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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (694 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Monografias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 201)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International
  [SJR: 0.661]   [H-I: 22]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1006-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Effects of vertical electromagnetic stirring on grain refinement and
           macrosegregation control of bearing steel billet in continuous casting
    • Authors: Yu Xu; En-gang Wang; Zhuang Li; An-yuan Deng
      Pages: 483 - 489
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yu Xu, En-gang Wang, Zhuang Li, An-yuan Deng
      The grain refinement and macrosegregation control of GCr15 bearing steel were investigated under a type of rarely-used electromagnetic stirring, vertical electromagnetic stirring (V-EMS), in continuous casting. V-EMS can create an upward electromagnetic force and generate longitudinal loop convection, which enables the better mixing of the upper part with the lower part of the liquid steel. The results showed that applying V-EMS can enlarge the region of the equiaxed grain, decrease the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and reduce the segregation of both carbon and sulfur. After applying V-EMS, liquid steel with a high solute concentration is brought to the dendrite tips, making the dendrite arms partially melt. The length of the dendrite fragment is approximately 1.8 mm, 10 to 12 times the SDAS. Upon increasing the amount of cooling water from 2.0 to 3.5 m3/h, the dendrite fragments exhibit an obvious aggregation following V-EMS. Finally, a criterion for dendrite fragmentation under V-EMS was derived based on the dendrite fragmentation theory of Campanella et al.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30073-0
  • Hydraulic experiment on mushroom head in bottom-blown smelting furnace
    • Authors: Fu-yong Su; Zhi Wen
      Pages: 490 - 494
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Fu-yong Su, Zhi Wen
      There are many bottom-blown smelting furnaces in metallurgical industry. When oxygen or air sprays from the jet nozzle into the bottom of the furnace, the melting phase will be frozen and a hemispherical porous zone with a mushroom head shape will be formed around the nozzle. The mushroom head can protect the jet nozzle and mitigate the liquid spray on the surface of melt. In order to analyze the formation process of a mushroom head in the bottom-blown smelting furnaces, a hydraulic experiment system was designed and the formation of the mushroom head was investigated by hydraulic experiment. The hydraulic experiment results show that the formation process is mainly divided into generating crushing generating process and stable mushroom head generation process. The formation of stable mushroom head requires certain thermodynamic condition and water splash is more intense without a mushroom head than with a mushroom head. The size, porosity and diameter of the mushroom head are affected by the flow rate, temperature and heat capacity of the bottom-blowing gas and the temperature of the superheat and the physical parameters of the melt.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30074-2
  • Application of insulation padding in a heavy turbine guide vane casting
    • Authors: Jin-wu Kang; Qing-xian Ma; Chi Zhang; Pei-chao Zhou; Zhong-ren Liu; Zu-liang Li; Hao Zhang
      Pages: 495 - 500
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jin-wu Kang, Qing-xian Ma, Chi Zhang, Pei-chao Zhou, Zhong-ren Liu, Zu-liang Li, Hao Zhang
      To replace metal padding by insulation padding for castings can save the melt and reduce cleaning work of castings. The design of insulation padding was investigated. The equation of the modulus extension factor for insulation padding and the ratio of its thickness over the modulus of a casting were improved to determine the thickness of insulation padding. The insulation padding was designed for a turbine guide vane casting weighing 3. 5 t. A sound casting was obtained with 750 kg steel saved. On the other side, the casting obviously expanded at the interface with the insulation padding, which is perhaps the reason that the use of insulation padding has been suspended for many years. To avoid the expansion of insulation padding, a shielding layer made of a kind of material of good fire resistance was adopted to prevent the insulation layer from touching the melt. The shielding layer serves as a cushion of heat and expansion during solidification process so as to resist the expansion of castings and guarantee the feeding effect at the same time. Furthermore, insulation padding can be placed by a certain offset into the mold cavity so as to counteract the expansion of castings.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30075-4
  • Thermal analysis of walls in a new-type billet caster tundish with a
           vacuum shell
    • Authors: Jian-bo Xie; Jian-an Zhou; Lan-hua Zhou; Bao Wang; Hua Zhang
      Pages: 501 - 507
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jian-bo Xie, Jian-an Zhou, Lan-hua Zhou, Bao Wang, Hua Zhang
      To reduce thermal loss from molten steel in a tundish during continuous casting production, a new tundish fabricated by welding radiation-proof steel plates onto the steel plates of the exterior walls of a billet caster tundish was proposed. This new tundish was used to investigate the effect of pressures inside the vacuum chamber on the uniformity of the temperature of molten steel and the thermal conditions of the vacuum layer. The results show that the conversion radiation coefficient is not sensitive to pressure and its value at high temperatures is merely 1.5 times greater than that at low temperatures. Pressure is the key factor affecting additional factor of conversion convection. This factor is more than 100 times greater at 105 Pa than at 102 Pa, and the temperature at inner points at 102 Pa is, on average, 4 K higher than that at 105 Pa. Meanwhile, the local temperature difference of the inlet at 102 Pa is 1 K higher than that at 105 Pa. Thus, the proposed vacuum billet caster tundish can achieve low superheat teeming of steel because of the thermal preservation capability of the vacuum, which helps to reduce the tapping temperature and improve the uniformity of the temperature of steel.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30076-6
  • Tailored properties of a novelly-designed press-hardened 22MnMoB steel
    • Authors: Ming-bo Zhou; Jing-lin Tang; Jie Yang; Cun-yu Wang
      Pages: 508 - 512
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ming-bo Zhou, Jing-lin Tang, Jie Yang, Cun-yu Wang
      A novel 22MnMoB hot stamping steel was designed. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) measurement of the 22MnMoB steel showed that the ferrite-bainite microstructure could be obtained at cooling rates lower than 25 °C/s, and the complete martensite structure required the cooling rate higher than 30 °C/s. The experiments with non-uniform die temperatures were carried out to obtain tailored properties. The results showed that strength of 1411 MPa and elongation of 6% could be obtained in the hard zone, and strength of 916 MPa and elongation of 9% could be obtained in the soft zone, which can be realized by controlling the die temperature at 400 °C. The transition zone was found smooth and could be beneficial to reduce the stress concentration and therefore improve the performance of components.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30077-8
  • Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a new Ni-based
           heat-resistant alloy during aging at 750 °C
    • Authors: Zhong-liang Tian; Sen-bao Jiang; Zheng-zong Chen; Han-sheng Bao; Zheng-dong Liu
      Pages: 513 - 519
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Zhong-liang Tian, Sen-bao Jiang, Zheng-zong Chen, Han-sheng Bao, Zheng-dong Liu
      Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a new candidate Ni-based heat-resistant alloy for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine rotors were investigated during aging at 750 °C up to 10000 h. The evolutions of γ′ particles inside austenitic grain and M23 C6 carbides along grain boundaries were characterized according to their morphologies, distributions, and growth kinetics. Mean radius of the γ′ spherical particles grew from 20.3 to 90.0 nm after aging for 10000 h, and the corresponding coarsening behavior was conformed to the law of Lifschitz-Slyosovd-Wagner (LSW). The weight fraction of γ′ particles slightly increased from 10.0 to 12.0 wt. % after aging of long duration at 750 °C. The Cr-rich M23C6 carbides discontinuously precipitated along grain boundaries, while other detrimental phases were not formed during the aging treatment, and hence the strength of grain boundary was enhanced by these discontinuously distributed carbides. The critical size of γ′ had a direct influence on the maximum hardness of this alloy. Moreover, this alloy presented a good impact toughness for the safety after long time aging at high temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30078-x
  • Effect of vanadium on modification of inclusions in Mn- and Si-deoxidized
           steel during heat treatment at 1473 K
    • Authors: Cheng-song Liu; Xiao-qin Liu; Hong-wei Ni; Shu-feng Yang; Jing-she Li; Fei Ye
      Pages: 520 - 528
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Cheng-song Liu, Xiao-qin Liu, Hong-wei Ni, Shu-feng Yang, Jing-she Li, Fei Ye
      The effect of vanadium (V) on the modification of oxide inclusions in steels with different concentrations of Mn, Si, and V was determined before and after heat treatment at 1473 K. Changes in the morphology, size, and composition of these inclusions were analyzed. Equilibrium relations between the inclusions and steels at 1873 K and 1473 K were calculated using available thermodynamic data to roughly approximate the stable oxide inclusions in the steels. The results revealed that the concentrations of V and Si in the steel are critical for controlling the modification of the inclusions during heat treatment at 1473 K. MnO-SiO2-type oxide inclusions gradually transformed into MnO-V2 O3-type or Mn-SiO2- and MnO-V2O3-type inclusions in low-Si high-V steels heat-treated for 60 min. In addition, the morphology of the inclusions changed from spherical to irregular. A Si-accumulated zone and a V-depleted zone formed close to the interface in the steel matrix. The experimental and calculation results indicated that, during the heat treatment, an interface chemical reaction occurred between the Fe-Mn-Si-V steel and the MnO-SiO2-type oxide inclusion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30079-1
  • Effects of process parameters on fragment and refinement of
           millimeter-grade coarse grains for 316LN steel during hot cogging
    • Authors: Da-shan Sui; Hai-ming Zhang; Hong-yang Zhu; Zhe Zhu; Zhen-shan Cui
      Pages: 529 - 535
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Da-shan Sui, Hai-ming Zhang, Hong-yang Zhu, Zhe Zhu, Zhen-shan Cui
      The heterogeneous mixed-grain microstructure is a common defect for the heavy forging of 316LN austenitic stainless steel. Isothermal compression experiments were performed on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator to investigate the effect of process parameters on the fragment and refinement of millimeter-grade coarse grains (MCGs) during hot cogging. The experimental results indicate that the stress of MCG specimens is much larger than that of fine grain (FG) ones at 1150 °C, while the stress difference between MCG and FG samples became smaller at 1200 °C. Moreover, the MCGs can be well fragmented and refined under the condition of temperature of 1200 °C, strain rate of 0.01 s−1, and reduction rate of 50%. Meanwhile, numerical simulations were conducted to study the influences of temperature, strain and strain rate on microstructure evolution. The results of experiments and simulations comprehensively demonstrate that the MCG results in the increase of deformation resistance and incompatibility of deformation, and it can be fragmented and refined at 1200 °C so that the plastic deformation energy decreases remarkably with the increase of temperature from 1150 to 1200 °C.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30080-8
  • Effects of micro-alloying and production process on precipitation
           behaviors and mechanical properties of HRB600
    • Authors: Hong-bo Pan; Meng-jiao Zhang; Wei-ming Liu; Jun Yan; Hui-ting Wang; Chang-sheng Xie; Zhan Guo
      Pages: 536 - 543
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Hong-bo Pan, Meng-jiao Zhang, Wei-ming Liu, Jun Yan, Hui-ting Wang, Chang-sheng Xie, Zhan Guo
      Effects of micro-alloying elements and production process on microstructure, mechanical properties and precipitates of 600 MPa grade rebars were studied by using pilot test, metallographic observation, tensile test, thermodynamic calculation and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the tested steels are composed of ferrite and pearlite, in which the content range of pearlite is 33%–45%. For vanadium micro-alloyed steel, interphase precipitation strengthening effect of V can be promoted and the yield strength of tested steels can be increased with increasing V content and decreasing finishing rolling temperature. The temperature of terminated cooling should be more than 700 °C when the water cooling is used. When niobium is added to the steel, more coarse (Nb, V) C, N precipitates are generated at high temperature, so that the solid solubility of precipitated phases of vanadium is reduced and the precipitation strengthening effect of vanadium is weakened.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30081-x
  • Multi-objective optimization of gas metal arc welding parameters and
           sequences for low-carbon steel (Q345D) T-joints
    • Authors: Qing Shao; Tao Xu; Tatsuo Yoshino; Nan Song
      Pages: 544 - 555
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Qing Shao, Tao Xu, Tatsuo Yoshino, Nan Song
      Q345D high-quality low-carbon steel has been extensively employed in structures with stringent welding quality requirements. A multi-objective optimization of welding stress and deformation was presented to design reasonable values of gas metal arc welding parameters and sequences of Q345D T-joints. The optimized factors included continuous variables (welding current (I), welding voltage (U) and welding speed (v)) and discrete variables (welding sequence (S) and welding direction (D)). The concepts of the pointer and stack in Visual Basic (VB) and the interpolation method were introduced to optimize the variables. The optimization objectives included the different combinations of the angular distortion and transverse welding stress along the transverse and longitudinal distributions. Based on the design of experiments (DOE) and the polynomial regression (PR) model, the finite element (FE) results of the T-joint were used to establish the mathematical models. The Pareto front and the compromise solutions were obtained by using a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. The optimal results were validated by the corresponding results of the FE method, and the error between the FE results and the two-objective results as well as that between the FE results and the three-objective optimization results were less than 17.2% and 21.5%, respectively. The influence and setting regularity of different factors were discussed according to the compromise solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30082-1
  • Heat transfer performance of porous titanium
    • Authors: Shi-feng Liu; An Li; Yao-jia Ren; Dong-feng Li; Zhao-hui Zhang
      Pages: 556 - 560
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Shi-feng Liu, An Li, Yao-jia Ren, Dong-feng Li, Zhao-hui Zhang
      Porous titanium fibre materials with different structural parameters were prepared by vacuum sintering method. The thickness, porosity and wire diameter of prepared materials were investigated to understand the effects of structural parameters on pool heat transmission performance of titanium fibre porous material. As a result, better heat transfer performance is obtained when overheating is less than 10 °C. In addition, when the wire diameter is smaller, the heat transfer is better. However, when superheating is above 10 °C, heat transfer performance can be improved by increasing the wire diameter. Moreover, thickness influences the superficial area of the prepared material and affects the thermal resistance when bubbles move inside the material; superficial area and thermal resistance are the two key factors that jointly impact the heat transfer in relation to the thickness of the materials. Experimental results also show that the materials of 3 mm in thickness exhibit the best performance for heat transmission. Furthermore, changes in porosity affect the nucleation site density and the resistance to bubble detachment; however, the nucleation site density and the resistance to bubble detachment conflict with each other. In summary, the titanium fibre porous material with a 50% porosity exhibits suitable heat transfer performance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30083-3
