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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 561 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Facultatis Pharmaceuticae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 104)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics     Open Access  
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annales de Toxicologie Analytique     Open Access  
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotemas     Open Access  
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
CNS Drug Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Drug Discovery Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 105)
Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 94)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access  
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 126)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Medical Device Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Medical, Health and Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)

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Journal Cover Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  [SJR: 0.244]   [H-I: 22]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1984-8250 - ISSN (Online) 2175-9790
   Published by Universidade de São Paulo Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Influence of glucose and stirring in the fermentation process in order to
           produce anti- Candida metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp.

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study evaluated the influence of glucose and stirring in the fermentation process in order to produce anti-Candida metabolites produced by Streptomyces sp. MPO4 isolated from Amazon soil. The anti-Candida metabolites production was registered after 24 h of fermentation in stirred ISP2 medium, having antifungal inhibition halos between 12.3 mm and 25.3 mm, yielding higher production of anti-Candida agents after 96 h. Stirring was a determining factor for the production of anti-Candida secondary metabolites, since the absence of glucose reflected in the late production of the antifungal starting from Streptomyces sp.RESUMO Este estudo avaliou a influência da glicose e agitação no processo de fermentação para a produção de metabólitos anti-Candida produzidos por Streptomyces sp. MPO4 isolado do solo da Amazônia. A produção dos metabólitos anti-Candida foi registrada a partir de 24 h de fermentação sob agitação em meio ISP2, apresentando halos de inibição entre 12,3 mm e 25,3 mm, obtendo-se maior produção do antifúngico em 96 h. A agitação foi um fator determinante para a produção de metabólitos secundários anti-Candida e a ausência de glicose refletiu na produção tardia do antifúngico a partir do Streptomyces sp.
       
  • Phenobarbital loaded microemulsion: development, kinetic release and
           quality control

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to obtain and characterize a microemulsion (ME) containing phenobarbital (PB). The PB was incorporated in the proportion of 5% and 10% in a microemulsion system containing Labrasol(r), ethanol, isopropyl myristate and purified water. The physicochemical characterization was performed and the primary stability of the ME was evaluated. An analytical method was developed using spectrophotometry in UV  = 242 nm. The kinetics of the in vitro release (Franz model) of the ME and the emulsion (EM) containing PB was evaluated. The incorporation of PB into ME at concentrations of 5 and 10% did not change pH and resistance to centrifugation. There was an increase in particle size, a decrease of conductivity and a change in the refractive index in relation to placebo ME. The ME remained stable in preliminary stability tests. The analytical method proved to be specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust. Regarding the kinetics of the in vitro release, ME obtained an in vitro release profile greater than the EM containing PB. Thus, the obtained ME has a potential for future transdermal application, being able to compose a drug delivery system for the treatment of epilepsy.RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter e caracterizar uma microemulsão (ME) contendo fenobarbital (FEN). O FEN foi incorporado na proporção de 5% e 10% em um sistema microemulsionado composto por labrasol(r), etanol, miristato de isopropila e água purificada. Foi realizada a caracterização físico-química e avaliada a estabilidade preliminar da ME. Desenvolveu-se um método analítico por espectrofotometria em UV  = 242 nm. Foi avaliada a cinética de liberação in vitro (em modelo de Franz) da ME e da emulsão (EM) contendo FEN. A incorporação do FEN em ME nas concentrações de 5 e 10% não alterou o pH e a resistência à centrifugação. Houve aumento do tamanho da partícula, redução da condutividade e alteração do índice de refração em relação à ME placebo. A ME manteve-se estável nos ensaios de estabilidade preliminar. O método analítico demonstrou ser específico, linear, preciso, exato e robusto. Na cinética de liberação in vitro, a ME obteve um perfil de liberação in vitro superior a EM contendo FEN. Desta forma, a ME obtida tem potencial para uma futura aplicação transdérmica, podendo compor um sistema de liberação de fármacos para tratamento da epilepsia.
       
