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Journal Cover   Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.417]   [H-I: 14]   Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2811 journals]
  • How to improve suspected ADR reporting among pharmacists in the GCC'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kerry Wilbur



      PubDate: 2015-05-11T00:20:10Z
       
  • Drug Release Behavior of Polymeric Matrix Filled in Capsule

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thawatchai Phaechamud , Wanwilai Darunkaisorn
      A single unit sustainable drug release system was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based matrices filled in capsule as the drug delivery device. Release behavior of propranolol HCl from these capsules was investigated and least square fitting was performed for the dissolution data with the different mathematical expressions. Effect of diluent, polymer, pH and hydrodynamic force on the drug release from the developed systems was investigated. The utilization of HPMC as a matrix former extended the drug release longer than 8 h. HPMC viscosity grades affected the drug release which an increasing the amount of fillers such as lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate enhanced the drug release rate of HPMC matrices. The hydrodynamic force, type and amount of incorporated polymer apparently influenced the drug release. The physiochemical properties of polymers and interaction between HPMC and other polymers were important factor for prolongation of the drug release. The release mechanism from HPMC-based matrices in capsules was the non-Fickian transport which the sustainable drug release of HPMC capsules could be achieved by the addition of polymeric matrix.


      PubDate: 2015-05-05T21:48:18Z
       
  • Factors influencing community pharmacist decision to dispense generic or
           branded medicines; Eastern Province, Alahsa, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yaser Albadr , Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Background Rising costs of medicines have increased the interest of policy makers in generic medicines. However, consumers’ and health care providers’ perception and attitude towards generic medicine act as a main barrier to the promotion of generic medicines. Objective To explore the factors community pharmacists consider while dispensing branded or generic medicines to consumers. Method A qualitative study was planned; twenty community pharmacists (ten hospital affiliated pharmacies and ten non-hospital affiliated pharmacies) were approached using a convenient sampling method. Interviews were recorded and later were coded into themes. Result Overall, it is seen that generic medicine stock was available for antibiotics, pain killers, cough syrups, antihistaminics and antacids. Pharmacists working in hospital affiliated pharmacies were more concerned about the quality of drug before dispensing it to the consumer and they believe that what is prescribed is best for them and substitution or switching is unnecessary while for pharmacists in the non-hospital affiliated pharmacies, appearance of the client was found to be the main factor influencing them to dispense generic (low cost) or branded (expensive) medicines. Conclusion Physical appearance of the consumer is revealed to be one of the main factors affecting the pharmacist decision to dispense generic or branded medicine. Pharmacists practising in hospital affiliated pharmacies were found to be influenced by physicians’ recommendation, and prefer to dispense good quality medicines.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Pharmacist’s knowledge, practice and attitudes toward
           pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting process

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Maysa Suyagh , Doaa Farah , Rana Abu Farha
      Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of drug related morbidity and mortality. Pharmacovigilance is the science that plays an essential role in the reduction of ADRs, thus the evolution and growth of this science are critical for effective and safe clinical practice. Objectives This study is considered the first study in the region to evaluate pharmacist’s knowledge, practice and attitudes toward ADRs reporting after establishing the national ADRs reporting center in Jordan. Method A cross sectional study was used to evaluate pharmacist knowledge and attitude toward ADRs reporting. A structured validated questionnaire was developed for this purpose and a total of 208 pharmacists were recruited to participate in this study. Results The majority of pharmacists have insufficient awareness and lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. Also the rate of reporting of ADRs was extremely poor. Several factors were found to discourage pharmacists from reporting ADRs, which include inadequate information available from the patient, unavailability of pharmacist ADRs form when needed, unawareness of the existence of the national ADRs reporting system. Also pharmacists think that ADRs are unimportant or they did not know how to report them. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that pharmacists have insufficient knowledge about the concept of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous ADRs reporting. On the other hand, pharmacists had positive attitudes toward pharmacovigilance, despite their little experience with ADRs reporting. Educational programs are needed to increase pharmacist’s role in the reporting process, and thus to have a positive impact on the overall patient caring process.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Determination and characterization of metronidazole–kaolin
           interaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy , Fulwah Alqahtani , Omaimah Al Gohary , Eram El Tahir , Rania Al Shalabi
      The needs for safe, therapeutically effective antidiarrheal combination continuously lead to effective treatment. When administered simultaneously, metronidazole–kaolin interactions have been reported by FDA but not studied. This paper is the first to study metronidazole–kaolin interactions. Adsorption isotherms of a metronidazole–kaolin antidiarrheal combination from aqueous solutions at an in vivo simulated pH conditions were obtained at 37±0.5°C. Langmuir constants for the adsorption are 10.8225, 41.3223mgg−1 and 11.60, 2.56lg−1 aimed at the monolayer capacity, and the equilibrium constant at pH 1.2 and 6.8, respectively. pH effect on adsorption of known concentration of metronidazole by kaolin was also studied over the range 1.2–8. A gradual increase in the adsorbed amount was noted with increasing the pH. Elution studies by different eluents showed that drug recovery from adsorbent surface was pH-dependent via competitive mechanism. The elution followed the sequence: 0.1M HCl>0.1M NaCl>H2O. Adsorption–desorption studies revealed physical adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of metronidazole decreased as the adsorbent concentration was increased in the systems. The dissolution profiles (USP) of commercially available tablets (Riazole® 500mg) were obtained alone and in the presence of either (ORS®) rehydration salts and 9 or 18g of kaolin powder. The percentage drug released versus time: 95.01% in 25min, 101.02% in 30min, 67.63% in 60min, 60.59% in 60min, respectively. The percentage drug released versus time was increased with ORS® due to common ion effect [Cl−], while, it was decreased with kaolin due to adsorption. The mechanism of reaction of Riazole® (500mg) tablets in the different dissolution media, confirms with Korsmeyer–Peppas model. The interaction between metronidazole and kaolin was characterized by melting point determinations, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained were suggestive of physical interaction between metronidazole and kaolin.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Refining knowledge, attitude and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM)
           among pharmacy students for professional challenges

