for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 559 journals)
The end of the list has been reached. Please navigate to previous pages.

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Journal Cover   Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 14]   Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their
           synergistic effects with broad spectrum antibiotics: emerging strategy to
           combat drug resistant pathogens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Syed Baker, Azmath Pasha, S. Satish
      The present study emphasis on synthesis of bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV-Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 to 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles were depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed bragg’s peak conferring the 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed the highest of 87.5% fold increase was observed with antibiotics “bacitracin” against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15% streptomycin with 10% erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol 9.4%. Thus study conclude with biomimetic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as a emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.


      PubDate: 2015-07-17T22:51:35Z
       
  • Whose Responsibility is Medication Reconciliation: Physicians, Pharmacists
           or Nurses' A Survey in an Academic Tertiary Care Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amna Al-Hashar , Ibrahim Al-Zakwani , Tommy Eriksson , Mohammed Al Za’abi
      Background Medication errors occur frequently at transitions in care and can result in morbidity and mortality. Medication reconciliation is a recognized hospital accreditation requirement and designed to limit errors in transitions in care. Objectives To identify beliefs, perceived roles and responsibilities of physicians, pharmacists and nurses prior to the implementation of a standardized medication reconciliation process. Methods A survey was distributed to the three professions: pharmacists in the pharmacy and physicians and nurses in hospital in-patient units. It contained questions about the current level of medication reconciliation practices, as well as perceived roles and responsibilities of each profession when a standardized process is implemented. Value, barriers to implementing medication reconciliation and the role of information technology were also assessed. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results There was a lack of clarity of current medication reconciliation practices as well as lack of agreement between the three professions. Physicians and pharmacists considered their professions as the main providers while nurses considered physicians followed by themselves as the main providers with limited roles for pharmacists. The three professions recognize the values and benefits of medication reconciliation yet pharmacists, more than others, stated limited time to implement reconciliation is a major barrier. Obstacles such as unreliable source of medication information, patient knowledge and lack of coordination and communication between the three professions were expressed. Conclusions The three health care professions recognize the value of medication reconciliation and want to see it implemented in the hospital, yet there is lack of agreement with regards to roles and responsibilities of each profession within the process. This needs to be addressed by the hospital administration to design clear procedures and defined roles for each profession within a standardized medication reconciliation process.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T14:30:05Z
       
  • Erythrocytes nanovesicles: biogenesis, biological roles and therapeutic
           approach Erythrocytes nanovesicles as therapeutic target

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa , Mohamed M. Badran , Fars K. Alanazi
      Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cells signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological process. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T13:33:30Z
       
  • Toxic keratitis after use of wrongly labeled non-ophthalmic medication

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad A. Al-Amry , Nada Al-Abdan , Saleh A. AL-Othaimeen
      We present a 24-year-old female with trauma to her right eye. The patient was prescribed topical Tobramicin-dexamethasone eye drops but the pharmacy dispensed diclofenac diethyl amine ointment. The patient presented to the emergency room with lid edema, conjunctival injection and a corneal epithelial defect and toxic ketatitis. The patient was successfully managed with copious irrigation, bandage contact lens and topical antibiotic therapy.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T13:06:21Z
       
  • Polymeric films as a promising carrier for bioadhesive drug delivery:
           Development, Characterization and Optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Pallavi Bassi , Gurpreet Kaur
      Bioadhesive films using tamarind seed polysaccharide were prepared for the treatment of candida vaginitis using nystatin as the model drug. Films were prepared by solvent casting method. A 32 factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (polymer and plasticizer concentration) on a range of dependent variables namely mechanical, swelling, interfacial, and bioadhesive properties through response surface methodological approach, using Design Expert® software. Formulation composition that provided the most desired and optimized results was selected using desirability approach. Nystatin was solubilised using Tween 60 and was incorporated into the selected film. Drug solubilisation and dispersion were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The optimized film released 73.92±2.54% of nystatin at the end of 8h in simulated vaginal fluid and the release data showed best fit to Korsmeyer-Peppas model with R2 of 0.9990 and the release mechanism to be super case-II. The optimized film also showed appropriate anti candida activity through appearance of zone of inhibition during antifungal activity testing study.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T13:06:21Z
       
  • Uncertainties Around Incretin-based Therapies: a Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Bader Al Tulaihi , Samia Alhabib
      Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcome that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method this is a narrative review. Several databases were searched. Search terms used were MeSH and keywords with different combinations of Boolean operators according to the database but were comparable. Studies included were: randomized controlled trials, cohort and case-controlled studies, health technology report, meta-analysis, and systematic reviews. Results were analysed and reported in a narrative style with emphasis on the effectiveness and adverse effects of various types of incretinbased therapies. Results 17 articles were retrieved as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were heterogeneous in terms of interventions, participants, settings and outcomes. Studies varied in their quality and/or reporting of their findings conducted in several settings. There are two types of incretin: Glucosedependent Insulinotropic Peptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1). There is no question that incretin-based glucose-lowering medications have demonstrated to be effective glucose-lowering drugs. They proved an evidence-based efficacy profile and appear to do so with significant effects to stimulate weight loss with minimal hypoglycaemia. However, there are few side effects that should not be overlooked when deciding to use such therapies. Conclusion The findings of our review presented here, does not prove that these agents are unsafe, but it does suggest that the burden of evidence now rests with those who hope to persuade us of their safety. Continuous clinical monitoring and more research are essential to clarify the actions of GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 on the normal and diabetic exocrine pancreas.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T13:06:21Z
       
  • Towards Safety of Oral Anti-cancer Agents, the need to Educate Our
           Pharmacists

