for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 558 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Journal Cover Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1319-0164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and
           lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    • Authors: Aleksandra Amelian; Katarzyna Wasilewska; Małgorzata Wesoły; Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska; Katarzyna Winnicka
      Pages: 1144 - 1150
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Aleksandra Amelian, Katarzyna Wasilewska, Małgorzata Wesoły, Patrycja Ciosek-Skibińska, Katarzyna Winnicka
      Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release) revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.06.001
  • Prediction of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein localization in host
           mitochondria and cytoplasm and possible involvements in lung cancer
           etiology: a computational approach

    • Authors: Aws Alshamsan; Shahanavaj Khan; Ahamad Imran; Ibrahim A. Aljuffali; Khalid Alsaleh
      Pages: 1151 - 1157
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Aws Alshamsan, Shahanavaj Khan, Ahamad Imran, Ibrahim A. Aljuffali, Khalid Alsaleh
      Collecting evidence suggests that the intercellular infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in lungs contributes to the etiology of lung cancer. Many proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae outmanoeuvre the various system of the host. The infection may regulate various factors, which can influence the growth of lung cancer in affected persons. In this in-silico study, we predict potential targeting of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic comportments of host cell and their possible involvement in growth and development of lung cancer. Various cellular activities are controlled in mitochondria and cytoplasm, where the localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins may alter the normal functioning of host cells. The rationale of this study is to find out and explain the connection between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. A sum of 183 and 513 proteins were predicted to target in mitochondria and cytoplasm of host cell out of total 1112 proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae. In particular, many targeted proteins may interfere with normal growth behaviour of host cells, thereby altering the decision of program cell death. Present article provides a potential connection of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein targeting and proposed that various targeted proteins may play crucial role in lung cancer etiology through diverse mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.007
  • Comparative anticancer and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of
           Acacia salicina, Acacia laeta, Acacia hamulosa and Acacia tortilis grown
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Nasir Ali Siddiqui; Omer A. Basudan; Afzal Hussain; Fohad Mabood Husain; Azmat Ali Khan
      Pages: 1248 - 1252
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Mohamed F. Alajmi, Perwez Alam, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Omer A. Basudan, Afzal Hussain, Fohad Mabood Husain, Azmat Ali Khan
      The standardized ethanol extract (EE) of aerial parts of four Acacia species [A. salicina (ASEE), A. laeta (ALEE), A. hamulosa (AHEE), and A. tortilis (ATEE)] were examined in order to compare their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. All the extracts were standardized by UPLC- PDA method using rutin as standard compound. The extracts ALEE, AHEE and ATEE were found to contain rutin along with several other phytoconstituents while rutin was absent in ASEE. All the extracts showed varying level of antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition ranged from 11 to 21mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The ALEE and ATEE showed relatively high antimicrobial potency (MIC=0.2 to 1.6mgmL−1) in comparison to other extracts. All the extracts were found to reduce the biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain significantly in comparison to the untreated control. The cytotoxic property of ASEE, ALEE, AHEE, ATEE were evaluated against HepG2 (Liver), HEK-293 (Kidney), MCF-7 (Breast) and MDA-MB 231 (Breast) cancer cells. Of these, ALEE, AHEE and ATEE exhibited moderate cytotoxic property against human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2; IC50=46.2, 39.2 and 42.3μgmL−1, respectively) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; IC50=57.2, 55.3 and 65.7μgmL−1, respectively). The ATEE and ALEE showed moderate cytotoxicity against HEK-293 (kidney) cells with IC50=49.1 and 53.5μgmL−1, respectively. Since, Acacia species (A. laeta and A. hamulosa) contains numerous polyphenols which might prove to be highly cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents, we suggest that these species can be further subjected to the isolation of more cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.010
  • X-ray crystallographic and validated HPTLC analysis of the biomarker
           chromone glucoside (schumanniofioside A) isolated from Acalypha fruticosa
           growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Areej M. Al-Taweel; Ghada A. Fawzy; Shagufta Perveen; Perwez Alam; Ali A. El Gamal
      Pages: 955 - 960
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Areej M. Al-Taweel, Ghada A. Fawzy, Shagufta Perveen, Perwez Alam, Ali A. El Gamal
      A chromone glucoside 2-methyl-5,7-dihydroxychromone 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (schumanniofioside A, compound 1) was isolated from the methanol extract of Acalypha fruticosa. The structure of compound 1 was fully assigned based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H, 13C and 2D) spectra and electrospray ionization mass spectrum (ESI-MS) in addition to X-ray Crystallography. The molecules were packed in the crystal structure by eight intermolecular OH⋯O and CH⋯O interactions. The structure of compound 1 belongs to monoclinic, P21, a =9.1989 (4) Å, b =4.6651 (2) Å, c =20.4042 (7) Å, β=97.862 (3)°, V =867.31 (6) Å3, Z =2, wR ref (F 2 ) =0.101, T =100K. Thus, the bond angles, bond lengths and absolute structure of compound 1 were confirmed by its X-ray structure. A validated HPTLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of compound 1 in chloroform and methanol extracts of A. fruticosa. It was found to furnish a compact and sharp band of compound 1 at Rf =0.13±0.005 using chloroform, methanol and glacial acetic acid [17:3:0.5 (v/v/v)] as mobile phase. The LOD and LOQ for compound 1 were found to be 17.86 and 54.13ng/band, respectively. Compound 1 was found in both chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant (0.03% w/w and 0.31% w/w, respectively). The proposed HPTLC method can be used for the further analysis of schumanniofioside A in different plant extracts, herbal formulations and biological samples as well as in process quality control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.011
  • Study of DNA damage caused by dipyrone in presence of some transition
           metal ions

    • Authors: Bruna Corrêa Roriz; Horacio Dorigan Moya
      Pages: 961 - 966
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Bruna Corrêa Roriz, Horacio Dorigan Moya
      The DNA damage in the presence of dipyrone (used as its sodium salt, NaDip) and some transition metal ions in an air saturated ([O2]≈0.25mM) non-buffered solution at T=(25.0±0.5)°C was investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis. As metal ions Cu2+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and Mn3+ were selected and evaluated in the present study because of the important role they play in a biological system. pUC19 plasmid DNA damage-induced by NaDip (80–600μM) was observed in the presence of 100μM Cu2+. The damage was proportional to the NaDip concentration provided that the order of addition of reagents (pUC19 plasmid DNA+Cu2+ +NaDip) is obeyed. Addition in the reaction medium of ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, respectively EDTA and neocuproine, promoted total inhibition or reduction of the pUC19 plasmid DNA damage suggesting the involvement of the Cu2+/Cu+ cycle. Besides, the decrease in the pUC19 plasmid DNA damage after addition of catalase (1.0×10−4 mgμL−1) in the same reaction medium indicates that H2O2 is also involved in the damage process. In NaDip concentration range (80–600μM), and under same the experimental conditions, it was not possible to conclude whether there was pUC19 plasmid DNA damage caused by 10μM Fe3+. No damage was observed in the presence of Mn3+ or Ni2+. Although the technique used in this study is sensitive to detect the pUC19 plasmid DNA damage it was not possible to identify in which DNA base this damage occurs. Further studies with other techniques should be made to unambiguously identify the oxidative intermediates that are responsible for the DNA damage. As far as we know, this is the first study dealing with the pUC19 plasmid DNA damage-induced by NaDip in presence of copper, iron, nickel and manganese ions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.010
  • Novel essential amino acid-sulfanilamide hybrid as safe anti-ulcerogenic
           agent with anti-helicobacter pylori activity

    • Authors: Amani S. Awaad; Ahmed M. Alafeefy; Fatmah A.S. Alasmary; Reham M. El-Meligy; M.E. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Pages: 967 - 971
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Amani S. Awaad, Ahmed M. Alafeefy, Fatmah A.S. Alasmary, Reham M. El-Meligy, M.E. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      A novel and safe essential amino acid (Leucine) incorporating sulfanilamide was synthesized, and evaluated for its anti-ulcerogenic activity and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The new molecule showed a dose dependent activity against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, it produced percent protection of control ulcer by 66.7 at dose 100mg/kg. In addition it showed a potent anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro against 7 clinically isolated strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 12.5 to 50μg/ml. The preliminary safety studies and toxicity profile are optimistic and encouraging.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.012
  • Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica
           gel composites