  • Effect of Si on high temperature oxidation of 30Cr13 stainless steel
    • Authors: Hong-huan Mao; Xing Qi; Jing Cao; Li-cong An; Yi-tao Yang
      Pages: 561 - 568
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Hong-huan Mao, Xing Qi, Jing Cao, Li-cong An, Yi-tao Yang
      The effect of Si on the high temperature oxidation behavior of the 30Cr13 martensitic stainless steels was investigated. The underlying mechanism was further discussed by oxidation kinetics curves, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was observed that the addition of Si can significantly reduce the mass gain per unit area and the oxidation rate of the experimental steels. With the increase of Si content, the film surface composed of the wheat-like oxides turned into the small granular oxides after oxidation for 120 h. The SiO2 film formed on the metal substrate inhibited the outward diffusion of the metal cation and the inward diffusion of the oxygen anion; thus, the high temperature oxidation resistance was enhanced.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T02:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30084-5
  • Non-linear behavior in advanced materials
    • Authors: Jun-wei Qiao; Gang Wang; Yong Zhang; Peter K. Liaw; Wei-hua Wang
      First page: 357
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jun-wei Qiao, Gang Wang, Yong Zhang, Peter K. Liaw, Wei-hua Wang

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30052-3
  • Big-data analysis of phase-formation rules in high-entropy alloys
    • Authors: Wan-li Zhao; Ding-hao Miao; Yong Zhang; Zhan-bing He
      Pages: 358 - 365
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wan-li Zhao, Ding-hao Miao, Yong Zhang, Zhan-bing He
      Big-data analysis of phase-formation rules of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was conducted and a phase formation rule from a dynamic view was deduced. It was indicated in literatures that cooling rate has a strong influence on the phase formation of HEAs. Higher cooling rate may promote the generation of amorphous phase, and accordingly suppress the formation of intermetallics. Meanwhile, it was also shown that cooling rate had little impact on the formation of solid-solution phase. To demonstrate this rule, a series of FeCoNi(AlSiB)x HEAs ribbons were fabricated by a melt-spinning technique, and the microstructure, mechanical, and magnetic properties were also investigated. The results show that all ribbons exhibit disordered solid-solution structure. The addition of boron changes the alloy from ductility to brittleness, but without evident change of magnetic properties. The alloy in the nominal composition of FeCoNi(AlSi)0.2 has the best combination of mechanical and magnetic properties. A distinct feature of HEAs in magnetization was noticed and explained.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30053-5
  • Universality of slip avalanches in a ductile Fe-based bulk metallic glass
    • Authors: Jiao-jiao Li; Jun-wei Qiao; Karin A. Dahmen; Wei-ming Yang; Bao-long Shen; Ming-wei Chen
      Pages: 366 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jiao-jiao Li, Jun-wei Qiao, Karin A. Dahmen, Wei-ming Yang, Bao-long Shen, Ming-wei Chen
      Intermittent serrated flows of a novel ductile Fe60 Ni20 P13 C7 bulk metallic glass (BMG) at variant strain rates were investigated by statistics analysis. Peak and clutter distribution of slip-avalanche magnitudes are displayed during stable plastic flows at strain rates of 2×10−4 s−1 and 5×10−5 s−1, respectively, which means that serration behavior depends on the strain rate. However, the remarkable agreement between measured slip-avalanche magnitudes and the scaling behavior, i. e. a universal complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) predicted by mean-field theory (MFT) model, indicates that the plasticity of the present Fe-based BMGs can be tuned by imposed strain rates: S max ∼ ɛ ˙ - λ . This tuned plasticity is elucidated with expended free-volume model. Moreover, the scaling behavior of serrated flows for other strain rates can be predicted as well.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30054-7
  • Extracting compressive stress-strain curve based on stick-slip shear
           banding process in bulk metallic glasses
    • Authors: Jing Hu; Yun-xuan Weng; Xiao-li Li; Bao-an Sun
      Pages: 372 - 377
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jing Hu, Yun-xuan Weng, Xiao-li Li, Bao-an Sun
      Based on the stick-slip process, an effective method to extract the stress-strain curve directly from the crosshead displacement-load raw data in compression of bulk metallic glasses was proposed. The method was tested in two bulk metallic glass samples with different plasticities and shear band morphologies. The extracted stress-strain curves were found to well resemble the stress-strain curve measured by a laser extensometer. In addition, the extracted curve could resolve fine structures of serrated flow much better than that measured by extensometer, thus facilitating the study of shear banding process. Results obtained by this method made the stick-slip dynamics of shear banding valid, and this method could be employed to obtain the real strain of small-sized metallic glass samples where extensometer cannot be applied.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30055-9
  • Micro thermoplastic forming of a Pd-based metallic glass: theory and
    • Authors: Can Yang; Le-ming Lu; Zhi-wu Zhao; Jia-hao Li; Feng Gong; Jiang Ma
      Pages: 378 - 384
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Can Yang, Le-ming Lu, Zhi-wu Zhao, Jia-hao Li, Feng Gong, Jiang Ma
      Metallic glasses (MGs) are considered as the ideal materials for miniature fabrication because of their excellent micro thermoplastic forming ability in the supercooled liquid region. The understanding and controlling of micro filling process are fundamental for miniature fabrication and their applications, yet presently remain unresolved issues. A universal kinetic equation was proposed to describe the filling kinetics of viscous metallic glass supercooled liquid in micro molds with general cross sectional shapes by using a Pd-based MG as the modeling material and a series of potential applications based on the micro thermoplastic forming of the MG were developed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30056-0
  • Fractography and morphology of shear bands of a Zr-based bulk metallic
    • Authors: Jun Tan; Jun-yan Gao; Xue-mei Qin; Zheng-rong Fu; Dong Li; Min Li; Xiu-chang Wang; Gang Wang
      Pages: 385 - 389
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jun Tan, Jun-yan Gao, Xue-mei Qin, Zheng-rong Fu, Dong Li, Min Li, Xiu-chang Wang, Gang Wang
      Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have attracted considerable attention in the last few decades particularly triggered by their potential applications as novel structural and/or functional materials, owing to their superior strength, large elastic strain limit and relatively low Young's modulus etc. compared to their crystalline counterparts. Here, a 3D reconstruction application to the fractography and the morphology of shear bands was reported for a ductile Zr56 Co28 Al16 (at. %) BMG through a Phenom series desktop scanning electron microscope. The results of the 3D reconstruction and the following contour analysis indicate a typical shear fracture mode for the investigated alloy. It is inferred that the fractography and the morphology of shear bands might be dependent on their composition, structure states, and loading conditions for BMGs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30057-2
