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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 812 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (741 journals)
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    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (9 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (741 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Human Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Information Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IngenierĂ­a HidrĂ¡ulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Innovation - climate     Open Access  
International innovation. Environment     Open Access  
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Iranian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Irish Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Irish Journal of Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Israel Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Journal Cover   Journal of Organizational Behavior
  [SJR: 3.102]   [H-I: 95]   [34 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-3796 - ISSN (Online) 1099-1379
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • When are overqualified employees creative? It depends on contextual
    • Authors: Aleksandra Luksyte; Christiane Spitzmueller
      Abstract: The research on perceived overqualification has mainly examined its negative consequences. Defined, employees who feel overqualified have surplus talent and thus can be excellent workers if managed properly; yet, empirical evidence in this domain is lacking. Building on person–environment fit theory, this research explored whether, when, and how employees who feel overqualified can engage in creative performance. The results of a multi‐source field study (N = 113 employees and 19 supervisors) supported theoretical predictions. Perceived overqualification was related positively to supervisor‐rated creative performance when these workers felt supported and appreciated and successfully negotiated developmental idiosyncratic deals. Opportunities to mentor others had an impact on the relationship between perceived overqualification and supervisor‐rated creativity, although the simple slopes were non‐significant. This study is novel in that it unpacked actionable steps that organizations can utilize to motivate this large segment of workforce to use their surplus qualifications constructively by, for example, engaging in creative performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-28T00:47:40.41983-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2054
  • Statistical control in correlational studies: 10 essential recommendations
           for organizational researchers
    • Authors: Thomas E. Becker; Guclu Atinc, James A. Breaugh, Kevin D. Carlson, Jeffrey R. Edwards, Paul E. Spector
      Abstract: Statistical control is widely used in correlational studies with the intent of providing more accurate estimates of relationships among variables, more conservative tests of hypotheses, or ruling out alternative explanations for empirical findings. However, the use of control variables can produce uninterpretable parameter estimates, erroneous inferences, irreplicable results, and other barriers to scientific progress. As a result, methodologists have provided a great deal of advice regarding the use of statistical control, to the point that researchers might have difficulties sifting through and prioritizing the available suggestions. We integrate and condense this literature into a set of 10 essential recommendations that are generally applicable and which, if followed, would substantially enhance the quality of published organizational research. We provide explanations, qualifications, and examples following each recommendation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T21:12:03.215019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2053
  • A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its
           relationship with extra‐role performance behaviors
    • Authors: Liat Eldor; Itzhak Harpaz
      Abstract: Employee engagement has recently been introduced as a concept advantageous to organizations. However, little is known about the value of employee engagement in explaining work performance behaviors compared with similar concepts. The learning climate, defined as the organization's beneficial activities in helping employees create, acquire, and transfer knowledge, has also been proposed as an antecedent of employee engagement. Using data from a sample of 625 employees and their supervisors in various occupations and organizations throughout Israel, we investigated employee engagement as a key mechanism for explaining the relationship between perceptions of the organization's learning climate and employees' proactivity, knowledge sharing, creativity, and adaptivity. We also tested whether employee engagement explained the relationship more thoroughly than similar concepts such as job satisfaction and job involvement. Multilevel regression analyses supported our hypotheses that employee engagement mediates the relationship between the perceived learning climate and these extra‐role behaviors. Moreover, engagement provides a more thorough explanation than job satisfaction or job involvement for these relationships. The implications for organizational theory, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T04:39:42.04127-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2037
  • The role of hindrance stressors in the job
           demand–control–support model of occupational stress: A
           proposed theory revision
    • Authors: Kevin M. Dawson; Kimberly E. O'Brien, Terry A. Beehr
      Abstract: Previous research on the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model of occupational stress has generally been inconsistent at best regarding a key issue: the interaction of demands, control, and support in predicting employee health and well‐being. However, the model continues to be tested in a variety of studies and academic journals owing to its intuitive appeal. By incorporating conservation of resources theory with knowledge from the challenge–hindrance stressor framework, we proposed that hindrance stressors, not the challenge stressors commonly assessed when testing JDCS theory, will provide validation for the model. A two‐wave panel study of 228 employees in a variety of occupations provided support for three‐way interactions between hindrance demands, control, and support predicting job‐related anxiety and physical symptoms. Three‐way interactions using a challenge demand (forms of workload) were not significant, consistent with our propositions. In summary, this study supports the buffering effect of control and support on the relationship between job demands and strain only when job demands reflect hindrance stressors, thereby proposing to alter the JDCS model by specifying that it applies primarily to hindrance stressors in a job hindrance–control–support model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:39:14.477475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2049
  • Mediating effects of psychological safety in the relationship between team
           affectivity and transactive memory systems
    • Authors: Anthony C. Hood; Daniel G. Bachrach, Suzanne Zivnuska, Elliot Bendoly
      Abstract: In this research, we develop a framework for understanding the emergence of transactive memory systems (TMS) in project‐based teams characterized by different levels of group level positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA). With a focus on enhancing understanding of the means of transmission, we test the mediating role played by group level psychological safety (PS) in the relationship between team affectivity and TMS. From a sample of 107 software implementation project teams, in a lagged field study, we find support for a mediated model in which high group NA, but not group PA, promotes environments psychologically unsafe for interpersonal risk‐taking (low PS) and which are negatively associated with TMS. This study extends prior research on the differential effects of PA and NA, by contributing to the limited research on group affectivity, environmental antecedents of TMS, and the mediating role of PS for predicting group level transactive processes and structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:38:07.892999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2050