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sanaa Saeed Mekdad , Adher Dhaya AlSayed
      Introduction The global prevalence of cancer is rising. Use of Oral anticancer medications have expanded exponentially. Knowledge about these medications as well as safe handling guidelines have not kept abreast with the rapidity these medications are applied in clinical practice. They pose serious hazards on all personal involved in handling these medications as well as on patients and their caregivers. We addressed the gaps in knowledge and safe handling of oral anticancer agents among pharmacists in institutional based cancer care. Materials and Methods We used a 41 item questionnaire to explore three domains, pharmacists’ knowledge, safe handling practice and confidence and self-improving strategies towards these agents among pharmacists in multicenter specialized cancer care. Results Participants included 120 pharmacists dedicated to handle and dispense Oral anticancer agents. About 20% of Pharmacists have adequate knowledge about oral anticancer agents. Less than 50% apply safe handling principles adequately. Only a quarter are confident in educating cancer patients and their caregivers about Oral Anti-Cancer Agents. Conclusions Pharmacists knowledge about Oral Anticancer agents need to be improved. Safe handling and dispensing practice of these medications should be optimized. Pharmacists’ confidence towards educating patients and their caregiver needs to be addressed. Enhancing safety of oral anticancer agents should be a priority. Involving all key players, research and quality improving projects are needed to improve all aspects of safety of oral anticancer agents.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T08:29:35Z
       
  • Bridging Theory and Practice: Mixed Methods Approach to Instruction of Law
           and Ethics within the Pharmaceutical Sciences

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby , Ziad Ghantous Nasr
      Background Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives The aim of this paper is to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated between during the 3-hour session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main Outcome Measures Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty member completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed-methods instructional approach should be continued in the future. The SWOC analysis identified the mixed methods approach and student feedback as strengths and opportunities, while resource shortages and lack of impact assessment were identified as weaknesses and challenges. Conclusion Creative redesign of instructional methods pertaining to law and best practices was effective to achieve positive student perceptions regarding instructional methods and learning. Future cycles should include rigorous assessment methods to evaluate impact on student learning and practice.


      PubDate: 2015-06-20T00:27:00Z
       
  • Contribution of Community Pharmacists in Educating the Asthma Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hamoud Saud Alotaibi , Thippeswamy Boreddy Shivanandappa , Sivagurunathan Nagarethinam
      Background In asthma, the preventive measures taken by patient’s plays an important role in improving life span and quality of life. This can be done more efficiently by community pharmacist by providing patient counseling and improving knowledge of patient about disease, risk factors, medication management and preventive measures to control asthma. Objectives The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution of community pharmacists in improvement of life span and quality of life of an asthma patients. Method The study was performed from Mid September to Mid-November 2014 in Dawadmi, Riadh province, KSA. Data were colleceted by using a structured face to face questinnaire with randommly selected different community pharmacies. The questionare composed of different closed questions about the action plan of pharmacists in asthma management and factors that affect the counselling of an asthma patients by the pharmacists. Results It is noteworthy to observe that, in general, pharmacists are sufficiently knowledgeable and competent to counsel their asthma patients effectively.


      PubDate: 2015-06-20T00:27:00Z
       
  • A Pragmatic Approach for the Analysis of a Combination Formulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Noshin Mubtasim , Eva Rahman Kabir , Subrata Bhadra , Ashis Kumar Podder
      The aim of the paper was to formulate a combined oral dosage form of rosuvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate and to investigate the different methods for analysis and finally to develop and validate an analytical method to be adopted for both routine quality control assay and in-vitro dissolution studies of the formulation. The proposed combination formulation has shown compatibility with the chosen excipients, verified through FT-IR study. A novel gradient RP-HPLC method was developed and validated according to the ICH guideline which was found to be suitable for the simultaneous estimation of rosuvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate from the formulation. The retention time of 2.7 and 6.08 minutes allows the analysis of large amount of samples with less mobile phase which makes the method economic. The dissolution profiles of both the drugs in different dissolution medium were encouraging which makes the combination formulation of rosuvastatin calcium and amlodipine besylate superior and effective in achieving patient compliance.


      PubDate: 2015-06-20T00:27:00Z
       
  • Effect of tramadol on metamizol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
           after single and repeated administrations in arthritic rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Luis Alfonso Moreno-Rocha , Francisco Javier López-Muñoz , José Raúl Medina-López , Adriana Miriam Domínguez-Ramírez
      Combined administration of certain doses of an opioid compounds with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug can produce additive or supra-additive effects while reducing unwanted effects. We have recently reported that co-administration of metamizol with tramadol produces antinociceptive effect potentiation, after acute treatment. However, none information about the effect produced by the combination after chronic or repeated dose administration exists. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the antinociceptive synergism produced by the combination of metamizol plus tramadol (177.8+17.8 mg/kg, s.c. respectively) is maintained after repeated treatment and if the effects observed are primarily due to pharmacodynamic interactions or may be related to pharmacokinetics changes. Administration of metamizol plus tramadol acute treatment significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of the drugs given alone (P<0.05), Nevertheless, this effect decreased about 53% after the chronic treatment (3 doses per day, for 4 days.) No pharmacokinetic interaction between metamizol and tramadol were found under acute treatment, (P>0.05). The mechanism involved in the synergism of the antinociceptive effect observed with the combination of metamizol and tramadol in single dose cannot be attributed to a pharmacokinetic interaction, and other pharmacodynamic interactions have to be considered. On the other hand, when metamizol and tramadol were co-administered under repeated administrations, a pharmacokinetic interaction and tolerance development occurred. Differences found in metamizol active metabolites’ pharmacokinetics (P<0.05) were related to the development of tolerance produced by the combination after repeated doses. This work shows an additional preclinical support for the combination therapy. The clinical utility of this combination in a suitable dose range should be evaluated in future studies.