  • Plasticity performance of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloys under
    • Authors: Li-ping Yu; Shu-ying Chen; Jing-li Ren; Yang Ren; Fu-qian Yang; Karin A. Dahmen; Peter K. Liaw
      Pages: 390 - 396
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Li-ping Yu, Shu-ying Chen, Jing-li Ren, Yang Ren, Fu-qian Yang, Karin A. Dahmen, Peter K. Liaw
      The statistical and dynamic behaviors of the displacement-load curves of a high-entropy alloy, Al0.5 CoCrCuFeNi, were analyzed for the nanoindentation performed at two temperatures. Critical behavior of serrations at room temperature and chaotic flows at 200 °C were detected. These results are attributed to the interaction among a large number of slip bands. For the nanoindentation at room temperature, recurrent partial events between slip bands introduce a hierarchy of length scales, leading to a critical state. For the nanoindentation at 200 °C, there is no spatial interference between two slip bands, which is corresponding to the evolution of separated trajectory of chaotic behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30058-4
  • Slow β relaxation in La-based metallic glasses based on mechanical
           spectroscopy measurements
    • Authors: Ji-chao Qiao; Jean-marc Pelletier; Ning Li; Daniel Crespo; Yao Yao
      Pages: 397 - 401
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ji-chao Qiao, Jean-marc Pelletier, Ning Li, Daniel Crespo, Yao Yao
      Dynamic mechanical relaxations of La-based metallic glasses were investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. In the framework of the mixing enthalpy of constituent atoms, it was found that β relaxation was less evident by the addition of Cu to replace Ni in the LaCuNiAl glassy alloy. By introducing Cu into the LaNiAl metallic glass, the mixing enthalpy was less negative, which led to weaker β relaxation of the metallic glasses. The α relaxation of the La-based metallic glasses could be described by a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function with a Kohlrausch exponent βKWW around 0.5. It should be noted that physical aging above the glass transition temperature Tg induced a decrease of β relaxation intensity in the La-based metallic glass.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30059-6
  • Effect of pre-existing shear bands on mechanical properties and serration
           behaviors in bulk metallic glasses
    • Authors: Xu-dong Yuan; Sheng-hai Wang; Kai-kai Song; Xiao-liang Han; Yu-sheng Qin; Dong-fang Li; Xue-lian Li; Bo Song; Hui Xing; Li Wang
      Pages: 402 - 410
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xu-dong Yuan, Sheng-hai Wang, Kai-kai Song, Xiao-liang Han, Yu-sheng Qin, Dong-fang Li, Xue-lian Li, Bo Song, Hui Xing, Li Wang
      Pre-existing (multiple) shear bands were introduced into the ductile Zr36 Co28 Al16 and Zr65 Ni16 Cu15 Al10 bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) through the lateral-deformation, respectively. It was found that the pre-exiting shear bands can further enhance the compressive plasticity of ductile BMGs. According to the serration analysis on the plastic deformation of the as-cast and the pre-deformed samples, the serration events in the stress-strain curves during deformation display a self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Compared with the as-cast BMGs, a larger power-law scaling exponent calculated based on serrated flow behaviors becomes larger for the pre-deformed BMGs, implying that the shear banding stability of BMGs is effectively enhanced. This should be caused by the pronounced interactions of shear bands during plastic deformation for the pre-deformed BMGs. However, by introducing a large amount of multiple shear bands into the glassy matrix, it also becomes easier for shear bands to propagate along the pre-existing shear bands, leading to a lower cut-off elastic energy density for the pre-deformed BMGs. More multiple shear bands with stronger interactions for the pre-deformed BMGs could provide a larger chance to activate the shear-band cracking but less local elastic energies are remained for the subsequent crack-linking.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30060-2
  • Formation and capturing of nanoparticles in Cu-1wt. %Fe alloy melt during
           directional solidification process
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Xiao-hua Chen; Guo-dong Shi; Chang-rong Li; Zi-dong Wang
      Pages: 411 - 415
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tao Wang, Xiao-hua Chen, Guo-dong Shi, Chang-rong Li, Zi-dong Wang
      A single crystal Cu-1wt. %Fe alloy with finely dispersed iron-rich nanoparticles which keep coherent interface with the copper matrix was prepared under directional solidification. Formation of nanoparticles in the alloy melt was investigated by performing differential scanning calorimeter tests and designed water quenching experiment at a certain temperature. Results show that iron-rich nanoparticles are formed in the Cu-1wt. %Fe alloy melt before primary α-Cu forms, which is not consistent with equilibrium phase diagram. Mechanism that iron-rich nanoparticles are uniformly captured in the matrix was described, which is that numerous nanoparticles follow Brownian motions and are engulfed in the solidified matrix which makes it possible to form uniformly distributed nanoparticles reinforced single crystal Cu-1wt. %Fe alloy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30061-4
  • Plasticity improvement of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass by micro-arc
    • Authors: Yong-jiang Huang; Peng Xue; Xiang Cheng; Ya-ming Wang; Fu-yang Gao; Zhi-liang Ning; Jian-fei Sun
      Pages: 416 - 420
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yong-jiang Huang, Peng Xue, Xiang Cheng, Ya-ming Wang, Fu-yang Gao, Zhi-liang Ning, Jian-fei Sun
      Mciro-are oxidation (MAO) was used to coat porous films on the surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass sample. The compressive test results indicated that, compared with the as-cast sample, the MAO treated one exhibited higher deformation capacity, associated with multiple shear bands with higher density on the side surface and well-developed vein patterns with smaller size on the fractured surface. The pore in the MAOed film and the matrix/coating interface initiated the shear bands and impeded the rapid propagation of shear bands, thus favoring the enhanced plasticity of the MAO treated sample. The obtained results demonstrated that MAO can be considered as an effective method to finely tune the mechanical performance of monolithic bulk metallic glasses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30062-6
  • Hot tearing susceptibility of Fe-20. 96Cr-2. 13Ni-0. 15N-4. 76Mn-0.01Mo
           duplex stainless steel
    • Authors: Zhi-qiang Wei; Xiang-ru Chen; Hong-gang Zhong; Qi-jie Zhai; Gang Wang
      Pages: 421 - 425
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zhi-qiang Wei, Xiang-ru Chen, Hong-gang Zhong, Qi-jie Zhai, Gang Wang
      The hot tearing susceptibility of a Fe-20. 96Cr-2. 13Ni-0. 15N-4. 76Mn-0. 01 Mo duplex stainless steel was investigated using method of constrained solidification shrinkage in one dimension. An apparatus for real-time measuring the contraction stress and temperature during solidification was developed, which can achieve the in-situ observation of melting and solidification and avoid the large temperature gradient of casting under the condition of pouring. The results show that the contraction stress increases significantly when the core temperature of casting reaches the liquidus temperature. The contraction stress is released when the core temperature of casting reaches 1456 °C. At this temperature, the hot tearing susceptibility of duplex stainless steel is the largest. With decreasing the core temperature to 1363 °C, the slope of contraction stress increases, which is related to the ferrite-to-austenite transformation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30063-8
  • Influence of Al-Si additions on mechanical properties and corrosion
           resistance of Mg-8Li dual-phase alloys
    • Authors: Zi-long Zhao; Xue-gang Xing; Yi Luo; Yi-de Wang; Wei Liang
      Pages: 426 - 429
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Zi-long Zhao, Xue-gang Xing, Yi Luo, Yi-de Wang, Wei Liang
