated in alginate-based dressings was studied. The halloysite samples were loaded with approx. 10 wt. % of the antibiotic and then encapsulated in Alginate and Gelatin/Alginate gels. The material functionalized with aliphatic amine significantly extended the release of vancomycin from alginate-based gels as compared to that achieved when silica was used. After 24 hours, the released amounts of the antibiotic immobilized at silica reached 70%, while for the drug immobilized at halloysite the released amount of vancomycin reached 44% for Alginate discs. The addition of gelatin resulted in even more prolonged sustained release of the drug. The antibiotic was released from the system with a double barrier with Higuchi kinetic model and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Only the immobilized drug encapsulated in Alginate gel demonstrated very good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The inhibition zones were greater than those of the standard discs for the staphylococci and enterococci bacteria tested. The addition of gelatin adversely affected the biological activity of the system. The inhibition zones were smaller than those of the reference samples. A reduction in the drug dose by half had no significant effect on changing the release rate and microbiological activity. The in vivo toxicity studies of the material with immobilized drug were carried out with Acutodesmus acuminatus and Daphnia magna. The material studied had no effect on the living organisms used in the bioassays. The proposed system with a double barrier demonstrated high storage stability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.007
  • Assessment of physical properties of granules with paracetamol and

    • Authors: Michal Szumilo; Piotr Belniak; Katarzyna Swiader; Ewelina Holody; Ewa Poleszak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Michal Szumilo, Piotr Belniak, Katarzyna Swiader, Ewelina Holody, Ewa Poleszak
      Caffeine increases the analgesic properties of acetaminophen and therefore it is reasonable to use both substances together in one drug form in stronger pain. Currently, there are no commercially available pharmaceutical combination products containing acetaminophen and caffeine, which is present as granules. The aim of the study was to obtain twelve different granules with these therapeutic substances and determine the effect of various excipients on the quality of the drug form. All the granules were made by wet granulation. Two types of binders were used: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) as well as different types of fillers. The physical properties of granules were assessed in accordance to the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. The highest apparent density was found in preparations containing calcium hydrophosphate (0.609 g/mL) and the lowest - containing mannitol (0.353 g/mL) as a filler. The Hausner ratio of most prepared granules ranged from 1.05 to 1.11, while the compressibility index ranged from 4.59 to 10.48%. The evaluation of properties of individual granules helped to indicate formulation with good features, which perhaps will be a good alternative to currently available painkillers with caffeine and acetaminophen.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.009
  • Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history

    • Authors: Ana Carolina Kogawa; Beatriz Gamberini Cernic; Leandro Giovanni Domingos do Couto; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Kogawa, Beatriz Gamberini Cernic, Leandro Giovanni Domingos do Couto, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
      In the year 2016 the synthetic detergents complete 100 years and in this story they evolved as cleaners. They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. After 100 years of synthetic detergents, the effect of the combination of various cleaners on the environment is a gap. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable. A lot attitudes can still be taken to continuously improve the relationship between the parties involved, animals, plants, waters and men, so that in another 100 years continues to exist this interaction with the environment without destroying it. The marketing used by synthetic detergent companies evolved a lot over the years and showed maturity to deal with changes in theories and strategies for promotion and even with the constant social reform that its consumer lived, accompanying them intelligently to be able to capture their changing needs and desires, and so assemble the best way to connect to them. This paper focuses on the subject synthetic detergents as well as (i) types and applications, (ii) threats, (iii) sustainability, (iv) legislation, (v) packaging and (vi) marketing strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.006
  • The Effect of Metformin Use on Pregnancy Rates among Polycystic Ovary
           Syndrome Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization: A
           Retrospective-Cohort Study

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Hazem Al-Mandeel; Hisham AlSanawi; Bander AlBalkhi; Wael Mansy; Reem AlGasem; Lama AlMutairi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Hazem Al-Mandeel, Hisham AlSanawi, Bander AlBalkhi, Wael Mansy, Reem AlGasem, Lama AlMutairi
      Background Metformin is widely used with gonadotropins by women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase their chances of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin in improving the rates of clinical pregnancy among women with PCOS undergoing IVF. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of women with PCOS, aged 18–40 years, undergoing IVF during 2006–2012 at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Baseline patient data including menstrual frequency, biochemical parameters such as fasting serum insulin (FSI) concentration, comorbidities, and the rates of ovulation and pregnancy were collected. Pregnancy rates were compared between the metformin and non-metformin groups. Results A total of 210 women with PCOS met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Of the 210 women with PCOS, 109 of them received metformin in addition to gonadotropins. Patients who received metformin were 16% less likely to be pregnant in comparison with those who did not receive metformin (OR = 0.840; 95% CI = 0.710–0.993; P = 0.0415), when controlled for baseline prolactin level, testosterone level, lipid panel, FSI concentration, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration, comorbidities, duration of infertility, daily metformin dosage, and the previous use of clomiphene and/or leuprolide. Conclusions Metformin co-treatment during IVF may negatively affect pregnancy rates. Further well-designed, randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.008
  • Standardization of clinical pharmacist’s activities: methodology