    • Authors: Agnieszka Kierys; Patrycja Krasucka; Marta Grochowicz
      Pages: 972 - 980
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Agnieszka Kierys, Patrycja Krasucka, Marta Grochowicz
      The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS). The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM) and poly(HEMA-co-TRIM) produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM)-IBS and/or poly(HEMA-co-TRIM)-IBS) with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.004
  • A quality by design approach for the development of lyophilized liposomes
           with simvastatin

    • Authors: Alina Porfire; Dana Maria Muntean; Lucia Rus; Bianca Sylvester; Ioan Tomuţă
      Pages: 981 - 992
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Alina Porfire, Dana Maria Muntean, Lucia Rus, Bianca Sylvester, Ioan Tomuţă
      Lyophilization is used to ensure an increased shelf-life of liposomes, by preserving them in dry state, more stable than the aqueous dispersions. When stored as aqueous systems, the encapsulated drugs are released and the liposomes might aggregate or fuse. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a lyophilized formulation of simvastatin (SIM) loaded into long circulating liposomes using the Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Pharmaceutical development by QbD aims to identify characteristics that are critical for the final product quality, and to establish how the critical process parameters can be varied to consistently produce a product with the desired characteristics. In the case of lyophilized liposomes, the choice of the optimum formulation and technological parameters has to be done, in order to protect the integrity of the liposomal membrane during lyophilization. Thus, the influence of several risk factors (3 formulation factors: PEG proportion, cholesterol concentration, the cryoprotectant to phospholipids molar ratio, and 2 process parameters: the number of extrusions through 100nm polycarbonate membranes and the freezing conditions prior lyophilization) over the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of lyophilized long circulating liposomes with simvastatin (lyo-LCL-SIM), i.e. the size, the encapsulated SIM concentration, the encapsulated SIM retention, the Tm change and the residual moisture content, was investigated within the current study using the design of experiments tool of QbD. Moreover, the design space for lyo-LCL-SIM was determined, in which the established quality requirements of the product are met, provided that the risk factors vary within the established limits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.007
  • Melatonin attenuates thiocyanate-induced vasoconstriction in aortic rings

    • Authors: Alexander M. Prusa; Christian A. Plass
      Pages: 993 - 998
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Alexander M. Prusa, Christian A. Plass
      Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN−) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN− levels are increased. Melatonin, a non-toxic indolamine with various physiologic functions, is believed to protect against inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that melatonin serves as free radical scavenger and represents a potent antioxidant. Therefore, it is believed that melatonin with its atheroprotective effects may be useful either as a sole therapy or in conjunction with others. The aim of this study was to quantify the thiocyanate-induced vasomotor response in aortic tissue and further to examine the potential of melatonin in affecting the generated vasoreactivity. Aortic rings of adult male normotensive Wistar rats were cut into 4-mm rings. Following the administration of thiocyanate in various concentrations, vasomotor response of aortic vessel segments was measured. To assess the effect of melatonin on vasomotor activity, organ bath concentrations were modulated from 60 to 360pM, which corresponds to physiologic plasma up to the levels of patients with regular oral intake of 3mg of melatonin as a supplement. Thirty-six rat aortic rings were studied. When exposed to thiocyanate, vessel segments revealed vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner. In rings which were preincubated with melatonin at a concentration of 360pM, a 56.5% reduction of effect size could be achieved (4.09±1.22mN versus 9.41±1.74mN, P<0.0001). Additionally, administration of 360pM melatonin at a norepinephrine concentration of 80mM resulted in a relaxation of 10.9±2.2%. The vasodilatatory effect of melatonin was significantly reduced to 1.3±0.5% when concentration of norepinephrine was doubled (P<0.002). This study indicates that vessel segments that were exposed to thiocyanate responded with a dose-dependent vasoconstriction. The effect could be markedly attenuated in segments preincubated in melatonin.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.007
  • Comparative study of free and liposome-entrapped chloramphenicol against
           biofilms of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from cooling towers

    • Authors: Marcus Vinícius Dias-Souza; Daniel Lucas Soares; Vera Lúcia dos Santos
      Pages: 999 - 1004
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Marcus Vinícius Dias-Souza, Daniel Lucas Soares, Vera Lúcia dos Santos
      This study aimed to investigate for the first time the in vitro antibiofilm effectiveness of two chloramphenicol liposome formulations against biofilms of potentially pathogenic bacteria associated to corrosion isolated from the water of cooling towers from a Brazilian industry. Antibiofilm assays with liposomes were performed in 96-wells microtiter plates, and data was compared to free chloramphenicol treatment. Chloramphenicol-loaded liposomes were successfully produced using the dehydration-rehydration method, with vesicle diameters of 131nm (100nm membrane extrusion) and 182nm (200nm membrane extrusion) assessed by dynamic light scattering. The liposomes obtained by 100nm membrane extrusion were more effective than 200nm membrane extrusion vesicles against the biofilms after overnight exposure, and the free drug had no antibiofilm effect. Our study open doors for more investigations on liposome entrapment of antimicrobial compounds such as biocides of industrial use, for controlling biofilm formation in aquatic environments.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.003
  • A novel monocyclic triterpenoid and a norsesquaterpenol from the aerial
           parts of Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel with cell proliferative

    • Authors: Mansour S. Al-Said; Nasir A. Siddiqui; Mohamed Ahmed Mukhair; Mohammad K. Parvez; Perwez Alam; Mohd. Ali; Anzarul Haque
      Pages: 1005 - 1010
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Mansour S. Al-Said, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Mohamed Ahmed Mukhair, Mohammad K. Parvez, Perwez Alam, Mohd. Ali, Anzarul Haque
      Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel (Chenopodiaceae), a mangrove herb, is distributed in tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Pakistan, Palestine and Jordan. The plant parts are used to treat sore throat, hepatitis, wounds, rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, snakebites, skin disease and ulcer. Two new phytoconstituents characterized as 13,17-octahydropentalene-4,4,10,23-tetramethyl-17,21-diisopropyl-tetradecahydrocyclo-[a]-phenanthrene-(14), 20(23), 21(30)-trien-5α-ol (SMC-3) and [1,4,4-trimethyl-cyclopent-1(5)-enyl]-9,10,17,21-tetramethyl-9α-ol-16α (17α)-epoxy heptadecan-6,10-dione (SMC-4) belong to the class norsesquaterpenol and monocyclic triterpenoid, respectively, along with two known compounds 3-epi-lupeol (SMC-1) and 4-cyclopentylpyrocatechol (SMC-2) have been isolated from the ethanol extract of aerial parts of S. monoica using normal and reverse phase column as well as planar chromatography. The spectroscopic studies including 1D, 2D NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HSQC) aided by EIMS mass and IR spectra were used to establish their structures. All the four compounds were tested for cytotoxicity on cultured HepG2 cells and for cell proliferation activities. The results revealed no cytotoxicity even at highest (6.25–50μg/ml) dose of all the four compounds. The compound SMC-1 showed prominent cell proliferative activity as compared to other SMC compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.008
  • Medication safety officer preparatory course: Outcomes and experiences

    • Authors: Hisham Aljadhey; Salma Alkhani; Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Pages: 1011 - 1014
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Hisham Aljadhey, Salma Alkhani, Tahir Mehmood Khan
      Purpose Few hospitals employ a medication safety officer. A medication safety officer preparatory course was planned using a structured curriculum to prepare pharmacists with the knowledge and skills to start medication safety officer activities. The current study aims to assess the outcome, as change in knowledge, of a hospital medication safety officer preparatory course. Methods We conducted a three-day course in February 2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to provide attendees with the essential knowledge and skills to become a medication safety officer. Teaching methodologies included didactic teaching, group discussions, case presentations, and an independent study of medication safety materials. The content of the course focused on the various roles of a medication safety officer, the importance of medication safety in a health care setting, the incidence of adverse drug events in a hospital setting, strategies to identify and prevent adverse events, the use of root cause analysis and failure mode and effect analysis, the role of an officer in hospital accreditation, and ways for promoting safety culture. Assessment of the course outcome was accomplished by comparing scores of knowledge level before and after the course. The knowledge level was assessed by a 20-item exam which was developed and validated by course instructors. Results Twenty-one participants attended the course and completed both the baseline and after-course assessment questionnaires. The majority was male (N=14, %=66.7) with a job experience of 1–5 five years (N=10, %=47.6). The knowledge score increased from 14.3±1.90 (mean±standard deviation) at baseline to 18.5±1.43 after successfully completing the course (P<0.001). Conclusion A three-day medication safety officer preparatory course has been shown to significantly improve attendee knowledge about medication safety. Educating health care professionals is an important tool to help ensure the safety of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.002
  • Relationship between health literacy and body mass index among Arab women
           with polycystic ovary syndrome