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eman Abu-Gharbieh , Doaa Al Khalidi , Mirza R. Baig , Saeed A. Khan
      Practicing evidence based medicine (EBM) is a professional need for the future clinical pharmacist in UAE and around the world. An attempt was made to evaluate pharmacy student’s knowledge, attitude and proficiency in the practice of EBM. A within-subject study design with pre and post survey and skill test were conducted using case based practice of EBM through a validated questionnaire. The results were tabulated and there was a statistically significant increase in pharmacy students’ perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (95.3%), searching for evidence (97%), appraising the evidence (81%), understanding statistics (78.1%), and applying evidence at point of care (81.2%). In this study, workshops and (Problem Based Learning) PBLs were used as a module of EBM teaching and practices, which has been shown to be an effective educational method in terms of improving students’ skills, knowledge and attitude toward EBM. Incorporating hands on experience, PBLs will become an impetus for developing EBM skills and critical appraisal of research evidence alongside routine clinical practice. This integration would constitute the cornerstone in lifting EBM in UAE up to the needed standards and would enable pharmacy students to become efficient pharmacists that rely on evidence in their health practice.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Design, synthesis and antibacterial potential of
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohammed F. El-Behairy , Tarek E. Mazeed , Aida A. El-Azzouny , Mohamed N. Aboul-Enein
      A series of 5-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-1-substituted-4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives 4a–e and 6a–g have been synthesized and spectrally characterized. The antibacterial activity of the novel candidates has been screened using the agar diffusion test. These compounds were endowed with high antibacterial activity against different Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria when compared with standard antibacterial drugs. In the light of zone of inhibition and MIC results, Sarcina and Staphylococcus aureus are the most sensitive bacteria where pyrrolidinomethanone derivative 4e showed MICs at 80 and 110nM, respectively. While hydroxypiperidinoethanone derivative 6c showed MIC at 90nM for Sarcina.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Pilot testing of a pharmacist led care program for asthma patients in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Alotaby Meshal , Azmi Sarriff , Mousa El-shamly
      This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a structured patient counseling program on clinical outcomes of asthma patients in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study enrolled 10 asthma patients and all were evaluated for their baseline knowledge on asthma, quality of life, compliance, patient satisfaction and drug related problems among randomly selected 5 (of the total 10) patients. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 46 (33.5–56.2)years. The baseline knowledge scores was 9 (8–11), the maximum possible scores to be 21. Cronbach alpha of the KQ was 0.65. The overall total median (IQR) compliance (Morisky) score was 4 (3–5), the maximum possible score was 5. The patient satisfaction median (IQR) score was 35.5 (32–46.25), the maximum possible score was 70. Of the total patients 3 (30%) had a history of allergy. There were total 18 allergens observed in these patients. There has been no drug–drug or drug–food interactions observed between among the prescribed drugs of the patients. Altogether 2 patients reported a total of 2 ADRs. The knowledge of the asthma patients was found to be poor. Missing the dose was the most commonly encountered drug taking behavior. The compliance was found to be good and the patient satisfaction was average.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Effect of different polymers on in vitro and ex vivo permeability of
           Ofloxacin from its mucoadhesive suspensions

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Chandra Kanti Chakraborti , Subhashree Sahoo , Pradipta Kumar Behera
      Considering the importance of drug permeation from formulations, in vitro and ex vivo drug permeation characteristics of three oral mucoadhesive suspensions of Ofloxacin were designed and compared. Three suspensions of Ofloxacin were prepared by taking two grades of Carbopol polymer such as Carbopol 934 (C934) and Carbopol 940 (C940); and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The permeability study was performed by using a Franz diffusion cell through both synthetic cellulose acetate membrane and excised goat gastrointestinal membranes in acidic as well as alkaline pH. To know the permeability of the drug from control/formulations through different membranes in acidic/alkaline pH, cumulative percentage drug permeation, apparent permeability (Papp) and flux (J) were calculated. In addition, enhancement ratio (ER) of each formulation was also determined. From our results, it is evident that formulation containing C940 was the best suspension considering Papp and J values of all formulations. Moreover, it was the most beneficial formulation for improving permeation and diffusivity of Ofloxacin even after 16h. Hence, this suspension was probably the most suitable formulation to obtain prolonged release action of the drug. The ER values of all formulations through the excised goat intestinal mucus membrane in alkaline pH were higher than those formulations through the goat stomach mucosal membrane in acidic pH. ER values of those formulations indicate that the permeability of the drug was more enhanced by the polymers in the intestinal part, leading to more bioavailability and prolonged action in that portion of the gastrointestinal tract. It may also be concluded from our results that in addition to formulation containing C940, other formulations may also show effective controlled release action.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Nihal Saad Elbialy , Mohsen Mahmoud Mady
      Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm3) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Cationic nanoemulsions as potential carriers for intracellular delivery

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): P.V. Khachane , A.S. Jain , V.V. Dhawan , G.V. Joshi , A.A. Date , R. Mulherkar , M.S. Nagarsenker
      Successful cytosolic delivery enables opportunities for improved treatment of various genetic disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. Cationic nanoemulsions were designed using alternative excipients and evaluated for particle size, charge, effect of sterilization on its stability, DNA condensation potential and cellular uptake efficiency. Various concentrations of non-ionic and ionic stabilizers were evaluated to design formula for colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion comprised of 5% Capmul MCM, 0.5% didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), 1% phospholipid, 1% Poloxamer 188 and 2.25% glycerol and possessed particle size of 81.6±3.56nm and 137.1±1.57nm before and after steam sterilization, respectively. DNA condensation studies were carried out at various nanoemulsion: DNA ratios ranging from 1:1 to 10:1. Cell uptake studies were conducted on human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines which are widely reported for transfection studies. The nanoemulsions showed excellent cellular uptake as evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Overall, a colloidally stable cationic nanoemulsion with good DNA condensation ability was successfully fabricated for efficient cytosolic delivery and potential for in vivo effectiveness.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Comparative evaluation of metered-dose inhaler technique demonstration
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muhammad Adnan , Shahid Karim , Shamshir Khan , Naser A. Al-Wabel
      Title Comparative evaluation of metered-dose inhaler technique demonstration among community pharmacists in Al Qassim and Al Ahsa regions, Saudi Arabia. Background Patients rely on the information about use of proper inhaler technique when dispensed by community pharmacists however; several studies have shown that patients are unable to show correct inhalation technique. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of community pharmacists in Al Qassim region to demonstrate proper inhalation technique of metered dose inhaler and compare the baseline outcomes with a similar study at Al-Ahsa region. Method We approach 96 pharmacies in Al Qassim region as mock patient (Investigator). The investigator asks the Pharmacist to guide him about proper inhalation technique of metered dose inhaler. Investigator completes a standardized and validated checklist of 8 steps of inhaler device use immediately after leaving the pharmacy. Baseline data were compared between the two study groups et al. Ahsa and Al-Qassim for variables for effectiveness of pharmacist handling of patient queries. Result A total number of 96 community pharmacies were approached in five cities of the Al Qassim province in Saudi Arabia This study has found that majority (93.7%) of community pharmacists failed to demonstrate proper inhalation technique of pMDI inhaler. Conclusion The pharmacists demonstrated particularly poor skills involving steps for coordination of the actuation process with the mechanics of inhalation with MDI. The errors detected in this simple assessment session, if translated to patient self-medication errors, are potentially significant.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • The Effect of Pioglitazone on Pharmacokinetics of Carbamazepine in Healthy
           Rabbits