    • Authors: Jana Gregorová; Jitka Rychlíčková; Jan Šaloun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jana Gregorová, Jitka Rychlíčková, Jan Šaloun
      Study objectives Establishing standardized and controlled system of work at a clinical pharmacy department and establishing effective recording of activities of a group of four clinical pharmacist when providing clinical pharmaceutical care (CPC) in a hospital. Methods The duration of evaluated period is 5.5 years. The first part was defining the purpose, methods and activities of clinical pharmaceutical care, the next part was designing the software for recording patient’s data and CPC activities. To verify the functionality of our system the third part was conducted (from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015). Results CPC activities were defined precisely. During the 6 months period, 3946 patients were reviewed (17% of patients admitted), in this group, 41% patients was labeled as risk (these patients had one or more risk factor). 1722 repeated reviews were performed, 884 drug therapeutic recommendations were recorded. The calculated average time necessary for one CPC activity is 28 minutes. Conclusion During the 5 year period, standardized system of work in clinical pharmacy department was established. This system is based on clearly defined activities and it enables external control. Our results supply data for negotiations with health insurance companies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.005
  • Preparation, characterization, and in vitro diffusion study of nonwoven
           electrospun nanofiber of curcumin-loaded cellulose acetate phthalate

    • Authors: Rramaswamy Ravikumar; Mani Ganesh; Udumansha Ubaidulla; Eun Young Choi; Hyun Tae Jang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rramaswamy Ravikumar, Mani Ganesh, Udumansha Ubaidulla, Eun Young Choi, Hyun Tae Jang
      Novel curcumin (CUR)-loaded cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) nonwoven electrospun nanofiber (NF) transdermal mat was developed and evaluated for its in vitro CUR diffusion properties. Various CAP solutions from 5–20 wt% were tested; 17.5 wt% was found to be a suitable concentration for NF fabrication without defects, such as bubble or ribbon structures. The selected wt% CAP solution was loaded with CUR and electrospun into NFs. The prepared CUR-loaded NFs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and in vitro diffusion studies. The as-prepared fibers demonstrated controlled in vitro transdermal delivery of CUR for up to 24 h.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.004
  • Prevalence of self-medication practice with herbal products among
           non-psychotic psychiatric patients from southeastern Serbia: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Nikola M. Stojanović; Ljiljana Samardžić; Pavle J. Randjelović; Niko S. Radulović
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nikola M. Stojanović, Ljiljana Samardžić, Pavle J. Randjelović, Niko S. Radulović
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage prevalence of herbal products (HP) and to ascertain the identity, mode and adverse effects of plant taxa used in self-medication practice for anxiety, depression and insomnia in patients with non-psychotic disorders originating from southeastern Serbia. Also, we compared HP users and non-users on the variables of socio-demographic characteristics, information source and origin of HP. The study was done by a face-to-face interview with a trained psychiatrist using a structured questionnaire administered to 136 adult patients suffering from non-psychotic mental disorders. A typical herbal-product user among non-psychotic psychiatric patients from southeastern Serbia is a middle-aged married woman, with a secondary level of education, unemployed and living in an urban area. Non-psychotic psychiatric patients, although not living predominantly in rural areas, were familiar with a variety of ethno-medicines and were often using HP primarily without the consultation of their psychiatrists/physicians. HP stated to be most frequently used for psychiatry-related symptoms included: Melissa officinalis, Mentha x piperita, Hypericum perforatum and Valeriana officinalis. The interviewees rarely stated adverse reactions related to the HP usage; however, this should not be generalized, since HP are known to vary in the content of their adverse reaction-causing constituents.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.002
  • The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Norah Abanmy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Norah Abanmy
      Purpose Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. Methods An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. Results A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26–40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. Conclusion The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.001
  • Synthesis, Molecular Modeling and Anticancer Activity of New Coumarin
           Containing Compounds