    • Authors: Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia; Bander Balkhi; Sultan AlGhadeer; Wael Mansy; Hisham AlSanawi; Reem AlGasem; Lama AlMutairi; Ibrahim Sales
      Pages: 1015 - 1018
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia, Bander Balkhi, Sultan AlGhadeer, Wael Mansy, Hisham AlSanawi, Reem AlGasem, Lama AlMutairi, Ibrahim Sales
      Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) puts patients at higher risk for obesity and diabetes. Poor health literacy is also associated with these conditions. Notably, weight loss is associated with improved ovulation and pregnancy rates for women with PCOS. In this study the association between health literacy and body mass index (BMI) among women with PCOS was examined. Methods The health literacy of women with PCOS was measured using the Arabic version of the single item literacy screener (SILS) at a university medical center. Sociodemographic and medical information was collected by interviewing the participants and reviewing their medical records, respectively. The relationship between health literacy and BMI was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Health literacy was assessed in 127 women with PCOS from September 2015 to February 2016. Only 16.54% of participants had limited health literacy. The mean BMI for all participants was 30.57 (kg/m2), and the mean age was 27.40years. Further, most of the participants (74%) had a high school diploma or a higher degree. Almost 56% of the participants were taking metformin, and 11.81% had hypothyroidism. After controlling for age, education, hypothyroidism diagnosis, and the use of metformin, participants with high BMI were 10% less likely to have a good health literacy level (OR=0.904; 95% CI=0.829–0.987; P =0.0238). Conclusion Improving the health literacy of patients with PCOS may have a positive impact on their BMI and eventually lead to favorable health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.003
  • The impact of pharmacists providing direct patient care as members of
           interprofessional teams on diabetes management

    • Authors: Osamah M. Alfayez; Majed S. Al Yami; Maryam T. Fazel
      Pages: 1019 - 1021
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Osamah M. Alfayez, Majed S. Al Yami, Maryam T. Fazel
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist providing direct patient care as a member of interprofessional team on diabetes management. This study is a retrospective chart review of diabetes patients seen by a pharmacist in an endocrinology clinic affiliated with an academic medical center. The following patient outcomes were recorded pre and post the pharmacist intervention: glycemic control as measured by change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), statin use, and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). 144 charts were reviewed, 28 of which were included in the study. A statistically significant improvement in HbA1c was observed in patients following the pharmacist intervention. The mean pre-intervention HbA1c was 8.77% (±SD 2.48) while the post-intervention HbA1c was 7.59% (±SD 1.18), with a p-value of 0.040. A decrease in blood pressure was also observed; however, this decrease was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in use of ACEI/ARB and statins pre- and post-intervention. The results suggest that involvement of pharmacists in direct patient care as members of interprofessional team in our specialty ambulatory care clinic is associated with a positive impact on the glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.005
  • Chemometric evaluation of the efficacy of locally administered
           chlorhexidine in patients with periodontal disease

    • Authors: Liljana Bogdanovska; Ana Poceva Panovska; Mirjana Popovska; Aneta Dimitrovska; Rumenka Petkovska
      Pages: 1022 - 1031
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Liljana Bogdanovska, Ana Poceva Panovska, Mirjana Popovska, Aneta Dimitrovska, Rumenka Petkovska
      The process of assessment of drug efficacy produces multivariate data which are difficult to interpret. The interpretation and extraction of relevant data requires application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis. The aim of our study was evaluation of the efficacy of local treatment with chlorhexidine (CHX) in patients suffering from periodontal disease by chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis. Several algorithms were used: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The PCA models identified the examined variables as suitable for monitoring the periodontal disease progression at the same time revealing mutual relationship among them. The developed PLS-DA model successfully distinguished patients treated with CHX from non-treated patients. The OPLS-DA model revealed differences in the mechanism of action of the two widely applied treatments in periodontal disease, local administration of CHX and local administration of doxycycline (DOX). The approach presented in this study opens the possibility of application of chemometric algorithms for multivariate data analysis for assessment of treatment efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.006
  • High resolution UHPLC-MS characterization and isolation of main compounds
           from the antioxidant medicinal plant Parastrephia lucida (Meyen)

    • Authors: Carlos Echiburu-Chau; Leyla Pastén; Claudio Parra; Jorge Bórquez; Andrei Mocan; Mario J. Simirgiotis
      Pages: 1032 - 1039
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Carlos Echiburu-Chau, Leyla Pastén, Claudio Parra, Jorge Bórquez, Andrei Mocan, Mario J. Simirgiotis
      High-resolution mass spectrometry is currently used to determine the mass of biologically active compounds in medicinal plants and food and UHPLC-Orbitrap is a relatively new technology that allows fast fingerprinting and metabolomics analysis. Forty-two metabolites including several phenolic acids, flavonoids, coumarines, tremetones and ent-clerodane diterpenes were accurately identified for the first time in the resin of the medicinal plant Parastrephia lucida (Asteraceae) a Chilean native species, commonly called umatola, collected in the pre-cordillera and altiplano regions of northern Chile, by means of UHPLC-PDA-HR-MS. This could be possible by the state of the art technology employed, which allowed well resolved total ion current peaks and the proposal of some biosynthetic relationships between the compounds detected. Some mayor compounds were also isolated using HSCCC. The ethanolic extract showed high total polyphenols content and significant antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, several biological assays were performed that determined the high antioxidant capacity found for the mayor compound isolated from the plant, 11- p-coumaroyloxyltremetone.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.03.001
  • Formulation and characterization of novel soft nanovesicles for enhanced
           transdermal delivery of eprosartan mesylate

    • Authors: Abdul Ahad; Abdulmohsen A. Al-Saleh; Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea; Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi; Mohammad Raish; Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin; Mohd Aftab Alam
      Pages: 1040 - 1046
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Abdul Ahad, Abdulmohsen A. Al-Saleh, Abdullah M. Al-Mohizea, Fahad I. Al-Jenoobi, Mohammad Raish, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin, Mohd Aftab Alam
      The objective of the present work was to formulate, optimize and evaluate the potential of novel soft nanovesicles i.e. nano-transfersomes, containing eprosartan mesylate (EM) for transdermal delivery. Nano-transfersomes of EM were developed using Phospholipon 90G, Span 80 (SP) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and characterized for vesicle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in vitro skin permeation study and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized nano-transfersomes formulation showed vesicles size of 108.53±0.06nm and entrapment efficiency of 63.00±2.76%. The optimized nano-transfersomes provided an improved transdermal flux of 27.22±0.29µg/cm2/h with an enhancement ratio of 16.80 over traditional liposomes through Wistar rat skin. Confocal laser microscopy of rat skin treated with the optimized formulation showed that the formulation was eventually distributed and permeated deep into the rat skin. The present investigation has shown that the nature and concentration of surfactants (edge activators) influence immense control on the characteristics of nano-transfersomes. It was concluded that the developed nano-transfersomes surmount the limitation of low penetration ability of the traditional liposomes across the rat skin. Improved drug delivery presented by nano-transfersomes establishes this system as an encouraging dosage form for the delivery of EM via skin route.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.006
  • Synthesis and anticancer activity of new quinazoline derivatives

    • Authors: Hatem A. Abuelizz; Mohamed Marzouk; Hazem Ghabbour; Rashad Al-Salahi
      Pages: 1047 - 1054
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Hatem A. Abuelizz, Mohamed Marzouk, Hazem Ghabbour, Rashad Al-Salahi
      In this study, a new series of quinazoline derivatives (3–26) was synthesized and characterized via physicochemical and spectral means. Treatment of 2-amino-5-methylbenzoic acid with butyl isothiocyanate resulted in the new 2-thioxoquinazolin-4-one (3). Alkylation and hydrazinolysis of the inherent thioxo group in (1–3) afforded the corresponding thioethers (4–23) and hydrazine derivatives (24 and 25), then 24 was further transformed into tricyclic derivative 26 via cyclocondensation reaction. Compounds 1 and 2, which were previously synthesized, were found to exhibit anticancer activity. The cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro against the HeLa and MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines, including 1 and 2 for comparison, using MTT assay. The treatment of the cells was performed with the synthesized compounds and gefitinib at 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50μM and incubated for 24h in 50% DMSO. The IC50 values of the target compounds were reported in μM, using gefitinib as a standard. Our results indicated that all compounds exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxicity against both cell lines. While compounds 1–3 showed good activity, compounds 21–23 were found to be more potent than gefitinib. Thus, compounds 21–23 may be potential anticancer agents, with IC50 values ranging from 1.85 to 2.81μM in relation to gefitinib (IC50 =4.3 and 28.3μM against HeLa and MDA-MB231 cells, respectively).