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Issam Abushammala
      Introduction Drug–drug interactions can lead to serious and potentially lethal adverse events. In recent years, several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to interaction-related adverse events. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between pioglitazone (PG) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in healthy male rabbits. Methods A randomized, two-crossover design study was conducted in six healthy male rabbits. The study consisted of two periods: period one, when each rabbit received a single dose of 70mg CBZ-suspension. Period two, when each rabbit received a single dose of 70mg CBZ-suspension co-administered with a single dose of 1.5mg PG with a washout period of one week between the two periods. Serial blood samples were collected over a period of 48h. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was used to measure CBZ in serum. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters Cmax, Tmax, t 1/2, AUC0-t, AUC 0-∞, and ke were determined for the two periods using non-compartmental analysis. Results In the two periods of treatment, Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, t ½ and ke for CBZ were administered alone and in combination with PG. Cmax, the mean peak plasma concentration was 4.33±2.4μg/mL versus 4.76±2.1μg/ml, tmax, time taken to reach, was 2.91±1.11h versus 3.6±1.83h, total area under the curve AUC0-t was 64.90±43.6μg·h/ml versus 102.90±66.9μg·h/ml, AUC0-∞ was 74.0±52.6μg·h/ml versus 124.3±85μg·h/mL, t ½ was 14.10±2.5h versus 16.43±6.43h and elimination rate constant ke was 0.050±0.009h−1 versus 0.057±0.049h−1, respectively. No statistical differences were found in pharmacokinetic of CBZ in both cases (P>0.05). Conclusion The result of the study demonstrated that PG does not affect pharmacokinetic parameters of CBZ. Therefore, no cautions regarding dose or administration pattern of CBZ with PG should be taken.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Knowledge and awareness of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance
           practices among healthcare professionals in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah,
           Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed M.M. Abdel-Latif , Basel A. Abdel-Wahab
      Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are scantly reported with poor contribution by healthcare professionals worldwide and in particular in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance system among healthcare professionals in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was designed addressing; awareness of ADRs, knowledge of pharmacovigilance system, availability of ADRs reporting system, patient counseling about ADRs and documentation of ADRs. The questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals (n =585) such as physicians, pharmacists, nurses and pharmacists’ technicians of hospitals. Completed questionnaires were collected and data were analyzed. Data were expressed in number as well as percentage. Of the 585 questionnaires circulated, a total of 384 healthcare professionals responded. Healthcare professional categories involved in the study were 148 physicians, 37 pharmacists, 158 nurses and 41 pharmacist technicians. The percent of the respondents who accepted to enroll in the study was 65.64%. Most of the respondents were unable to correctly define the pharmacovigilance term, but they were aware of ADRs. The awareness among healthcare professionals of the national pharmacovigilance system was 39.6%. Pharmacists had a good knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADRs terminology and showed a more positive attitude to report ADRs. A greater number of the healthcare professionals were aware of ADRs reporting, but practically it is not implemented in hospitals. Most hospitals had follow-up documentation systems, but did not include ADRs reporting. There was no distinct pharmacovigilance system in place. Our study has demonstrated a lack of knowledge and awareness of pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting among healthcare professionals in hospitals. The poor knowledge of ADRs reporting emphasized the urgent need to implement the appropriate strategies to improve the awareness of pharmacovigilance practices and ADRs reporting in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah hospitals.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous
           reports

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marília Berlofa Visacri , Cinthia Madeira de Souza , Catarina Miyako Shibata Sato , Silvia Granja , Mécia de Marialva , Priscila Gava Mazzola , Patricia Moriel
      Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Role of Probiotics in health improvement, infection control and disease
           treatment and management

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): A.A. Amara , A. Shibl
      Research which concerns the usefulness of Probiotics show increasing interest based on the rise of their publications, products and the awareness of the public of their benefits. There is increasing interest concerning Probiotics from the public, researchers, governmental organizations (such as the WHO/FAO) and medicinal and food companies. Probiotics means “let good microbes work for you in different fields get their benefits and take a rest”. Such work will include, food digestion, production of useful products to destroy the bad microbes, complement the functions of the missed digestive enzymes (due to missed or defective genes), and to maintain the digestive system’s pH, and so on. Probiotics will augment the efficiency of our biological fermentors, the digestive system. Many authors have described the history and the progress of Probiotics and their different applications. In this review, we will focus mainly on three points, health improvement, infection control and disease management, which could be eliminated by the use of different types of direct uses of Probiotics or by the use of foods containing Probiotics.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Targeting G protein coupled receptor-related pathways as emerging
           molecular therapies

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi
      G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most important targets in modern pharmacology because of the different functions they mediate, especially within brain and peripheral nervous system, and also because of their functional and stereochemical properties. In this paper, we illustrate, via a variety of examples, novel advances about the GPCR-related molecules that have been shown to play diverse roles in GPCR pathways and in pathophysiological phenomena. We have exemplified how those GPCRs’ pathways are, or might constitute, potential targets for different drugs either to stimulate, modify, regulate or inhibit the cellular mechanisms that are hypothesized to govern some pathologic, physiologic, biologic and cellular or molecular aspects both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, influencing such pathways will, undoubtedly, lead to different therapeutical applications based on the related pharmacological implications. Furthermore, such new properties can be applied in different fields. In addition to offering fruitful directions for future researches, we hope the reviewed data, together with the elements found within the cited references, will inspire clinicians and researchers devoted to the studies on GPCR’s properties.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T19:49:59Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Medication safety practices in hospitals: A national
           survey in Saudi Arabia” [Saudi Pharm. J. 21(2) (2013) 159–164]
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey , Abdulaziz Alhossan , Khalid Alburikan , Mansour Adam , Michael D. Murray , David W. Bates