  • The undermining effect revisited: The salience of everyday verbal rewards
           and self‐determined motivation
    • Authors: Rebecca Hewett; Neil Conway
      Abstract: Self‐determination theory suggests that some rewards can undermine autonomous motivation and related positive outcomes. Key to this undermining is the extent to which rewards are perceived as salient in a given situation; when this is the case, individuals tend to attribute their behavior to the incentive, and the intrinsic value of the task is undermined. The role of salience has yet to be explicitly tested with respect to work motivation; we know little about whether undermining occurs in relation to verbal rewards, which characterize everyday work. We examine this in a field‐based quantitative diary study of 58 employees reporting 287 critical incidents of motivated behavior. When considering simple direct effects, the undermining effect was not supported; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with introjected and external motivation, but at no cost to autonomous motivation. However, moderator analysis found support for the undermining effect for complex tasks; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with external motivation while associating negatively with intrinsic and identified motivation. The findings suggest that verbal reward salience is an important characteristic of verbal reward perceptions and that salient verbal rewards are not advisable for more complex tasks but can have a valuable motivational impact for simple tasks. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:37:28.144228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2051
  • Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines
           trust in cross‐boundary relationships
    • Authors: Michele Williams
      Abstract: We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T00:20:50.612266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2045
  • An accountability account: A review and synthesis of the theoretical and
           empirical research on felt accountability
    • Authors: Angela T. Hall; Dwight D. Frink, M. Ronald Buckley
      Abstract: Accountability is a fundamental element of all societies and the organizations that operate within them. This paper focuses on the individual‐level accountability concept of felt accountability (also referred to in the literature as simply accountability), which can be described as the perceptions of one's personal accountability. We describe key theories that have formed the theoretical groundwork for the body of felt accountability literature, and discuss the empirical research published since the last major review of the accountability literature in the late 1990s. Empirical research has revealed that accountability has both constructive and deleterious consequences. Moreover, research examining accountability and key outcomes has produced mixed results, suggesting that consideration of moderators and nonlinear relationships are important when examining accountability. Although accountability is an important construct, there are many issues that have yet to be investigated by scholars. We identify limitations and gaps in the current body of the empirical research and conclude the paper with suggestions for scholars striving to make contributions to this line of research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T00:19:47.406624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2052
  • Bouncing back from psychological contract breach: How commitment recovers
           over time
    • Authors: Omar N. Solinger; Joeri Hofmans, P. Matthijs Bal, Paul G. W. Jansen
      Abstract: The post‐violation model of the psychological contract outlines four ways in which a psychological contract may be resolved after breach (i.e., psychological contract thriving, reactivation, impairment, and dissolution). To explore the implications of this model for post‐breach restoration of organizational commitment, we recorded dynamic patterns of organizational commitment across a fine‐grained longitudinal design in a sample of young academics who reported breach events while undergoing job changes (N = 109). By tracking organizational commitment up until 10 weeks after the first reported breach event, we ascertain that employees may indeed bounce back from a breach incidence, albeit that some employees do so more successfully than others. We further demonstrate that the emotional impact of the breach and post‐breach perceived organizational support are related to the success of the breach resolution process. Additionally, we reveal a nonlinear component in post‐breach trajectories of commitment that suggests that processes determining breach resolution success are more complex than currently assumed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T07:58:41.003297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2047
  • A multilevel study of group‐focused and individual‐focused
           transformational leadership, social exchange relationships, and
           performance in teams
    • Authors: Jae Uk Chun; Kyoungmin Cho, John J. Sosik
      Abstract: Using matched reports from 73 team leaders and 359 of their members across 23 companies in Korea, we examined a multilevel model where group‐ and individual‐focused transformational leadership and their influence processes operate at the team and dyadic levels independently and interactively to be associated with team and member performance. Results indicated that group‐focused transformational leadership was positively associated with team performance through team member exchange (TMX), whereas individual‐focused transformational leadership positively related to team members' in‐role and extra‐role performance through leader–member exchange (LMX). TMX not only positively mediated the relationships between group‐focused transformational leadership and member performance after controlling for LMX but also positively moderated LMX–performance relationships. Moreover, the indirect effect of individual‐focused transformational leadership through LMX on member performance was contingent upon the level of TMX. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T07:55:06.880476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2048
  • Religious harassment in the workplace: An examination of observer
    • Authors: Sonia Ghumman; Ann Marie Ryan, Jin Suk Park
      Abstract: Religious harassment claims in the United States have risen sharply over the past decade. However, victims of religious harassment may not always report harassment, and true rates may be higher. Hence, actions taken by third parties present (observers) are important in combating harassment in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to extend a previous model of observer intervention and related research by testing it empirically in the context of religious harassment and identify factors that influence observers' decision to intervene (intervention), when they intervene (level of immediacy), and how much they intervene (level of involvement). Across two studies, we find evidence that verbal harassment, ambiguity of intent, relationship to target/harasser, recurrence belief, religious commitment, pro‐social orientation, and the interactive effect of shared religion and religious commitment predict intervention. Furthermore, individuals show higher levels of involvement and immediacy in intervention when costs are low and emotional reactions are high. Implications of these findings for engaging observers in combatting harassment are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11T03:50:37.830438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2044
  • Development of a new scale to measure subjective career success: A
           mixed‐methods study
    • Authors: Kristen M. Shockley; Heather Ureksoy, Ozgun Burcu Rodopman, Laura F. Poteat, Timothy Ryan Dullaghan