      Sheet samples of Mg-8Li, Mg-8Li-3Al, Mg-8Li-3AlSi and Mg-8Li-5AlSi alloys were obtained by hot rolling. Optical microscope, microhardness tester, nanoindentor, X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical analyzer were adopted to investigate the microstructures, micro-mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Roller was preheated to 150 °C before rolling process, and rolling reduction designed was about 20% per pass with a total rolling reduction of 84 %. The rolled plates were annealed at 200 °C for 120 min. The tensile tests were performed at room temperature. Experimental results showed that both the strength and corrosion resistance of the α + β dual-phase of Mg-Li alloy were significantly improved with adding Al-Si elements. The strength enhancement was attributed to the solid solution of Al into the α-Mg matrix and into the β-Li matrix as well as to the precipitation strengthening of Mg2 Si particles. Besides, the dendrite grains of α-Mg transformed to equiaxed ones with addition of Al into alloy Mg-Li.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30064-x
  • Elastic deformation behavior of CuZrAlNb metallic glass matrix composites
           with different crystallization degrees
    • Authors: Wei-zhong Liang; Zhi-liang Ning; Gang Wang; Zhi-jie Kang; Hai-chao Sun; Yong-sheng Chen
      Pages: 430 - 434
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wei-zhong Liang, Zhi-liang Ning, Gang Wang, Zhi-jie Kang, Hai-chao Sun, Yong-sheng Chen
      The room temperature brittleness has been a long standing problem in bulk metallic glasses realm. This has seriously limited the application potential of metallic glasses and their composites. The elastic deformation behaviors of metallic glass matrix composites are closely related to their plastic deformation states. The elastic deformation behaviors of Cu48−x Zr48 Al4 Nbx (x = 0, 3 at. %) metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with different crystallization degrees were investigated using an in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) technique during tensile process. With decreasing crystallization degree, MGMC exhibits obvious elastic deformation ability and an increased tensile fracture strength. The notable tensile elasticity is attributed to the larger shear strain heterogeneity emerging on the surface of the sample. This finding has implications for the development of MGMCs with excellent tensile properties.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30065-1
  • High temperature deformation behavior and processing map of hot
           isostatically pressed Ti-47. 5Al-2Cr-2Nb-0. 2W-0. 2B alloy using gas
           atomization powders
    • Authors: Ying Bao; Dong-ye Yang; Na Liu; Guo-qing Zhang; Zhou Li; Fu-yang Cao; Jian-fei Sun
      Pages: 435 - 441
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ying Bao, Dong-ye Yang, Na Liu, Guo-qing Zhang, Zhou Li, Fu-yang Cao, Jian-fei Sun
      The hot compressive deformation behavior of hot isostatically pressed Ti-47. 5Al-2Cr-2Nb-0. 2W-0. 2B alloy using gas atomization powders was systematically investigated and the processing map was obtained in the temperature range of 1323−1473 K and strain rate range of 0.001−0.5 s−1 . The calculated activation energy in the above variational ranges of temperature and strain rate possesses a low activation energy value of approximately 365.6 kJ/mol based on the constitutive relationship models developed with the Arrhenius-type constitutive model respectively considering the strain rate and deformation temperature. The hot working flow behavior during the deformation process was analyzed combined with the microstructural evolution. Meanwhile, the processing maps during the deformation process were established based on the dynamic material model and Prasad instability criterion under different deformation conditions. Finally, the optimal hot processing window of this alloy corresponding to the wide temperature range of 1353−1453 K and the low strain rate of 0.001−0.1 s−1 was obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30066-3
  • Effects of B addition on glass forming ability and thermal behavior of
           FePC-based bulk metallic glasses
    • Authors: Sheng-feng Guo; Chen Su; Jia-xiang Cui; Jing Li; Guan-nan Li; Meng Zhang; Ning Li
      Pages: 442 - 447
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sheng-feng Guo, Chen Su, Jia-xiang Cui, Jing Li, Guan-nan Li, Meng Zhang, Ning Li
      The FePC-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been demonstrated to possess high plasticity and good soft magnetic properties. However, the relatively poor glass forming ability (GFA) and thermal stabilities limited their application in industries. The effects of microalloying with B in FePC-based BMGs on the GFA and thermal behaviors were systematically investigated. It was found that a small amount of B addition can dramatically enhance the GFA of FePC-based BMGs, which in turn leads to the critical maximum diameter up to 2 mm for full glass formation even using low cost raw materials. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement of GFA from the competing crystalline phase with amorphous phase, the average thermal expansion coefficient and dynamic viscosity were discussed in detail.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30067-5
  • Microstructures and properties of CuZrAl and CuZrAlTi medium entropy
           alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering
    • Authors: Wen-juan Ge; Xu-ting Li; Peng Li; Peng-chao Qiao; Jian-wei Du; Shuai Xu; Yan Wang
      Pages: 448 - 454
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wen-juan Ge, Xu-ting Li, Peng Li, Peng-chao Qiao, Jian-wei Du, Shuai Xu, Yan Wang
      Equiatomic CuZrAl and CuZrAlTi medium entropy alloys were designed and synthesized by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering technique. The alloying behavior, phase evolutions, microstructures and properties of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, microscopy/Vickers hardness testing and electrochemical polarization measurement. The results indicate that the final products of as-milled alloys consist of amorphous phases. Ti addition improves the glass forming ability of as-milled alloys. The as-sintered CuZrAl alloy contains face-centered cubic (fee) solid solution, Al1.05 Cu0.95 Zr and AlZr2 phases at different sintering temperatures. With Ti addition, the as-sintered sample is only composed of intermetallics at 690 °C, while feel, fcc2 and CuTi3 phases are formed at 1100 °C. CuZrAlTi-1100 °C alloy exhibits the highest hardness value of 1173 HV0.2 owing to the high sintering density, solid solution strengthening and homogeneous precipitation of nano-size crystalline phase. CuZrAlTi-690 °C alloy presents a similar corrosion resistance with 304L stainless steel in seawater solution and further possesses the lower corrosion rate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30068-7
  • Statistical analysis on strain-rate effects during serrations in a
           Zr-based bulk metallic glass
    • Authors: Bo Yuan; Jiao-jiao Li; Jun-wei Qiao
      Pages: 455 - 461
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Bo Yuan, Jiao-jiao Li, Jun-wei Qiao
      By means of statistical analysis, the deformation mechanisms taking place in elastic loading and plastic shearing stages during serrated flows on the stress-strain curves for bulk metallic glasses were studied comprehensively. Normalized serration number presented a linear increasing tendency with the decrease of applied strain rates due to the reduction of free volumes. An excellent plastic deformation was illustrated from the influences of structure arrangement with activation energy. By using mean-field theory (MFT), maximum elastic-energy density at different strain rates could be predicted by MFT besides maximum stress drops during serrations. These results were helpful for understanding the serrated flow behavior or designing decent schemes to improve the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses at room temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30069-9
  • Mass production of magnetocaloric LaFeMnSiB alloys with hydrogenation
    • Authors: Tao Zhang; Cheng-yong Wang; Lugee Li; Yong Zhang; Cui-lan Liu