      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Leukemia and rosiglitazone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Irfan Yavasoglu , Gurhan Kadikoylu , Zahit Bolaman



      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun
           exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Khalid M. AlGhamdi , Aeed S. AlAklabi , Abdulla Z. AlQahtani
      Background Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data was collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regression was applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601)of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p<0.001). Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p<0.02). The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p<0.001). Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion This study has shown that sun awareness and protection is generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T18:46:22Z
       
  • Active educational intervention as a tool to improve safe and appropriate
           use of antibiotics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mayadah B. Shehadeh , Ghadeer A.R.Y. Suaifan , Eman A. Hammad
      Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines, and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and post education. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics. Knowledge score was estimated by calculating the percentage of correct responses. The mean (SD) knowledge score pre education was 59.4% (20.3). However, post education the score was 65.9% (17.9), p <0.001(t-test). Knowledge scores classified as poor, adequate and good. Post education, participants within poor and adequate knowledge were significantly shifted to a category describing better knowledge, McNemar-χ2 = 28.7, df = 3, p< 0.001. It is concluded that using tailored education material targeting antibiotic need and use with a major aim of improving the public knowledge about antibiotics can be an effective and feasible strategy. This pilot study could be considered as the starting point for a wider scale public educational interventional study and national antibiotic campaign. However, the improvement in participant’s knowledge might not reflect an actual change in antibiotics-seeking behaviour or future retention of knowledge. Future research should seek to assess the impact of education on participant’s behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pravastatin chitosan nanogels-loaded erythrocytes as a new delivery
           strategy for targeting liver cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa , Mohamed M. Badran , Saeed A. AlQahtani , Fars K. Alanazi , Sabry M. Attia
      Chitosan nanogels (CNG) are developed as one of the most promising carriers for cancer targeting. However, these carriers are rapidly eliminated from circulation by reticuloendothelial system (RES), which limits their application. Therefore, erythrocytes (ER) loaded CNG as multifunctional carrier may overcome the massive elimination of nanocarriers by RES. In this study, erythrocytes loaded pravastatin–chitosan nanogels (PR–CNG–ER) were utilized as a novel drug carrier to target liver cancer. Thus, PR–CNG formula was developed in nanosize, with good entrapment efficiency, drug loading and sustained release over 48h. Then, PR–CNG loaded into ER were prepared by hypotonic preswelling technique. The resulting PR–CNG–ER showed 36.85% of entrapment efficiency, 66.82% of cell recovery and release consistent to that of hemoglobin over 48h. Moreover, PR–CNG–ER exhibited negative zeta potential, increasing of hemolysis percent, marked phosphatidylserine exposure and stomatocytes shape compared to control unloaded erythrocytes. PR–CNG–ER reduced cells viability of HepG2 cells line by 28% compared to unloaded erythrocytes (UER). These results concluded that PR–CNG–ER are promising drug carriers to target liver cancer.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary
           doses in a third level hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): David Calderón-Guzmán , Hugo Juárez-Olguín , Ernestina Hernández-García , Alejandro Medina-Andrade , Belen Juarez Tapia
      Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD) in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD) in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011) was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for
           hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sudha Chandelia , Mukesh Dhankar , Meetu Salhan
      Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM) in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1) less than 2years and (2) 2–5years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82%) and systemic sympathomimetics (48%). The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025). However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895). No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2years) vs. 85% (2–5years); p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Blood glucose control for patients with acute coronary syndromes in Qatar