    • Authors: Shaimaa A. Morsy; Abdelbasset A. Farahat; Magda N.A. Nasr; Atif S. Tantawy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Shaimaa A. Morsy, Abdelbasset A. Farahat, Magda N.A. Nasr, Atif S. Tantawy
      A series of new coumarin containing compounds were synthesized from 4-bromomethylcoumarin derivatives 2a, b and different heteroaromatic systems 4a-e, 6a-d, 8, 10 via methylene thiolinker. Twenty four compounds were screened biologically against two human tumor cell lines, breast carcinoma MCF-7 and hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2, at the national cancer institute, Cairo, Egypt using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug. Compounds 5h, 7d, 7h, 9a, 13a and 13d showed strong activity against both MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines with being compound 13a is the most active with IC50 values of 5.5 µg/ml and 6.9 µg/ml respectively. Docking was performed with protein 1KE9 to study the binding mode of the designed compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.003
  • A Quality by Design approach for the development of lyophilized liposomes
           with simvastatin

    • Authors: Alina Porfire; Dana Maria Muntean; Lucia Rus; Bianca Sylvester; Ioan Tomuţă
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Alina Porfire, Dana Maria Muntean, Lucia Rus, Bianca Sylvester, Ioan Tomuţă
      Lyophilization is used to ensure an increased shelf-life of liposomes, by preserving them in dry state, more stable than the aqueous dispersions. When stored as aqueous systems, the encapsulated drugs are released and the liposomes might aggregate or fuse. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a lyophilized formulation of simvastatin (SIM) loaded into long circulating liposomes using the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Pharmaceutical development by QbD aims to identify characteristics that are critical for the final product quality, and to establish how the critical process parameters can be varied to consistently produce a product with the desired characteristics. In the case of lyophilized liposomes, the choice of the optimum formulation and technological parameters has to be done, in order to protect the integrity of the liposomal membrane during lyophilization. Thus, the influence of several risk factors (3 formulation factors: PEG proportion, cholesterol concentration, the cryoprotectant to phospholipids molar ratio, and 2 process parameters: the number of extrusions through 100 nm polycarbonate membranes and the freezing conditions prior lyophilization) over the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of lyophilized long circulating liposomes with simvastatin (lyo-LCL-SIM), i.e. the size, the encapsulated SIM concentration, the encapsulated SIM retention, the Tm change and the residual moisture content, was investigated within the current study using the design of experiments tool of QbD. Moreover, the design space for lyo-LCL-SIM was determined, in which the established quality requirements of the product are met, provided that the risk factors vary within the established limits.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.007
  • Formulation and characterization of novel soft lipid-based nanoparticles
           for enhanced transdermal delivery of eprosartan mesylate

    • Authors: Abdul Ahad; Abdulmohsen A. Al-Saleh; Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea; Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi; Mohammad Raish; Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin; Mohd Aftab Alam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdul Ahad, Abdulmohsen A. Al-Saleh, Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea, Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi, Mohammad Raish, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin, Mohd Aftab Alam
      The objective of the present work was to formulate, optimize and evaluate the potential of novel soft lipid-based nanoparticles i.e. nano-transfersomes, containing eprosartan mesylate (EM) for transdermal delivery. Nano-transfersomes of EM were developed using Phospholipon 90G, Span 80 (SP) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and characterized for vesicle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in vitro skin permeation study and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized nano-transfersomes formulation showed vesicles size of 108.53 ± 0.06 nm and entrapment efficiency of 63.00 ± 2.76%. The optimized nano-transfersomes provided an improved transdermal flux of 27.22 ± 0.29 µg/cm2/h with an enhancement ratio of 16.80 over traditional liposomes through Wistar rat skin. Confocal laser microscopy of rat skin treated with the optimized formulation showed that the formulation was eventually distributed and permeated deep into the rat skin. The present investigation has shown that the nature and concentration of surfactants (edge activators) influence immense control on the characteristics of nano-transfersomes. It was concluded that the developed nano-transfersomes surmount the limitation of low penetration ability of the traditional liposomes across the rat skin. Improved drug delivery presented by nano-transfersomes establishes this system as an encouraging dosage form for the delivery of EM via skin route.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.006
  • Adverse drug reactions in high-risk pregnant women: A prospective study

