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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 832 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (758 journals)
    - POLLUTION (24 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (40 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (10 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (758 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 11)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Home Health Care Management & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Human Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Hydro Nepal : Journal of Water, Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Information Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Innovation - climate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International innovation. Environment     Open Access  
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Irish Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Irish Journal of Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Israel Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Journal Cover Journal of Organizational Behavior
  [SJR: 3.102]   [H-I: 95]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0894-3796 - ISSN (Online) 1099-1379
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Employees' self‐efficacy and perception of individual learning in
           teams: The cross‐level moderating role of team‐learning
           behavior
    • Authors: Jeewhan Yoon; D. Christopher Kayes
      Abstract: Despite the importance of employee learning for organizational effectiveness, scholars have yet to identify the factors that influence employees' perception of individual learning. This paper identified employees' self‐efficacy as a potential antecedent to their perception of individual learning in the context of teamwork. We also hypothesized that team‐learning behavior had a moderating effect on the relationship between employees' self‐efficacy and their perception of individual learning. We conducted a study of 236 teams working in a retail firm, comprising 236 team supervisors and 1397 employees, and analyzed the data using hierarchical linear modeling. This study revealed that employees' individual‐level self‐efficacy was positively associated with their perception of individual learning in teams. Additionally, team‐learning behaviors moderated the positive relationship between employees' self‐efficacy and the perception of individual learning. This study has theoretical and practical implications for a more nuanced understanding of the perception of individual learning in the context of teamwork. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09T03:29:49.722895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2092
       
  • The path(s) to employee trust in direct supervisor in nascent and
           established relationships: A fuzzy set analysis
    • Authors: M. Lance Frazier; Christina Tupper, Stav Fainshmidt
      Abstract: While many of the propositions advanced by Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman's (1995) integrative model of interpersonal trust have been supported empirically, we still know little about how time impacts the relative importance of the model's elements. In addition, there may be situations in which trust can develop with lesser degrees of any of the trustworthiness facets or propensity to trust. Hence, we apply a configurational set‐theoretic perspective to examine what combinations will be sufficient to produce the presence of trust in a direct supervisor across nascent and established relationships. We find three distinct configurations associated with trust in supervisor, which allows us to elaborate theory and provide novel insights to trust research. In particular, we find that in both nascent and established relationships, perceptions of high supervisor ability, benevolence, and integrity constitute a sufficient configuration for high trust in supervisor. In established relationships, however, there were two paths to high trust in supervisor: (i) perceptions of high supervisor ability and integrity, or (ii) perceptions of high supervisor ability and benevolence, accompanied by high propensity to trust. As such, in established relationships, perceptions of high supervisor benevolence and high propensity to trust may be substitutable with perceptions of high supervisor integrity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T02:25:53.744872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2091
       
  • When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly
           predict self‐regulatory failure at work
    • Abstract: This study investigates antecedents of procrastination, the tendency to delay the initiation or completion of work activities. We examine this phenomenon from a self‐regulation perspective and argue that depleted self‐regulatory resources are an important pathway to explain why and when employees procrastinate. The restoration of self‐regulatory resources during episodes of non‐work is a prerequisite for the ability to initiate action at work. As sleep offers the opportunity to replenish self‐regulatory resources, employees should procrastinate more after nights with low‐quality sleep and shorter sleep duration. We further propose that people's social sleep lag amplifies this relationship. Social sleep lag arises if individuals' preference for sleep and wake times, known as their chronotype, is misaligned with their work schedule. Over five consecutive workdays, 154 participants completed a diary study comprising online questionnaires. Multilevel analyses showed that employees procrastinated less on days when they had slept better. The more employees suffered from social sleep lag, the more they procrastinated when sleep quality was low. Day‐specific sleep duration, by contrast, was not related to procrastination. We discuss the role of sleep for procrastination in the short run and relate our findings to research highlighting the role of sleep for well‐being in the long run. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T20:01:39.790041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2084
       
  • Energy's role in the extraversion (dis)advantage: How energy ties and task
           conflict help clarify the relationship between extraversion and proactive
           performance
    • Abstract: While academic and practitioner literatures have proposed that extraverts are at an advantage in team‐based work, it remains unclear exactly what that advantage might be, how extraverts attain such an advantage, and under which conditions. Theory highlighting the importance of energy in the coordination of team efforts helps to answer these questions. We propose that extraverted individuals are able to develop more energizing relationships with their teammates and as a result are seen as proactively contributing to their team. However, problems in coordination (i.e., team task conflict) can reverse this extraversion advantage. We studied 27 project‐based teams at their formation, peak performance, and after disbandment. Results suggest that when team task conflict is low, extraverts energize their teammates and are viewed by others as proactively contributing to the team. However, when team task conflict is high, extraverts develop energizing relationships with fewer of their teammates and are not viewed as proactively contributing to the team. Our findings regarding energizing relationships and team task conflict clarify why extraversion is related to proactive performance and in what way, how, and when extraverts may be at a (dis)advantage in team‐based work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T02:58:46.085745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2087
       