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kyle John Wilby , Eman Elmekaty , Ibtihal Abdallah , Masa Habra , Khalid Al-Siyabi
      Background: Blood glucose is known to be elevated in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. However a gap in knowledge exists regarding effective management strategies once admitted to acute care units. It is also unknown what factors (if any) predict elevated glucose values during initial presentation. Objectives: Objectives of the study were to characterize blood glucose control in patients admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU) in Qatar and to determine predictive factors associated with high glucose levels (>10mmol/l) on admission to the CCU. Setting: All data for this study were obtained from the CCU at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Method: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients admitted to the CCU in Qatar from October 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2013, of which 283 were included. Baseline characteristics (age, gender, nationality, medical history, smoking status, type of acute coronary syndrome), capillary and lab blood glucose measurements, and use of insulin were extracted. Time spent in glucose ranges of <4, 4 to <8, 8 to <10, and >10mmol/1 was calculated manually. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess factors associated with high glucose on admission. The primary analysis was completed with capillary data and a sensitivity analysis was completed using laboratory data. Main outcome measure: Blood glucose values measured on admission and throughout length of stay in the CCU. Results: Capillary blood glucose data showed majority of time was spent in the range of >10mmol/l (41.95%), followed by 4–8mmol/l (35.44%), then 8–10mmol/l (21.45%), and finally <4mmol/l (1.16%). As a sensitivity analysis, laboratory data showed very similar findings. Diabetes, hypertension, and non-smoker status predicted glucose values >10mmol/l on admission (p <0.05) in a univariate analysis but only diabetes remained significant in a multivariate model (OR 23.3; 95% CI, 11.5–47.3). Conclusion: Diabetes predicts high glucose values on hospital admission for patients with ACS and patients are not being adequately controlled throughout CCU stay.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation, preclinical and clinical evaluation of a new submicronic
           arginine respiratory fluid for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary
           disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Virendra Pratap Singh Rathor , Pradeep Chugh , Rashid Ali , Anuj Bhatnagar , Syed Ehtaishamul Haque , Aseem Bhatnagar , Gaurav Mittal
      Inhalational drugs often suffer from low pulmonary deposition due to their micronized size. Aim of present study was development and evaluation of a novel submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation for treatment of cardiopulmonary complications associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Objectives were (a) to develop and characterize submicronic L-arginine respiratory fluid formulation, (b) pre-clinical safety/toxicity study in 2-animal species, (c) in vitro and in vivo evaluation in terms of respiratory fraction, and (d) clinical study to assess safety/efficacy in healthy volunteers/COPD patients. Formulation was optimized on the basis of particle size of aerosolized medication with particle size in the range of 400–500nm. Anderson cascade impaction (ACI) studies were performed to validate the advantage in terms of respirable fraction, which indicated a high respirable fraction (51.61±3.28) for the developed formulation. In vivo pulmonary deposition pattern of optimized formulation was studied using gamma scintigraphy in human volunteers using 99mTc-arginine as radiotracer. It clearly demonstrated a significant pulmonary deposition of the submicronic formulation in various lung compartments. Efficacy of the developed formulation was further assessed in COPD patients (n =15) by evaluating its effect on various cardiopulmonary parameters (spirometry, pulse-oxymetry, echocardiography and 6-min walk test). A marked improvement was seen in patients after inhalation of submicronic arginine in terms of their cardiopulmonary status. Results suggest that submicronic arginine respiratory fluid has the potential to be developed into an attractive therapeutic option for treating COPD associated cardiopulmonary complications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Patient’s medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing
           well'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari
      Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Usage of obesity health related websites among university students in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed I. Albarrak , Rafiuddin Mohammed , Nasriah Zakaria , Lujain M. Alyousef , Noura B. Almefgai , Hend D. Alqahatani , Hanan S. Alamek , Ahlam A. Alsulaiman
      Background & Objectives The present study was to investigate the use of the internet among university students accessing obesity health information and further to measure their satisfaction and in decision-making. Methods A cross sectional study, among students at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study received ethical clearance from Institutional Review Board, College of Medicine, KSU. Female and male of undergraduate and postgraduate, enrolled through a random sampling. The survey questionnaire were self-administered and consisted of two sections. Results A total of 448 students (177 males and 271 females) participated in this study. The response rate was 66.86. The study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity were more common among male compared to female students. Majority of the students (58.7%) were of normal Body Mass Index (BMI). It also revealed that 187 (41.7%) reported always acquire obesity health information from the internet whereas 203 (45.35) sometimes use the internet. Half of the respondents reported using a search engine to seek information. Forty-five percent reported spending at least an hour per week. Nearly 52.2% of participants are taking decision related to their lifestyle and showed statistical significant (P=0.0001). More than half of the students believed that the obesity information in the websites are very useful. Furthermore, 84.4% reported, language presented in the websites are easy to understand. With respect to quality, 46.9% rated as excellent whereas 39.5% as average. Interpretation & Conclusions The present study findings have demonstrated that university students are using internet in higher rates for finding obesity health information and are satisfied with the decision they are making. Finally, the study concludes that the internet online health information considered as an essential tool for health promotion among student population regarding weight control or managing obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Evaluation of rational use of medicines (RUM) in four government hospitals
           in UAE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amal Mahmood , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Abdel Azim Ahmed Ali , Nageeb A.G.M. Hassan , Abdulla Shehab , Akshaya Srikanth
      Rational: Studies conducted showed that there were gaps regarding the rational use of medicines (RUM). Aims and objectives: Evaluate RUM in main government hospitals in four emirates in UAE, using WHO prescribing indicators. Method: Multicenter prospective cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 4 hospitals in 4 different Emirates in UAE. Using consecutive random sampling method, a total of 1100 prescriptions (2741 prescribed drugs) were collected and analyzed from surveyed hospitals from April to October 2012. Index of Rational Drug Prescribing (IRDP) was used as an indicator of RUM. Results: The main finding of this study was that, the mean values of prescribing indicators of RUM in the surveyed hospitals were estimated to be within the WHO optimal values for generics (100.0 vs. 100.0), antibiotics (9.8±4.8 vs. ⩽30), injections (3.14±1.7 vs. ⩽10) and formulary (EML) prescribing (100.0 vs. 100.0). However, the only discrepancy was reported regarding the number of drugs per prescription which was found to be more than the WHO optimal value (2.49±0.9 vs. ⩽2); respectively. The mean IRDP was 4.55 which was less than the WHO optimal value of 5. Conclusions: Strategies and interventions are desirable to promote RUM and minimize the consequences of poly-pharmacy.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Assessment of potential drug–drug interactions and its associated
           factors in the hospitalized cardiac patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ghulam Murtaza , Muhammad Yasir Ghani Khan , Saira Azhar , Shujaat Ali Khan , Tahir M. Khan
      Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) may result in the alteration of therapeutic response. Sometimes they may increase the untoward effects of many drugs. Hospitalized cardiac patients need more attention regarding drug–drug interactions due to complexity of their disease and therapeutic regimen. This research was performed to find out types, prevalence and association between various predictors of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs) in the Department of Cardiology and to report common interactions. This study was performed in the hospitalized cardiac patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan. Patient charts of 2342 patients were assessed for pDDIs using Micromedex® Drug Information. Logistic regression was applied to find predictors of pDDIs. The main outcome measure in the study was the association of the potential drug–drug interactions with various factors such as age, gender, polypharmacy, and hospital stay of the patients. We identified 53 interacting-combinations that were present in total 5109 pDDIs with median number of 02 pDDIs per patient. Overall, 91.6% patients had at least one pDDI; 86.3% were having at least one major pDDI, and 84.5% patients had at least one moderate pDDI. Among 5109 identified pDDIs, most were of moderate (55%) or major severity (45%); established (24.2%), theoretical (18.8%) or probable (57%) type of scientific evidence. Top 10 common pDDIs included 3 major and 7 moderate interactions. Results obtained by multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association of the occurrence of pDDIs in patient with age of 60years or more (p <0.001), hospital stay of 7days or longer (p <0.001) and taking 7 or more drugs (p <0.001). We found a high prevalence for pDDIs in the Department of Cardiology, most of which were of moderate severity. Older patients, patients with longer hospital stay and with elevated number of prescribed drugs were at higher risk of pDDIs.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Evaluation and implementation of behavioral and educational tools that
           improves the patients’ intentional and unintentional non-adherence
           to cardiovascular medications in family medicine clinics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulla Shehab , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Shirina Al Swaidi , Akshaya S Bhagavathul , Farah Hamad , Omar Shehab , Mahmoud AbuMandil , AboBakr Abasaeed , Ahmed Dahab , Naama Al Kalbani , Rouda Abdulla , Sahar Asim , Pinar Erkekoglu , Saif Al Nuaimi , Aaesha Al Suwaidi
      Objective There are limited number of studies describing the reasons and interventions of non-adherence to cardiovascular medications in United Arab Emirates (UAE). We aimed to implement and evaluate the behavioral and educational tools that indicate the reasons of non-adherence in patients with cardiovascular diseases and improve patient’s adherence to their cardiovascular medications. Methods In this prospective interventional study, we recruited patients (n= 300) with cardiovascular diseases from three family medicine clinics in Al Ain, UAE in 2010. We assessed patients’ responses to a validated brief medication questionnaire (BMQ). Results At the end of the study, we observed a significant improvement in adherence. When we compared pre- and post-interventions, the mean (± standard deviation, SD) score for non-adherence to current regimen were 4.1 ±0.2 vs. 3.0 ±0.3 (p=0.034); indication of negative believes or motivational barriers scores were 1.8 ±0.4 vs. 0.9 ±0.1 (p=0.027); the indication of recall barrier scores were 1.6 ±0.1 vs. 0.8 ±0.1 (p= 0.014); and the indication of access barrier scores were 1.6 ±0.2 vs. 0.7 ±0.2 (p= 0.019). Mean blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein and postprandial blood glucose decreased significantly (p<0.01) post-intervention. Conclusion We reported that implemented multifaceted tools targeting patients, provider and healthcare system have improved the adherence to cardiovascular medications. Our interventions managed to improve patients’ clinical outcome via improving adherence to prescribed cardiovascular medications.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Dissolution rate improvement of telmisartan through modified MCC pellets
           using 32 full factorial design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Hetal Patel , Hiral Patel , Mukesh Gohel , Sanjay Tiwari
      Context Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is the most widely used excipient for the production of pellets but it retards the release of poorly water soluble drugs. Objective The present investigation reports incorporation of camphor, cross carmellose sodium (CCS) and spray dried lactose (SDL) into MCC pellets to enhance the dissolution rate of telmisartan. Materials and methods A full factorial design (32) was used in the study. Concentration of camphor and CCS were selected as independent variables whereas percentage porosity and percentage drug release at 60 minute were selected as dependent variables. Pellets were produced by extrusion–spheronization technique and evaluated for percentage yield, particle size analysis, flow characteristics, percentage porosity, drug content and in vitro drug release. Contour plots and 3-D surface plots were presented for graphical expression of the results. Results and discussion Pellet formulations exhibited acceptable morphological, flow and mechanical properties. As against to 38.54% drug release after 60 minutes with MCC pellets, pellets prepared with optimised formulation, composed of proper combination of MCC, SDL, camphor and CCS, released 100% drug after 60 min. Conclusion Our study underlines the fact that dissolution of telmisartan from MCC pellets can be successfully enhanced by incorporating water soluble excipient, disintegrant and pore formers.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Critical errors found during metered dose inhaler technique demonstration
           by Pharmacists