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.022
  • Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    • Authors: Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim; Amal El Sayeh F. Abou El Ela
      Pages: 1055 - 1062
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim, Amal El Sayeh F. Abou El Ela
      Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing furosemide (FUR) were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32) full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1) and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2) on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1) was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1) and CCS (X2) on ODTs disintegration time (Y1) were insignificant (p>0.05). Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30min (D5 and D30, respectively), but only its effect on D30 is significant (p=0.0004). Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10s.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.002
  • New chroman-4-one/thiochroman-4-one derivatives as potential anticancer

    • Authors: Seref Demirayak; Leyla Yurttas; Nalan Gundogdu-Karaburun; Ahmet Cagri Karaburun; Ismail Kayagil
      Pages: 1063 - 1072
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Seref Demirayak, Leyla Yurttas, Nalan Gundogdu-Karaburun, Ahmet Cagri Karaburun, Ismail Kayagil
      The synthesis of 3-[3/4-(2-aryl-2-oxoethoxy)arylidene]chroman/thiochroman-4-one derivatives (1–34) and evaluation of their anticancer activities were aimed in this work. Final compounds were obtained in multistep synthesis reactions using phenol/thiophenol derivatives as starting materials. For anticancer activity evaluation, all compounds were offered to National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA and selected ones were tested against sixty human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic diseases. The activity results were evaluated according to the drug screening protocol of the institute. Compounds containing thiochromanone skeleton exhibited higher anticancer activity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.04.040
  • Adverse drug reactions in high-risk pregnant women: A prospective study

    • Authors: Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho; Antonio Emanuel Soares Vieira; Roberta Cruz da Silva; Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves; Thiago Antonio Barros Gama; Ryane Vieira Lima; Wlisses Ramon Oliveira; Júlia Maria de Gonçalves Dias
      Pages: 1073 - 1077
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio Emanuel Soares Vieira, Roberta Cruz da Silva, Sabrina Joany Felizardo Neves, Thiago Antonio Barros Gama, Ryane Vieira Lima, Wlisses Ramon Oliveira, Júlia Maria de Gonçalves Dias
      Background Because pregnant women are often excluded from clinical trials, there is still very limited information about the risk and safety of prescription drugs during pregnancy. Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in high-risk pregnant women after hospital admission. A prospective study was carried out in a teaching maternity hospital in Brazil during six months. Causality of ADRs was assessed through the Naranjo Algorithm and Korean Algorithm for ADR Causality Assessment. Severity of ADRs was assessed using Hartwig’s Severity Assessment Scale. Results The prevalence of ADRs among the 294 inpatients studied was 8.8%. The mean age was 27.14 (±7.5) y.o. Patient's age was related to the presence of ADRs, while the manifestation of these events was not associated with any adverse pregnancy outcome. 75.9% of the ADRs reported in the study were of mild severity and 24.1% were of moderate severity. No ADR was caused by drug-drug interaction; however, a significant increase in blood pressure was observed in all patients using concurrent methyldopa and ferrous sulfate. Conclusion Overall, ADRs were not common events among high-risk pregnant women and no adverse pregnancy outcomes following these events were observed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.005
  • Effects of chronic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on Rho/Rho-kinase
           signalization pathway in mouse brain

    • Authors: Halil Mahir Kaplan; Percin Pazarci
      Pages: 1078 - 1081
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Halil Mahir Kaplan, Percin Pazarci
      Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) shows its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors which are on some tissues and neurons. Cannabinoid systems have role on cell proliferation and development of neurons. Furthermore, it is interesting that cannabinoid system and rho/rho-kinase signalization pathway, which have important role on cell development and proliferation, may have role on neuron proliferation and development together. Thus, a study is planned to investigate rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in the brain of chronic Δ9-THC treated mice. One group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC once to see effects of acute treatment. Another group of mice are treated with Δ9-THC three times per day for one month. After this period, rhoA and rho-kinase enzyme expressions and their activities in mice brains are analyzed by ELISA method. Chronic administration of Δ9-THC decreased the expression of rhoA while acute treatment has no meaningful effect on it. Administration of Δ9-THC did not affect expression of rho-kinase on both chronic and acute treatment. Administration of Δ9-THC increased rho-kinase activity on both chronic and acute treatment, however, chronic treatment decreased its activity with respect to acute treatment. This study showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment down-regulated rhoA expression and did not change the expression level of rho-kinase which is downstream effector of rhoA. However, it elevated the rho-kinase activity. Δ9-THC induced down-regulation of rhoA may cause elevation of cypin expression and may have benefit on cypin related diseases. Furthermore, use of rho-kinase inhibitors and Δ9-THC together can be useful on rho-kinase related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.002
  • Medication discrepancies identified during medication reconciliation among
           medical patients at a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Isra Al-Rashoud; Maha Al-Ammari; Hisham Al-Jadhey; Abdulmalik Alkatheri; Gregory Poff; Tariq Aldebasi; Salah AbuRuz; Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy
      Pages: 1082 - 1085
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Isra Al-Rashoud, Maha Al-Ammari, Hisham Al-Jadhey, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Gregory Poff, Tariq Aldebasi, Salah AbuRuz, Abdulkareem Al-Bekairy

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.004
  • Propafenone HCl fast dissolving tablets containing subliming agent
           prepared by direct compression method

    • Authors: Saleh Abd El Rasoul; Gamal A. Shazly
      Pages: 1086 - 1092
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Saleh Abd El Rasoul, Gamal A. Shazly
      Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crospovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmellose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40°C for 3months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.05.003
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 8

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
  • Assessment of the Association Between Drug Disposal Practices and Drug Use
           and Storage Behaviors

    • Authors: Ahmet Akici; Volkan Aydin; Arzu Kiroglu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Ahmet Akici, Volkan Aydin, Arzu Kiroglu
      Objective Keeping unnecessary drugs at home is a situation showing both causes and consequences of irrational use of medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the approaches of a company’s employees regarding drug storage, use, and disposal. Method This online-based descriptive study was held in a multi-centered private-sector company in a voluntary basis. The survey assessing participants’ drug handling and storage behaviors was answered by 1121 employees from across eight provinces of Turkey in 2016. Main outcome measures were storage and disposal of unused/unwanted drugs at home in a rational way. Results The percentage of participants who declared that they keep unused/unwanted drugs at home was 28.0%. About one-third of participants disposed their unused/unwanted drugs via the “garbage, sink, toilet, etc.”. Participants ≥30 years old and living with <4 household members significantly tended to bring their unused/unwanted drugs to the company’s drug-box. Nearly half of all participants (46.5%) stated a recent change in their disposal behavior. The vast majority of participants (94.6%) who previously took drugs back to the company’s drug-box stated that they either had, or would, help their contacts adopt such behaviors. These participants were also significantly less likely to dispose of drugs inappropriately, practice self-medication, be unaware of expired drugs at home, or fail to store drugs according to the labelling. Conclusion While our findings showed that a substantial number of participants still had unused drugs at home and disposed of them inappropriately, it is understood that they started to exhibit more favorable behaviors in recent years.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.006
  • Effect of combined gliclazide/metformin treatment on oxidative stress,
           lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions in type 2 diabetic patients

    • Authors: Mansour Alsharidah; Metab. Algeffari; Abdel-Moneim Hafez Abdel-Moneim; Mohamed Faisal Lutfi; Haila Alshelowi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansour Alsharidah, Metab. Algeffari, Abdel-Moneim Hafez Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed Faisal Lutfi, Haila Alshelowi
      Background Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires pharmacotherapy interventions. Metformin and gliclazide are widely used drugs in monotherapy. However, their complementary action made utilization of the combination of these drugs an appealing approach. Aims The study compared major therapeutic potentials of combined metformin/gliclazide treatment over metformin monotherapy based on the following parameters: oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions. Subjects and Methods This is a comparative study was conducted from March 2015 to March 2016. The study screened 80 type 2 diabetic patients, of which 40 patients underwent combined metformin + gliclazide therapy (500 mg BD + 80 mg OD, respectively). The other 40 were matched for age and duration of diabetes mellitus with the previous group and received metformin monotherapy (500 mg BD). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, serum creatinine, aspartate and alanine transaminases, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were measured according to the standard methods. Results Oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions were comparable in patients of both groups. However, patients on metformin treatment showed significantly lower levels of FBG [7.61 (6.70-8.89) mmol/L vs. 9.00 (7.30-10.68) mmol/L; P = 0.022] and HBA1c [7.00 (6.40-7.65)% vs. 8.20 (7.20-9.75)%; P < 0.001] compared to those on combined therapy. Conclusion Oxidative stress, lipids profile, and hepatorenal functions were not different in patients who were on combined metformin/gliclazide therapy and compared to those metformin alone. In contrast, glycemic control was poor in the diabetic patients undergoing combined therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.007
  • Biological activities of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora
           hawaiiana Butters