  • A rigorous test of a model of employees' resource recovery mechanisms
           during a weekend
    • Authors: Jennifer M. Ragsdale; Terry A. Beehr
      Abstract: Employees' recovery from the effects of occupational stress can be affected by their actions during time away from work. Conservation of resources theory argues that a key to an effective stress recovery process is the replenishment of resources during off‐work time (a weekend in the present study). We test a model of the stress recovery process during a weekend whereby two recovery mechanisms (weekend activities and recovery experiences) improve two personal resources (self‐regulatory capacity and state optimism), subsequently affecting psychological outcomes (work engagement and burnout) at the start of the next workweek. Employees (n = 233) from various jobs responded to online surveys before and after a weekend. Controlling for pre‐weekend resource levels and psychological outcomes assessed on Friday, the two weekend stress recovery mechanisms (weekend activities and recovery experiences) contributed to improving or maintaining self‐regulatory and optimism resources on Monday. Of note, psychological detachment may result in less rather than more of the resource of state optimism on Monday. Monday resource levels were linked to improved work engagement and burnout. As proposed by conservation of resources theory, employees can benefit from participating in activities that replenish resources necessary to meet work demands upon returning to work after a weekend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26T01:46:59.279455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2086
       
  • A person‐centered approach to commitment research: Theory, research,
           and methodology
    • Authors: John P. Meyer; Alexandre J.S. Morin
      Abstract: There has been a recent increase in the application of person‐centered research strategies in the investigation of workplace commitments. To date, research has focused primarily on the identification, within a population, of subgroups presenting different cross‐sectional or longitudinal configurations of commitment mindsets (affective, normative, and continuance) and/or targets (e.g., organization, occupation, and supervisor), but other applications are possible. In an effort to promote a substantive methodological synergy, we begin by explaining why some aspects of commitment theory are best tested using a person‐centered approach. We then summarize the results of existing research and suggest applications to other research questions. Next, we turn our attention to methodological issues, including strategies for identifying the best profile structure, testing for consistency across samples, time, culture, and so on, and incorporating other variables in the models to test theory regarding profile development, consequences, and change trajectories. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of taking a person‐centered approach to the study of commitment as a complement to the more traditional variable‐centered approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T01:39:44.526208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2085
       
  • Justice and job engagement: The role of senior management trust
    • Authors: Jeffrey J. Haynie; Kevin W. Mossholder, Stanley G. Harris
      Abstract: We examined whether job engagement mediated the effects of organizational justice dimensions on work behaviors and attitudes. Considering distributive and procedural justice from a motivational perspective, we proposed that job engagement would mediate these two dimensions' relations with the work outcomes of task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction. We also expected this mediation effect would be magnified when senior management trust (SMT) was high. Our results showed that the simple mediation model was supported only for distributive justice. Alternatively, the indirect effect of procedural justice on work outcomes through job engagement was significant only when SMT was high. Implications of our findings and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T05:30:43.317528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2082
       
  • It is also in our nature: Genetic influences on work characteristics and
           in explaining their relationships with well‐being
    • Abstract: Work design research typically views employee work characteristics as being primarily determined by the work environment and has thus paid less attention to the possibility that the person may also influence employee work characteristics and in turn accounts for the work characteristics–well‐being relationships through selection. Challenging this conventional view, we investigated the role of a fundamental individual difference variable—people's genetic makeup—in affecting work characteristics (i.e., job demands, job control, social support at work, and job complexity) and in explaining why work characteristics relate to subjective and physical well‐being. Our findings based on a national US twin sample show sizable genetic influences on job demands, job control, and job complexity, but not on social support at work. Such genetic influences were partly attributed to genetic factors associated with core self‐evaluations. Both genetic and environmental influences accounted for the relationships between work characteristics and well‐being, but to varying degrees. The results underscore the importance of the person, in addition to the work environment, in influencing employee work characteristics and explaining the underlying nature of the relationships between employee work characteristics and their well‐being. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15T12:35:25.372711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2079
       
  • Perceived organizational support and affective organizational commitment:
           Moderating influence of perceived organizational competence
    • Authors: Kyoung Yong Kim; Robert Eisenberger, Kibok Baik
      Abstract: Perceived organizational support (POS), involving employees' perception that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well‐being, has been found to be the work experience most strongly linked to their emotional bond to the organization (affective organizational commitment, or AC). We suggest that employees' perception concerning the organization's ability to achieve its goals and objectives (perceived organizational competence, or POC) may enhance this relationship by more effectively fulfilling socio‐emotional needs. We conducted three studies with employees in the United States and South Korea to assess the interactive relationship between POS and POC and their distinctive antecedents. Our hierarchical linear modeling and ordinary least squared regression results showed that POC strengthened the relationship between POS and AC and that this association carried over to extra‐role performance. Further, leader initiating structure contributed more to POC than to POS, whereas leader consideration contributed more to POS than to POC. These findings suggest POC plays an important role in moderating the relationship between POS and AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-10T22:48:43.215391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2081
       
  • The more I want, the less I have left to give: The moderating role of
           psychological entitlement on the relationship between psychological
           contract violation, depressive mood states, and citizenship behavior
    • Authors: Manuela Priesemuth; Regina M. Taylor
      Abstract: Research has emphasized the negative effects of organizations' broken promises and failed obligations on employee attitudes and behaviors. However, not all employees respond in the same manner. This paper integrates research on psychological contracts and psychological entitlement to examine how individuals with exceedingly high demands and expectations react to a perceived letdown by the organization. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we argue that a psychological contract violation is associated with employee depressive mood states, which, in turn, influence the amount of citizenship behavior displayed. We further posit that psychological entitlement moderates the link between contract violation and depressive mood states. Using Hayes' PROCESS macro to assess a moderated mediation model, findings from a multi‐source field study support our predictions. This research contributes to the work on psychological contracts and psychological entitlement on multiple fronts. Suggestions for future research and practical implications for managers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2016-01-05T04:21:54.315669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2080
       
  • Issue Info ‐ TOC
    • Pages: 155 - 155
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T04:10:45.879083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2069
       
  • Issue Information Page
    • Pages: 156 - 156
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27T04:10:46.909826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2070
       