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Adnan , Shahid Karim , Shamshir Khan , Naser Al Wabel



      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Alignment independent 3D-QSAR, quantum calculations and molecular docking
           of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Fereshteh Shiri , Somayeh Pirhadi , Jahan B. Ghasemi
      Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD) and the enhanced replacement method (ERM) were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRID independent descriptors (GRIND) approach. After variable selection, GRIND descriptors were correlated with activity values (pIC50) by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an r2 pred of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap) implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug
           reactions reporting and pharmacovigilance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kingston Rajiah , Mari Kannan Maharajan , Shashina Nair
      Pharmacy students’ knowledge about adverse drug reaction reporting can impact their attitude towards patient care and issues on patient safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perception of pharmacy students about adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance and to study their willingness to report. A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire was conducted among the university students. The demographic details of the respondents were studied. The number of female respondents was comparatively higher than the male respondents. There were no significant differences by gender regarding the knowledge on adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance except with the knowledge of post-marketing surveillance for which male students appeared to be more knowledgeable than female students. The results showed that the pharmacy students had sufficient knowledge and there are significant differences in perception among the students on adverse drug reaction reporting.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Enhanced ex vivo intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil
           nanosuspension: Preparation by combinative technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Zenab Attari , Amita Bhandari , P.C. Jagadish , Shaila Lewis
      The purpose of this study was to develop nanosuspension based on combinative technology to enhance the intestinal absorption of Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), a potent antihypertensive agent with limited oral bioavailability. Two combinative approaches were employed and then characterized. In vitro intestinal absorption of OLM nanosuspension and plain OLM was studied using non-everted rat intestinal sac model. Optimal OLM nanosuspension was prepared by a combination of ball milling and probe sonication using stabilizer, Poloxamer 407. The formula exhibited particle size of 469.9nm and zeta potential of −19.1mV, which was subjected to ex vivo studies. The flux and apparent permeability coefficient in intestine from OLM nanosuspension was higher than the plain drug, thereby suggesting better drug delivery.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Development and evaluation of natural gum-based extended release matrix
           tablets of two model drugs of different water solubilities by direct
           compression