  • Design and preparation of a novel colon-targeted tablet of hydrocortisone

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to design a new colon-targeted drug delivery system based on chitosan. The properties of the films were studied to obtain useful information about the possible applications of composite films. The composite films were used in a bilayer system to investigate their feasibility as coating materials. Tensile strength, swelling degree, solubility, biodegradation degree, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations showed that the composite film was formed when chitosan and gelatin were jointly reacted jointly. The results showed that a 6:4 blend ratio was the optimal chitosan/gelatin blend ratio. In vitro drug release results indicated that the Eudragit- and chitosan/gelatin-bilayer coating system prevented drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF). However, the drug release from a bilayer-coated tablet in SCF increased over time, and the drug was almost completely released after 24 h. Overall, colon-targeted drug delivery was achieved by using a chitosan/gelatin complex film and a multilayer coating system.RESUMO O objetivo desta pesquisa foi planejar um novo sistema de liberação de fármacos direcionado ao cólon, utilizando quitosana. Estudaram-se as propriedades dos filmes a fim de obter informações úteis sobre a aplicação desses filmes compósitos. Utilizaram-se os filmes compósitos em sistema de bicamada para investigar a sua viabilidade como materiais de revestimento. Estudos de resistência à tração, grau de intumescimento, solubilidade, grau de biodegradação, no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FTIR), de calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC) e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM) mostraram que o filme compósito se formou quando a quitosana e a gelatina reagiram entre si. Os resultados mostraram que a mistura de proporção ótima foi de 6:4 de quitosana:gelatina. Resultados da liberação do fármaco in vitro indicaram que o sistema de revestimento de Eudragit e bicamada de quitosana/gelatina impediu a liberação de fármaco em fluido intestinal simulado (SIF) e em fluido gástrico simulado (SGF). Entretanto, a liberação de fármaco do comprimido revestido em bicamada no SCF aumentou ao longo do tempo e o fármaco foi quase completamente liberado após 24 h. Em geral, se obteve a forma de liberação dirigida ao cólon, utilizando filme complexo de quitosana/gelatina e sistema de revestimento multicamada.
       
  • Evaluation of the functionality of bread loaves prepared with quinoa
           flakes through biological tests

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa flakes and bread prepared with the pseudocereal with regard to nutritional aspects by determining chemical composition, content of tocopherols and fatty acid composition as well as to possible beneficial effects in Wistar rats given commercial feed supplemented or not with quinoa flakes and cholesterol. The following parameters were determined: weight gain, food intake, liver weight, fat in liver and lipid profile in blood and liver. The results showed that processing affected the nutritional characteristics of bread because there was a significant increase in dietary fiber content but reduction in soluble fiber. Increased fiber did not influence food intake or weight gain. Regarding fat in liver of rats, the group that consumed bread without quinoa but with cholesterol showed higher lipid content. The addition of quinoa increased significantly the level of all types of tocopherols, especially in the group of animals that consumed 20% quinoa bread, improving the lipid profile both in blood and liver, largely due to a reduction in oxidized LDL.RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os flocos de quinoa e os pães elaborados com o pseudocereal, tanto em relação a aspectos nutricionais por meio da análise da composição centesimal, do teor de tocoferóis, composição em ácidos graxos, quanto aos possíveis efeitos benéficos, através de experimento com ratos Wistar, consumindo ração comercial, suplementados ou não com flocos de quinoa e colesterol. Foram determinados: ganho de peso, consumo de alimento, peso e gordura do fígado e perfil lipídico do sangue e do fígado. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o processamento afetou as características nutricionais dos pães, pois houve aumento significativo no teor de fibras totais, porém redução nas fibras solúveis. O aumento de fibras não influenciou no consumo alimentar nem no ganho de peso. Em relação à gordura do fígado dos ratos, o grupo que consumiu pão sem quinoa com colesterol apresentou maior teor de lipídios. A adição de quinoa incrementou significativamente o teor de alguns tipos de tocoferóis, principalmente no grupo de animais que consumiu o pão com 20% de quinoa, melhorando o perfil lipídico, tanto do sangue quanto do fígado, principalmente devido à redução do LDLoxidado.
       
  • Sequence-based identification of microbial contaminants in non-parenteral
           products