    • Authors: Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho; Antonio Emanuel Soares Vieira; Roberta Cruz da Silva; Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves; Thiago Antonio Barros Gama; Ryane Vieira Lima; Wlisses Ramon Oliveira; Júlia Maria de Gonçalves Dias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio Emanuel Soares Vieira, Roberta Cruz da Silva, Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves, Thiago Antonio Barros Gama, Ryane Vieira Lima, Wlisses Ramon Oliveira, Júlia Maria de Gonçalves Dias
      BACKGROUND Because pregnant women are often excluded from clinical trials, there is still very limited information about the risk and safety of prescription drugs during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in high-risk pregnant women after hospital admission. A prospective study was carried out in a teaching maternity hospital in Brazil during six months. Causality of ADRs was assessed through the Naranjo Algorithm and Korean Algorithm for ADR Causality Assessment. Severity of ADRs was assessed using Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale. RESULTS The prevalence of ADRs among the 294 inpatients studied was 8.8%. The mean age was 27.14 (±7.5) y.o. Patients's age was related to the presence of ADRs, while the manifestation of these events was not associated with any adverse pregnancy outcome. 75.9% of the ADRs reported in the study were of mild severity and 24.1% were of moderate severity. No ADR was caused by drug-drug interaction, however a significant increase in blood pressure was observed in all patients using concurrent methyldopa and ferrous sulfate. CONCLUSION Overall, ADRs were not common events among high-risk pregnant women and no adverse pregnancy outcomes following these events were observed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.005
  • Clinical Pharmacists as medication therapy experts in diabetic clinics in
           Saudi Arabia- not just a perception but a need.

    • Authors: Hafiz A Makeen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hafiz A Makeen

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T20:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.003
  • Public Awareness and Perception towards Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting
           in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ibrahim Sales; Hisham Aljadhey; Yasser Albogami; Mansour A Mahmoud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ibrahim Sales, Hisham Aljadhey, Yasser Albogami, Mansour A Mahmoud
      Purpose To assess the general public awareness and perception about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results A total 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 1315.7% of responders were familiar with the term “Pharmacovigilance” and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.148.5% believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.146.1% stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 1640.7% think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 1436.3% responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion The general public in Saudi is are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T20:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.004
  • A Rapid Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatographic Determination of
           Glimepiride in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    • Authors: Si Zhou; Pengxiao Zuo; Yuegang Zuo; Yiwei Deng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Si Zhou, Pengxiao Zuo, Yuegang Zuo, Yiwei Deng
      Glimepiride is one of the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs and contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups in its molecules, and thus could be analyzed by either reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). In the literature, however, only reversed-phase HPLC has been reported. In this study, a simple, rapid and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of glimepiride in pharmaceutical formulations. The analytical method comprised a fast ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile as a solvent followed by HILIC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 hydrophilic column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and aqueous acetate buffer (5.0 mM). The retention time of glimepiride increased slightly with decrease of mobile phase pH value from 6.8 to 5.8 and of acetonitrile content from 60% to 40%, indicating that both hydrophilic, ionic, and hydrophobic interactions were involved in the HILIC retention and elution mechanisms. Quantitation was carried out with a mobile phase of 40% acetonitrile and 60% aqueous acetate buffer (5.0 mM) at pH 6.3, by relating the peak area of glimepiride to that of the internal standard, with a detection limit of 15.0 μg/L. UV light absorption responses at 228 nm were linear over a wide concentration range from 50.0 μg/L to 6.00 mg/L. The recoveries of the standard added to pharmaceutical tablet samples were 99.4–103.0% for glimepiride, and the relative standard deviation for the analyte was less than 1.0%. This method has been successfully applied to determine the glimepiride contents in pharmaceutical formulations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T20:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.002
  • Medication dosing errors and associated factors in hospitalized pediatric
           patients from the South Area of the West Bank - Palestine