    • Authors: Nouf M. Al-Enazi; Amani S. Awaad; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Metab F. Alwethairi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nouf M. Al-Enazi, Amani S. Awaad, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Metab F. Alwethairi
      The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml) higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml). Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) similar to the antibiotic Ketoconazole activity (23, 24 and 27 mm, 1.25, 0.312 and 0.156 mg/ml) against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida trobicalis, respectively. A good antioxidant activity (80.96%, IC50= 27.8 µg/ml) was provided by Galaxaura rugosa. The anticancer activity results revealed that the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana possessed antitumor activity (IC50 = 15±1.7 and 21.2±1.6, respectively) against lung carcinoma (A-549) better than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 24.6±0.7). Although, the lipoidal matters of Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana antitumor activity against cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and intestinal carcinoma (CACO-2) (IC50 = 10.2±0.6 and 12.2±0.6, respectively) preferable than vinblastine sulfate (IC50 = 59.7±2.1 and 30.3±1.4, respectively).

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.003
  • Perceptions and attitudes towards off-label dispensing for pediatric
           patients, a study of hospital based pharmacists in Jordan

    • Authors: Tareq L. Mukattash; Karem H. Alzoubi; Amani M. Abuirjie; Anan S. Jarab; Rana K. Abu Farha; Mohammad B. Nusair; James C. McElnay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Tareq L. Mukattash, Karem H. Alzoubi, Amani M. Abuirjie, Anan S. Jarab, Rana K. Abu Farha, Mohammad B. Nusair, James C. McElnay
      Background With growing responsibility of the pharmacists in ensuring public health and safe medicine use, an understanding of the issues surrounding off-label prescribing is crucial to allow pharmacists to make informed decisions about such practice. The aim of this study is to assess the perceptions and attitudes of hospital based pharmacists toward off-label medicine dispensing to children. Methods After obtaining the required approvals, a validated questionnaire about off-label dispensing to pediatric patients was administered to 250 randomly selected hospital pharmacists. Results One hundred and fifty (150) completed questionnaires were returned. Less than half of the respondents (44%, n=66) admitted to being familiar with the concept of off-label dispensing, claiming to have obtained this knowledge basically through their dispensing experience rather than education. A minority of respondents (36%, n= 54) reported dispensing off-label medicines within their practice knowingly. The majority of respondents had concerns regarding the efficacy (82%, n= 123) and safety (98%, n= 147) of off-label medicines. The most common reasons given by respondents for a dispensed prescription being off label were younger age than recommended (88%, n= 132). Most of respondents (94%, n = 141) claimed to double check the calculations of doses of medicines before dispensing off-label medicines and 60% (n= 90) of them felt that parents and guardians should be told when an off-label medicine has been prescribed for their children. Conclusion The majority of respondents were not familiar with the concept of offlabel medicines. While reporting to have gained their knowledge from their professional experience, only a minority of respondents reported knowingly dispensing off-label medicines for pediatric patients. Respondents indicated that manufacturing more appropriate formulations for pediatric patients would reduce such practices in this population. Having concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of off-label medicines used for pediatric patients, respondents felt that the use of off-label medicines would increase the likelihood of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Finally, respondents felt that such practice of prescribing and dispensing should receive parental consent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.004
  • Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Laurencia
           catarinensis, Laurencia majuscula and Padina pavonica extracts

    • Authors: Nouf M. Al-Enazi; Amani S. Awaad; Mohamed E. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nouf M. Al-Enazi, Amani S. Awaad, Mohamed E. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of ethanolic extract of Laurencia catarinensis, L. majuscula and Padina pavonica were determined. The highest antibacterial activity; 23.40 ± 0.58 mm (00.98 µg/ml) and 22.60 ± 2.10 mm (03.90 µg/ml) were obtained against Klebsiella pneumonia by Laurencia catarinensis and Padina pavonica, respectively. However, Padina pavonica showed excellent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (21.7 ± 1.5 mm; 1.95 µg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (21.7 ± 0.58 mm; 1.95 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (20.7 ± 1.2 mm; 1.95 µg/ml) and Acinetobacter baumannii (20.1 ± 1.2 mm; 3.9 µg/ml). Moreover, the highest antifungal activity; 24.7 ± 2.0 mm (0.98 µg/ml), 23.7 ± 1.5 mm (0.98 µg/ml), 23.6 ± 1.5 mm (0.98 µg/ml) was obtained by Padina pavonica against Candida tropicalis, C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. The algal extracts showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with maximum scavenging activity (77.6%, IC50 = 5.59 µg/ml and 77.07%, IC50 = 14.3 µg/ml) was provided by Padina pavonica and Laurenica majuscula, respectively. The in vitro antitumor activity revealed that the IC50 values of Padina pavonica were 58.9, 115.0, 54.5, 59.0, 101.0, 101.0, and 97.6 µg/ml; Laurencia catarinensis were 55.2, 96.8, 104.0, 78.7, 117.0, 217.0, 169.0 µg/ml; and Laurencia. majuscula were 115.0, 221.0, 225.0, 200.0, 338.0, 242.0, and 189.0 µg/ml; respectively against A-549 (Lung carcinoma), Caco-2 (Intestinal carcinoma), HCT-116 (Colon carcinoma), Hela (Cervical carcinoma), HEp-2 (Larynx carcinoma), HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma), and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) cell lines.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.001
  • Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing
           their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    • Authors: Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis; Daniela Minarikova; Angelos Markos; Ivona Malovecka; Peter Minarik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis, Daniela Minarikova, Angelos Markos, Ivona Malovecka, Peter Minarik
      Background Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Results Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; ‘convenience customers’) were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; ‘loyal customers’) were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy’s staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; ‘convenience and price-sensitive customers’) were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist’s opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. Conclusions The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct customer segments that varied in the consumer preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and OTCs, the evaluation of pharmaceutical services and products, and demographic characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.002
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Volume 25, Issue 7

      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:09:14Z
  • The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia:
           A descriptive cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Abdulaziz A. AlBaker; Yazed Sulaiman H. Al-Ruthia; Mohammed AlShehri; Samar Alshuwairikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulaziz A. AlBaker, Yazed Sulaiman H. Al-Ruthia, Mohammed AlShehri, Samar Alshuwairikh
      Background The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has shown steady growth in the dental workforce over the last 20years. Although the number of dental colleges has significantly increased in the last decade, there is not any study so far that described the status of the licensed dentist workforce in the kingdom. The present study aimed to explore the demographic distribution and professional characteristics of licensed dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) database to identify the number of licensed dentists in Saudi Arabia as well as their professional and demographic characteristics as of December 2016. The data was categorized based on gender, nationality, dental specialty, health sector, geographic location, and professional rank. Results The number of licensed dentists working in the kingdom as of December 2016 was 16887 dentists, and the vast majority of them are professionally registered as general dentists (70.27%). The percentage of general dentists among the professionally registered female dentists is significantly higher than their male counterparts (79.71% vs. 64.80%; P <0.001). Only 22.08% of the dentists working in the kingdom are Saudi. Most of the dentist workforce in the kingdom are male (61.06%). The mean age of the Saudi dentists is slightly but significantly younger than non-Saudi dentists (37.7vs. 40.7years; P <0.001). Over 80% of the Saudi dentists are working in the regions of Riyadh, Makkah, and Eastern province. About 66% of the Saudi dentists are working in the public health sector in comparison to only 20.46% of the non-Saudi dentists (P <0.001). Conclusions Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.005
  • Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    • Authors: Areej M. Assaf; Reem Al-Abbassi; Maysaa Al-Binni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Areej M. Assaf, Reem Al-Abbassi, Maysaa Al-Binni
      Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T22:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.009
  • Drive-thru pharmacy service: Assessments of awareness, perception and
           barriers among pharmacists in Jordan