      Abstract: Career success is a main focus of career scholars as well as organizational stakeholders. Historically, career success has been conceptualized and measured in an objective manner, mainly as salary, rank, or number of promotions. However, the changing nature of work has also necessitated a change in the way many employees view success, adding a more subjective component. Although there has been theoretical discussion and calls to develop a comprehensive measure of subjective career success, no contemporary comprehensive quantitative measure exists. The goal of this study was to create and validate a measure of subjective career success, titled the Subjective Career Success Inventory (SCSI). The SCSI includes 24 items that address subjective career success via eight dimensions. The scale was developed and validated through four phases of data collection, beginning with interviews and focus groups, followed by item sorting tasks, then item refinement through confirmatory factor analysis, and finally convergent and discriminant validity quantitative analysis. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11T03:50:19.08213-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2046
  • The effect of positive work reflection during leisure time on affective
           well‐being: Results from three diary studies
    • Authors: Laurenz L. Meier; Eunae Cho, Soner Dumani
      Abstract: Previous research showed that psychological detachment from work during leisure time is beneficial and that reflecting on negative aspects of work is detrimental for employees' well‐being. However, little is known about the role of positive reflection about work during leisure time. In the present research, we examined the effects of positive work reflection on affective well‐being. Additionally, we tested the effectiveness of an intervention to increase positive work reflection and to improve well‐being with a randomized controlled field experiment. Findings from three diary studies showed that positive work reflection was related to an increase in affective well‐being with regard to both positive and negative moods. The results further indicated that the benefits of positive work reflection were incremental to that of psychological detachment and the absence of negative work reflection. Contrary to our expectation, no evidence was found for the effectiveness of the intervention. Theoretical implications of main findings as well as supplementary findings are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T00:58:01.357803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2039
  • Social identity and applicant attraction: Exploring the role of multiple
           levels of self
    • Authors: George C. Banks; Sven Kepes, Mahendra Joshi, Anson Seers
      Abstract: Applicant attraction is a critical objective of recruitment. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction are limited in that they do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the process that shapes the perceptions and beliefs of job applicants about the firms for which they aspire to work for. Because individuals have the inherent desire to expand and enhance their social identities (e.g., personal, relational, and collective identities), they are likely to be attracted to organizations that allow them to do so. Building on recent work on levels of self, our paper suggests that social identities mediate the relation between currently established predictor variables of applicant attraction (e.g., compensation, type of work, and organizational image) and important applicant attraction outcomes. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction can lead to the activation, evaluation, and identification processes described by social identity theory. A theoretical framework is presented that illustrates the mediating influence of social identity on the relations between common predictor variables and applicant attraction outcomes. This framework may lead to more effective recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T00:57:17.577463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2043
  • Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the
           effects of workplace diversity?
    • Abstract: To account for the double‐edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e,. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance, and well‐being‐related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear which contingency factors make it work. Using the Categorization‐Elaboration Model as our theoretical lens, we review variables moderating the effects of workplace diversity on social integration, performance, and well‐being outcomes, focusing on factors that organizations and managers have control over (i.e., strategy, unit design, human resource, leadership, climate/culture, and individual differences). We point out avenues for future research and conclude with practical implications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T22:06:15.105918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2040
  • Who takes the lead? A multi‐source diary study on leadership,
           work engagement, and job performance
    • Authors: Kimberley Breevaart; Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Daantje Derks
      Abstract: Transformational leadership is associated with a range of positive outcomes. Yet, according to substitutes for leadership theory, there may be circumstances under which it is difficult, if not impossible, for leaders to inspire and challenge their employees. Therefore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors as well as employee self‐leadership strategies contribute to employee work engagement and job performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors are more effective when employees have a high need for leadership, whereas self‐leadership strategies are more effective when employees have a low need for leadership. A sample of 57 unique leader–employee dyads filled out a quantitative diary survey at the end of each week, for a period of five weeks. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that employees were more engaged in their work and received higher performance ratings from their leader when leaders used more transformational leadership behaviors, and when employees used more self‐leadership strategies. Furthermore, we showed that transformational leadership behaviors were more effective when employees had a high (vs. low) need for leadership and that the opposite was true for employee self‐leadership. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of employees in the transformational leadership process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:29:46.181189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2041
  • Contextualizing creativity and innovation across cultures
    • PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:29:05.07778-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2042
  • Social processes and team creativity in multicultural teams: A
           socio‐technical framework
    • Authors: Kwok Leung; Jie Wang
      Abstract: Cultural diversity is widely believed to broaden the knowledge and perspectives in a team and hence benefit team creativity. However, cultural diversity can at the same time suppress team creativity through the negative social processes it engenders, and this negative mechanism has received little theoretical attention. We present a theoretical analysis to explicate how cultural diversity creates cultural identity and intercultural obstacles, which hinder knowledge sharing and integration among team members and hence team creativity. Drawing on the socio‐technical systems perspective, we identify two types of contextual variables that moderate the negative, mediated impact of cultural diversity on team creativity: information and communication technology and task environment in terms of task characteristics. We provide an analysis of how each type of variables moderates the negative impact of cultural diversity on social processes and the impact of social processes on knowledge sharing and integration. Several future research directions based on the socio‐technical systems perspective are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-06T22:58:16.159027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2021