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Phenotypic profiles for microbial identification are unusual for rare, slow-growing and fastidious microorganisms. In the last decade, as a result of the widespread use of PCR and DNA sequencing, 16S rRNA sequencing has played a pivotal role in the accurate identification of microorganisms and the discovery of novel isolates in microbiology laboratories. The 16S rRNA region is universally distributed among microorganisms and is species-specific. Accordingly, the aim of our study was the genotypic identification of microorganisms isolated from non-parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. DNA was separated from five isolates obtained from the formulations. The target regions of the rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced using suitable primers. The sequence data were analyzed and aligned in the order of increasing genetic distance to relevant sequences against a library database to achieve an identity match. The DNA sequences of the phylogenetic tree results confirmed the identity of the isolates as Bacillus tequilensis, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and B. amyloliqueficians. It can be concluded that 16S rRNA sequence-based identification reduces the time by circumventing biochemical tests and also increases specificity and accuracy.RESUMO Os perfis fenotípicos para identificação microbiana são incomuns para micro-organismos raros, de crescimento lento e exigentes. Na última década, em resultado do uso generalizado de PCR e sequenciação de DNA, a sequenciação do rRNA 16S tem desempenhado papel crucial na identificação precisa do micro-organismo e a descoberta de novos isolados em laboratórios de microbiologia. A região de rRNA 16S é universalmente distribuída entre micro-organismos e é espécie-específica. A genotipagem foi realizada sobre os organismos isolados a partir de formulações farmacêuticas não parenterais. O DNA foi separado dos cinco isolados obtidos a partir das formulações. As regiões alvo dos genes de rRNA foram amplificados por PCR e sequenciados utilizando os iniciadores adequados. Os dados dos sequência foram analisados e alinhados na ordem crescente de distância genética de sequências relevantes contra biblioteca de dados para obter a identidade. A sequência de DNA de árvores filogenéticas confirma a identidade dos isolados como Bacillus-tequilensis, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus e B. amyloliqueficians. Pode-se concluir identificação baseada na sequência do rRNA 16S reduz o tempo por evitar testes bioquímicos e também aumenta a especificidade e a precisão.
       
  • Evaluation of the Brazilian Cosmetic Legislation and its impact on the
           industries during the 20th century

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Cosmetics have been used since the very first days of human life. This early and continuing consumption has resulted in the growth of the Cosmetic Industry (C.I.). The C.I. must continue to invest in the development of innovative products which are safe for the consumers. On the other hand, the Health Agency should issue laws regulating the development of products. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Brazilian Cosmetic Legislation before ANVISA and the challenges for the C.I. during the 20th century regarding the development of safe and effective cosmetics, and to show the importance of this legislation in the R&D. A Bibliographic and Documentary Exploratory Research was conducted based on safety and efficacy data contained in scientific studies and legal documents. The study showed that the creation of ANVISA was necessary because no resolution had been published about the safety and efficacy of cosmetics for the C.I. before ANVISA. However, the challenges faced by the C.I. may have had a negative impact on the health of consumers. Finally, it was concluded that the actions before ANVISA were insufficient to the C.I.. Thus, the creation of ANVISA was essential to have a regulatory basis fot the C.I.RESUMO Os cosméticos são usados desde os primeiros dias de vida do ser humano. Consequentemente, esse consumo resulta no crescimento da Indústria Cosmética (I.C.). Com isso, a I.C. deve focar seus investimentos também no desenvolvimento de produtos inovadores, mas, acima de tudo, seguros para os consumidores. Por outro lado, a Agência Sanitária deve emitir leis que regulam o desenvolvimento desses produtos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a Legislação Cosmética Brasileira anterior à ANVISA e os desafios da I.C. no século XX no desenvolvimento de produtos cosméticos seguros e eficazes, bem como mostrar a importância dessa legislação na P&D. Para tal, realizou-se uma Pesquisa Exploratória Bibliográfica e Documental com base em estudos científicos e documentos legais. Dessa forma, o estudo mostrou que a criação da ANVISA foi necessária porque nenhuma resolução tinha sido publicada sobre a segurança e eficácia de cosméticos antes da ANVISA. Com isso, os desafios enfrentados pela I.C. poderiam ter um impacto negativo sobre a saúde dos consumidores. Por fim, concluiu-se que as ações anteriores à ANVISA foram insuficientes para a I.C. Assim, a criação da ANVISA foi essencial para ter uma base regulatória para a I.C..
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of orally disintegrating clopidogrel tablets