    • Authors: Rowa' Al-Ramahi; Bayan Hmedat; Eman Alnjajrah; Israa Manasrah; Iqbal Radwan; Maram Alkhatib
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rowa' Al-Ramahi, Bayan Hmedat, Eman Alnjajrah, Israa Manasrah, Iqbal Radwan, Maram Alkhatib
      Background Medication dosing errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Pediatric patients are at increased risk of dosing errors due to differences in medication pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Objectives The aims of this study are to find the rate of medication dosing errors in hospitalized pediatric patients and possible associated factors. Method The study was an observational cohort study including pediatric inpatients less than 16 years from three governmental hospitals from the West Bank/Palestine during one month in 2014, sample size was 400 pediatric inpatients from these three hospitals. Pediatric patients’ medical records were reviewed. Patients’ weight, age, medical conditions, all prescribed medications, their doses and frequency were documented. Then the doses of medications were evaluated. Result Among 400 patients, the medications prescribed were 949 medications, 213 of them (22.4%) were out of the recommended range, 160 patients (40.0%) were prescribed one or more potentially inappropriate doses. The most common cause of hospital admission was sepsis which presented 14.3% of cases, followed by fever (13.5%) and meningitis (10.0%). The most commonly used medications were ampicillin in 194 cases (20.4%), ceftriaxone in 182 cases (19.2%), and cefotaxime in 144 cases (12.0%). No significant association was found between potentially inappropriate doses and gender or hospital (chi-square test p-value > 0.05).The results showed that patients with lower body weight, who had higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time, were more likely to have inappropriate doses. Conclusion Potential medication dosing errors were high among pediatric hospitalized patients in Palestine. Younger patients, patients with lower body weight, who were prescribed higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time were more likely to have inappropriate doses, so these populations require special care. Many children were hospitalized for infectious causes and antibiotics were widely used. Strategies to reduce pediatric medication dosing errors are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T20:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.001
  • Effect of cryoprotection on particle size stability and preservation of
           chitosan nanoparticles with and without hyaluronate or alginate coating

    • Authors: Abdulaziz Almalik; Ibrahim Alradwan; Mohd Abul Kalam; Aws Alshamsan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulaziz Almalik, Ibrahim Alradwan, Mohd Abul Kalam, Aws Alshamsan
      The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different cryoprotectants and their concentration on the physicochemical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs). The effect of coating of CS-NPs with hyaluronic acid (HA) and alginic acid (ALG) before and after lyophilization was also evaluated. The ionic gelation method was used for the preparation of NPs and six different types of cryoprotectants (sucrose, glucose, trehalose, mannitol, polyethylene glycol-2000, and polyethylene glycol-10000) were investigated at 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% concentration levels. Coating of CS-NPs with HA and their protection with high amount of cryoprotectants indicated better particle size stability. Samples that were lyophilized without cryoprotectants resulted in an increase in average size due to high agglomeration. All cryoprotectants with varying amount provided some sort of size stability for the NPs except for the PEG-10,000 which had no protective effect at higher concentrations. Sucrose and trehalose sugars were found to have the highest protective effect with HA coated and uncoated CS-NPs. In conclusion, using cryoprotectants along with surface coating, the CS-NPs could achieve the desired physicochemical characteristics for a prolonged duration.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T22:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.008
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug
           Reaction Reporting among Pharmacists Working in Secondary and Tertiary
           Governmental Hospitals in Kuwait

    • Authors: Fatemah M. Alsaleh; Sherifah W. Alzaid; Eman A. Abahussain; Tania Bayoud; Jacinthe Lemay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fatemah M. Alsaleh, Sherifah W. Alzaid, Eman A. Abahussain, Tania Bayoud, Jacinthe Lemay
      Introduction Pharmacovigilance (PV) is essential to detect and prevent adverse drug reactions (ADR) after a drug is marketed. However, ADRs are significantly underreported worldwide. Objective This study aims to document the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pharmacists towards PV and ADR reporting and to explore the barriers to implementing a fully functional PV program in Kuwait. Material and methods Pharmacists working at governmental hospitals were asked to complete a paper-based 25-item questionnaire. Results A total of 414 pharmacists received the questionnaire and 342 agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 82.6%. Most pharmacists were knowledgeable about the concepts of PV (61.5%) and ADRs (72.6%) and the majority (88.6%) was willing to implement ADR reporting in their clinical practice. Despite this positive attitude, only 26.8% of participants had previously reported an ADR and the main reason for underreporting was stated as not knowing how to report (68.9%). Barriers that hinder the implementation of a PV center included lack of cooperation and communication by healthcare professionals and patients (n=62), lack of time and proper management (n=57), lack of awareness of staff and patients (n=48) and no qualified person to report ADRs (n=35). Conclusions Overall this study shows that hospital pharmacists in Kuwait had good knowledge and positive attitude towards PV and ADRs reporting. However, the majority of them have never reported ADRs. These results suggest that targeted educational interventions and a well-defined policy for ADR reporting may help increase ADR reporting and support the implementation of a fully functional independent PV center in Kuwait.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.004
  • The welcoming attitude of dermatologists towards complementary and
           alternative medicine despite their lack of knowledge and training