      PubDate: 2015-06-20T00:27:00Z
       
  • Olanzapine induced biochemical and histopathological changes after its
           chronic administration in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rehmat Shah , Fazal Subhan , Gowhar Ali , Ihsan Ullah , Sami Ullah , Muhammad Shahid , Nisar Ahmad , Khwaja Fawad
      Objective Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner. Methods Fourteen male rats were divided into two groups equally, the olanzapine group and the controls. Olanzapine was administered in a dose of 5 mg/kg/d for the first eight weeks, 10 mg/kg/d for next four weeks and 15 mg/kg/d through the last two week period of 14 weeks experiment. The controls received acidified saline only. Both the groups received restricted diet (20 g/12h). The body weight and level of random blood sugar (RBS) were measured on a weekly basis. The levels of lipase, amylase, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined terminally. At the end of the experiment, the tissues were dissected out for histopathological evaluation. Results Significant loss in body weight, change in the level of random blood sugar (∗∗P<0.05, ∗∗∗P<0.001) and significant rise in amylase and lipase levels (∗p<0.05, ∗∗∗p<0.001) were observed. However, the same treatment has shown no significant change in the levels of alanine and aspartate transaminases (p>0.05). The pancreas has shown derangement of beta cells and fibrotic growth. The kidneys have illustrated mild to moderate focal increase in glomerular cellularity, cellular proliferation and glomerular capsules with negligible basement membranes. No changes were observed in the architecture of the liver. Conclusion The findings of this study indicated that the incidence of adverse effects associated with olanzapine could be prevented/alleviated/delayed by allowing restricted diet.


      PubDate: 2015-06-20T00:27:00Z
       
  • Consumers’ perceptions on the contribution of community pharmacists
           in the dispensing process at Dawadmi

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hamoud Saud Alotaibi , Malik Abdelhalim Abdelkarim
      Background Community pharmacies are widely distributed and developments in this sector will greatly improve pharmaceutical health care delivery. Objectives To provide consumer’s perceptions towards the contribution of community pharmacists in the dispensing process. Method The study was performed from mid-October to mid-November 2013 in Dawadmi, KSA. Data were carried out using a structured face-to-face questionnaire with randomly selected 100 consumers at different community pharmacies. The questionnaire composed of nine closed questions about consumer’s perceptions towards the pharmacist’s role, counselling quality and dispensing errors in community pharmacies. Results Consumers perceive that pharmacists are not committed to dispense medications with prescription (72%), it is embarrassing to ask questions to the pharmacist in the current pharmacy premises (48%), pharmacists do not give enough counselling about their medications (48%) and they previously encountered a dispensing error (26%). Conclusion The professional performance of community pharmacists in dispensing is below expectation. Majority of consumers perceive that community pharmacists are violating pharmacy law and giving them insufficient medicine information while dispensing. Authorities should stimulate both pharmacist’s and consumer’s awareness by educational campaign, improve standards for the profession and penalise violators. It is a necessity for community pharmacies to develop consultation areas to assure privacy, improve counselling quality, and reduce dispensing errors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sonali K. Doke , Shashikant C. Dhawale
      The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Does self-reflection and peer-assessment improve Saudi pharmacy
           students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills'

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kazeem B. Yusuff
      Background: The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. Objectives: To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Method: An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students’ feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Result: Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean±SD age of 23.2±5.6 and 22.1±4.9years respectively. The mean±SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P <0.001). The majority of the students in the study group opined that the exposure to active pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. Conclusion: The use of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer-assessment appeared to significantly improve examination performance, facilitate deep and constructive engagement with learning and fostered students’ confidence in the use of critical thinking and clinical decision-making.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Microbiological quality of non-sterile pharmaceutical products

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): M. Ratajczak , M.M. Kubicka , D. Kamińska , P. Sawicka , J. Długaszewska
      In microbiological terms, pharmaceutical products can be divided into two groups: sterile and non-sterile. Non-sterile drugs must satisfy the appropriate microbiological purity criteria which are included in pharmacopoeial monographs. Pharmacopoeial studies are prepared specifically with a view to ensuring that the medicinal product is therapeutically effective and safe for the patient. The analysis comprised the results of microbiological purity tests performed before the products are marketed. Total of 1285 samples of non-sterile drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical plants in Polish were taken into study. The microbiological quality of drugs was assessed in accordance with the criteria included in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). An analysis of test results demonstrated that the percentage of non-compliant samples was 1.87%. The groups of drugs, which the most often did not satisfy EPs’ requirements, were drugs containing raw materials of natural origin (5.7%). The samples of studied drugs that did not meet the criteria contained in EP, exceed the maximum allowable microbiological count limits and contained microbes whose presence is prohibited. The most common non-compliance was the excessive levels of the maximum acceptable fungal count (n =12) and the excessive the maximum acceptable aerobic microbial count (n =10).


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Formulation and characterization of 5-Fluorouracil enteric coated
           nanoparticles for sustained and localized release in treating colorectal
           cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shashank Tummala , M.N. Satish Kumar , Ashwati Prakash
      5-Fluorouracil is used in the treatment of colorectal cancer along with oxaliplatin as first line treatment, but it is having lack of site specificity and poor therapeutic effect. Also toxic effects to healthy cells and unavailability of major proportion of drug at the colon region remain as limitations. Toxic effects prevention and drug localization at colon area was achieved by preparing enteric-coated chitosan polymeric nanoparticles as it can be delivered directly to large bowel. Enteric coating helps in preventing the drug degradation at gastric pH. So the main objective was to prepare chitosan polymeric nanoparticles by solvent evaporation emulsification method by using different ratios of polymer (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4). Optimized polymer ratio was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), entrapment efficiency and particle size and further subjected to enteric coating. In vitro drug release studies were done using dialysis bag technique using simulated fluids at various pH (1.2, 4.5, 7.5, 7.0) to mimic the GIT tract. 5-FU nanoparticles with drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 and 1:3 has shown better particle size (149±1.28nm and 138±1.01nm respectively), entrapment efficiency (48.12±0.08% and 69.18±1.89 respectively). 5-FU E1 has shown better drug release after 4h and has shown 82% drug release till 24h in a sustained manner comparable to the non-enteric coated tablets, which released more than 50% of the drug before entering the colon region. So we can conclude that nanoparticles prepared by this method using the same polymer with the optimized ratio can represent as potential drug delivery approach for effective delivery of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to the colorectal tumors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Utilization of model-based meta-analysis to delineate the net efficacy of
           taspoglutide from the response of placebo in clinical trials