  • When the dark ones become darker: How promotion focus moderates the
           effects of the dark triad on supervisor performance ratings
    • Authors: Mickey B. Smith; J. Craig Wallace, Patti Jordan
      Abstract: The current study adds to a growing body of research on dark personality traits by investigating the moderating role of promotion focus on the relationships among dark triad traits and facets of job performance. Specifically, we investigated the effects of the dark triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) on supervisor ratings of performance, and the moderating effect promotion focus has on those effects. Using field data, we surveyed 549 employees from a manufacturing company in the USA and obtained supervisor ratings of task performance and helping behavior for each employee. We found support for multiple hypotheses, which suggests that managers rated narcissistic and psychopathic employees as having poorer task performance and psychopathic employees as engaging in fewer helping behaviors than employees low in those traits. Furthermore, promotion focus strengthened these negative relationships. We did not find these effects for Machiavellianism. Implications of these findings for future dark personality research as well as the practical implications for managers and organizations are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T02:55:40.539699-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2038
  • You want me to do what? Two daily diary studies of illegitimate tasks
           and employee well‐being
    • Authors: Erin M. Eatough; Laurenz L. Meier, Ivana Igic, Achim Elfering, Paul E. Spector, Norbert K. Semmer
      Abstract: Illegitimate tasks, a recently introduced occupational stressor, are tasks that violate norms about what an employee can reasonably be expected to do. Because they are considered a threat to one's professional identity, we expected that the daily experience of illegitimate tasks would be linked to a drop in self‐esteem and to impaired well‐being. We report results of two daily diary studies, one in which 57 Swiss employees were assessed twice/day and one in which 90 Americans were assessed three times/day. Both studies showed that illegitimate tasks were associated with lowered state self‐esteem. Study 1 demonstrated that high trait self‐esteem mitigated that relationship. Study 2 showed that illegitimate tasks were associated with not only lowered state self‐esteem but also lower job satisfaction and higher anger and depressive mood, but not anger or job satisfaction remained elevated until the following morning. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01T00:45:39.288827-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2032
  • Culture and getting to yes : The linguistic signature of creative
           agreements in the United States and Egypt
    • Abstract: We complement the dominant rational model of negotiation found in the West with a new honor model of negotiation found in many Arabic‐speaking populations and illustrate the linguistic processes that facilitate creativity in negotiation agreements in the United States and Egypt. Community samples (N = 136) were recruited in the United States and Egypt and negotiated an integrative bargaining task, Discount Marketplace. Analyses of categories of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) and our own newly developed honor dictionary illustrate that the same language that predicts integrative agreements in the United States, namely, that which is rational and logical (cognitive mechanisms, LIWC), actually backfires and hinders agreements in Egypt. Creativity in Egypt, by contrast, reflects an honor model of negotiating with language that promotes honor gain (i.e., moral integrity) and honor protection (i.e., image and strength). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-28T22:18:51.908218-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2026
  • When is female leadership an advantage? Coordination requirements,
           team cohesion, and team interaction norms
    • Authors: Corinne Post
      Abstract: This study seeks to understand to what extent and in what contexts women leaders may be advantageous for teams. More specifically, this study examines how team leader gender relates to team cohesion, cooperative learning, and participative communication. Furthermore, the study argues that advantages derived from female leadership may be contingent on teams' coordination requirements. I propose that as teams' coordination requirements increase (i.e., with functional diversity, size, and geographic dispersion), teams with women leaders report more cohesion and more cooperative and participative interaction norms than those with men leaders. I aggregated survey responses from the members of 82 teams in 29 organizations at the team level. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling analyses suggest that female leadership is more positively associated with cohesion on larger and more functionally diverse teams and more positively associated with cooperative learning and participative communication on larger and geographically dispersed teams. These results call for more research on boundary conditions on the relationship between leader gender and team outcomes, on the role of relational leadership on complex and diverse teams and, ultimately, on the potential mediating role of cohesion and team interaction norms on the relationship between leader gender and team performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T21:40:58.57835-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2031
  • Employees' surface acting in interactions with leaders and peers
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Hu; Junqi Shi
      Abstract: Surface acting has been widely studied in organizational research owing to its impact on organizational behaviors and outcomes. Past research almost exclusively has focused on employees' interactions with external parties such as customers, clients, and patients. This study sought to extend this literature by examining the effects of employees' surface acting in interactions with parties internal to the organization (i.e., leaders and peers). Data were collected from 40 work groups (129 focal participants, 40 leaders, and 40 peers) from a large real estate agency company located in Beijing, China. Results showed that employees' surface acting influenced various emotional, relational, and behavioral outcomes. In addition, the present findings revealed that the consequences of employees' surface acting differed across leaders versus peers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T21:26:48.559626-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2015
  • Unraveling the impact of workforce age diversity on labor productivity:
           The moderating role of firm size and job security
    • Authors: Kim De Meulenaere; Christophe Boone, Tine Buyl
      Abstract: Previous literature has suggested both positive and negative effects of age diversity on labor productivity: positive because of the potential knowledge complementarities between employees of different ages and negative because of the age‐related value differences that might reduce cohesion and cooperation, hampering firm performance. Using a Belgian sample of 5892 organizational observations (2008–2011), we unraveled these countervailing effects in two ways. First, we built on prior studies to suggest that the effect of age diversity depends on the particular shape of the age distribution: positive when it is heterogeneous (i.e., variety) and negative when it is polarized (i.e., polarization). This was supported by our findings. Second, we explored the moderating impact of two contextual contingencies, firm size and job security. As expected, the positive effect of age variety is reinforced in large firms and in firms where job security is high. Although firm size also emphasizes the negative effect of age polarization on productivity, job security, unexpectedly, does not moderate this relationship. Our study offers a valuable contribution to the literature as it reveals the boundary conditions of the competing implications of age diversity and, thus, allows one to account for the inconclusive findings reported in previous literature. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T00:51:43.302775-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2036