    • Authors: Khalid M. AlGhamdi; Huma Khurrum; Yousif Asiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Khalid M. AlGhamdi, Huma Khurrum, Yousif Asiri
      Background/Aim Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is highly prevalent, there is very limited information on dermatologists’ attitudes and knowledge about CAM. In this survey, we aimed to study the knowledge and attitude of dermatologists in Saudi Arabia toward CAM. Furthermore, we assessed dermatologists' intention to receive CAM education and training. Methods and design We collected data through an online cross-sectional survey sent to email addresses of dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. Questions included socio-demographic data, knowledge and attitudes toward CAM practice. Results A total of 93 questionnaires were returned from dermatologists in various regions of Saudi Arabia. The mean age was 41.7±10.3 (range, 25–63) years. A total of 67% of dermatologists had welcoming attitudes towards CAM. We did not find any significant relationship between age, gender, experience or any other factor and positive attitudes toward CAM. More than 70% of participants reported an interest in learning about CAM. However, only 9 (9.7%) dermatologists had attended CAM courses. Sixty-one participants (65.6%) were eager to receive CAM-specific education, and 66% of dermatologists acknowledged having previously discussed CAM with their patients. The most important reason that dermatologists did not discuss CAM with their patients was a lack of studies supporting CAM (66.7%) and the belief that doctors’ knowledge on CAM is insufficient (58.1%). Conclusion A greater number of dermatologists have an affirmative attitude towards CAM. The willingness to improve knowledge and training indicates that the CAM field could potentially grow in dermatology.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.005
  • Use of the Guidelines Directed Medical Therapy after Coronary Artery
           Bypass Graft Surgery in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Khalid A. Alburikan; Rakan I. Nazer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Khalid A. Alburikan, Rakan I. Nazer
      Background The incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Saudi Arabia is growing and more patients are expected to have cardiac revascularization surgery. Optimal pharmacotherapy management with Guideline Directed Medical Therapy (GDMT) post Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) play an important role in the prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the utilization of GDMT for secondary prevention in CABG patients and determine whether a specific patients' characteristics can influence GDMT utilization. Method A retrospective chart review of a patients discharged from the hospital after CABG surgery from April 2015 to April 2016. The primary outcome was the utilization of secondary prevention GDMT after CABG surgery - aspirin, B-blockers, statin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) (or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in ACEI-intolerant patients). The proportions of eligible and ideal patients who received treatment were calculated, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for the association of age, gender or patient nationality with the use of GDMT. Results A total number of 119 patients included in the analysis. The median age of the cohort was 57.3 ± 11 years, and 83% were male (83.2%). Nearly 69.7% of patients had diabetes, and 82% had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. Nearly 91% received aspirin therapy and the rate was lower for B-blocker and statin. The rate of GDMT utilization did not change with the change in patients age, gender or nationality Conclusion Despite adjustments for contraindications to GDMT, The rate of GDMT utilization was suboptimal.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.007
  • New constituents triterpene ester and sugar derivatives from Panax ginseng
           Meyer and their evaluation of antioxidant activities

    • Authors: Ill-Min Chung; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Seung Hyun Kim; Praveen Nagella; Azmat Ali Khan; Mohd Ali; Ateeque Ahmad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ill-Min Chung, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Seung Hyun Kim, Praveen Nagella, Azmat Ali Khan, Mohd Ali, Ateeque Ahmad
      Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a well-known herb and used in the old established system of Oriental remedy, especially in Japan, China and Korea. Four new compounds characterized as (cis)-7β,11α,19,21-tetra-O-decanoyl-18, 22β-dihydroxy-dammar-1-en-3-one (1), 3β,4α,12β-trihydroxystigmast-5-en-21-yl octadecan-9',12'-dienoate (2), dammar-12, 24-dien-3α, 6β, 15α-triol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-L-arabinopyranoside (3) and dammar-24-en-3α, 6β, 16α, 20β-tetraol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-D-arabinopyranoside (4) were isolated and established from the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the roots of P. ginseng. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data and chemical reactions. Natural compounds indicative a great reservoir of materials and compounds with evolved biological activity, including antioxidant. Compounds 1-4 were investigated in vitro for antioxidant potential using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity, reducing power, phosphomolybdenum and 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging actions, and the decision showed the compounds 3 & 4 has probable as a essential antioxidant properties than the compounds 1 & 2 presented weak activity.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.002
  • Ovulation Induction by Metformin among Obese versus Non-Obese Women with
           Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Hazem Al-Mandeel; Hisham AlSanawi; Wael Mansy; Reem AlGasem; Lama AlMutairi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Hazem Al-Mandeel, Hisham AlSanawi, Wael Mansy, Reem AlGasem, Lama AlMutairi
      Objectives There is some evidence that the efficacy of metformin as an ovulation stimulation agent depends on the body-mass index (BMI) of the treated anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to examine the likelihood of successful ovulation among obese (BMI ⩾30 kg/m2) versus non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2) women with PCOS. Methods A total of 243 medical charts of women with PCOS who visited King Khaled University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Patients’ sociodemographic, laboratory, and medical data were collected. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the patients’ baseline data and successful ovulation among the obese and non-obese anovulatory women with PCOS, respectively. Results One hundred and nine women with PCOS who were prescribed metformin for ⩾3 months were included in the study. Almost 60% of the women who were included in the study were obese. The likelihood of ovulation among obese women with PCOS was 77.9% (odds ratio = 0.221, 95% CI 0.052–0.947, P = 0.042) less than that in their non-obese counterparts. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that metformin is more effective as an ovulation stimulation agent when administered to non-obese women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise should be emphasized upon as an integral part of any treatment plan for PCOS.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.001
  • Development and evaluation ofDesvenlafaxine loaded PLGA-Chitosan
           nanoparticles for brain delivery