  • A new look at the psychological contract during organizational
           socialization: The role of newcomers' obligations at entry
    • Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that the psychological contract is largely shaped during socialization. This study adopts a complementary perspective and analyzes how the psychological contract at the start of employment shapes the subsequent socialization process. Drawing upon social exchange theory, we propose that newcomers with a higher sense of their personal obligations at entry will perceive orientation training as more useful and develop better relationships with their supervisors and peers, which in turn will facilitate their work adjustment. Results of a longitudinal survey on a sample of 144 recruits from a European Army show that newcomers with a higher initial sense of their employee obligations toward their employer report higher perceived training utility, higher leader–member exchange (LMX) with their instructors, and higher team–member exchange (TMX) with their platoon peers. Moreover, perceived training utility and LMX predict the fulfillment of employers' obligations; and training utility predicts the level of newcomers' employee obligations. Finally, training utility, LMX, and TMX predict some of three indicators of newcomers' adjustment, namely, role clarity (training utility and LMX), group integration (TMX), and organizational values understanding (training utility). These results highlight how newcomers' obligations at the start of employment contribute to the social exchange dynamic underlying organizational socialization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-27T23:33:49.882029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2078
       
  • Job engagement, perceived organizational support, high‐performance
           human resource practices, and cultural value orientations: A
           cross‐level investigation
    • Authors: Lifeng Zhong; Sandy J. Wayne, Robert C. Liden
      Abstract: Drawing on social exchange theory, we developed and tested a cross‐level model of organizational‐level predictors of job engagement. Specifically, we examined the impact of high‐performance human resource (HR) practices on employee engagement and work outcomes. Based on a sample of 605 employees, their immediate supervisors, and HR managers from 130 companies, our results indicated that high‐performance HR practices were directly related to job engagement as well as indirectly related through employees' perceived organizational support. In turn, job engagement was positively related to in‐role performance and negatively related to intent to quit. Culture was found to act as a critical contextual factor, as our results also revealed that the relationship between HR practices and perceived organizational support was stronger when collectivism was high and when power distance orientation was low. Overall, the findings shed new light on the processes and conditions through which employee work‐related outcomes are enhanced owing to high‐performance HR practices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-16T02:27:22.17418-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2076
       
  • Contextualizing leaders' interpretations of proactive followership
    • Authors: Alex J. Benson; James Hardy, Mark Eys
      Abstract: Although proactive followership behavior is often viewed as instrumental to group success, leaders do not always respond favorably to the actions of overly eager followers. Guided by a constructivist perspective, we investigated how interpretations of followership differ across the settings in which acts of leadership and followership emerge. In thematically analyzing data from semi‐structured interviews with leaders of high‐performing teams, we depict how the construal of follower behaviors relates to various contextual factors underscoring leader–follower interactions. Prototypical characteristics were described in relation to ideal followership (i.e., active independent thought, ability to process self‐related information accurately, collective orientation, and relational transparency). However, proactive followership behaviors were subject to the situational and relational demands that were salient during leader–follower interactions. Notably, the presence of third‐party observers, the demands of the task, stage in the decision‐making process, suitability of the targeted issue, and relational dynamics influenced which follower behaviors were viewed as appropriate from the leader's perspective. These findings provide insight into when leaders are more likely to endorse proactive followership, suggesting that proactive followership requires an awareness of how to calibrate one's actions in accordance with prevailing circumstances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-14T01:31:47.286398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2077
       
  • Can self‐sacrificial leadership promote subordinate taking
           charge? The mediating role of organizational identification and the
           moderating role of risk aversion
    • Abstract: The extant literature on the relationship between self‐sacrificial leadership and subordinate behavioral outcomes has primarily focused on the influence of this leadership on subordinate affiliative behaviors. Our research proposed a theoretical model explaining why and when self‐sacrificial leadership might promote taking charge, an exemplar of challenging behaviors. We tested this model across two studies conducted in China. In addition, we also examined the differences in the boundary conditions for self‐sacrificial leadership to influence taking charge and affiliative behaviors (cooperation in Study 1 and helping in Study 1). Our results revealed that (i) self‐sacrificial leadership was positively related to subordinate taking charge, with organizational identification acting as a mediator for this relationship, and (ii) risk aversion moderated both the self‐sacrificial leadership–subordinate taking charge relationship and the mediating effect of organizational identification, such that the relationship and its mediating mechanism were weaker for subordinates high rather than low in risk aversion. These moderating effects, however, could not generalize to cooperation and helping. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of our results and directions for future research were discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-14T01:25:30.011146-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2068
       
  • Juggling work and family responsibilities when involuntarily working more
           from home: A multiwave study of financial sales professionals
    • Authors: Laurent M. Lapierre; Elianne F. Steenbergen, Maria C. W. Peeters, Esther S. Kluwer
      Abstract: Using multiwave survey data collected among 251 financial sales professionals, we tested whether involuntarily working more from home (teleworking) was related to higher time‐based and strain‐based work‐to‐family conflict (WFC). Employees' boundary management strategy (integration vs. segmentation) and work–family balance self‐efficacy were considered as moderators of these relationships. Data were collected one month before, three months after, and 12 months after the implementation of a new cost‐saving policy that eliminated employees' access to office space in a centralized work location. The policy resulted in employees being forced to work more from home. A voluntary telework program had been in effect before the new policy, implying that working more from home as a result of the new policy was involuntary in nature. Results revealed that involuntarily working more from home was associated with higher strain‐based WFC but not higher time‐based WFC. However, moderator analyses revealed that the positive association between involuntarily working more from home and both types of WFC was significantly stronger among employees with weaker self‐efficacy in balancing work and family. Boundary management strategy had no detectable moderating effect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07T03:50:56.924754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2075
       