  • Supervisor monitoring and subordinate innovation
    • Authors: Eko Yi Liao; Hui Chun
      Abstract: This study introduces a new and parsimonious classification of supervisor monitoring (observational monitoring and interactional monitoring) and examines the effects of these two monitoring styles on subordinate innovation. Guided by social exchange theory, we propose that the two monitoring styles influence subordinate job attitudes (trust and distrust in their supervisor), relationship quality (leader–member exchange), and work behaviors (feedback‐seeking behaviors), which, in turn, affect their innovation. The pilot study developed the scales for the two monitoring styles and tested their content validity among 189 undergraduate students. Using a sample of 385 subordinates, Study 1 assessed the construct validity of the two monitoring styles. In Study 2, the results of a survey of 388 supervisor–subordinate dyads show support for the proposed theoretical model. Specifically, observational monitoring and interactional monitoring were related to subordinates' trust and distrust in their supervisor. Trust and distrust in the supervisor, in turn, were related to the quality of the leader–member exchange, feedback‐seeking behaviors, and ultimately, supervisor‐rated innovation. These findings suggest that supervisors' monitoring styles have both positive and negative effects on their subordinates' innovation, which depends on the type of monitoring supervisors engage in. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T05:10:21.638666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2035
  • Cultural study and problem‐solving gains: Effects of study abroad,
           openness, and choice
    • Authors: Jaee Cho; Michael W. Morris
      Abstract: Past research indicates that foreign experience helps problem solving because the experience of adapting one's lifestyle imparts cognitive flexibility. We propose that an independent process involves studying cultural traditions and systems, which imparts foreign concepts that enable unconventional solutions. If so, advantages on unconventionality problems should be associated with experiences studying of another culture, such as typically occurs in study‐abroad programs. The link should be especially strong for individuals with personalities high in openness and in contexts featuring choice. A survey of MBA students' past foreign stays found that greater study abroad was associated with more unconventional solutions and provided mixed support for the two moderating conditions. Study 2 experimentally varied the presence of choice before putting participants through a simulated foreign internship featuring study and situations demanding adaptation. Subsequent solutions to a product design problem were more conventionally Asian and (marginally) less conventionally American in the choice condition, and these effects were mediated by the amount of foreign knowledge acquisition. Implications for selecting employees and developing employees on the basis of foreign experiences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T01:55:28.666492-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2028
  • To create without losing face: The effects of face cultural logic and
           social‐image affirmation on creativity
    • Abstract: Creativity is universally valued and desired. Yet, people are often reluctant to engage in creativity out of fear of being dismissed by others and losing face—the positive social image that individuals want to maintain in the presence of others. This paper investigates the effect of face logic endorsement on creativity and proposes face as a possible new explanation for cross‐cultural differences in creativity. In three studies using different creativity tasks and with participants from Japan, Israel, and the United States, participants who endorsed the cultural logic of face were less creative than those less endorsing this logic. Face logic endorsement mediated the effect of culture on the novelty and fluency dimensions of creativity (Study 1). Furthermore, social‐image affirmation moderated the effects of culture and face logic endorsement on creativity. When individuals' social image was affirmed, cultural differences in creativity were weakened (Study 2), and the within‐culture association between face logic endorsement and creativity disappeared (Study 3). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for fostering creativity in different cultures and in multicultural settings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T04:27:20.076747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2029
  • Re‐examining diversity as a double‐edged sword for innovation
    • Abstract: Existing results on the relationship between ethno‐cultural diversity and innovation remain mixed. The authors argue that these inconsistencies were partly due to conceptual and empirical confusion regarding two aspects of ethno‐cultural diversity. By conceptually and empirically teasing apart these two aspects of diversity, the authors demonstrated that diversity arising from ethnic categorization (referred to as ethnic diversity) impairs innovation, while diversity arising from cultural distance (referred to as cultural diversity) enhances innovation, but only when ethnic polarization is low. Consistent with the National Innovation System perspective, the present study using country‐level data shows that structural innovation input positively contributes to innovation output. Furthermore, the authors found that ethnic diversity has a direct negative effect on innovation input, which in turn dampens innovation output. By contrast, cultural diversity has a direct positive effect on innovation output over and above the contribution of innovation input only when ethnic polarization is low. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15T04:05:32.337661-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2027
  • Country variations in different innovation outputs: The interactive effect
           of institutional support and human capital
    • Abstract: Innovation is of pivotal importance to economic growth in both developed and developing countries. The current research seeks to provide insights on how human and institutional factors interact to explain country variations in innovation. Using a multiple source, multinational database that covers a wide spectrum of innovation outputs in more than 120 economies in the world from 2011 to 2013, we for the first time examined both the concurrent and predictive associations of the interactive effects of human capital and institutional support with innovation output. Results showed that innovation output is a multi‐faceted construct, consisting of at least three aspects: knowledge creation, knowledge impact, and knowledge diffusion. Quality of human capital predicts knowledge creation; institutional support and human capital have additive effects on knowledge impact; and the presence of both human capital and institutional support is required for knowledge diffusion. These results extend past findings on the role of institutions and human capital in innovation and have important implications for national policies of innovation development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T01:06:44.248262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2017
  • Using self‐determination theory to understand the relationship
           between calling enactment and daily well‐being
    • Authors: Neil Conway; Michael Clinton, Jane Sturges, Ali Budjanovcanin