    • Authors: Rana Abu Farha; Khawla Abu Hammour; Eman Alefishat; Hiba Alsaeed; Sajida Alma'aiah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Rana Abu Farha, Khawla Abu Hammour, Eman Alefishat, Hiba Alsaeed, Sajida Alma'aiah
      Objective Drive-thru pharmacy services have become widely recognized service worldwide. Despite its proven success, there were doubts in its ability to maintain safe practice. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the awareness, perception and barriers of drive-thru pharmacy services among pharmacists in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Amman-Jordan between February-May 2017. During the study period, 226 pharmacists were approached. Pharmacists were interviewed to assess their perception toward drive-thru services, and to assess their opinions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this system using validated questionnaire. Results Although the majority of pharmacists reported that they were aware about the concept of drive-thru pharmacy service (n=194, 85.5%), but only 27.9% (n=63) reported that they are willing to register with this service. The most important advantage of drive-thru pharmacy service was serving sick patients, elderly, disabled people or women with child in the car (n=166, 88.0%). Most of pharmacists agreed that drive-thru pharmacy service may negatively affect the image of pharmacy profession (n=168, 74.6%), and it makes pharmacists feel more like a fast food worker than apharmacist (n=147, 65.9%). Pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies showed better perception to drive-thru pharmacy service compared to pharmacists who are working in independent community pharmacies (p-value=0.004). Conclusion Most of the study pharmacists showed relatively poor perception toward drive-thru pharmacy service and were unwilling to use this service. More effort is needed to better introduce the concept of drive-thru pharmacy service among pharmacists in Jordan since the benefit of this service is well established across the world.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.008
  • Comparative Nutritional Value And Antimicrobial Activities Between Three
           Euphorbia Species Growing In Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Amani S. Awaad; Monerah R. Alothman; Yara M. Zain; Ghada M. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Dena A. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amani S. Awaad, Monerah R. Alothman, Yara M. Zain, Ghada M. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Dena A. Hassan
      Plants are excellent sources of nutrition and highly bioactive substances that might use in the development of new drugs and pharmaceutical agents. Three species of the Genus Euphorbia (Family Euphorpiaceae), namely; Euphorbia granulata Forssk, Euphorbia helioscobia L., and Euphorbia hirta Linn growing in Ryiadh, KSA were air-dried, powdered, and their active materials were extracted with alcohol. The nutritional value phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the plants were determined. The chemical contents were similar in the three species; however, lipid profile of the plants showed that the stearic acid and lignoceric acid were detected only in E. helioscopia and E. hirta, while palmitoleic acid was detected only in E. hirta. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters were 52.48%, 69.39% and 66.52% in Euphorbia granulate, Euphorbia helioscobia, E. hirta, respectively. Three compounds, 1-ethoxypentacosane, heptacosan-1-ol and β-sitosterol were isolated from the three plant extracts and identified using different spectroscopic analysis. The percentage of crude protein was 43.65%, 25.00% and 18.75% in E. granulata, E. helioscobia, and E. hirta, respectively. The free amino acids and amino acid composition were quantitatively determined using amino acid analyzer. All the plant extracts were active against bacterial and fungal test organisms, however, the antimicrobial activity were varied according to both the Euphorbia species and the test organism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.007
  • The pharmaceutical applications of a biopolymer isolated from Trigonella
           foenum-graecum seeds: Focus on the freeze-dried matrix forming capacity

    • Authors: Sonia Iurian; Elena Dinte; Cristina Iuga; Cătălina Bogdan; Iuliana Spiridon; Lucian Barbu-Tudoran; Andreea Bodoki; Ioan Tomuţă; Sorin E. Leucuţa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sonia Iurian, Elena Dinte, Cristina Iuga, Cătălina Bogdan, Iuliana Spiridon, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Andreea Bodoki, Ioan Tomuţă, Sorin E. Leucuţa
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the funtion of fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) as potential matrix forming agent for orodispersible pharmaceutical lyophilisates. The FSM was isolated and characterized. FSM colloidal dispersions were prepared and the rheological evaluation was performed. Oral lyophilisates (OLs) with different FSM concentrations, containing meloxicam as model drug were prepared by freeze drying method. The OLs were characterized and compared to gelatin containing tablets, prepared under the same conditions. The FSM dispersions revealed shear thinning flow type. Based on colloidal dispersions' rheological properties, five FSM concentrations were taken forward to the lyophilization step. Completely dry and elegant tablets were obtained. Texture analysis indicated highly porous structures, confirmed by SEM analysis, which explain the fast disintegration properties. All the prepared tablets disintegrated in less than 47 s. The disintegration process was prolonged by the increase in FSM content, due to the high viscosity the polymer creates in aqueous media. FSM tablets presented longer disintegration times, as compared to gelatin tablets, but also higher crushing strength. Considering the fast disintegration and the high crushing strength, FSM is a good candidate as matrix forming agent for fast disintegrating dosage forms or other freeze-dried preparations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.006
  • Prevalence, management and control of hypertension in older adults on
           admission to hospital

    • Authors: T.M. Alhawassi; I. Krass; L.G. Pont
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): T.M. Alhawassi, I. Krass, L.G. Pont
      Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and management of hypertension among older adults on admission to hospital and to assess the choice of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy in light of relevant comorbid conditions using the national treatment guideline. Materials and Methods A retrospective cross sectional study of 503 patients aged 65 years or older admitted to a large metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney Australia was conducted. The main outcome measures were prevalence of hypertension, blood pressure (BP) control, antihypertensive medication use and the appropriateness of antihypertensive medications. Results Sixty nine percent (n=347) of the study population had a documented diagnosis of hypertension and of these, approximately one third were at target BP levels on admission to hospital. Some concerns regarding choice of antihypertensive noted with 51% of those with comorbid diabetes and 30% of those with comorbid heart failure receiving a potentially inappropriate antihypertensive agent. Conclusions Despite the use of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy, many older adults do not have optimal BP control and are not reaching target BP levels. New strategies to improve blood pressure control in older populations especially targeting women, those with a past history of myocardial infarction and those on multiple antihypertensive medications are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.004
  • Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Among Physicians Working in Private and
           Government Hospitals in Kuwait

    • Authors: F.M. Alsaleh; J. Lemay; R.R. Al Dhafeeri; S. AlAjmi; E.A. Abahussain; T. Bayoud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): FM. Alsaleh, J. Lemay, RR. Al Dhafeeri, S. AlAjmi, EA. Abahussain, Bayoud T
      Introduction To improve patient safety and care, the identification and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) should be systematic and mandatory for all healthcare professionals (HCPs). Physicians remain the main HCPs with direct patient care whose role in ADRs reporting should not be ignored. Objective To document the awareness and attitude of physicians working in private and government hospitals in Kuwait with regard to pharmacovigilance (PV) and ADR reporting and to identify their practices of reporting ADRs. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a paper-based 25-item questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Results A total of 1017 questionnaires were distributed to the eligible physicians in the government and private hospitals, giving a response rate of 84.2% and 80.7%, respectively (an overall response rate of 83.8%). Private physicians exhibited a better knowledge profile with regards to the purpose of PV (75.2% vs 64.8%; p= 0.002) and the correct ADR definition (75.8% vs 65.3%; p= 0.001). The majority of physicians showed good attitude towards reporting ADRs, nevertheless, private physicians had a significantly stronger belief that reporting ADRs is a professional obligation (93.4% vs 85.5%; p=0.001). Three quarters of the study population (74.6%) had identified an ADR during their daily practice, however, only a small proportion (34.2%) confirms having ever reported ADRs. Regardless, significantly more private physicians had done so (42.4% vs 29.6%; p<0.001). ADR reporting was significantly higher in physicians who knew the correct ADRs to be reported (adjusted OR = 1.86, p= 0.036), and those who were aware of any center or ADR reporting system in Kuwait (adjusted OR = 2.88, p= 0.020). Conclusions A national PV center empowered by clear legislation on “how” and “what” to report should improve physicians’ reporting practices and hence is required in the country. This should be combined with constant training and education in this regard.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.002
  • The Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Glucose Control Among Diabetic