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye , Kwadwo Amanor Mfoafo , Samuel Lugrie Kipo , Noble Kuntworbe , Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi
      The study was aimed at developing extended release matrix tablets of poorly water-soluble diclofenac sodium and highly water-soluble metformin hydrochloride by direct compression using cashew gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as release retardants. The suitability of light grade cashew gum as a direct compression excipient was studied using the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Thirteen tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium (∼100mg) and metformin hydrochloride (∼200mg) were prepared with varying amounts of cashew gum, xanthan gum and HPMC by direct compression. The flow properties of blended powders and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted in phosphate buffer (diclofenac: pH 7.4; metformin: pH 6.8) and the kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to five kinetic models. Cashew gum was found to be suitable for direct compression, having a good compressibility index (ICG) value of 5.173. The diclofenac and metformin matrix tablets produced generally possessed fairly good physical properties. Tablet swelling and drug release in aqueous medium were dependent on the type and amount of release retarding polymer and the solubility of drug used. Extended release of diclofenac (∼24h) and metformin (∼8–12h) from the matrix tablets in aqueous medium was achieved using various blends of the polymers. Drug release from diclofenac tablets fitted zero order, first order or Higuchi model while release from metformin tablets followed Higuchi or Hixson-Crowell model. The mechanism of release of the two drugs was mostly through Fickian diffusion and anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The study has demonstrated the potential of blended hydrophilic polymers in the design and optimization of extended release matrix tablets for soluble and poorly soluble drugs by direct compression.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets of
           Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohd Abdul Hadi , N.G. Raghavendra Rao , A. Srinivasa Rao
      In this present research work, the aim was to develop ileo-colonic targeted matrix-mini-tablets-filled capsule system of Naproxen for chronotherapeutic treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. So Matrix-mini-tablets of Naproxen were prepared using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers by direct compression method which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. The compatibility was assessed using FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixtures. The prepared batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, drug content estimation, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. When FTIR and DSC studies were performed, it was found that there was no interaction between Naproxen and polymers used. The physicochemical properties of all the prepared matrix-mini-tablets batches were found to be in limits. The drug content percentage in the optimized formulation F18 was found to be 99.24±0.10%. Our optimized matrix-mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F18 releases Naproxen after a lag time of 2.45±0.97h and 27.30±0.86%, 92.59±0.47%, 99.38±0.69% at the end of 5, 8, 12h respectively. This formulation was also found to be stable as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Thus, a novel ileo-colonic targeted delivery system of Naproxen was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Anxiolytic profile of fluoxetine as monitored following repeated
           administration in animal rat model of chronic mild stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Farhan , Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
      Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS. Animals of stressed and unstressed group were administrated with fluoxetine at dose of 1.0mg/kgs well as 5.0mg/kg repeatedly for 07days 1h before exposed to CMS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate that repeated treatment with fluoxetine could attenuate CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Results: Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Fluoxetine administration induced hypophagia in unstressed as well as CMS rats. Acute and repeated administration of fluoxetine increased motor activity in familiar environment but only repeated administration increased exploratory activity in open field. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine were greater in unstressed rats. These anxiolytic effects were produced as result of repeated administration not on acute administration of fluoxetine at 1.0mg/kg as well as 5.0mg/kg. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that CMS exposure resulted into behavioral deficits and produced depressive-like symptoms. Fluoxetine, an SSRI, administration attenuated behavioral deficits induced by CMS. Anxiolytic effects of repeated fluoxetine administration were greater in unstressed than CMS animals.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • An integrated Taguchi and response surface methodological approach for the
           optimization of an HPLC method to determine glimepiride in a
           supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rajendra Narayan Dash , Habibuddin Mohammed , Touseef Humaira
      We studied the application of Taguchi orthogonal array (TOA) design during the development of an isocratic stability indicating HPLC method for glimepiride as per TOA design; twenty-seven experiments were conducted by varying six chromatographic factors. Percentage of organic phase was the most significant (p <0.001) on retention time, while buffer pH had the most significant (p <0.001) effect on tailing factor and theoretical plates. TOA design has shortcoming, which identifies the only linear effect, while ignoring the quadratic and interaction effects. Hence, a response surface model for each response was created including the linear, quadratic and interaction terms. The developed models for each response found to be well predictive bearing an acceptable adjusted correlation coefficient (0.9152 for retention time, 0.8985 for tailing factor and 0.8679 for theoretical plates). The models were found to be significant (p <0.001) having a high F value for each response (15.76 for retention time, 13.12 for tailing factor and 9.99 for theoretical plates). The optimal chromatographic condition uses acetonitrile – potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0; 30mM) (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase. The temperature, flow rate and injection volume were selected as 35±2°C, 1.0mLmin−1 and 20μL respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and was found to be specific for analyzing glimepiride from a novel supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying formulation.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Molecular modeling, synthesis, characterization and pharmacological
           evaluation of benzo[d]oxazole derivatives as non-steroidal
           anti-inflammatory agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ashok. K. Shakya , Avneet Kaur , Belal O. Najjar , Rajashri Naik
      A series of N-(2-(4-chlorobenzyl)benzo[d]oxazol-5-yl)-3-substituted-propanamide (3a-3n) were synthesized and evaluated for their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory potential. The structure of the compounds were elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H NMR and MS) analysis. The synthesized compounds (at a dose of 20 mg/kg b. wt. p.o.) have shown their ability to provide 45.1 to 81.7% protection against carrageenan-induced paw edema, in comparison to diclofenac sodium (69.5%) and ibuprofen (64.7%). The most active compounds 3a, 3l and 3n were screened for chronic anti-inflammatory activity (cotton-pellet-induced granuloma) and to study their ulcerogenic activity. Compounds 3a, 3l and 3n showed 48.4, 39.3 and 44.0% protection against cotton pellets-induced granuloma compared to diclofenac sodium (60.2%). The tested compounds were less ulcerogenic than the ibuprofen. Molecular modeling studies suggest that these compounds have strong interaction with the COX-2 enzyme, which is responsible for the activity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Development and statistical optimization of nefopam hydrochloride loaded
           nanospheres for neuropathic pain using Box-Behnken design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): S. Sukhbir , S. Yashpal , A. Sandeep
      Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition like neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 35 Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetric (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres. Desirability function scrutinized by design-expert software for optimized formulation was 0.920. Optimized batch of NFH-NS had mean particle size 328.36 nm ± 2.23,% entrapment efficiency (% EE) 84.97 ± 1.23,% process yield 83.60 ± 1.31 and% drug loading (% DL) 21.41 ± 0.89. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) validated size, charge and shape of nanospheres, respectively. In-vitro drug release study revealed biphasic release pattern from optimized nanospheres. Korsmeyer peppas was found excellent kinetics model with release exponent less than 0.45. Chronic constricted injury (CCI) model of optimized NFH-NS in wistar rats produced significant difference in neuropathic pain behavior (p < 0.05) as compared to free NFH over 10 hrs indicating sustained action. Long term and accelerated stability testing of optimized NFH-NS revealed degradation rate constant 1.695 × 10-4 and shelf-life 621 days at 25 ± 2°C/60% ± 5% RH.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Methods of synthesis of hydrogels … A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Faheem Akhtar , Muhammad Hanif , Nazar Muhammad Ranjha
      Hydrogels are being investigated recently for the bioactive molecules (in particular pharmaceutical proteins) controlled release, such as matrices, and for the living cells encapsulation. Biodegradable nature of hydrogels has created much interest for drug delivery systems. The original three-dimensional structure disintegrates into nontoxic substances to ascertain an excellent biocompatibility of the gel. Chemical cross-linking is the highly resourceful method for the formation of hydrogels having an excellent mechanical strength. Cross-linkers used in hydrogel preparation should be extracted from the hydrogels before use due to their reported toxicity. Physically cross-linked methods for preparation of hydrogel are the alternate solution of cross-linker toxicity.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Monitoring model drug microencapsulation in PLGA scaffolds using X-ray
           powder diffraction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Adeyinka Aina , Manish Gupta , Yamina Boukari , Andrew Morris , Nashiru Billa , Stephen Doughty
      The microencapsulation of three model drugs; metronidazole, paracetamol and sulphapyridine into Poly (dl-Lactide-Co-Glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were probed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the diffraction patterns of the PLGA scaffolds after encapsulation was suggestive of a chemical interaction between the pure drugs and the scaffolds and not a physical intermixture.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress—A concise review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ullah Asmat , Khan Abad , Khan Ismail
      Human body is continuously exposed to different types of agents that results in the production of reactive species called as free radicals (ROS/RNS) which by the transfer of their free unpaired electron causes the oxidation of cellular machinery. In order to encounter the deleterious effects of such species, body has got endogenous antioxidant systems or it obtains exogenous antioxidants from diet that neutralizes such species and keeps the homeostasis of body. Any imbalance between the RS and antioxidants leads to produce a condition known as “oxidative stress” that results in the development of pathological condition among which one is diabetes. Most of the studies reveal the inference of oxidative stress in diabetes pathogenesis by the alteration in enzymatic systems, lipid peroxidation, impaired Glutathione metabolism and decreased Vitamin C levels. Lipids, proteins, DNA damage, Glutathione, catalane and superoxide dismutase are various biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress induced complications of diabetes may include stroke, neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. The basic aim of this review was to summarize the basics of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles:
           The UAE experiences