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Han Qing Li , Jia Yin Xu , Liang Jin , Ji Le Xin
      The objective of this study was to develop quantitative models to delineate the net efficacy of taspoglutide on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from the response of placebo in type 2 diabetes patients, and further find pharmacodynamic potency of taspoglutide and FPG for half of maximum reduction responses of FPG and HbA1c, respectively. Several PD data about taspoglutide treatments for type 2 diabetes patients were digitalized from the published papers related with the clinical development of taspoglutide. The model based meta-analysis (MBMA) studies for FPG and HbA1c were performed with Monolix 4.2 software. The MBMA successfully described the effects of placebo and taspoglutide on pharmacological indexes of FPG and HbA1c through mono and multiple combination therapies in clinical trials. The pharmacodynamic potency (25.3pmol/l) produced 50% of maximum responses of FPG (−2.39mmol/l) from the responses of placebo for FPG (−0.371mmol/l); the response change of FPG (−1.81mmol/l) affected 50% of maximum response change (−1.74%) for HbA1c from the response of placebo (−0.253%). The leveraging prior knowledge from the longitudinal MBMA will be utilized to guide clinical development of taspoglutide and further support study designs including optimization of dose and duration of therapy.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2
           diabetic patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shereen Aleidi , Ala Issa , Haidar Bustanji , Mohammad Khalil , Yasser Bustanji
      The adipose tissue is not only an inert storage depot for lipids, but also it secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, known as adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Adiponectin is the most abundant of these adipocytokines and is known to have a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and to establish a correlation between adiponectin serum levels and the degree of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty participants were enrolled in this study; 61 type 2 diabetic patients and 19 apparently healthy subjects. Serum level of adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each participant. Data collection sheet was filled with all required information for each participant. Adiponectin level in the diabetic patients (5.05±2.61μg/ml) was lower than in non-diabetic healthy controls (5.71±2.35μg/ml). When the results were compared according to gender, diabetic females showed significantly higher adiponectin levels (5.76±2.64μg/ml) than diabetic males (4.366±2.43μg/ml, P =0.035). In addition, female diabetic patients with abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC)⩾88cm) had lower adiponectin levels (5.58±2.58μg/ml) than diabetic females without abdominal obesity (6.96±3.12μg/ml). The correlation analysis indicated that adiponectin had a significant positive correlation with age (r =−0.450, P <0.001). In conclusion, female diabetic patients had a statistically significant higher adiponectin level than male diabetic patients which could indicate a gender effect. Adiponectin levels were inversely related to insulin resistance; as patients with abdominal obesity had lower serum levels of adiponectin.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Hospital pharmacists’ self-evaluation of their competence and
           confidence in conducting pharmacy practice research

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ahmed Awaisu , Dana Bakdach , Reem Hasan Elajez , Manal Zaidan
      Objectives: Research is essential to the advancement of pharmacy practice and healthcare. Pharmacists have a pivotal role to play in this strategy. However, there is a paucity of data about hospital pharmacists’ competence and ability in conducting health-related research. This study primarily aims to determine the research demographics of hospital pharmacists in Qatar and to assess the pharmacists’ perceptions of their competence and confidence to conduct research. Methods: A multi-centered survey using a 70-item piloted questionnaire was conducted among a randomly selected sample of pharmacists practicing at seven Hamad Medical Corporation-managed hospitals. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were applied using IBM-SPSS® version 20. Key findings: A total of 120 participants responded to the survey (67% response rate). About 70% of the participants did not have any previous research experience. At least 20% of the respondents self-reported inadequate competence and/or confidence in developing research protocols, critically appraising the literature, undertaking and applying appropriate statistical techniques, and interpreting research findings. The level of education along with the current hospital of practice had significant effects on pharmacists’ self-assessed competence (p <0.05). Overall, 85% of the participants were interested in pursuing postgraduate studies or research-related training. Conclusions: A large proportion of hospital pharmacists in Qatar self-assessed themselves as having deficiencies in several domains of research process or competencies, although they recognized the value of research in advancing pharmacy practice. These findings have important implications for developing informal research training programs and promoting the pursuit of formal postgraduate programs to bridge the knowledge gaps found among hospital-practicing pharmacists.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Pharmaceutical research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A scientometric
           analysis during 2001–2010