      Pages: 462 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tao Zhang, Cheng-yong Wang, Lugee Li, Yong Zhang, Cui-lan Liu
      LaFen11.39 Mn0.35 Si1.26 B0.1 Hx alloys were prepared by hydrogenation. Samples were annealed at 1343 K for 30−90 h to form the NaZn13 phase. La-rich and α-Fe secondary phases were also detected. Saturated hydrogenation at 553 K and 0.15 MPa of H2 pressure for 5 h was employed to improve the Curie temperature of the alloys to 279 K. The maximum magnetic entropy change, relative cooling power, and adiabatic temperature change of LaFe11.39 Mn0.35 Si1.26 B0.1 Hx annealed at 1343 K for 90 h after hydrogen absorption are 6.38 J/(kg · K) (magnetic changes μ0 ΔH = 1.65 T), 100.1 J/kg (μ0 ΔH = 1.65 T), and 2.2 K (μ0 ΔH = 1.48 T), respectively. Although the maximum magnetic entropy change of the LaFe11.39 Mn0.35-Si1.26 B0.1 Hx alloys is lower than those of similar alloys with high purity raw materials, the relative cooling power is nearly the same. The effect of impurities of the raw materials used was also discussed. It is assumed that the impurity of 0.2 wt. % Al is responsible for the reduced entropy change of the resulted alloys. The LaFe11.39 Mn0.35 Si1.26 B0.1 Hx alloys prepared by this method could be a low cost alternative material for room temperature magnetic cooling applications.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30070-5
  • Effect of A122Si/ZL102 bimetal interface fabricated by extrusion at
           near-eutectic temperature
    • Authors: Jun-feng Zhao; Shan-guang Liu; Xiao-guang Yuan; Jian-fei Sun; Hong-jun Huang; Fu-yang Cao; Hong-xian Shen; Yu-long Wang
      Pages: 469 - 474
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jun-feng Zhao, Shan-guang Liu, Xiao-guang Yuan, Jian-fei Sun, Hong-jun Huang, Fu-yang Cao, Hong-xian Shen, Yu-long Wang
      The A122Si/ZL102 bimetal was designed and prepared by extrusion at near-eutectic temperature. The properties and fracture behaviors of different surface treatments between oxide film and zinc coating were compared between the A122Si and ZL102 bimetal. The average bonding strength of bimetal with intermittent oxide film interface was about 89. 3 MPa, which is higher than that of the bimetal fabricated by zinc coating method (about 76.3 MPa). During the process of extrusion, the oxidation film was extruded to crush and the metal was extruded through the micro-cracks of the oxidation film, then the two surfaces were joined together. Altogether, the results showed that extrusion at near-eutectic temperature is favorable for achieving a high-quality metallurgical bonded interface.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30071-7
  • Serrated plastic flow behavior and microstructure in a Zr-based bulk
           metallic glass processed by surface mechanical attrition treatment
    • Authors: Juan-juan Liu; Qing Wang; Kang Sun; Sebastien Gravier; Jean-jacque Blandin; Bao-an Sun; Jian Lu
      Pages: 475 - 482
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Juan-juan Liu, Qing Wang, Kang Sun, Sebastien Gravier, Jean-jacque Blandin, Bao-an Sun, Jian Lu
      The serrated plastic flow, microstructure and residual stress of a Zr33 Cu30 Ni5 Al10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) undergone surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) have been investigated by a combination of compression tests with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the incremental hole-drilling strain-gage method. It is found that SMAT leads to various microstructural modifications and residual stress distribution in the surface layers of the Zr-based BMG due to the mechanically-induced nanocrystallization and generation of shear bands. As a result, the BMG alloy exhibits a remarkable work-hardening like behavior and significant increase of plastic strain from less than 1 % to 15 %, and its plastic deformation dynamics yields a power-law distribution of shear avalanches. Based upon the analysis of the experimental results, it is indicated that this can be connected to the SMAT-induced microstructural modifications and the resulting residual compressive stress in the Zr-based BMG.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T17:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30072-9
  • Development trends of environmental protection technologies for Chinese
           steel industry
    • Authors: Hai-feng Wang; Chun-xia Zhang; Jun-mao Qie; Ji-cheng Zhou; Yang Liu; Xiu-ping Li; Fang-qin Shangguan
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hai-feng Wang, Chun-xia Zhang, Jun-mao Qie, Ji-cheng Zhou, Yang Liu, Xiu-ping Li, Fang-qin Shangguan
      Chinese steel industry has made significant progress on reducing fresh water consumption and CO2/SO2/COD (chemical oxygen demand)/dust emissions, and improving comprehensive utilization of solid waste. Some steel companies have become topped worldwide. However, due to the large output quantity of crude steel, the whole steel industry is still a huge source of pollutants. At present, environmental protection standards are encountering challenges of lack of technical support, taxation policy and other issues. Steel industry is currently facing enormous environmental pressure. The development trends of environmental protection technologies were studied by summarizing different development stages. To realize the development targets, the industry needs to carry out its research with independent intellectual property rights, develop comprehensive management systems and establish ecological chain with other industries. This can not only raise the level of environmental protection in a broader range, but also improve the energy efficiency of iron and steel plants and increase added value of waste utilization. Finally, 23 environmental protection technologies were proposed and 4 new environmental protection practices were studied.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30035-3
  • Size analysis of slag eye formed by gas blowing in ladle refining
    • Authors: Ning-ning Lv; Liu-shun Wu; Hai-chuan Wang; Yuan-chi Dong; Chang Su
      Pages: 243 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ning-ning Lv, Liu-shun Wu, Hai-chuan Wang, Yuan-chi Dong, Chang Su
      The formation of slag eye in a gas stirred ladle was studied through cold models and industrial trials. In the cold model, water and sodium tungstate solution were employed to simulate liquid steel, and silicon oil was employed to simulate slag. The simulation results revealed that the gas flow rate and bath height had strong effects on the slag eye size. In particular, the thickness of slag layer played a strong role in the slag eye size. In addition, the slag eye could not be formed when the thickness of the top layer was more than 4 cm in water-silicone oil model. Besides, the section area of vessel had a great impact on the slag eye size. Industrial trials results showed a similar trend that the gas flow rate was very significant on the slag eye size. The predictions of the existing models showed larger predictions deviations compared with the experimental data. Moreover, a new model without fitting parameters was developed based on force balance and mathematical derivation, and verified by the experimental data. The new model provides the prediction with small deviations by comparing with the data acquired from cold models and industrial trials.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30036-5
  • Mechanism analysis of non-sinusoidal oscillation of continuous casting
           mold synchronously driven by double servomotors
    • Authors: Chao Zhou; Xing-zhong Zhang; Fang Wang; Ping-fei Liu; Yi-ming Fang
      Pages: 251 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chao Zhou, Xing-zhong Zhang, Fang Wang, Ping-fei Liu, Yi-ming Fang
      Due to the disadvantages of complexity, high maintenance and vast investment of the electro-hydraulic servo oscillator, a new mechanical device synchronously driven by double servomotors was proposed. The working principle of the non-sinusoidal oscillator was analyzed and the model of the oscillator was validated via simulation software. Then, taking advantage of resonance technology, the hinging force and moment were calculated. The results showed that the hinging force and driving moment reduced, which was useful in reducing the impact of the hinge and prolonging the service life of the bearing. Besides, the best initial spring pressure was 0.9 times the mold gravity, which improved the oscillation system stability and reduced the load fluctuation and servomotor driving power.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30037-7