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Recent advances in drug delivery systems have aimed to achieve better patient compliance. One of these advances is the formulation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) that dissolve instantaneously, releasing drugs within a few seconds without the need of water. The main objective of this paper was to prepare and develop ODTs of clopidogrel. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression. The effect of three superdisintegrants, namely crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate, using three different disintegration times on the dissolution rate was investigated. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. Furthermore, the interaction of clopidogrel with the formulation excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC studies revealed that there were no interactions between the drug and the excipients used. All tablets had hardness values in the range 4.0-5.2 kp and friability lower than 1%. The weight and drug content uniformity of all formulations was within official limits according to BP. In vitro drug release studies of the ODTs showed that more than 90% of the drug was released within ten minutes. A palatability test in human volunteers showed acceptable taste and mouth feel. Thus, the obtained results conclusively demonstrated successful rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets and acceptable palatability.RESUMO Recentes avanC'os em sistemas de liberaC'C#o de fC!rmacos novos visam C obtenC'C#o de melhor adesC#o do paciente. Um destes avanC'os C) a formulaC'C#o de comprimidos de desintegraC'C#o oral (ODTs), que se dissolvem instantaneamente, liberando o fC!rmaco, em alguns segundos, sem a necessidade de C!gua. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar e desenvolver ODTs de clopidogrel. Os ODTs foram preparados pelo mC)todo de compressC#o direta. Estudou-se o efeito de vC!rias concentraC'C5es de diferentes agentes de desintegraC'C#o, tais como super-crospovidona, croscarmelose de sC3dio, glicolato de amido de sC3dio no tempo de desintegraC'C#o e velocidade de dissoluC'C#o. Os comprimidos preparados foram avaliados quanto C dureza, C friabilidade, ao tempo de desintegraC'C#o e C liberaC'C#o do fC!rmaco in vitro. AlC)m disso, estudou-se a interaC'C#o de clopidogrel com os excipientes de formulaC'C#o, utilizando calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC). Estudos de DSC revelaram nC#o haver interaC'C#o entre o fC!rmaco e os excipientes utilizados. Todos os comprimidos possuC-am dureza na faixa de 4,0-5,2 kp e a friabilidade inferior a 1%. A variaC'C#o de peso e o teor de fC!rmaco de todas as formulaC'C5es mostraram-se dentro do limite oficial, de acordo com a BP. O estudo de liberaC'C#o do fC!rmaco in vitro de comprimidos ODTs mostrou que mais de 90% do fC!rmaco foram liberados em10 minutos. O teste de palatabilidade em voluntC!rios humanos mostrou sabor e sensaC'C#o na boca aceitC!veis. Assim, os resultados obtidos demonstraram, conclusivamente, a rC!pida e bem-sucedida desintegraC'C#o dos comprimidos formulados e a palatabilidade aceitC!vel.
       
  • Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of thiosemicarbazones and their
           thiazole derivatives

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to synthesize a series of thiosemicarbazones and their thiazole derivatives, to investigate their cytotoxic activity against three human cancers and normal (Vero cells) cell lines, and to evaluate the pro-apoptotic potential of the most active compounds. Materials and Methods: The thiosemicarbazones were obtained by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide (yield 71-96%), which were subjected to a cyclization with α-bromoacetophenone to yield the required thiazole heterocycles (yield 63-100%). All the synthesized compounds were screened at 50 µM concentration against three cell lines representing HL60 (promyelocytic leukemia), Jurkat (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), and MCF-7 (breast cancer). The pro-apoptotic effect was measured by flow cytometry as the percentage of cells with hypodiploid DNA. Results: Three thiazole compounds showed activity against at least one tumor cell line (IC50 = 43-76 µM) and low cytotoxicity against Vero cells (IC50 > 100 M). The most active compound of this series induced 91% and 51% DNA fragmentation in HL60 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively, suggesting that this compound triggered apoptosis in these cells. Conclusion: Among the synthesized compounds, one in particular was found to exert antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity on tumor cells and can be considered promising as a lead molecule for the design of new analogues with improved activity.RESUMO O estudo teve como objetivo a síntese de uma série de tiossemicarbazonas e seus derivados tiazólicos e a avaliação da atividade citotóxica contra três linhagens de células tumorais humanas e células normais (Vero), a fim de se avaliar o potencial pró-apoptótico dos compostos mais ativos. As tiossemicarbazonas foram obtidas por reação entre um aldeído aromático e tiossemicarbazida (rend. 71-96%), as quais foram submetidas à ciclização com α-bromoacetofenona, fornecendo os heterociclos tiazólicos desejados (rend. 63-100%). Todos os compostos sintetizados foram testados na concentração de 50 µM contra três linhagens de células tumorais: HL60 (leucemia promielocítica), Jurkat (leucemia linfoblástica aguda) e MCF-7 (câncer de mama). O efeito pró-apoptótico foi avaliado por citometria de fluxo como porcentagem de células com DNA hipodiplóide. Três compostos tiazólicos foram ativos contra, pelo menos, uma linhagem tumoral (CI50=43-76 µM), com baixa citotoxicidade contra células Vero (CI50 > 100 M). O composto mais ativo dessa série induziu fragmentação do DNA de 91% e 51% nas linhagens HL60 e MCF-7, respectivamente, sugerindo que este composto ativou a apoptose nessas células. Dentre os compostos sintetizados, um em particular apresentou atividade antiproliferativa e pró-apoptótica em células tumorais e pode ser considerado composto protótipo promissor na busca por novos análogos com atividade melhorada.
       