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ibrahim Alhaider , K.K. Mueen Ahmed , B.M. Gupta
      Studies on the performance of Saudi Arabia in the pharmaceutical science research using quantitative and qualitative measures. They analyze the productivity and global publication share and rank of the top 15 countries. The author studies Saudi Arabia’s publications output, growth and citation quality, international collaborative publication share and most important the collaborating partners, contribution and citation impact of its top 15 organizations and authors, productivity patterns of its top publishing journals and characteristics of its highly cited papers.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Stealth Amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: In vitro
           optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Bushra T. AL-Quadeib , Mahasen A. Radwan , Lidija Siller , Benjamin Horrocks , Matthew C. Wright
      Purpose Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial agent. However, AmB has low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and adverse effects (e.g., nephrotoxicity). The objectives of this study were to improve the oral bioavailability by entrapping AmB in pegylated (PEG) poly lactide co glycolide copolymer (PLGA–PEG) nanoparticles (NPs). The feasibility of different surfactants and stabilizers on the mean particle size (MPS) and entrapment efficiency were also investigated. Materials and methods NPs of AmB were prepared by a modified emulsification diffusion method employing a vitamin E derivative as a stabilizer. Physicochemical properties and particle size characterization were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vitro dissolution profiles were performed for all formulated AmB NPs. Results MPS of the prepared spherical particles of AmB ranged from 26.4±2.9 to 1068±489.8nm. An increased stirring rate favored AmB NPs with a smaller MPS. There was a significant reduction in MPS, drug content and drug release, when AmB NPs were prepared using the diblock polymer PLGA–PEG with 15% PEG. Addition of three emulsifying agents poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Vitamin E (TPGS) and pluronic F-68 to AmB formulations led to a significant reduction in particle size and increase in drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) compared to addition of PVP alone. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated a successful loading of AmB to pegylated PLGA–PEG copolymers. PLGA–PEG copolymer entrapment efficiency of AmB was increased up to 56.7%, with 92.7% drug yield. After a slow initial release, between 20% and 54% of AmB was released in vitro within 24h phosphate buffer containing 2% sodium deoxycholate and were best fit Korsmeyer–Peppas model. In conclusion, PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer with 15% PEG produced a significant reduction (>70%) in MPS with highest drug content. The percentage of PEG in the copolymer and the surfactant/stabilizer used had a direct effect on AmB release in vitro, entrapment efficiency and MPS. These developed formulations are feasible, effective and improved alternatives to other carriers for oral delivery of AmB.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of stabilized ellagic
           acid–phospholipid complex with improved dissolution and permeability
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Amelia M. Avachat , Vijay G. Patel
      Ellagic acid (EA), a plant polyphenol known for its wide-range of health benefits has limited use due to its low oral bioavailability. In this study, a new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS), based on the phospholipid complex technique, was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was prepared by an anti-solvent method and characterized. Enhanced lipophilicity after the formation of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex was verified through solubility studies. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. Formulations were optimized on the basis of globule size, cloud point and robustness to dilution. The optimized SNEDDS of ellagic acid–phospholipid complex showed mean globule size of 106±0.198nm and cloud point at 83–85°C. The in vitro drug release from SNEDDS was found to be higher compared to EA suspension and complex, while ex vivo studies showed increased permeation from SNEDDS compared to EA suspension. Moreover, SNEDDS overcome the food effect which was shown by EA suspension. Thus, SNEDDS were found to be influential in improving the release performance of EA, indicating their potential to improve the oral bioavailability of EA.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role
           in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ibrahim Khalid Rayes , Mohamed Azmi Hassali , Abduelmula R. Abduelkarem
      The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of
           buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo
           pharmacokinetic studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): A. Jaipal , M.M. Pandey , S.Y. Charde , P.P. Raut , K.V. Prasanth , R.G. Prasad
      Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Vancomycin therapy in critically ill patients on continuous renal
           replacement therapy; are we doing enough'

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ali S. Omrani , Alaa Mously , Marylie P. Cabaluna , John Kawas , Mohammed M. Albarrak , Wafa A. Alfahad
      Background Recommendations regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring in critically ill patients on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are limited. This is a retrospective study to assess the adequacy of current vancomycin dosing and monitoring practice for patients on CRRT in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted between 1 April 2011 and 30 March 2013 to critical care and received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT was performed. Results A total of 68 patients received intravenous vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one percent were males and median (range) age was 62.5 (19 – 90) years. Median APACHE II score was 33.5 (22–43) and median Charlson Comorbidity Score was 4 (0–8). The mean (±standard deviation) dose of vancomycin was 879.9mg (±281.2mg) for an average duration of 5.9days (±3.7days). All patients received continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). A total of 55 vancomycin level readings were available from the study population, ranging from 6.6 to 41.3, with wide variations within the same sampling time frames. Vancomycin levels of>15mg/L or were achieved at least once in 24 patients (75.0%), but only 11 patients (34.3%) had 2 or more serum vancomycin level readings of 15mg/L or more. Conclusion Therapeutic vancomycin levels are difficult to maintain in critically ill patients who are receiving IV vancomycin therapy whilst on CRRT. Aggressive dosing schedules and frequent monitoring are required to ensure adequate vancomycin therapy in this setting.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Shorter and sturdier bridges between traditional Chinese medicines and
           modern pharmacology

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi , Besma Boubertakh



      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Quinoline based furanones and their nitrogen analogues: docking, synthesis
           and biological evaluation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sukhbir Lal Khokra , Jyoti , Chetan , Pawan Kaushik , M.M. Alam , M.S. Zaman , Aftab Ahmad , Shah Alam Khan , Asif Husain
      A small library of twenty four quinoline based butenolides also known as furanones and their nitrogen analogues was prepared by using two different aroylpropionic acids viz. 3-(2-napthoyl)propionic acid (3) and 3-(biphenyl-4-yl)propionic acid (4), as starting materials. The 3-aroylpropionic acids were reacted with different 6-substituted-2-chloroquinolin-3-carbaldehydes (2a-d) to obtain the corresponding furan-2(3H)-ones (5a-h). The purified and characterized furanones were then converted into their corresponding 2(3H)-pyrrolones (6a-h) and N-benzyl-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones (7a-h). The antimicrobial activities of the title compounds were evaluated against two strains of each Gram +ve (S. aureus and B. subtilis), Gram -ve bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and against fungal strains of A. niger and A. flavus. In vivo anti-inflammatory potential of the title compounds was investigated by standard method. Majority of the compounds showed significant antibacterial activity against both the Gram +ve strains. Eight most potent anti-inflammatory compounds (5b, 5d, 5h, 6b, 7b, 7d, 7f, 7h) which exhibited >53% inhibition in edema, were also screened for their in vivo analgesic activity. All the tested compounds were found to have significant reduction in ulcerogenic action but only three compounds (5d, 5h and 7h) showed comparable analgesic activity to standard drug, diclofenac. The results were also validated using in silico approach and maximum mol doc score was obtained for compounds 7a-h. On comparing the in-vivo and in-silico anti-inflammatory results of synthesized compounds, N-benzyl pyrrolones (7a-h) emerged as the potent potent anti-inflammatory agents. It was also observed that compounds which possess electron withdrawing group such as- Cl or NO2 are more biologically active.


      PubDate: 2015-06-12T23:26:24Z
       
  • Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of Glycinate and Carbonate
           Derivatives of Cholesterol: Synthesis and Characterisation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rajendran Sri balan , Vediappen Padmini , Andiappan Lavanya , Kandasamy Ponnuvel
      A series of glycinate and carbonate derivatives of cholesterol (4a-t) were synthesized, characterized and assessed for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Our results revealed that the compounds exerted inhibitory activities against gram-negative bacteria and fungi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-04T04:49:47Z
       
  • Prevalence and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii among Saudi Pregnant Women
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): MS. Jawahir alghamdi , Maha Hussein Elamin , Samia Alhabib
      Introduction Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, nevertheless to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T.gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included: Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.