    • Authors: Gui-Feng Tong; Nan Qin; Li-Wei Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gui-Feng Tong, Nan Qin, Li-Wei Sun
      Depression is a debilitating psychiatric condition that remains the second most common cause of disability worldwide. Currently, depression affects more than 4 percent of the world’s population. Most of the drugs intended for clinical management of depression augment the availability of neurotransmitters at the synapse by inhibiting their neuronal reuptake. However, the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants is often compromised as they are unable to reach brain by the conventional routes of administration. The purpose of the present study was to reconnoiter the potential of mucoadhesive PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of encapsulated Desvenlafaxine to the brain by nose to brain delivery route for superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of Desvenlafaxine. Desvenlafaxine loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by solvent emulsion evaporation technique and optimized for various physiochemical characteristics. The antidepressant efficacy of optimized Desvenlafaxine was evaluated in various rodent depression models together with the biochemical estimation of monoamines in their brain. Further, the levels of Desvenlafaxine in brain and blood plasma were determined at various time intervals for calculation of different pharmacokinetic parameters. The optimized Desvenlafaxine loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles (∼172 nm/+35mV) on intranasal administration significantly reduced the symptoms of depression and enhanced the level of monoamines in the brain in comparison to orally administered Desvenlafaxine. Nose to brain delivery of Desvenlafaxine PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles also enhanced the pharmacokinetic profile of Desvenlafaxine in brain together with their brain/blood ratio at different time points. Thus, intranasal mucoadhesive Desvenlafaxine PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles could be potentially used for the treatment of depression.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.003
  • Prevalence of potential drug interactions in Thai patients receiving
           simvastatin: The causality assessment of musculoskeletal adverse events
           induced by statin interaction

    • Authors: Methira Siriangkhawut; Patthana Tansakul; Verawan Uchaipichat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Methira Siriangkhawut, Patthana Tansakul, Verawan Uchaipichat
      Drug-drug interactions are one of the major risk factors associated with statin-induced myopathy. Although simvastatin is widely used in Thailand, studies investigating the prevalence of potential simvastatin-drug interactions (SDIs) and its clinical relevance in Thai population are still limited. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential SDIs (phase 1 study) and musculoskeletal adverse effects (AEs) associated with those interactions (phase 2 study). A phase 1 study was retrospectively conducted with outpatients at a 60-bed hospital who received simvastatin between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. In phase 2, study was cross-sectionally conducted in outpatients whose prescriptions containing potential SDIs. Musculoskeletal AEs were evaluated by using symptom checklist questionnaires and measuring plasma creatinine kinase (CK). The causal relationship between the AEs and the potential SDIs was assessed using a Drug Interaction Probability Scale. Out of 3,447 simvastatin users, potential SDIs were found in 314 patients (9.1%). The prevalence of prescriptions containing potential SDIs was in the range of 4.7 to 6.0%. Two-thirds of the potential SDIs were rated to be highly significant while more than 70% were in contraindication list. The most common precipitant drugs were gemfibrozil (382 prescriptions), colchicine (171 prescriptions) and amlodipine (152 prescriptions). Of 49 patients recruited into phase 2 study, we found that 31 patients (63.3%) had myopathy. Myalgia was the most frequently identified AEs (n=18, 58.1%), followed by asymptomatic rising CK (n=8, 25.8%), and myositis (n=5, 16.1%). Musculoskeletal AEs associated with SDIs were found in 16 patients (51.6%). Of these, we found 50.0%, 31.3% and 18.8% had asymptomatic rising CK, myalgia, and myositis, respectively. Precipitant drugs that associated with myopathy were amlodipine (2 possible cases), colchicine (3 possible cases), gemfibrozil (8 possible and 1 probable cases), nevirapine (1 possible case), and nicotinic acid (1 possible case). Potential SDIs have been found in the Thai population with a prevalence that is consistent with previous reports. Half of the musculoskeletal AEs identified were associated with SDIs. Systematic screening and management with interdisciplinary co-operation are needed to increase awareness of potential SDIs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.12.006
  • Analysis of inorganic and organic constituents of myrrh resin by GC-MS and
           ICP-MS: An emphasis on medicinal assets