    • Authors: Mansour S Almetwazi; Ahmad O Noor; Diena M Almasri; Ioana Popovici; Tariq Alhawassi; Khalid A Alburikan; Catherine A Harrington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Mansour Almetwazi
      Objective To evaluate the association between the level of vitamin D and glycemic control among patients with diabetes. Research design and Method We analyzed data collected from NHANES 2003-2006. We included only non-pregnant adult diabetic persons 18 years or older. Participants who had vitamin D level less than 20ng/ml were considered as having vitamin D deficiency. Participants were considered to have a glucose control if the HbA1c level was less than 7% [53 mmol/L]. We used student’s t test to compare the difference in HbA1c means between people with Diabetes with and without a vitamin D deficiency. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the relationship between glucose control and vitamin D deficiency. We used race/ethnicity, BMI, age, gender, type of diabetic medication used, having health insurance or not, and comorbid conditions (hypertension, anemia, cholesterol, liver disease, and kidney disease) as control variables. Results The study population included a total of 929 non-institutionalized, non-pregnant, diabetic adult persons. About 57% of patients with diabetes had a vitamin D deficiency. Blacks (non-Hispanic patients) with diabetes had the highest rate of vitamin D deficiency (79%). The unadjusted means of HbA1c were significantly different between diabetic patients with no vitamin D deficiency and those with a vitamin D deficiency (7.06% [54 mmol/L], 7.56 % [59 mmol/L], respectively, P<0.0001). Multivariate adjustment showed a small but not significant, increase in odds (11%) of having uncontrolled diabetes in patients with a vitamin D deficiency after adjustment for other factors. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with diabetes. We found no significant association between vitamin D level and glycemic control in patients with diabetes after adjustment for control variables.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.001
  • Sulfanilamide in solution and liposome vesicles; in vitro release and
           UV-stability studies

    • Authors: Sanja Petrović; Ana Tačić; Saša Savić; Vesna Nikolić; Ljubiša Nikolić; Sanela Savić
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Sanja Petrović, Ana Tačić, Saša Savić, Vesna Nikolić, Ljubiša Nikolić, Sanela Savić
      The main goal of this study was to develop a liposome formulation with sulfanilamide and to investigate the liposomes impact on its release and stability to the UV-A/UV-B and UV-C irradiation. Liposome dispersions with incorporated sulfanilamide were prepared by thin-film hydration method and liposomes role to the sulfanilamide release was investigated by using a dialysis method. Comparatively, sulfanilamide in phosphate buffer solution was subject to release study as well to the UV irradiation providing for the possibilities of kinetics analysis. In vitro drug release study demonstrated that 20% of sulfanilamide was released from liposomes within 1h that is approximately twice as slower as in the case of dissolved sulfanilamide in phosphate buffer solution. The kinetic release process can be described by Korsmeyer–Peppas model and according to the value of diffusion release exponent it can be concluded that drug release mechanism is based on the phenomenon of diffusion. The sulfanilamide degradation in phosphate buffer solution and liposomes is related to the formation of UV-induced degradation products that are identified by UHPLC/MS analysis as: sulfanilic acid, aniline and benzidine. The UV-induced sulfanilamide degradation in the phosphate buffer solution and liposome vesicles fits the first- order kinetic model. The degradation rate constants are dependent on the involved UV photons energy input as well as sulfanilamide microenvironment. Liposome microenvironment provides better irradiation sulfanilamide stability. The obtained results suggest that liposomes might be promising carriers for delayed sulfanilamide delivery and may serve asa basis for further research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:20:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.003
  • Quantitative and qualitative analysis for Standardization of Euphorbia
           cuneata Vahl

    • Authors: S. Amani Awaad; Monerah R. Alothman; Yara M. Zain; Saleh I. Alqasoumi; Esraa A. Alothman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Awaad S. Amani, Monerah R. Alothman, Yara M. Zain, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Esraa A. Alothman
      Euphorbia cuneata Vahl very promising plant belongs to Family Euphorbiaceae The present study was carried out on the Euphorbia cuneata Vahl to standardize its components. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis showed variable phytochemical groups. Examination of Successive Extraction showed that there are different color, constancy, phytochemical groups and yield in each extract, the highest percentage was found in ethanol (10.7± 1.01) and the lowest one in ether (1.66± 0.31). Analysis of primary and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia cuneata Vahl revealed that the primary metabolites percent (carbohydrate, lipid and protein 6.25± 1.11, 5.12± 1.40, 7.15± 1.31 W/w respectively) were lower than secondary metabolites (flavonoids, phenolic and tannins 11.26± 1.02, 9.15± 1.21and 5.23± 1.29 W/w respectively). The Pharmacopoeia Constants were determined. Amino acids analysis of the arial parts reported the presence of 15 amino acids with different percentage in different types (Total, free and protein hydrolysate). Arginine represented the highest concentration (20.86).

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T11:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.08.001
  • Comparison of two analgesics used for pain relief after placement of
           orthodontic separators

    • Authors: Nasser Al Qahtani; Abdulaziz Al Wakeel; Abdullah Al Zamil; Shahad Al Turki; Ghaida Al Dawsari; Aljazi Al Jabaa; Sahar Al Barakati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Nasser Al Qahtani, Abdulaziz Al Wakeel, Abdullah Al Zamil, Shahad Al Turki, Ghaida Al Dawsari, Aljazi Al Jabaa, Sahar Al Barakati
      Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of two analgesics: paracetamol (500 mg) and ibuprofen (400 mg) on pain and routine life of the patients after placement of orthodontic separators. Methodology Ninety patients aged 11-41 years undergoing fixed comprehensiveorthodontic treatment requiring placement of different orthodontic separators participated in the study. Following placement of separators, the participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: paracetamol (500 mg) given every 6 hours for 3 days, ibuprofen (400 mg) given every 8 hours for 2 days and control group in which no analgesic was given. A questionnaire comprising of 7 questions was distributed to the participants and were asked to report their feeling of pain. The collected data were tabulated and the statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, chi-square test, and t-test with a significance level of p<0.05. Results In general, the level of pain was high for all groups in the first three days. Then it was gradually reduced until the 7th day of the study. Few patients reported feeling of pain during their sleep whereas a significant reduction of the pain was reported during eating and chewing after the 3rd day of separators. However, some participants felt continuous pain on the 1st and 2nd days and it was reduced gradually on the 3rd day until the 7th day following application of separators. Conclusion The patients prescribed ibuprofen did not report any problem with tooth movement along with significant reduction in pain as compared to paracetamol. Pain relief medication after placement of separators should be taken only if patient feels intolerable pain but not as routine practice.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T07:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.010
  • Development, stability and in vitro delivery profile of new
           loratadine-loaded nanoparticles

    • Authors: Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Jonatas Lobato Duarte; Hady Keita; Heitor Rivero da Silva; Adriana Maciel Ferreira; Edgar Hernandez Sosa; Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado, Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Jonatas Lobato Duarte, Hady Keita, Heitor Rivero da Silva, Adriana Maciel Ferreira, Edgar Hernandez Sosa, Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho
      Purpose: Loratadine is used as antihistaminic without side effects in nervous systems. This drug is a weak base and it is absorbed from the intestine. The nitrogen of the pyridine ring is protonated in the stomach affecting the oral bioavailability. The aim of this paper was obtaining, characterize and evaluate the release profiles and the stability of a gastroresistant loratadine nanosuspension. Methods: The nanosuspension was prepared by the solvent displacement evaporation method, using three different polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, Kollicoat® MAE 100P and PEG 4000) and Polysorbate 80. Dynamic Light Scattering was used for evaluating the particle size (PS), zeta potential, and conductivity of the nanosuspension. Loratadine release profiles were evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The shelf and accelerated stability were assessed during three months. Results: Nanosuspension particle size was 45.94±0.50nm, with a low polydispersion index (PdI, 0.300). Kollicoat® MAE 100P produced a hard and flexible coating layer. In simulated intestinal fluids, the 100 percent of loratadine was released in 40min, while in simulated stomach fluids the release was lesser than 5%. Nanosuspension presented a good physicochemical stability showing a reduction in PS and PdI after three months (43.29±0.16 and 0.250; respectively). Conclusions: A promissory loratadine nanosuspension for loratadine intestinal delivery was obtained, by using a low energy method, which is an advantage for a possible scale up for practical purpose.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.008
  • Antiproliferative activity of Spinasterol isolated of Stegnosperma
           halimifolium (Benth, 1844)