  • Effect of Al2O3 modification on enrichment and stabilization of chromium
           in stainless steel slag
    • Authors: Long-hu Cao; Cheng-jun Liu; Qing Zhao; Mao-fa Jiang
      Pages: 258 - 265
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Long-hu Cao, Cheng-jun Liu, Qing Zhao, Mao-fa Jiang
      Spinel phase is considered to be the optimal phase for stabilization of chromium in stainless steel slag. In order to restrain chromium leaching from slag for the effective environmental protection, Al2O3 was utilized for the modification treatment, and the effects on the enrichment and stabilization of chromium were investigated. The mineral phases and the existence state of chromium in slag with various Al2O3 contents at different basicities (w CaO/w SiO2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that chromium mainly existed in the glass and spinel phases at basicity of 1.0 and 1.5. As the slag basicity increased to 2.0, chromium was also found in periclase phase. Al2O3 in the stainless steel slag reacted with MgO and Cr2O3, which could generate the Al-rich Mg(Cr x Al1–x )2O4 solid solution. Moreover, the addition of Al2O3 was favorable to reduce the solubility of chromium oxide in liquid phase and suppress the precipitation of periclase phase. The experimental results demonstrated that Al2O3 modification has a positive influence on the enrichment and the stabilization of chromium in the stainless steel slag.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30038-9
  • Effects of high pressure roller grinding on size distribution of
           vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate particles and improvement of green
           pellet strength
    • Authors: Feng Chen; Yu-feng Guo; Tao Jiang; Fu-qiang Zheng; Shuai Wang; Ling-zhi Yang
      Pages: 266 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Feng Chen, Yu-feng Guo, Tao Jiang, Fu-qiang Zheng, Shuai Wang, Ling-zhi Yang
      The vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate from Panxi region of China was pretreated by high pressure roller grinding (HPRG) and then used in pelletization. Size distribution change of the vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate after HPRG and the improvement of its green pellet strength were investigated. The results indicated that, besides the increase of fine particles, the vanadium-titanium magnetite concentrate after HPRG had a smaller size ratio of fine particle to coarse particle of 0.126, meaning a lower porosity, compared with the size ratio of raw material of 0.157. The concentrate particles were more closely packed when there was a smaller size ratio of fine particle to coarse particle. The particle packing in the green pellets was closer after HPRG, which strengthened the green pellets with an average drop number of 5.1 (drop height of 0.5 m) and average compressive strength of 13.1 N per pellet of 11 mm in diameter.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30039-0
  • Effects of process parameters on surface quality, composition segregation,
           microstructure and properties of QSn6. 5-0. 1 alloy slabs fabricated by
           HCCM horizontal continuous casting
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Xin-hua Liu; Hua-dong Fu; Min-xuan Lou; Jian-xin Xie
      Pages: 273 - 281
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yang Liu, Xin-hua Liu, Hua-dong Fu, Min-xuan Lou, Jian-xin Xie
      Columnar-grained QSn6. 5-0. 1 alloy slabs with a width of 70 mm and thickness of 10 mm were fabricated by heating-cooling combined mold (HCCM) horizontal continuous casting. The effects of process parameters on solidification microstructure, surface quality, composition segregation and mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that the slabs with good surface quality, excellent mechanical properties and no obvious segregation could be prepared at the melt casting temperature of 1250 °C, the heating-mold temperature of 1150—1200 °C, the cooling water flow rate of 600 L/h and the casting speed of 20—80 mm/min. The slabs had the yield strength of 124—155 MPa, the elongation rate of 46.6%—56.3% and the surface roughness of 0.22—0.55 μm, which enabled them to be directly processed without subsequent milling surface. The ratio of Sn content in the surface to that in the core was 0.83—1.10, with an average value close to 1.0, and not obviously influenced by process parameters. When the casting speed increased from 20 to 80 mm/min, the grain size changed little if the other process parameters were the same. When the heating-mold temperature increased from 1150 to 1200 °C, the grain size was obviously refined and became more uniform if the casting speed was the same. Within the range of the casting speed at which the columnar grain structure could be obtained, the columnar grain size was mainly influenced by the heating-mold temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30040-7
  • Stress corrosion cracking behavior of PH13-8Mo stainless steel in
           Cl– solutions
    • Authors: Qiang Yu; Chao-fang Dong; Jian-xiong Liang; Zhen-bao Liu; Kui Xiao; Xiao-gang Li
      Pages: 282 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Qiang Yu, Chao-fang Dong, Jian-xiong Liang, Zhen-bao Liu, Kui Xiao, Xiao-gang Li
      The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of PH13-8Mo precipitation hardening stainless steel (PHSS) in neutral NaCl solutions was investigated through slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) test at various applied potentials. Fracture morphology, elongation ratio, and percentage reduction of area were measured to evaluate the SCC susceptibility. A critical concentration of 1.0 mol/L neutral NaCl existed for SCC of PH13-8Mo steel. Significant SCC emerged when the applied potential was more negative than —0.15 VSCE, and the SCC behavior was controlled by an anodic dissolution (AD) process. When the applied potential was lower than —0.55 VSCE, an obvious hydrogen-fracture morphology was observed, which indicated that the SCC behavior was controlled by hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC). Between —0.15 and —0.35 VSCE, the applied potential exceeded the equilibrium hydrogen evolution potential in neutral NaCl solutions and the crack tips were of electrochemical origin in the anodic region; thus, the SCC process was dominated by the AD mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30041-9
  • Effects of Mn and Cr contents on microstructures and mechanical properties
           of low temperature bainitic steel
    • Authors: Hui Guo; Peng Zhou; Ai-min Zhao; Chao Zhi; Ran Ding; Jia-xing Wang
      Pages: 290 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hui Guo, Peng Zhou, Ai-min Zhao, Chao Zhi, Ran Ding, Jia-xing Wang
      The effects of Mn and Cr contents on bainitic transformation kinetics, microstructures and mechanical properties of high-carbon low alloy steels after austempered at 230, 300 and 350 °C were determined by dilatometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests. The results showed that Mn and Cr can extend bainitic incubation period and completion time, and with the increase of Mn and Cr content, the bainitic ferrite plate thickness decreased and the volume fraction of retained austenite increased. TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) effect was observed during tensile testing which improved the overall mechanical property. The increase of Mn concentration can improve the strength to a certain extent, but reduce the ductility. The increase of Cr concentration can improve the ductility of bainitic steels which transformed at a low temperature. The low temperature bainitic steel austempered at 230 °C exhibited excellent mechanical properties with ultimate tensile strength of (2146 ± 11) MPa and total elongation of (12.95 ± 0.15) %.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30042-0
  • Structures and electrochemical performances of as-cast and spun
           RE-Mg-Ni-Mn-based alloys applied to Ni-MH battery
    • Authors: Yang-huan Zhang; Zhong-hui Hou; Ying Cai; Hong-wei Shang; Yan Qi; Dong-liang Zhao