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mirai Mourad Sadek , Asim Ahmed Elnour , Naama M.S. Al Kalbani , Akshaya B. Srikanth , Mohamed Baraka , Alaa Mohammed Abdul Aziz , Abdulla Shehab
      Background The pharmaceutical care and ‘extended’ roles are still not practiced optimally by community pharmacists. Several studies have discussed the practice of community pharmacy in the UAE and have shown that most community pharmacists only counsel patients. However, UAE, have taken initiatives to allow and prepare community pharmacists to practice ‘extended’ roles. Aim of the review The aim was to review the current roles of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objective The objective was to encourage community pharmacists towards extending their practice roles. Methods In 2010, Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) surveyed community pharmacists, using an online questionnaire, on their preferences towards extending their counseling roles and their opinion of the greatest challenge facing the extension of their counseling roles. Results Following this survey, several programs have been developed to prepare community pharmacists to undertake these extended counseling roles. In addition to that, HAAD redefined the scope of pharmacist roles to include some extended/enhanced roles. Abu Dhabi Health Services (SEHA) mission is to ensure reliable excellence in healthcare. It has put clear plans to achieve this; these include increasing focus on public health matters, developing and monitoring evidence-based clinical policies, training health professionals to comply with international standards to deliver world-class quality care, amongst others. Prior to making further plans to extend community pharmacists’ roles, and to ensure the success of these plans, it is imperative to establish the views of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi on practicing extended roles and to gain understanding and information on what pharmacists see as preferred change strategies or facilitators to change. Conclusions In an attempt to adapt to the changes occurring and to the growing needs of patients and to maximize the utilization of community pharmacists’ unique structured strategies are needed to be introduced to the community pharmacy profession. Keys Community pharmacist, role extension, Health Services Abu Dhabi (HAAD)


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Formulation development and Evaluation of Medicated Chewing Gum of
           Anti-emetic Drug

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansi Paradkar , Balaram Gajra , Bhautik Patel
      Context Medicated chewing gum(MCG) of Domperidone Maleate(DM) was developed by direct compression method with the goal to achieve quick onset of action and to improve patient compliance. Objective Formulation development of MCG of DM and optimization of the formulation by screening of different excipients. Material and methods MCG containing DM was prepared by screening different concentrations of sweeteners, flavouring agents, softening agents, lubricants and anti-adherents by changing one variable at a time. Performance evaluation was carried out by evaluating size, shape, thickness, taste, scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, in vivo drug release study, ex vivo buccal permeation study and by studying statistical analysis for quality. Results and discussion The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties like chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 minutes indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action. Conclusion The developed formulation of medicated chewing gum can be a better alternative to mouth dissolving and conventional tablet formulation. It may be proved as a promising approach to improve the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T02:51:44Z
       
  • Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes by transmembrane pH gradient
           to reduce toxicity towards H9c2 Cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed Alyane , Gillian Barratt , Mesbah Lahouel
      The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Entrapped DOX in liposome has been shown to reduce cardiotoxicity. Results showed that about 92% of the total drug was encapsulated in liposome. The release experiments showed a weak DOX leakage in both culture medium and in PBS, more than 98% and 90% of the encapsulated DOX respectively was still retained in liposomes after 24h of incubation. When the release experiments were carried out in phosphate buffer pH5.3, the leakage of DOX from liposomes reached 37% after 24h of incubation. Evaluation of cellular uptake of the liposomal DOX indicated the possible endocytosis of liposomes because the majority of visible fluorescence of DOX was mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas the nuclear compartment showed a weak intensity. When using unloaded fluorescent-liposomes, the fluorescence was absent in nuclei suggests that liposomes can not cross the nuclear membrane. MTT assay and measurement of LDH release suggest that necrosis is the form of cellular death predominates in H9c2 cells exposed to high doses of DOX, while for weak doses apoptosis could be the predominate form. Entrapped DOX reduced significantly DOX toxicity after 3 and 6h of incubation, but after 20h entrapped DOX is more toxic than free one.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T01:20:43Z
       
  • Fabrication and In vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA Nanoparticles
           for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): D. Nagasamy Venkatesh , Mahendran Baskaran , V.V.S. Narayana Reddy Karri , Sai Sandeep Mannemala , Kollipara Radhakrishna , Sandip Goti
      Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5 to 5 h) remains a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using PLGA and Poloxomer 407. The prepared NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in vitro dissolution studies. Oral bioavailability studies were carried out in New Zealand rabbits by administering developed NFV PLGA-NPs and pure drug suspension. PLGA-NPs prepared by using 1:4 ratio of drug and PLGA, with a stirring rate of 1500 rpm for 4 h. The prepared NPs were in the size of 185±0.83nm with a zeta potential of 28.7±0.09 mV. The developed NPs were found to be spherical with uniform size distribution. The drug content and EE of the optimized formulation was found to be 36±0.19% and 72±0.47% respectively. After oral administration of NFV PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was enhanced about 4.94 fold compared to NFV suspension as a control. The results describe an effective strategy for oral delivery of NFV loaded PLGA NPs that helps in enhancing bioavailability and reduce the frequency of dosing.


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T01:06:22Z
       
 
 
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