    • Authors: Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero; Moisés Navarro-Navarro; Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos; Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez; Manuel Jiménez-Estrada; Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Salvador Enrique Meneses-Sagrero, Moisés Navarro-Navarro, Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Manuel Jiménez-Estrada, Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
      Cancer is the major cause of death in the world, representing a significant public health problem. Plants have been shown as a great source of secondary metabolites with anticancer activity. The aim of this work was evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extracts, chemical fractions and the compound spinasterol isolated of medicinal plant Stegnosperma halimifolium. The methanolic extracts of stem, leaf and stem/leaf was obtained by maceration. The methanolic extract of stem was purified by successive extractions with solvents as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The n-hexane fraction was separated by column chromatographic and monitored by thin layer chromatographic. The compound spinasterol was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectrometry. Methanolic extracts, chemical, chromatographic fractions and spinasterol was evaluated against RAW 264.7, M12.C3.F6, PC-3, LS-180, A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines by the standardized method MTT for determinate the antiproliferative activity. Methanolic extract of stem shown the better antiproliferative activity against the murine macrophage cancer cell line RAW 264.7. n-Hexane chemical fraction shown antiproliferative activity against human alveolar cancer cell line A549 and RAW 264.7. Was isolated and characterized a compound by NMR 1H and 13C, revealing the presence of sterol spinasterol. Spinasterol shown to have antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cell line HeLa and RAW 264.7, indicating that spinasterol can be a responsible compound of antiproliferative activity found in the methanolic extract of Stegnosperma halimifolium.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.001
  • The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils against
           Pseudomonas spp. isolated from fish

    • Authors: Miroslava Kačániová; Margarita Terentjeva; Nenad Vukovic; Czeslaw Puchalski; Shubhadeep Roychoudhury; Simona Kunová; Alina Klūga; Marián Tokár; Maciej Kluz; Eva Ivanišová
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Miroslava Kačániová, Margarita Terentjeva, Nenad Vukovic, Czeslaw Puchalski, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Simona Kunová, Alina Klūga, Marián Tokár, Maciej Kluz, Eva Ivanišová
      Natural products of plant origin, which include essential oils (EO) could be used as a growth inhibitor of pathogenic and spoilage microflora in food. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of 21 EO against 10 Pseudomonas species isolated from freshwater fish. The chemical composition of EO was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The disc diffusion method and detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for the determination of the antimicrobial activity. All the EO tested exhibited antimicrobial activity, however, Cinnamomum zeylanicum EO was the most effective against Pseudomonas spp. both according to the disc diffusion and MIC methods. The EOs of Cymbopogon nardus, Origanum vulgare, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus serpyllum showed the highest antioxidant activity of 93.86 μg, 83.47 μg, 76.74 μg and 74.28 μg TEAC/mL. Application of EO could be an effective tool for inhibition of growth of Pseudomonas spp. on fish.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.005
  • Ibuprofen Nanocrystals Developed by 22 Factorial Design Experiment: a New
           Approach for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

    • Authors: A.R. Fernandes; N.R. Ferreira; J.F. Fangueiro; A.C. Santos; F.J. Veiga; C. Cabral; A.M. Silva; E.B. Souto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): A.R. Fernandes, N.R. Ferreira, J.F. Fangueiro, A.C. Santos, F.J. Veiga, C. Cabral, A.M. Silva, E.B. Souto
      The reduction of the particle size of drugs of pharmaceutical interest down to the nano-sized range has dramatically changed their physicochemical properties. The greatest disadvantage of nanocrystals is their inherent instability, due to the risk of crystal growth. Thus, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer is crucial to obtain long-term physicochemically stable nanocrystals. High pressure homogenization has enormous advantages, including the possibility of scaling up, lack of organic solvents and the production of small particles diameter with low polydispersity index. The sequential use of high shear homogenization followed by high pressure homogenization, can modulate nanoparticles’ size for different administration routes. The present study focuses on the optimization of the production process of two formulations composed of different surfactants produced by High Shear Homogenization followed by hot High Pressure Homogenization. To build up the surface response charts, a 22 full factorial design experiment, based on 2 independent variables, was used to develop optimized formulations. The effects of the production process on the mean particle size and polydispersity index were evaluated. The best ibuprofen nanocrystal formulations were obtained using 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% PVP K30 (F1) and 0.20% Tween 80 and 1.20% Span 80 (F2). The estimation of the long-term stability of the aqueous suspensions of ibuprofen nanocrystals was studied using the LUMISizer. The calculated instability index suggests that F1 was more stable when stored at 4°C and 22°C, whereas F2 was shown to be more stable when freshly prepared.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.004
  • Medicinal Benefits of Nigella sativa in Bronchial Asthma: A Literature

    • Authors: Abdulrahman Koshak; Emad Koshak; Michael Heinrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Abdulrahman Koshak, Emad Koshak, Michael Heinrich
      Nigella sativa L. (NS) seeds, known as black seed, is a spice and a traditional herbal medicine used in various diseases including bronchial asthma. This review aimed to assess the studies supporting the medicinal use of NS in asthma and to highlight future research priorities. Various medical databases were searched for the effects of NS and its active secondary metabolites in asthma inflammation and outcomes. There were fourteen preclinical studies describing multiple effects of NS in animal or cellular models of asthma including bronchodilation, anti-histaminic, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukotrienes and immunomodulatory effects. Furthermore, seven clinical studies showed improvements in different asthma outcomes including symptoms, pulmonary function and laboratory parameters. However, often these studies are small and used ill-defined preparations. In conclusion, NS could be therapeutically beneficial in alleviating airway inflammation and the control of asthma symptoms, but the evidence remains scanty and is often based on poorly characterised preparations. Accordingly, well-designed large clinical studies using chemically well characterised NS preparation are required.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.002
  • Comparison of the safety information on drug labels in three developed
           countries: the USA, UK and Canada

    • Authors: Thamir M. Alshammari; Venkat Ratnam Devadasu; Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Thamir M. Alshammari, Venkat Ratnam Devadasu, Rajendra Prasad Rathnam
      The safety information on drug labels of a company marketing the same drugs in different countries is sometimes different. The aim of the present study is to understand the differences in the volume and content of safety information on the drug labels from the same manufacturers in three developed countries: the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. This study involved the calculation of the proportion of total safety information (PSI) and of contraindications (PCI) in comparison to all information on the label and the percentage of boxed warnings (PBW) among the 100 labels studied from each country. The PSI on the labels of different countries is different with USA labels bearing lesser value PSI and UK labels bearing higher value PSI. The qualitative information provided on these drug labels from each country in ‘contraindications’ sections, ‘boxed/serious warnings’ and ‘overdosage’ sections presented differences in the information provided on most of the labels. We have found distinct differences between the safety information available on drug labels in terms of volume and content. We conclude that the safety information for the same products should be standardised across all countries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.006
  • Anti-ulcerogenic and Anti-Ulcerative colitis (UC) activities of seven
           amines derivatives

    • Authors: Amani S.Awaad; Ahmed M. Alafeefy; Fatmah A. S. Alasmary; Reham M. El-Meligy; Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal
      Author(s): Amani S.Awaad, Ahmed M. Alafeefy, Fatmah A. S. Alasmary, Reham M. El-Meligy, Saleh I. Alqasoumi
      The Novel target compounds (CP-1-7) were synthesized and tested at doses up to 1000 mg/kg for their entitled activities. They exerted promising results without any behavioral changes and mortality in mice. Therefore, according to the results obtained in our study, it could be categorized as highly safe agents for treating UC since substances possessing LD50 higher than 50 mg/kg are considered nontoxic. They also possessed a potent anti-ulcerogenic activity with different potentials. The most effective compound was CP-4, it produced 97.7% ulcer protection of control followed by CP-3, which produced 90.3% protection, while the standard drug ranitidine (100 mg/kg) produced 49.2% protection. Compound CP-1 showed lowest activity among the current series, it produced 55.5% protection. The target compounds were significantly more effective than the standard in reducing ulcer index. The anti-ulcerative colitis activity was tested using acetic acid induced colitis model. The curative effect of the tested compounds at a dose of 50 mg/kg oral administration on rats showed a potent anti-ulcerative colitis activity with different potentials. They induced a significant decrease in ulcer score, ulcer area, ulcer index and weight/length of the colon specimens. The percent protection of control colitis ranged from 66.8% for CP-7 to 22.3% for CP-5; however the percent protection for dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) was 59.3%. The effect of the tested compounds CP-7 and CP-3 at dose 50 mg/kg were significantly more effective than dexamesathone (0.1 mg/kg) in reducing all parameters. Liver functions were not affected as there is no effect on the activity of both AST and ALT in animals that received the compounds, so the compounds didn’t reveal hepatotoxic manifestation. Although, the results on kidney functions showed that, CP-1 slightly elevated blood urea concentration and CP-3 & CP-4 slightly elevated serum creatinine; no apparent nephrotoxic manifestations were recorded.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:53:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.07.003
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016