      PubDate: 2015-05-23T15:51:58Z
       
  • Effect of Amlodipine, Lisinopril and Allopurinol on Acetaminophen-Induced
           Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nesreen E.M. Mohammed , Basim A.S. Messiha , Ali A. Abo-Saif
      Background Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents like acetaminophen may lead to serious liver injury. Calcium deregulation, angiotensin II production and xanthine oxidase activity are suggested to play mechanistic roles in such injury. Objective This study evaluates the possible protective effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol against experimental acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, aiming to understand its underlying hepatotoxic mechanisms. Material and methods Animals were allocated into a normal control group, a acetaminophen hepatotoxicity control group (receiving a single oral dose of acetaminophen; 750 mg/kg/day), and four treatment groups receiving N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/kg/day; a reference standard), amlodipine (10 mg/kg/day), lisinopril (20 mg/kg/day) and allopurinol (50 mg/kg/day) orally for 14 consecutive days prior to acetaminophen administration. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity was performed by assessment of hepatocyte integrity markers (serum transaminases), oxidative stress markers (hepatic malondialdehyde, glutathione and catalase), and inflammatory markers (hepatic myeloperoxidase and nitrate/nitrite), in addition to a histopathological study. Results Rats pre-treated with amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol showed significantly lower serum transaminases, significantly lower hepatic malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase and nitrate/nitrite, as well as significantly higher hepatic glutathione and catalase levels, compared with acetaminophen control rats. Serum transaminases were normalized in the lisinopril treatment group, while hepatic myeloperoxidase was normalized in all treatment groups. Histopathological evaluation strongly supported the results of biochemical estimations. Conclusion Amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol can protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, showing mechanistic roles of calcium channels, angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase enzyme in the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen.


      PubDate: 2015-05-23T15:51:58Z
       
  • How to improve suspected ADR reporting among pharmacists in the GCC'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kerry Wilbur



      PubDate: 2015-05-11T00:20:10Z
       
  • Drug Release Behavior of Polymeric Matrix Filled in Capsule

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thawatchai Phaechamud , Wanwilai Darunkaisorn
      A single unit sustainable drug release system was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based matrices filled in capsule as the drug delivery device. Release behavior of propranolol HCl from these capsules was investigated and least square fitting was performed for the dissolution data with the different mathematical expressions. Effect of diluent, polymer, pH and hydrodynamic force on the drug release from the developed systems was investigated. The utilization of HPMC as a matrix former extended the drug release longer than 8 h. HPMC viscosity grades affected the drug release which an increasing the amount of fillers such as lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate enhanced the drug release rate of HPMC matrices. The hydrodynamic force, type and amount of incorporated polymer apparently influenced the drug release. The physiochemical properties of polymers and interaction between HPMC and other polymers were important factor for prolongation of the drug release. The release mechanism from HPMC-based matrices in capsules was the non-Fickian transport which the sustainable drug release of HPMC capsules could be achieved by the addition of polymeric matrix.


      PubDate: 2015-05-05T21:48:18Z
       
  • Factors influencing community pharmacist decision to dispense generic or
           branded medicines; Eastern Province, Alahsa, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yaser Albadr , Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Background Rising costs of medicines have increased the interest of policy makers in generic medicines. However, consumers’ and health care providers’ perception and attitude towards generic medicine act as a main barrier to the promotion of generic medicines. Objective To explore the factors community pharmacists consider while dispensing branded or generic medicines to consumers. Method A qualitative study was planned; twenty community pharmacists (ten hospital affiliated pharmacies and ten non-hospital affiliated pharmacies) were approached using a convenient sampling method. Interviews were recorded and later were coded into themes. Result Overall, it is seen that generic medicine stock was available for antibiotics, pain killers, cough syrups, antihistaminics and antacids. Pharmacists working in hospital affiliated pharmacies were more concerned about the quality of drug before dispensing it to the consumer and they believe that what is prescribed is best for them and substitution or switching is unnecessary while for pharmacists in the non-hospital affiliated pharmacies, appearance of the client was found to be the main factor influencing them to dispense generic (low cost) or branded (expensive) medicines. Conclusion Physical appearance of the consumer is revealed to be one of the main factors affecting the pharmacist decision to dispense generic or branded medicine. Pharmacists practising in hospital affiliated pharmacies were found to be influenced by physicians’ recommendation, and prefer to dispense good quality medicines.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Pharmacist’s knowledge, practice and attitudes toward
           pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting process