  • The place and role of (moral) anger in organizational behavior studies
    • Authors: Dirk Lindebaum; Deanna Geddes
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to conceptually delineate moral anger from other related constructs. Drawing upon social functional accounts of anger, we contend that distilling the finer nuances of morally motivated anger and its expression can increase the precision with which we examine prosocial forms of anger (e.g., redressing injustice), in general, and moral anger, in particular. Without this differentiation, we assert that (i) moral anger remains theoretically elusive, (ii) that this thwarts our ability to methodologically capture the unique variance moral anger can explain in important work outcomes, and that (iii) this can promote ill‐informed organizational policies and practice. We offer a four‐factor definition of moral anger and demonstrate the utility of this characterization as a distinct construct with application for workplace phenomena such as, but not limited to, whistle‐blowing. Next, we outline a future research agenda, including how to operationalize the construct and address issues of construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Finally, we argue for greater appreciation of anger's prosocial functions and concomitant understanding that many anger displays can be justified and lack harmful intent. If allowed and addressed with interest and concern, these emotional displays can lead to improved organizational practice. © 2015 The
      Authors . Journal of Organizational Behavior published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07T03:30:59.919417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2065
       
  • 100 years running: The need to understand why employee physical
           activity benefits organizations
    • Authors: Charles Calderwood; Allison S. Gabriel, Christopher C. Rosen, Lauren S. Simon, Joel Koopman
      Abstract: Employee physical activity initiatives are commonplace, but management scholarship has not kept pace with theoretical and empirical work to validate such initiatives. In this Incubator, we clarify the employee physical activity construct, present mechanisms linking physical activity to organizationally valued outcomes, and consider the dark side of employee physical activity initiatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-24T02:56:07.086196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2064
       
  • Not if, but when we need resilience in the workplace
    • Authors: Danielle D. King; Alexander Newman, Fred Luthans
      Abstract: Workplace resilience is a necessity for organizations and employees given it assists them in overcoming adversity and ultimately succeeding. However, organizational scholars have largely overlooked this construct. In this Incubator, we briefly summarize extant research on workplace resilience to highlight opportunities for theory building and advancement of empirical research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18T22:41:15.506385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2063
       
  • An experimental study of the interaction effects of incentive
           compensation, career ambition, and task attention on Chinese managers'
           strategic risk behaviors
    • Authors: Daniel Han Ming Chng; Joyce Cong Ying Wang
      Abstract: Building on the person–pay interaction model, we developed and tested a model for the influence of managers' career ambition and task attention on their responses to incentive compensation under different conditions of firm performance. We argued that managers with greater career ambition and task attention will be more responsive to incentive compensation, thereby engaging in more strategic risk behaviors, such as strategic risk taking and strategic change. Results of our experiment using a managerial decision‐making game with a sample of Chinese managers partially supported this contingency perspective. Under the condition of performance decline, managers' career ambition only accentuated the positive relationship between incentive compensation and strategic change. By contrast, task attention strengthened the positive relationships between incentive compensation and both strategic risk taking and strategic change. However, under the condition of performance growth, neither managers' career ambition nor their task attention influenced their responses to incentive compensation. We discuss the implications for how organizational leaders can use incentive compensation to influence the strategic risk behaviors of managers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T23:54:19.133936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2062
       
  • An empirical examination of personal learning within the context of teams
    • Authors: Yuan Jiang; Susan E. Jackson, Saba Colakoglu
      Abstract: Using a sample of 588 employees in 59 work teams, we tested a model that situates personal learning within the context of teams, viewing it as a joint function of teams' leadership climate (i.e., transformational leadership) and task characteristics (i.e., task routineness and task interdependence). Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that the positive relationships between transformational leadership climate and the two dimensions of personal learning (relational job learning and personal skill development) were moderated by the nature of the teams' tasks. Specifically, transformational leadership climate was more strongly associated with personal learning for members of teams working on tasks that were less routine, rather than more routine. However, no significant moderation was found for leadership climate and task interdependence. Our findings underscore the importance of taking into account the contextual conditions within which leadership influence occurs while also demonstrating the potential role that leaders can play in promoting employees' personal learning. Overall, our study bolsters theories that conceptualize adult learning as a transaction between people and their social environments and points to a practical need to match leadership styles with team task characteristics to unleash transformational leadership effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T02:54:09.50715-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2058
       
  • Got milk? Workplace factors related to breastfeeding among working
           mothers
    • Authors: Christiane Spitzmueller; Zhuxi Wang, Jing Zhang, Candice L. Thomas, Gwenith G. Fisher, Russell A. Matthews, Lane Strathearn
      Abstract: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that women breastfeed because of improved health outcomes for mothers and children. Because maternal employment during the first year of the child's life has been identified as a reason for breastfeeding cessation, we develop and test a role‐theory‐based framework to explain women's continuation of breastfeeding after return to work (Study 1) and report results of an exploratory study linking breastfeeding at work with job attitudes and well‐being (Study 2). Applying survival analysis to a longitudinal dataset gathered by the Centers for Disease Control (Study 1), we identify pregnant women's perceived employer support for breastfeeding as a predictor of women's breastfeeding goal intentions. Supervisors' negative workplace remarks about breastfeeding related to an eightfold increase of women's likelihood to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding and perceived support for breastfeeding after return to work predicted exclusive breastfeeding continuation. Results of Study 2 suggest that women who return to work and continue breastfeeding experience more family‐to‐work conflict and overload than women who do not reconcile work and breastfeeding. Further, results of Study 2 provide preliminary evidence suggesting that perceptions of supervisor and coworker support for breastfeeding relate positively to general perceptions of organizational support and negatively to depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-04T01:27:55.100733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2061
       