      Abstract: This paper contributes to the calling literature by using self‐determination theory—a theory that makes distinctions between different types of motivation—in order to gain a better understanding of how enacting a calling may relate both positively and negatively to well‐being. We use a daily diary method novel to the calling field and a sample with a distinctive calling, Church of England clergy. We expect daily calling enactment to relate positively to daily well‐being via more autonomous forms of motivation (intrinsic and identified motivation) and negatively via less autonomous forms (introjected motivation). Furthermore, we consider how the relationship between calling enactment and motivation may be moderated by perceived competence. The hypotheses were tested using multi‐level structural equation modeling. There was strong support for calling enactment relating positively to well‐being, and this relationship was fully mediated by intrinsic and identified motivation; the hypothesized negative pathway, from calling enactment, to introjected motivation, to well‐being, was not supported. However, perceived competence was found to moderate some of the relationships between calling and the motivation types, where calling enactment is linked to lower introjected motivation at high levels of competence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03T01:06:03.370366-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2014
  • You think you are big fish in a small pond? Perceived
           overqualification, goal orientations, and proactivity at work
    • Authors: Melody Jun Zhang; Kenneth S. Law, Bilian Lin
      Abstract: Overqualification denotes situations in which job incumbents have higher qualifications than those required for the job. Drawing on the self‐regulatory perspective, we proposed that employees' perception of overqualification positively affects their proactive behavior through the mechanism of role‐breadth self‐efficacy and that this indirect effect is moderated by employees' goal orientations. We tested our hypotheses through two studies. In Study 1, we found that perceived overqualification had a positive indirect effect on employees' proactive behavior through role‐breadth self‐efficacy using a sample of 323 salespeople with a cross‐lagged panel design. In Study 2, the multi‐wave and multi‐source data from 302 teachers confirmed the indirect effect and indicated that performance goal orientation and learning goal orientation moderated the indirect relationship. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-23T09:25:12.511016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2024
  • Goal striving, idiosyncratic deals, and job behavior
    • Authors: Thomas W. H. Ng; Lorenzo Lucianetti
      Abstract: Two important gaps remain to be filled in the idiosyncratic deals (i‐deals) literature. First, it is unclear which employees are predisposed to seek and receive i‐deals. Second, it is unclear how employees' perceptions of whether their coworkers are receiving i‐deals affect their own i‐deal experiences. This study proposed a theoretical model suggesting that (a) three key motivational goals identified in human development research, that is, achievement, status, and communion striving, predispose employees to seek and receive i‐deals; (b) employees' perceptions of whether their coworkers are receiving i‐deals moderate these relationships; and (c) employees' i‐deals are related to their job behavior. Data collected from more than 400 working adults in Italy showed that employees' motivational goals (particularly achievement and status striving) were positively related to the levels of i‐deals they received, and that these i‐deals were in turn positively related to supervisors' assessments of their in‐role job performance, voice behavior, and interpersonal citizenship behavior. High perceptions of the extent to which coworkers received i‐deals further strengthened the relationship between status striving and employees' perceptions of their own i‐deals, highlighting a trait‐situation interactionist perspective on employees' i‐deal experiences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-23T09:20:51.611097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2023
  • How to dissolve fixed‐pie bias in negotiation? Social
           antecedents and the mediating effect of mental‐model adjustment
    • Abstract: Fixed‐pie bias, defined as the erroneous belief that the other negotiation party's interest is directly opposite to one's own, has been a consistent hurdle that negotiators must overcome in their efforts to achieve optimal negotiation outcomes. In this study, we explore the underlying cognitive mechanism and the social antecedents of fixed‐pie bias reduction in negotiation. Using data from a negotiation simulation with 256 participants, we found that mental‐model adjustments made by negotiators could effectively decrease fixed‐pie bias. More interestingly, we also found that negotiators were less likely to reduce fixed‐pie bias when negotiating with an in‐group member than with an out‐group member but only under a high accountability condition. Finally, we found that mental‐model adjustment mediated the effects of the aforementioned social antecedents (in‐groupness and accountability) on reduced fixed‐pie bias. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T02:35:32.146026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2025
  • Effects of cultural power distance on group creativity and individual
           group member creativity
    • Authors: Feirong Yuan; Jing Zhou
      Abstract: We develop a conceptual model to theorize the impact of high versus low power distance cultural contexts on group creativity and individual group member creativity. High power distance cultural contexts manifest in group social environments where status differentiation among individuals is expected and accepted. This hierarchical social environment is substantially different from the relatively equal social environment in low power distance cultural contexts. Building on this premise, we theorize how and why power distance cultural contexts may (1) impact group creativity by influencing the divergent and convergent processes at the group level and (2) impact the creativity of individual group members by influencing an individual's cognitive task involvement and impression management motives. Further, we identify contextual factors and individual differences that may moderate the impact of power distance. This conceptual model advances our understanding of how creative processes in groups may differ in different cultural contexts as well as suggests ways to foster group creativity in non‐Western high power distance cultural contexts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T01:57:07.347857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2022
  • The bright side of emotional labor
    • Authors: Ronald H. Humphrey; Blake E. Ashforth, James M. Diefendorff
      Abstract: Emotional labor (expressing emotions as part of one's job duties, as in “service with a smile”) can be beneficial for employees, organizations, and customers. Meta‐analytical summaries reveal that deep acting (summoning up the appropriate feelings one wants to display) generally has positive outcomes. Unlike surface acting (faking emotions), deep acting does not harm employee well‐being, and deep acting is positively related with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and customer satisfaction. Emerging research also suggests that a third form of emotional labor, natural and genuine emotional labor, is a frequently used emotional labor strategy that has positive effects for both employees and customers. We examine how identity processes shape how employees experience emotional labor, and we maintain that when employees identify with their roles, emotional labor augments and affirms their identity. Person‐job fit is an important moderator that influences whether emotional labor enhances or hinders employee well‐being. Emotional labor may also have positive outcomes when organizations grant more autonomy and adopt positive display rules that call for the expression of positive emotions. Recent research also indicates that emotional labor strategies may improve leadership effectiveness. Research opportunities on the bright side of emotional labor are abundant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T01:55:44.268116-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2019