    • Authors: Syed Rizwan Ahamad; Abdul Rahman Al-Ghadeer; Raisuddin Ali; Wajhul Qamar; Suliman Aljarboa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Abdul Rahman Al-Ghadeer, Raisuddin Ali, Wajhul Qamar, Suliman Aljarboa
      The aim of the present investigation was to explore the constituents of the Arabian myrrh resin obtained from Commiphora myrrha. The organic and inorganic composition of the myrrh gum resin has been investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis executed by ICP-MS reveals the presence of various inorganic elements in significant amount in the myrrh resin. The elements which were found to be present in large amounts include calcium, magnesium, aluminum, phosphorus, chlorine, chromium, bromine and scandium. The important organic constituents identified in the myrrh ethanolic extract include limonene, curzerene, germacrene B, isocericenine, myrcenol, beta selinene, spathulenol etc. The present work complements other myrrh associated investigations done in the past and provides additional data for the future researches.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T16:20:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.011
  • HIV pharmaceutical care in primary healthcare: improvement in CD4 count
           and reduction in drug-related problems

    • Authors: Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa Molino; Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale; Aline Teotonio Rodrigues; Patricia Moriel; Priscila Gava Mazzola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa Molino, Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale, Aline Teotonio Rodrigues, Patricia Moriel, Priscila Gava Mazzola
      Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is complex and many factors contribute to a patient’s response to initial therapy including adherence, drug effectiveness, and tolerance. Close HAART follow-up is needed, particularly when there are concurrent therapies such as prophylactic antibiotics and medications for the treatment of comorbidities. Objective To assess the effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in reducing drug related problems in HIV/AIDS outpatients (intervention group) and in improving clinical parameters in the intervention group compared to the control group. Methods We conducted a prospective controlled intervention study with patients paired by gender and initial T CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4) count. HIV-infected patients of a public outpatient service were enrolled for the study by consecutive and convenience sampling. Patients selected for the study were divided into a control group and an intervention group. Both groups were followed for one year; however, only the intervention group received pharmaceutical care. The primary outcome was the drug related problem (DRP) analysis for the intervention group. Secondary outcomes were CD4 count and viral load evaluation for both groups. Results There was a total of 143 patients enrolled in this study, with 53 (37.06%) patients in the control group and 90 (62.94%) patients in the intervention group. A total of 202 pharmacist interventions with 193 pharmacist-patient and 9 pharmacist-physician interventions were proposed. After one year of pharmaceutical care, a reduction of 38.43% between the initial and final DRPs was found (p=0.0001). The most common DRPs found were related to medication safety. The intervention group showed a mean increase of 84% for the CD4 count in comparison to that observed in the control group. The viral load was not significantly different between the final and initial mean values for both groups. Conclusion Pharmacist appointments enabled identification, prevention, and solving of drug related problems, especially those related to drug safety. Also, pharmacist interventions improved adherence and increased HAART effectiveness as suggested by the higher elevation in the CD4 count seen in the intervention group in comparison to the control group.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T16:20:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.004
  • Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi
           Arabia: Causes and solutions

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Wael Mansy; Mohammad Barasin; Yazeed Mohammad Ghawaa; Mohammed AlSultan; Mohammad A. Alsenaidy; Solaiman Alhawas; Sultan AlGhadeer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Wael Mansy, Mohammad Barasin, Yazeed Mohammad Ghawaa, Mohammed AlSultan, Mohammad A. Alsenaidy, Solaiman Alhawas, Sultan AlGhadeer
      Background Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies’ purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T15:26:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.013
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