  • Good relationships at work: The effects of Leader–Member Exchange
           and Team–Member Exchange on psychological empowerment, emotional
           exhaustion, and depression
    • Authors: Carsten C. Schermuly; Bertolt Meyer
      Abstract: Emotional exhaustion and depression pose a threat to employees' psychological health. Social relationships at work are important potential buffers against these threats, but the corresponding psychological processes are still unclear. We propose that the subjective experience of high‐quality relationships with supervisors (i.e., Leader–Member Exchange [LMX]) is one of the protective factors against psychological health issues at work and that this effect is mediated by psychological empowerment. We tested these assumptions with two studies (one cross‐sectional and one time lagged) on diverse samples of employees from different organizations. The first study employed emotional exhaustion as the outcome measure; the second used depression. Results from both studies support the proposed process by showing that LMX positively affects empowerment, which negatively affects emotional exhaustion (Study 1) and depression (Study 2). Additionally, Study 2 also showed that Team–Member Exchange is as important as LMX for preventing psychological health issues among employees. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-11-02T19:56:09.274888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2060
       
  • The call for an increased role of replication, extension, and
           mixed‐methods study designs in organizational research
    • Authors: Thomas A. Wright; Dennis A. Sweeney
      Abstract: Examples from previously published work by the lead author on the role of employee health indicators on individual and organizational outcomes provide an intriguing backdrop through the use of illustration for suggesting some of the many benefits obtained by the incorporation of replication, extension, and mixed‐methods study designs in organizational research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-10-27T01:02:32.351625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2059
       
  • Psychological ownership: A review and research agenda
    • Authors: Sarah Dawkins; Amy Wei Tian, Alexander Newman, Angela Martin
      Abstract: The concept of psychological ownership (PO) reflects a state in which individuals feel as though the target of ownership (e.g., job or organization) is theirs. In recent years, there has been an expansion of research linking PO with a range of desirable employee attitudes and behaviors. However, the theoretical foundations of the construct, its measurement, the factors that influence its development, and when and how it influences outcomes are areas of continued debate in the literature. In this article, we provide a narrative review of extant PO literature with the aim of developing a research agenda that encourages scholars to target opportunities for future research. In particular, we highlight the need for continued refinement of the conceptualization and measurement of PO, and development of its nomological network. In addition, we call for greater investigation of PO towards different objects or foci; examination of possible multilevel applications of PO research; identification of potential boundary conditions of PO; and exploration of the influence of culture and individual differences on the development and influence of PO. We also introduce alternative theoretical approaches for understanding and investigating PO. In doing so, we provide a roadmap for scholars to progress the development of the field. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12T04:42:05.308068-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2057
       
  • Frequency versus time lost measures of absenteeism: Is the voluntariness
           distinction an urban legend?
    • Authors: Gary Johns; Raghid Al Hajj
      Abstract: We investigate a long‐standing methodological rule of thumb, the idea that the frequency of absenteeism from work approximates an expression of voluntary behavior while total time lost better reflects involuntary behavior and ill health. Conducting original meta‐analyses and using results from existing meta‐analyses, we determine that time lost and frequency are equally reliable, that the relationship between them approximates unity when corrections for measurement artifacts are applied, and that there is very little evidence for differential criterion‐related validity predicated on the voluntariness distinction. We supply new meta‐analytic estimates of the reliability of absenteeism adjusted for aggregation period and determine that most extant meta‐analyses of the correlates of absenteeism have markedly under‐corrected for unreliability. Our results question the basic construct validity of the time lost–frequency distinction, and they contradict the practice of using “trigger points” that factor absence frequency into attendance monitoring and associated discipline systems so as to discourage short‐term absenteeism, assumed to be volitional. We conclude that the idea that time lost and frequency reflect different degrees of voluntariness is an unsupported urban research legend. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-10-07T01:23:00.702753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2055
       
  • Perceived social impact, social worth, and job performance: Mediation by
           motivation
    • Authors: Filipa Castanheira
      Abstract: This study was designed to test the relationship between perceived social impact, social worth, supervisor‐rated job performance (1 month later), and mediating effects by commitment to customers and work engagement. The hypotheses were tested with structural equation modeling analysis in a field study with 370 customer‐service employees from bank, retail, and sales positions. Results confirm that perceived social impact is associated with better job performance and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. Furthermore, results support a second mediating mechanism in which perceived social impact and social worth are associated with engagement through affective commitment to customers. Finally, it was found that engaged employees are rated as better performers by supervisors 1 month later. This study supports the motivational approach to performance and highlights the role that interactions with customers may play in motivating service employees. Practical implications are discussed by highlighting the need to consider the social dynamics in service contexts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T02:48:51.759493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2056
       
  • When are overqualified employees creative? It depends on contextual
           factors
    • Authors: Aleksandra Luksyte; Christiane Spitzmueller
      Abstract: The research on perceived overqualification has mainly examined its negative consequences. Defined, employees who feel overqualified have surplus talent and thus can be excellent workers if managed properly; yet, empirical evidence in this domain is lacking. Building on person–environment fit theory, this research explored whether, when, and how employees who feel overqualified can engage in creative performance. The results of a multi‐source field study (N = 113 employees and 19 supervisors) supported theoretical predictions. Perceived overqualification was related positively to supervisor‐rated creative performance when these workers felt supported and appreciated and successfully negotiated developmental idiosyncratic deals. Opportunities to mentor others had an impact on the relationship between perceived overqualification and supervisor‐rated creativity, although the simple slopes were non‐significant. This study is novel in that it unpacked actionable steps that organizations can utilize to motivate this large segment of workforce to use their surplus qualifications constructively by, for example, engaging in creative performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-28T00:47:40.41983-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2054
       