  • Direct effect of p,p'- DDT on mice liver

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Contact with the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT) can be the cause of various harmful effects in humans, wildlife, and the environment. This pesticide is known to be persistent, lipophilic, resistant to degradation, and bioaccumulive in the environment and to be slowly released into bloodstream. Growing evidence shows that exposure to DDT is linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. To evaluate these possible relationships, experiments were performed on eight-week-old female mice, divided into three groups (n = 10 per group): Group 1 received a vehicle-control intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sesame oil; Groups 2 and 3 received an i.p. dose of 50 and 100 µg/g p,p′-DDT respectively, dissolved in sesame oil. All groups were treated once daily for four days. Real-time PCR analysis of several genes was undertaken. Additionally, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were measured. NQO1, HMOX1, NR1I3 and NR3C1 were up-regulated in DDT-exposed animals compared to the vehicle control group, while only SREBP1 was down-regulated in the 100 µg/g group. MTTP and FABP5, not previously reported for DDT exposure, but involved in regulation of fatty acid fluxes, could also function as biomarkers cross-talking between these signaling pathways. These results suggest that beyond epidemiological data, there is increasing molecular evidence that DDT may mimic different processes involved in diabetes and insulin resistance pathways.RESUMO O contato com o praguicida diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p, p'-DDT) pode ser a causa de vários efeitos nocivos sobre os seres humanos, animais silvestres e o meio ambiente. Sabe-se de sua característica de bioacumulação, ser altamente persistente no meio ambiente, lipofílico, resistente à degradação e lentamente liberado na corrente sanguínea. Existe uma evidência crescente de que a exposição ao DDT pode ser ligada a Diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Os indivíduos expostos a níveis elevados de DDT e seu metabólito apresentam maior prevalência de diabetes e resistência à insulina. A fim de obter informações sobre essas possíveis relações, camundongos fêmeas de oito semanas de idade foram divididos em três grupos (n = 10 por grupo): Grupo 1 recebeu um veículo de óleo de gergelim via i.p.; os Grupos 2 e 3 receberam, via i.p., 50 e 100 µg/g de p, p'-DDT, respectivamente, dissolvidos em óleo de gergelim. Todos os grupos foram tratados uma vez ao dia durante quatro dias. Além da análise de PCR em Tempo Real de vários genes, os parâmetros bioquímicos e alterações histopatológicas também foram medidos. A expressão gênica do mRNA dos genes NQO1, HMOX1, NR1I3 e NR3C1 foi maior nos animais expostos ao DDT, em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto a expressão gênica do SREBP1 diminuiu na concentração de 100 µg/g. Os genes MTTP e FABP5 envolvidos na regulação do fluxo de ácidos graxos, embora não estudados quanto à exposição ao DDT, também podem funcionar como biomarcadores de resposta cruzada entre essas vias de sinalização. Esses resultados sugerem que, além de dados epidemiológicos, há cada vez mais evidências moleculares de que o DDT poderia, de fato, imitar diferentes processos que envolvem as rotas de diabetes e de resistência à insulina.
       
  • Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in
           pharmaceutical preparations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Clavulanic acid enhances the antibacterial spectrum of amoxicillin by rendering most β-lactamase producing isolates susceptible to the drug. A fast, simple and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid from complex mixtures. Using a 25 mM sodium tetraborate as background electrolyte at a pH of 9.30, + 25 kV applied voltage, 25 °C system temperature, UV determination at 230 nm; we succeeded in simultaneous separation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in approximately 2 minutes. The analytical performance of the method was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, precision, accuracy, and linearity. The optimized analytical method was applied for the determination of the two analytes from combined commercial pharmaceutical preparations. This CE method is fast, inexpensive, efficient, and environmentally friendly when compared with the more frequently used high performance liquid chromatography methods described in the literature.RESUMO O ácido clavulânico acentua o espectro antibacteriano de amoxicilina, tornando a maioria dos isolados produtores de β-lactamase sensíveis ao fármaco. Desenvolveu-se um método rápido, simples e eficiente de electroforese capilar (EC) para a determinação simultânea de amoxicilina e de ácido clavulânico a partir de misturas complexas. Usando tetraborato de sódio 25 mM como electrólito em pH de 9,30, voltagem aplicada de + 25 kV, em sistema a 25 ° C e determinação por UV a 230 nm, a foi bem-sucedida a separação simultânea de amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico em, aproximadamente, 2 minutos. O desempenho analítico do método foi avaliado em termos de reprodutibilidade, precisão, exatidão e linearidade. O método analítico otimizado foi aplicado para a determinação dos dois analitos em associação, a partir de preparações farmacêuticas comerciais. Este método de EC é rápido, barato, eficiente e ecologicamente correto, quando comparado aos métodos de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência mais frequentemente descritos na literatura.
       
  • Particle size and morphological characterization of cosmetic emulsified
           systems by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The physicochemical attributes of emulsified systems are influenced by the characteristics of their internal phase droplets (concentration, size and morphology), which can be modified not only by the formulation components, but also by the analytical methodology employed. Thus, the aim of this work involved the physicochemical characterization of cosmetic emulsions obtained from different surfactants, as well as the introduction of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) as the analytical technique employed for the morphological characterization and particle size determination of the formulations. Three emulsions were prepared, differing at the type and concentration of the surfactant used, and their droplet sizes were evaluated through optical microscopy, laser diffraction and OCT. The microscopic analysis and the laser diffraction techniques provided an average particle size minor than 6.0 µm, not detected by the OCT technique, which could identify only bigger particles of the emulsified systems' internal phase. The results testify that OCT was suitable for the morphological characterization of cosmetic emulsions; however, the technique needs to be improved to ensure a better sensitivity in the analysis of smaller particles.RESUMO Os atributos físico-químicos de sistemas emulsionados são influenciados pelas características de suas gotículas de fase interna (concentração, tamanho e morfologia), as quais podem ser modificadas não apenas pelos componentes da formulação, mas também pela metodologia analítica empregada. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho envolveu a caracterização físico-química de emulsões cosméticas obtidas a partir de diferentes tensoativos, bem como a introdução da tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) como a técnica analítica utilizada para a caracterização morfológica e determinação do tamanho de partícula das formulações. Três emulsões foram preparadas, diferindo no tipo e concentração do tensoativo empregado, e seus tamanhos de gotícula foram avaliados por meio das técnicas de microscopia óptica, difração a laser e OCT. As técnicas de microscopia óptica e difração a laser forneceram tamanhos de partícula médios menores de 6.0 µm, não detectados pela técnica de OCT, que permitiu apenas a identificação de partículas maiores pertencentes à fase interna dos sistemas emulsionados. Os resultados reforçam a introdução da OCT como metodologia promissora para a caracterização morfológica de emulsões cosméticas; no entanto, a técnica requer aprimoramento para garantir maior sensibilidade na análise de partículas de menor tamanho.
       
  • Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal
           plants

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.RESUMO Casos de esporotricose em humanos e animais sem resposta clínica satisfatória têm aumentado, sinal de alarme para o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antifúngicos convencionais. A urgente busca por alternativas terapêuticas tem incentivado as pesquisas em plantas medicinais com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. Um levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado com base em artigos científicos sobre a atividade antifúngica in vitro e in vivo de óleos essenciais e extratos de plantas preparados em diferentes solventes contra o complexo Sporothrix schenckii. A metodologia do estudo consistiu em uma revisão bibliográfica em Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme e Springer link com artigos desde 1986 até 2015. Foram encontradas 141 espécies de plantas já investigadas, das quais 100 espécies concentradas em 39 famílias botânicas apresentaram atividade anti-Sporothrix spp. confirmada. Combretaceae, Asteraceae e Lamiaceae representaram as famílias botânicas com maior número de espécies vegetais com potencial antifúngico, empregando diferentes metodologias. Entretanto, há poucos estudos com plantas medicinais em infecção experimental animal comprovando sua atividade no tratamento da esporotricose. Reforça-se a necessidade de mais pesquisas relacionadas à padronização de metodologias in vitro e a estudos in vivo relacionados à segurança e potencial tóxico dessas plantas com atividade anti-Sporothrix spp.
       
 
 
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