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Maysa Suyagh , Doaa Farah , Rana Abu Farha
      Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of drug related morbidity and mortality. Pharmacovigilance is the science that plays an essential role in the reduction of ADRs, thus the evolution and growth of this science are critical for effective and safe clinical practice. Objectives This study is considered the first study in the region to evaluate pharmacist’s knowledge, practice and attitudes toward ADRs reporting after establishing the national ADRs reporting center in Jordan. Method A cross sectional study was used to evaluate pharmacist knowledge and attitude toward ADRs reporting. A structured validated questionnaire was developed for this purpose and a total of 208 pharmacists were recruited to participate in this study. Results The majority of pharmacists have insufficient awareness and lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. Also the rate of reporting of ADRs was extremely poor. Several factors were found to discourage pharmacists from reporting ADRs, which include inadequate information available from the patient, unavailability of pharmacist ADRs form when needed, unawareness of the existence of the national ADRs reporting system. Also pharmacists think that ADRs are unimportant or they did not know how to report them. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that pharmacists have insufficient knowledge about the concept of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous ADRs reporting. On the other hand, pharmacists had positive attitudes toward pharmacovigilance, despite their little experience with ADRs reporting. Educational programs are needed to increase pharmacist’s role in the reporting process, and thus to have a positive impact on the overall patient caring process.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Determination and characterization of metronidazole–kaolin
           interaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy , Fulwah Alqahtani , Omaimah Al Gohary , Eram El Tahir , Rania Al Shalabi
      The needs for safe, therapeutically effective antidiarrheal combination continuously lead to effective treatment. When administered simultaneously, metronidazole–kaolin interactions have been reported by FDA but not studied. This paper is the first to study metronidazole–kaolin interactions. Adsorption isotherms of a metronidazole–kaolin antidiarrheal combination from aqueous solutions at an in vivo simulated pH conditions were obtained at 37±0.5°C. Langmuir constants for the adsorption are 10.8225, 41.3223mgg−1 and 11.60, 2.56lg−1 aimed at the monolayer capacity, and the equilibrium constant at pH 1.2 and 6.8, respectively. pH effect on adsorption of known concentration of metronidazole by kaolin was also studied over the range 1.2–8. A gradual increase in the adsorbed amount was noted with increasing the pH. Elution studies by different eluents showed that drug recovery from adsorbent surface was pH-dependent via competitive mechanism. The elution followed the sequence: 0.1M HCl>0.1M NaCl>H2O. Adsorption–desorption studies revealed physical adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of metronidazole decreased as the adsorbent concentration was increased in the systems. The dissolution profiles (USP) of commercially available tablets (Riazole® 500mg) were obtained alone and in the presence of either (ORS®) rehydration salts and 9 or 18g of kaolin powder. The percentage drug released versus time: 95.01% in 25min, 101.02% in 30min, 67.63% in 60min, 60.59% in 60min, respectively. The percentage drug released versus time was increased with ORS® due to common ion effect [Cl−], while, it was decreased with kaolin due to adsorption. The mechanism of reaction of Riazole® (500mg) tablets in the different dissolution media, confirms with Korsmeyer–Peppas model. The interaction between metronidazole and kaolin was characterized by melting point determinations, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained were suggestive of physical interaction between metronidazole and kaolin.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Refining knowledge, attitude and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM)
           among pharmacy students for professional challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eman Abu-Gharbieh , Doaa Al Khalidi , Mirza R. Baig , Saeed A. Khan
      Practicing evidence based medicine (EBM) is a professional need for the future clinical pharmacist in UAE and around the world. An attempt was made to evaluate pharmacy student’s knowledge, attitude and proficiency in the practice of EBM. A within-subject study design with pre and post survey and skill test were conducted using case based practice of EBM through a validated questionnaire. The results were tabulated and there was a statistically significant increase in pharmacy students’ perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (95.3%), searching for evidence (97%), appraising the evidence (81%), understanding statistics (78.1%), and applying evidence at point of care (81.2%). In this study, workshops and (Problem Based Learning) PBLs were used as a module of EBM teaching and practices, which has been shown to be an effective educational method in terms of improving students’ skills, knowledge and attitude toward EBM. Incorporating hands on experience, PBLs will become an impetus for developing EBM skills and critical appraisal of research evidence alongside routine clinical practice. This integration would constitute the cornerstone in lifting EBM in UAE up to the needed standards and would enable pharmacy students to become efficient pharmacists that rely on evidence in their health practice.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Comparative evaluation of metered-dose inhaler technique demonstration
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Adnan , Shahid Karim , Shamshir Khan , Naser A. Al-Wabel
      Title Comparative evaluation of metered-dose inhaler technique demonstration among community pharmacists in Al Qassim and Al Ahsa regions, Saudi Arabia. Background Patients rely on the information about use of proper inhaler technique when dispensed by community pharmacists however; several studies have shown that patients are unable to show correct inhalation technique. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of community pharmacists in Al Qassim region to demonstrate proper inhalation technique of metered dose inhaler and compare the baseline outcomes with a similar study at Al-Ahsa region. Method We approach 96 pharmacies in Al Qassim region as mock patient (Investigator). The investigator asks the Pharmacist to guide him about proper inhalation technique of metered dose inhaler. Investigator completes a standardized and validated checklist of 8 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Baseline data were compared between the two study groups et al. Ahsa and Al-Qassim for variables for effectiveness of pharmacist handling of patient queries. Result A total number of 96 community pharmacies were approached in five cities of the Al Qassim province in Saudi Arabia This study has found that majority (93.7%) of community pharmacists failed to demonstrate proper inhalation technique of pMDI inhaler. Conclusion The pharmacists demonstrated particularly poor skills involving steps for coordination of the actuation process with the mechanics of inhalation with MDI. The errors detected in this simple assessment session, if translated to patient self-medication errors, are potentially significant.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • The Effect of Pioglitazone on Pharmacokinetics of Carbamazepine in Healthy
           Rabbits