  • Statistical control in correlational studies: 10 essential recommendations
           for organizational researchers
    • Authors: Thomas E. Becker; Guclu Atinc, James A. Breaugh, Kevin D. Carlson, Jeffrey R. Edwards, Paul E. Spector
      Abstract: Statistical control is widely used in correlational studies with the intent of providing more accurate estimates of relationships among variables, more conservative tests of hypotheses, or ruling out alternative explanations for empirical findings. However, the use of control variables can produce uninterpretable parameter estimates, erroneous inferences, irreplicable results, and other barriers to scientific progress. As a result, methodologists have provided a great deal of advice regarding the use of statistical control, to the point that researchers might have difficulties sifting through and prioritizing the available suggestions. We integrate and condense this literature into a set of 10 essential recommendations that are generally applicable and which, if followed, would substantially enhance the quality of published organizational research. We provide explanations, qualifications, and examples following each recommendation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25T21:12:03.215019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2053
       
  • A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its
           relationship with extra‐role performance behaviors
    • Authors: Liat Eldor; Itzhak Harpaz
      Abstract: Employee engagement has recently been introduced as a concept advantageous to organizations. However, little is known about the value of employee engagement in explaining work performance behaviors compared with similar concepts. The learning climate, defined as the organization's beneficial activities in helping employees create, acquire, and transfer knowledge, has also been proposed as an antecedent of employee engagement. Using data from a sample of 625 employees and their supervisors in various occupations and organizations throughout Israel, we investigated employee engagement as a key mechanism for explaining the relationship between perceptions of the organization's learning climate and employees' proactivity, knowledge sharing, creativity, and adaptivity. We also tested whether employee engagement explained the relationship more thoroughly than similar concepts such as job satisfaction and job involvement. Multilevel regression analyses supported our hypotheses that employee engagement mediates the relationship between the perceived learning climate and these extra‐role behaviors. Moreover, engagement provides a more thorough explanation than job satisfaction or job involvement for these relationships. The implications for organizational theory, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18T04:39:42.04127-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2037
       
  • The role of hindrance stressors in the job
           demand–control–support model of occupational stress: A
           proposed theory revision
    • Authors: Kevin M. Dawson; Kimberly E. O'Brien, Terry A. Beehr
      Abstract: Previous research on the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model of occupational stress has generally been inconsistent at best regarding a key issue: the interaction of demands, control, and support in predicting employee health and well‐being. However, the model continues to be tested in a variety of studies and academic journals owing to its intuitive appeal. By incorporating conservation of resources theory with knowledge from the challenge–hindrance stressor framework, we proposed that hindrance stressors, not the challenge stressors commonly assessed when testing JDCS theory, will provide validation for the model. A two‐wave panel study of 228 employees in a variety of occupations provided support for three‐way interactions between hindrance demands, control, and support predicting job‐related anxiety and physical symptoms. Three‐way interactions using a challenge demand (forms of workload) were not significant, consistent with our propositions. In summary, this study supports the buffering effect of control and support on the relationship between job demands and strain only when job demands reflect hindrance stressors, thereby proposing to alter the JDCS model by specifying that it applies primarily to hindrance stressors in a job hindrance–control–support model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:39:14.477475-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2049
       
  • Mediating effects of psychological safety in the relationship between team
           affectivity and transactive memory systems
    • Authors: Anthony C. Hood; Daniel G. Bachrach, Suzanne Zivnuska, Elliot Bendoly
      Abstract: In this research, we develop a framework for understanding the emergence of transactive memory systems (TMS) in project‐based teams characterized by different levels of group level positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA). With a focus on enhancing understanding of the means of transmission, we test the mediating role played by group level psychological safety (PS) in the relationship between team affectivity and TMS. From a sample of 107 software implementation project teams, in a lagged field study, we find support for a mediated model in which high group NA, but not group PA, promotes environments psychologically unsafe for interpersonal risk‐taking (low PS) and which are negatively associated with TMS. This study extends prior research on the differential effects of PA and NA, by contributing to the limited research on group affectivity, environmental antecedents of TMS, and the mediating role of PS for predicting group level transactive processes and structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:38:07.892999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2050
       
  • The undermining effect revisited: The salience of everyday verbal rewards
           and self‐determined motivation
    • Authors: Rebecca Hewett; Neil Conway
      Abstract: Self‐determination theory suggests that some rewards can undermine autonomous motivation and related positive outcomes. Key to this undermining is the extent to which rewards are perceived as salient in a given situation; when this is the case, individuals tend to attribute their behavior to the incentive, and the intrinsic value of the task is undermined. The role of salience has yet to be explicitly tested with respect to work motivation; we know little about whether undermining occurs in relation to verbal rewards, which characterize everyday work. We examine this in a field‐based quantitative diary study of 58 employees reporting 287 critical incidents of motivated behavior. When considering simple direct effects, the undermining effect was not supported; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with introjected and external motivation, but at no cost to autonomous motivation. However, moderator analysis found support for the undermining effect for complex tasks; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with external motivation while associating negatively with intrinsic and identified motivation. The findings suggest that verbal reward salience is an important characteristic of verbal reward perceptions and that salient verbal rewards are not advisable for more complex tasks but can have a valuable motivational impact for simple tasks. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-02T22:37:28.144228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2051
       
  • Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines
           trust in cross‐boundary relationships
    • Authors: Michele Williams
      Abstract: We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T00:20:50.612266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2045
       