  • Emotional labor threatens decent work: A proposal to eradicate emotional
           display rules
    • Authors: Alicia A. Grandey; Deborah Rupp, William N. Brice
      Abstract: Emotional labor—the management of emotional displays as part of one's work role—has emerged as a growth area of study within organizational behavior and customer service research. In this article, we call attention to the human costs of “service with a smile” requirements with little benefits. We first review the evidence showing that requiring positive emotions from employees induces dissonance and depleted resources, which hinders task performance and threatens well‐being. We articulate how formalized emotion display requirements limit self‐determination by threatening the autonomy, competence, and belongingness needs of employees. Further, via an organizational justice lens, we argue that emotional labor is an unfair labor practice because employees in such circumstances are (1) undervalued by the organization (constituting distributive injustice); (2) disrespected by customers (constituting interactional injustice); and (3) self‐undermined by organizational policies (constituting procedural injustice). We then argue for bringing light to the dark side of emotional labor with a “modest proposal”: Organizations and customers should abandon formalized emotion display expectations and replace such efforts with more humanistic practices that support and value employees, engendering positive climates and an authentically positive workforce. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-21T01:55:29.750472-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2020
  • Reciprocation wary employees discount psychological contract fulfillment
    • Abstract: The present study examined the moderating role of reciprocation wariness in the association of employees' psychological contract fulfillment with psychosomatic strain and voluntary turnover, as mediated by perceived organizational support. To study these relationships longitudinally, 169 graduating college seniors were surveyed upon job acceptance and again 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 18 months following the start of employment. The findings showed that psychological contract fulfillment was positively related to perceived organizational support. However, this positive relationship was eliminated by reciprocation wariness, and this influence was carried over to psychosomatic strain and voluntary turnover. Thus, it appears that reciprocation wariness leads employees to discount psychological contract fulfillment as an indication of the organization's valuation and caring. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-05-19T00:50:29.355062-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2016
  • Introduction: The bright and dark sides of emotional labor
    • Authors: Paul E. Spector
      PubDate: 2015-05-07T08:22:10.443244-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2018
  • Episodes of incivility between subordinates and supervisors: examining the
           role of self‐control and time with an interaction‐record diary
    • Authors: Laurenz L. Meier; Sven Gross
      Abstract: Scholars have hypothesized that experiencing incivility not only negatively affects well‐being, but may even trigger further antisocial behavior. Previous research, however, has focused mainly on the relation between incivility and well‐being. Thus, little is known about the behavioral consequences of incivility. With this in mind, we conducted an interaction‐record diary study to examine whether supervisor incivility causes retaliatory incivility against the supervisor. Using the self‐control strength model as a framework, we further examined whether the target's trait (trait self‐control) and state (exhaustion) self‐regulatory capacities moderate this effect. In addition, we examined the role of time by testing the duration of the effect. When we analyzed the full data set, we found no support for our hypotheses. However, using a subset of the data in which the subsequent interaction happened on the same day as the prior interaction, our results showed that experiencing incivility predicted incivility in the subsequent interaction, but only when the time lag between the two interactions was short. Furthermore, in line with the assumption that self‐regulatory capacities are required to restrain a target from retaliatory responses, the effect was stronger when individuals were exhausted. In contrast to our assumption, trait self‐control had no effect on instigated incivility. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T01:05:50.983684-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2013
  • Mentoring with(in) care: A co‐constructed auto‐ethnography of
           mutual learning
    • Authors: Miranda M. W. C. Snoeren; Ragna Raaijmakers, Theo J. H. Niessen, Tineke A. Abma
      Abstract: Research into workplace mentoring is principally focussed on predictors and psychosocial and instrumental outcomes, while there is scarcely any in‐depth research into relational characteristics, outcomes and processes. This article aims to illustrate these relational aspects. It reports a co‐constructed auto‐ethnography of a dyadic mentoring relationship as experienced by mentor and protégé. The co‐constructed narrative illustrates that attentiveness towards each other and a caring attitude, alongside learning‐focussed values, promote a high‐quality mentoring relationship. This relationship is characterised, among other things, by person centredness, care, trust and mutual influence, thereby offering a situation in which mutual learning and growth can occur. Learning develops through and in relation and is enhanced when both planned and unplanned learning takes place. In addition, the narrative makes clear that learning and growth of both those involved are intertwined and interdependent and that mutual learning and growth enrich and strengthen the relationship. It is concluded that the narrative illustrates a number of complex relational processes that are difficult to elucidate in quantitative studies and theoretical constructs. It offers deeper insight into the initiation and improvement of high‐quality mentoring relationships and emphasises the importance of further research into relational processes in mentoring relationships. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-23T09:52:16.979305-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2011
  • 25 years of higher‐order confirmatory factor analysis in the
           organizational sciences: A critical review and development of reporting
    • Abstract: We discuss how confirmatory factor analysis results should be used to examine potential higher‐order constructs and advocate that researchers present five types of evidence, which are as follows: (1) the ability of the higher‐order model to reproduce the observed covariation among manifest variables; (2) the ability of the higher‐order model to reproduce the observed covariation among manifest variables better than more parsimonious alternative models—and no less well than less parsimonious alternative models; (3) the ability of the higher‐order model to reproduce the observed covariation among lower‐order factors; (4) the ability of the higher‐order factor to explain variation in lower‐order factors; and (5) the ability of the higher‐order factor to explain variation in manifest variables. We illustrate how this type of evidence could be presented with a worked example and contrast our recommendations with the manner in which higher‐order confirmatory factor analysis has been used in the organizational sciences over the past 25 years to support claims regarding higher‐order constructs such as core self‐evaluations and transformational leadership. Our review shows that a substantial proportion of the 44 examined articles failed to present enough evidence to allow readers to understand the size and importance of higher‐order factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T06:28:17.0922-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2008
  • The dyadic level of conceptualization and analysis: A missing link in
           multilevel OB research?