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Issam Abushammala
      Introduction Drug–drug interactions can lead to serious and potentially lethal adverse events. In recent years, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to interaction-related adverse events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between pioglitazone (PG) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in healthy male rabbits. Methods A randomized, two-crossover design study was conducted in six healthy male rabbits. The study consisted of two periods: period one, when each rabbit received a single dose of 70mg CBZ-suspension. Period two, when each rabbit received a single dose of 70mg CBZ-suspension co-administered with a single dose of 1.5mg PG with a washout period of one week between the two periods. Serial blood samples were collected over a period of 48h. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was used to measure CBZ in serum. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters Cmax, Tmax, t 1/2, AUC0-t, AUC 0-∞, and ke were determined for the two periods using non-compartmental analysis. Results In the two periods of treatment, Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, t ½ and ke for CBZ were administered alone and in combination with PG. Cmax, the mean peak plasma concentration was 4.33±2.4μg/mL versus 4.76±2.1μg/ml, tmax, time taken to reach, was 2.91±1.11h versus 3.6±1.83h, total area under the curve AUC0-t was 64.90±43.6μg·h/ml versus 102.90±66.9μg·h/ml, AUC0-∞ was 74.0±52.6μg·h/ml versus 124.3±85μg·h/mL, t ½ was 14.10±2.5h versus 16.43±6.43h and elimination rate constant ke was 0.050±0.009h−1 versus 0.057±0.049h−1, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pharmacokinetic of CBZ in both cases (P>0.05). Conclusion The result of the study demonstrated that PG does not affect pharmacokinetic parameters of CBZ. Therefore, no cautions regarding dose or administration pattern of CBZ with PG should be taken.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Knowledge and awareness of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance
           practices among healthcare professionals in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah,
           Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed M.M. Abdel-Latif , Basel A. Abdel-Wahab
      Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are scantly reported with poor contribution by healthcare professionals worldwide and in particular in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance system among healthcare professionals in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was designed addressing; awareness of ADRs, knowledge of pharmacovigilance system, availability of ADRs reporting system, patient counseling about ADRs and documentation of ADRs. The questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals (n =585) such as physicians, pharmacists, nurses and pharmacists’ technicians of hospitals. Completed questionnaires were collected and data were analyzed. Data were expressed in number as well as percentage. Of the 585 questionnaires circulated, a total of 384 healthcare professionals responded. Healthcare professional categories involved in the study were 148 physicians, 37 pharmacists, 158 nurses and 41 pharmacist technicians. The percent of the respondents who accepted to enroll in the study was 65.64%. Most of the respondents were unable to correctly define the pharmacovigilance term, but they were aware of ADRs. The awareness among healthcare professionals of the national pharmacovigilance system was 39.6%. Pharmacists had a good knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADRs terminology and showed a more positive attitude to report ADRs. A greater number of the healthcare professionals were aware of ADRs reporting, but practically it is not implemented in hospitals. Most hospitals had follow-up documentation systems, but did not include ADRs reporting. There was no distinct pharmacovigilance system in place. Our study has demonstrated a lack of knowledge and awareness of pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting among healthcare professionals in hospitals. The poor knowledge of ADRs reporting emphasized the urgent need to implement the appropriate strategies to improve the awareness of pharmacovigilance practices and ADRs reporting in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah hospitals.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous
           reports

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marília Berlofa Visacri , Cinthia Madeira de Souza , Catarina Miyako Shibata Sato , Silvia Granja , Mécia de Marialva , Priscila Gava Mazzola , Patricia Moriel
      Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Role of Probiotics in health improvement, infection control and disease
           treatment and management

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): A.A. Amara , A. Shibl
      Research which concerns the usefulness of Probiotics show increasing interest based on the rise of their publications, products and the awareness of the public of their benefits. There is increasing interest concerning Probiotics from the public, researchers, governmental organizations (such as the WHO/FAO) and medicinal and food companies. Probiotics means “let good microbes work for you in different fields get their benefits and take a rest”. Such work will include, food digestion, production of useful products to destroy the bad microbes, complement the functions of the missed digestive enzymes (due to missed or defective genes), and to maintain the digestive system’s pH, and so on. Probiotics will augment the efficiency of our biological fermentors, the digestive system. Many authors have described the history and the progress of Probiotics and their different applications. In this review, we will focus mainly on three points, health improvement, infection control and disease management, which could be eliminated by the use of different types of direct uses of Probiotics or by the use of foods containing Probiotics.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Targeting G protein coupled receptor-related pathways as emerging
           molecular therapies

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi
      G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most important targets in modern pharmacology because of the different functions they mediate, especially within brain and peripheral nervous system, and also because of their functional and stereochemical properties. In this paper, we illustrate, via a variety of examples, novel advances about the GPCR-related molecules that have been shown to play diverse roles in GPCR pathways and in pathophysiological phenomena. We have exemplified how those GPCRs’ pathways are, or might constitute, potential targets for different drugs either to stimulate, modify, regulate or inhibit the cellular mechanisms that are hypothesized to govern some pathologic, physiologic, biologic and cellular or molecular aspects both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, influencing such pathways will, undoubtedly, lead to different therapeutical applications based on the related pharmacological implications. Furthermore, such new properties can be applied in different fields. In addition to offering fruitful directions for future researches, we hope the reviewed data, together with the elements found within the cited references, will inspire clinicians and researchers devoted to the studies on GPCR’s properties.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Medication safety practices in hospitals: A national
           survey in Saudi Arabia” [Saudi Pharm. J. 21(2) (2013) 159–164]
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey , Abdulaziz Alhossan , Khalid Alburikan , Mansour Adam , Michael D. Murray , David W. Bates



      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Leukemia and rosiglitazone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Irfan Yavasoglu , Gurhan Kadikoylu , Zahit Bolaman



      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun
           exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Khalid M. AlGhamdi , Aeed S. AlAklabi , Abdulla Z. AlQahtani
      Background Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data was collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regression was applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601)of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p<0.001). Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p<0.02). The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p<0.001). Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion This study has shown that sun awareness and protection is generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Critical errors found during metered dose inhaler technique demonstration
           by Pharmacists

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Adnan , Shahid Karim , Shamshir Khan , Naser Al Wabel



      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation development and Evaluation of Medicated Chewing Gum of
           Anti-emetic Drug

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansi Paradkar , Balaram Gajra , Bhautik Patel
      Context Medicated chewing gum(MCG) of Domperidone Maleate(DM) was developed by direct compression method with the goal to achieve quick onset of action and to improve patient compliance. Objective Formulation development of MCG of DM and optimization of the formulation by screening of different excipients. Material and methods MCG containing DM was prepared by screening different concentrations of sweeteners, flavouring agents, softening agents, lubricants and anti-adherents by changing one variable at a time. Performance evaluation was carried out by evaluating size, shape, thickness, taste, scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, in vivo drug release study, ex vivo buccal permeation study and by studying statistical analysis for quality. Results and discussion The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties like chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 minutes indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action. Conclusion The developed formulation of medicated chewing gum can be a better alternative to mouth dissolving and conventional tablet formulation. It may be proved as a promising approach to improve the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015