  • An accountability account: A review and synthesis of the theoretical and
           empirical research on felt accountability
    • Authors: Angela T. Hall; Dwight D. Frink, M. Ronald Buckley
      Abstract: Accountability is a fundamental element of all societies and the organizations that operate within them. This paper focuses on the individual‐level accountability concept of felt accountability (also referred to in the literature as simply accountability), which can be described as the perceptions of one's personal accountability. We describe key theories that have formed the theoretical groundwork for the body of felt accountability literature, and discuss the empirical research published since the last major review of the accountability literature in the late 1990s. Empirical research has revealed that accountability has both constructive and deleterious consequences. Moreover, research examining accountability and key outcomes has produced mixed results, suggesting that consideration of moderators and nonlinear relationships are important when examining accountability. Although accountability is an important construct, there are many issues that have yet to be investigated by scholars. We identify limitations and gaps in the current body of the empirical research and conclude the paper with suggestions for scholars striving to make contributions to this line of research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T00:19:47.406624-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2052
       
  • Bouncing back from psychological contract breach: How commitment recovers
           over time
    • Authors: Omar N. Solinger; Joeri Hofmans, P. Matthijs Bal, Paul G. W. Jansen
      Abstract: The post‐violation model of the psychological contract outlines four ways in which a psychological contract may be resolved after breach (i.e., psychological contract thriving, reactivation, impairment, and dissolution). To explore the implications of this model for post‐breach restoration of organizational commitment, we recorded dynamic patterns of organizational commitment across a fine‐grained longitudinal design in a sample of young academics who reported breach events while undergoing job changes (N = 109). By tracking organizational commitment up until 10 weeks after the first reported breach event, we ascertain that employees may indeed bounce back from a breach incidence, albeit that some employees do so more successfully than others. We further demonstrate that the emotional impact of the breach and post‐breach perceived organizational support are related to the success of the breach resolution process. Additionally, we reveal a nonlinear component in post‐breach trajectories of commitment that suggests that processes determining breach resolution success are more complex than currently assumed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T07:58:41.003297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2047
       
  • A multilevel study of group‐focused and individual‐focused
           transformational leadership, social exchange relationships, and
           performance in teams
    • Authors: Jae Uk Chun; Kyoungmin Cho, John J. Sosik
      Abstract: Using matched reports from 73 team leaders and 359 of their members across 23 companies in Korea, we examined a multilevel model where group‐ and individual‐focused transformational leadership and their influence processes operate at the team and dyadic levels independently and interactively to be associated with team and member performance. Results indicated that group‐focused transformational leadership was positively associated with team performance through team member exchange (TMX), whereas individual‐focused transformational leadership positively related to team members' in‐role and extra‐role performance through leader–member exchange (LMX). TMX not only positively mediated the relationships between group‐focused transformational leadership and member performance after controlling for LMX but also positively moderated LMX–performance relationships. Moreover, the indirect effect of individual‐focused transformational leadership through LMX on member performance was contingent upon the level of TMX. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T07:55:06.880476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2048
       
  • Religious harassment in the workplace: An examination of observer
           intervention
    • Authors: Sonia Ghumman; Ann Marie Ryan, Jin Suk Park
      Abstract: Religious harassment claims in the United States have risen sharply over the past decade. However, victims of religious harassment may not always report harassment, and true rates may be higher. Hence, actions taken by third parties present (observers) are important in combating harassment in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to extend a previous model of observer intervention and related research by testing it empirically in the context of religious harassment and identify factors that influence observers' decision to intervene (intervention), when they intervene (level of immediacy), and how much they intervene (level of involvement). Across two studies, we find evidence that verbal harassment, ambiguity of intent, relationship to target/harasser, recurrence belief, religious commitment, pro‐social orientation, and the interactive effect of shared religion and religious commitment predict intervention. Furthermore, individuals show higher levels of involvement and immediacy in intervention when costs are low and emotional reactions are high. Implications of these findings for engaging observers in combatting harassment are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-11T03:50:37.830438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2044
       
  • The effect of positive work reflection during leisure time on affective
           well‐being: Results from three diary studies
    • Authors: Laurenz L. Meier; Eunae Cho, Soner Dumani
      Abstract: Previous research showed that psychological detachment from work during leisure time is beneficial and that reflecting on negative aspects of work is detrimental for employees' well‐being. However, little is known about the role of positive reflection about work during leisure time. In the present research, we examined the effects of positive work reflection on affective well‐being. Additionally, we tested the effectiveness of an intervention to increase positive work reflection and to improve well‐being with a randomized controlled field experiment. Findings from three diary studies showed that positive work reflection was related to an increase in affective well‐being with regard to both positive and negative moods. The results further indicated that the benefits of positive work reflection were incremental to that of psychological detachment and the absence of negative work reflection. Contrary to our expectation, no evidence was found for the effectiveness of the intervention. Theoretical implications of main findings as well as supplementary findings are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T00:58:01.357803-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2039
       
  • Social identity and applicant attraction: Exploring the role of multiple
           levels of self
    • Authors: George C. Banks; Sven Kepes, Mahendra Joshi, Anson Seers
      Abstract: Applicant attraction is a critical objective of recruitment. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction are limited in that they do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the process that shapes the perceptions and beliefs of job applicants about the firms for which they aspire to work for. Because individuals have the inherent desire to expand and enhance their social identities (e.g., personal, relational, and collective identities), they are likely to be attracted to organizations that allow them to do so. Building on recent work on levels of self, our paper suggests that social identities mediate the relation between currently established predictor variables of applicant attraction (e.g., compensation, type of work, and organizational image) and important applicant attraction outcomes. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction can lead to the activation, evaluation, and identification processes described by social identity theory. A theoretical framework is presented that illustrates the mediating influence of social identity on the relations between common predictor variables and applicant attraction outcomes. This framework may lead to more effective recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T00:57:17.577463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2043
       
  • Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the
           effects of workplace diversity?
    • Abstract: To account for the double‐edged nature of demographic workplace diversity (i.e,. relational demography, work group diversity, and organizational diversity) effects on social integration, performance, and well‐being‐related variables, research has moved away from simple main effect approaches and started examining variables that moderate these effects. While there is no shortage of primary studies of the conditions under which diversity leads to positive or negative outcomes, it remains unclear which contingency factors make it work. Using the Categorization‐Elaboration Model as our theoretical lens, we review variables moderating the effects of workplace diversity on social integration, performance, and well‐being outcomes, focusing on factors that organizations and managers have control over (i.e., strategy, unit design, human resource, leadership, climate/culture, and individual differences). We point out avenues for future research and conclude with practical implications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T22:06:15.105918-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2040
       
  • Who takes the lead? A multi‐source diary study on leadership,
           work engagement, and job performance
    • Authors: Kimberley Breevaart; Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Daantje Derks
      Abstract: Transformational leadership is associated with a range of positive outcomes. Yet, according to substitutes for leadership theory, there may be circumstances under which it is difficult, if not impossible, for leaders to inspire and challenge their employees. Therefore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors as well as employee self‐leadership strategies contribute to employee work engagement and job performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors are more effective when employees have a high need for leadership, whereas self‐leadership strategies are more effective when employees have a low need for leadership. A sample of 57 unique leader–employee dyads filled out a quantitative diary survey at the end of each week, for a period of five weeks. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that employees were more engaged in their work and received higher performance ratings from their leader when leaders used more transformational leadership behaviors, and when employees used more self‐leadership strategies. Furthermore, we showed that transformational leadership behaviors were more effective when employees had a high (vs. low) need for leadership and that the opposite was true for employee self‐leadership. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of employees in the transformational leadership process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-08T01:29:46.181189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2041
       
  • When the dark ones become darker: How promotion focus moderates the
           effects of the dark triad on supervisor performance ratings
    • Authors: Mickey B. Smith; J. Craig Wallace, Patti Jordan
      Abstract: The current study adds to a growing body of research on dark personality traits by investigating the moderating role of promotion focus on the relationships among dark triad traits and facets of job performance. Specifically, we investigated the effects of the dark triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) on supervisor ratings of performance, and the moderating effect promotion focus has on those effects. Using field data, we surveyed 549 employees from a manufacturing company in the USA and obtained supervisor ratings of task performance and helping behavior for each employee. We found support for multiple hypotheses, which suggests that managers rated narcissistic and psychopathic employees as having poorer task performance and psychopathic employees as engaging in fewer helping behaviors than employees low in those traits. Furthermore, promotion focus strengthened these negative relationships. We did not find these effects for Machiavellianism. Implications of these findings for future dark personality research as well as the practical implications for managers and organizations are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T02:55:40.539699-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2038
       
  • Unraveling the impact of workforce age diversity on labor productivity:
           The moderating role of firm size and job security
    • Authors: Kim De Meulenaere; Christophe Boone, Tine Buyl
      Abstract: Previous literature has suggested both positive and negative effects of age diversity on labor productivity: positive because of the potential knowledge complementarities between employees of different ages and negative because of the age‐related value differences that might reduce cohesion and cooperation, hampering firm performance. Using a Belgian sample of 5892 organizational observations (2008–2011), we unraveled these countervailing effects in two ways. First, we built on prior studies to suggest that the effect of age diversity depends on the particular shape of the age distribution: positive when it is heterogeneous (i.e., variety) and negative when it is polarized (i.e., polarization). This was supported by our findings. Second, we explored the moderating impact of two contextual contingencies, firm size and job security. As expected, the positive effect of age variety is reinforced in large firms and in firms where job security is high. Although firm size also emphasizes the negative effect of age polarization on productivity, job security, unexpectedly, does not moderate this relationship. Our study offers a valuable contribution to the literature as it reveals the boundary conditions of the competing implications of age diversity and, thus, allows one to account for the inconclusive findings reported in previous literature. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23T00:51:43.302775-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2036
       
  • Supervisor monitoring and subordinate innovation
    • Authors: Eko Yi Liao; Hui Chun
      Abstract: This study introduces a new and parsimonious classification of supervisor monitoring (observational monitoring and interactional monitoring) and examines the effects of these two monitoring styles on subordinate innovation. Guided by social exchange theory, we propose that the two monitoring styles influence subordinate job attitudes (trust and distrust in their supervisor), relationship quality (leader–member exchange), and work behaviors (feedback‐seeking behaviors), which, in turn, affect their innovation. The pilot study developed the scales for the two monitoring styles and tested their content validity among 189 undergraduate students. Using a sample of 385 subordinates, Study 1 assessed the construct validity of the two monitoring styles. In Study 2, the results of a survey of 388 supervisor–subordinate dyads show support for the proposed theoretical model. Specifically, observational monitoring and interactional monitoring were related to subordinates' trust and distrust in their supervisor. Trust and distrust in the supervisor, in turn, were related to the quality of the leader–member exchange, feedback‐seeking behaviors, and ultimately, supervisor‐rated innovation. These findings suggest that supervisors' monitoring styles have both positive and negative effects on their subordinates' innovation, which depends on the type of monitoring supervisors engage in. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T05:10:21.638666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/job.2035
       
 
 
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