    • Abstract: Despite burgeoning multilevel research in organizational behavior over the past two decades, our understanding of dyadic relationships at work remains underdeveloped. Focusing on leader–member exchange, we discuss conceptual and methodological challenges that have hampered research at this level and illustrate how and why such analysis might provide new insights. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21T06:27:45.806674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2010
  • Professional diversity, identity salience and team innovation: The
           moderating role of openmindedness norms
    • Authors: Rebecca Mitchell; Brendan Boyle
      Abstract: The impact of diverse composition in teams is neither straightforward nor direct, and evidence suggests that diversity can be either conducive or detrimental to team innovation. Professionally diverse healthcare teams are increasingly used to develop innovative clinical approaches and solve complex healthcare problems; however, there is evidence that collaboration across professional boundaries creates conflict and is frequently unsuccessful. Healthcare organizations consequently face a dilemma. If they embrace professional diversity in teams, they risk interprofessional hostility, but if they choose homogeneous teams, they diminish their teams' capacity to innovate. We respond to this quandary by utilizing social identity theory to better understand the mechanisms through which professional diversity can enhance team innovation. In particular, we argue that professional identity salience operates as a mediator capable of explaining both positive and negative outcomes of professional diversity, contingent on the moderating effect of openmindedness norms. Analysis of survey data from 70 healthcare teams supports our model and indicates that professional salience can both enhance and undermine team innovation, depending on the extent of team openmindedness. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-14T06:41:26.318723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2009
  • A process perspective on psychological contract change: Making sense of,
           and repairing, psychological contract breach and violation through
           employee coping actions
    • Authors: Sarah Bankins
      Abstract: Psychological contracts are dynamic, but few studies explore the processes driving change and how employees influence them. By adopting a process approach with a teleological change lens, and drawing upon the sensemaking and coping literatures, this study positions individuals as active and adaptive agents driving contract change. Employing a mixed methodology, with a four‐wave longitudinal survey (n = 107 graduate newcomers) and qualitative interviews (n = 26 graduate newcomers), the study focuses on unfolding events and develops an “adaptive remediation” process model aimed at unraveling contract dynamics. The model demonstrates how breach or violation events trigger sensemaking, resulting in initially negative employee reactions and a “withdrawal” of perceived contributions, before individuals exercise their agency and enact coping strategies to make sense of, and adapt and respond to, these discrepancies. A process of contract “repair” could then occur if the coping actions (termed “remediation effects”) were effective, with individuals returning to positive exchange perceptions. These actions either directly addressed the breach and repaired both it and the psychological contract (termed “remedies”) or involved cognitive reappraisal of the broader work environment and repaired the contract but not the breach (termed “buffers”). The results highlight the unfolding, processual nature of psychological contracting. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T03:16:00.414711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2007
  • Perceived prosocial impact, perceived situational constraints, and
           proactive work behavior: Looking at two distinct affective pathways
    • Authors: Sabine Sonnentag; Anita Starzyk
      Abstract: This paper examines the role of affect as a linking mechanism between experiences at work (perceived prosocial impact and situational constraints) and two distinct components of proactive work behavior (issue identification and implementation). Based on a dual‐tuning perspective, we argue that both positive affect and negative affect can be beneficial for proactive work behavior. Multi‐level path analysis using daily‐survey data from 153 employees showed that perceived prosocial impact predicted positive affect and that situational constraints as a typical hindrance stressor predicted negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, predicted issue identification, and positive affect predicted implementation. Overall, our study suggests that both positive and negative affects can be valuable in the organizational context by contributing to distinct components of proactive behavior. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10T03:15:43.147325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2005
  • Personality and social networks in organizations: A review and future
    • Authors: Blaine Landis
      Abstract: Recent research linking individuals' personality characteristics to their social networks has brought a new understanding of how individual patterns of behavior affect networks in organizations. This review summarizes the major advancements in the three areas of social network research relevant to organizational behavior: (a) brokerage and structural holes; (b) network centrality and network size; and (c) strength of ties. This review also provides an agenda outlining three key opportunities for future research. These opportunities involve personality and social network change, bidirectional and dyadic processes, and the potential effect of network position on personality expression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T04:11:54.346227-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2004
  • From manager's emotional intelligence to objective store performance:
           Through store cohesiveness and sales‐directed employee behavior
    • Authors: Celeste P. M. Wilderom; YoungHee Hur, Uco J. Wiersma, Peter T. Van Berg, Jaehoon Lee
      Abstract: The relationships among manager's emotional intelligence, store cohesiveness, sales‐directed employee behavior, and objective store performance were investigated. Non‐managerial sales employees of a large retail electronics chain in South Korea (N = 1611) rated the emotional intelligence of their own store managers as well as the group cohesiveness within their stores. Store managers (N = 253) separately rated the sales‐directed behavior of their employees. Objective sales data were collected one month later for each store. No direct relationship between manager emotional intelligence and objective store performance was found. Instead, the results supported the hypothesized four‐variable, three‐path mediation model: store manager's emotional intelligence was related to store cohesiveness, which in turn was related to the sales‐directed behavior of the frontline employees, which ultimately predicted the objective performance of the stores. Manager emotional intelligence and store cohesiveness are seen as intangible organizing resources or socio‐psychological capital for non‐managerial store employees. Implications for future research and more effective management of retail firms are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T06:34:24.210383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2006
  • Sometimes less is more: Directed coping with interpersonal stressors at
    • Abstract: Within the coping literature, researchers have long been interested in identifying ways in which individuals can improve their coping efforts, making them more effective and thereby reducing the harmful effects of stressful encounters. Although Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model has greatly advanced understanding of the coping process, there continues to be methodological and conceptual challenges that have hindered understanding of the mechanisms behind effective coping. Addressing these issues in the use of a novel approach of analyzing variation in coping (i.e., directed coping) at both the coping event and person coping levels, the current study examined the process of coping with work stress and the beneficial coping outcomes associated with using a directed coping strategy. A total of 143 nurses completed up to 12 weekly surveys online, reporting on weekly stressful interpersonal conflicts and how they coped with them. Results from multilevel analyses supported predictions that greater directed coping at both the level of the coping event and person is associated with improvements in occupational health outcomes even after controlling for other coping factors. Implications of these results are discussed in relation to future research on coping effectiveness and workplace applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-03-25T06:21:30.554914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2002
  • Convergence and emergence in organizations: An integrative framework and
    • Authors: C. Ashley Fulmer; Cheri Ostroff
      Abstract: In reaction to the growing attention to connecting individual‐level and unit‐level constructs, we first briefly review emergence terminology and theories that address the dynamic process by which a higher‐level phenomenon emerges from lower‐level elements. Next, we review the extant theory and research on emergence and convergence in organization science using an organizing framework that simultaneously considers the content area of lower‐level elements, the emergent factors, and the target of the emergent property. In addition to organizing and bridging current literature on emergence and convergence, gaps of existing research and new directions for future research, including compilation and divergence, are identified. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15T06:21:26.571883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.1987
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