      Pages: 296 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yang-huan Zhang, Zhong-hui Hou, Ying Cai, Hong-wei Shang, Yan Qi, Dong-liang Zhao
      The RE-Mg-Ni-Mn-based AB2-type La1–x Ce x MgNi3.5 Mn0.5 (x = 0–0.4) alloys were prepared by spinning treatment. For obtaining the optimum performance, the effects of Ce content and spinning rate on the hydrogen storage performance of the alloys were studied systematically. The results show that the variations of the spinning rate and Ce content result in noteworthy changes of the phase content without altering phase composition of the alloys. Specifically, the LaMgNi4 phase increases and LaNi5 phase decreases when increasing the spinning rate and Ce content. Furthermore, the crystalline grains of Ce-containing alloys prepared by spinning treatment are remarkably refined. The alloys own superior electrochemical performance. All alloys reach the optimal discharge capacity at the initial cycle. Increasing Ce content and spinning rate lead the discharge capacity and electrochemical kinetics rise to an optimal value and then start to reduce. Meanwhile, the electrochemical cycle stability is also improved, which is ascribed to the great enhancement of anti-pulverization and anti-corrosion abilities resulting from the spinning treatment and the substitution of Ce for La.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30043-2
  • In-flight particle characterization and coating formation under low
           pressure plasma spray condition
    • Authors: Nan-nan Zhang; Dan-yang Lin; Ya-li Li; Yue Zhang; Marie-pierre Planche; Han-lin Liao; Christian Coddet; Fu-yu Dong
      Pages: 306 - 312
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Nan-nan Zhang, Dan-yang Lin, Ya-li Li, Yue Zhang, Marie-pierre Planche, Han-lin Liao, Christian Coddet, Fu-yu Dong
      Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were deposited by low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) in 1.0 × 104 Pa, 1.5 × 104 Pa, and 2.5 × 104 Pa. Both in-flight particle diagnostic detected by DPV-2000 system and ANSYS-FLUENT software were used to study the connection between the parameters of flying particles and the coating formation, which might help to recognize the relationship between the operation parameters and the coatings quality. The results of simulation showed that particles in a lower spray pressure could achieve a higher velocity. The particle velocity was around 380 m/s at a distance of 35 cm from the nozzle at 1.0 × 104 Pa while only 300 m/s at 2.5 × 101 Pa in actual measurement. The results showed that the velocity of particles increased with decreasing the spray pressure, which might enhance the flattening rate of coatings and thereby decreased the porosity. The deposited YSZ coating with the lowest porosity can be gained under 1.0 × 104 Pa condition.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30044-4
  • In-situ analysis of retained austenite transformation in high-performance
           micro-alloyed TRIP steel
    • Authors: Ji-bo Peng; Hu Jiang; Gong-ting Zhang; Li-ben Chen; Na-qiong Zhu; Yan-lin He; Xiao-gang Lu; Lin Li
      Pages: 313 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ji-bo Peng, Hu Jiang, Gong-ting Zhang, Li-ben Chen, Na-qiong Zhu, Yan-lin He, Xiao-gang Lu, Lin Li
      Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-V micro-alloyed TRIP (transformation-induced plasticity) steel with different compositions were investigated by tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic calculation (TC). The results indicated that the steel exhibited high ultimate tensile strength (1079 MPa), sufficient ductility (28%) and the highest product of strength and ductility (30212 MPa · %) heat treated after intercritical annealing at 800 °C for 3 min and bainitic annealing at 430 °C for 5 min. In addition, the change of volume fraction of retained austenite (VF-RA) versus tensile strain was measured using in-situ analysis by X-ray stress apparatus and micro-electronic universal testing machine. It was concluded that a-value could be used to evaluate the stability of retained austenite (S-RA) in the investigated Ti-V micro-alloyed TRIP steel. The smaller a-value indicated the higher stability of retained austenite (S-RA) and the higher mechanical properties of Ti-V micro-alloyed TRIP steel.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30045-6
  • Prediction of mechanical behavior of ferrite-pearlite steel
    • Authors: Lei Wang; Di Tang; Yong Song
      Pages: 321 - 327
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lei Wang, Di Tang, Yong Song
      A new approach describing the flow stress of ferrite-pearlite steel has been proposed, which divided the deformation process into three stages based on whether ferrite or pearlite yielded. Iso-work increment assumption was applied to describe the transfer of load between the components. The physically based model to describe ferrite was approximated with Swift's equation in order to obtain the analytic solution. The tensile strength of ferrite-pearlite had a linear relation with pearlite volume fraction, square root reciprocal of ferrite grain size and reciprocal of pearlite interlamellar spacing. Moreover, a model to calculate the tensile strength of ferrite-pearlite steel was proposed. The predicted values of tensile strength were in good agreement with experimental results when the pearlite volume fraction was less than 20%. Considering the plastic relaxation mechanisms, the internal stress was modified with pearlite volume fraction, total strain, yield stress of ferrite and pearlite when the pearlite volume fraction was more than 20%.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30046-8
  • Effects of alloying elements X (X=Zr, V, Cr, Mn, Mo, W, Nb, Y) on
           ferrite/TiC heterogeneous nucleation interface: first-principles study
    • Authors: Hui-hui Xiong; Heng-hua Zhang; Hui-ning Zhang; Yang Zhou
      Pages: 328 - 334
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hui-hui Xiong, Heng-hua Zhang, Hui-ning Zhang, Yang Zhou
      The segregation behavior of alloying elements X (X=Zr, V, Cr, Mn, Mo, W, Nb, Y) on the ferrite (100)/TiC(100) interface has been investigated using first principles method, and the work of separation and interface energy of ferrite/TiC interfaces alloyed by these elements were also analyzed. The results indicated that all these alloying additives except Y were thermodynamically favorable because of the negative segregation energy, showing that they have the tendency to segregate to the ferrite/TiC interface. When the Fe atom in the ferrite/TiC interface is replaced by Y, Zr, or Nb, the adhesive strength of the interface will be weakened due to the lower separation work, larger interfacial energy, and weaker electron effects. However, the introduction of Cr, Mo, W, Mn and V will improve the stability of the ferrite/TiC interface through strong interaction between these elements and C, and Cr-doped interface is the most stable structure. Therefore, the Cr, Mo, W, Mn and V in ferrite side of the interface can effectively promote ferrite heterogeneous nucleation on TiC surface to form fine ferrite grain.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30047-x
  • Effect of hot/warm roll-forming process on microstructural evolution and
    • Authors: Xue-feng Peng; Jing Liu; Jing-tao Han; Dong-bin Wei
      Pages: 335 - 342
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xue-feng Peng, Jing Liu, Jing-tao Han, Dong-bin Wei
      To improve the strength-toughness of traditional U-rib (TUR) and solve the problem of insufficient penetration between TUR and deckplate, a new local thickened U-rib (LTUR) has been proposed to improve the fatigue resistance of the weld joint under the premise of not increasing thickness and strength of the TUR material. And a hot/warm roll-forming process (RFP) adopting partially induction heating to 700—1000 °C was carried out to fabricate LTUR. The deformation behaviors in the forming process and microstructure of LTUR have been investigated. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of the LTUR after hot/warm RFP have been systematically discussed. Moreover, the results are compared with those obtained in cold RFP. Mechanical properties of the LTUR deformed above the critical transformation temperature (A c3) show high performance characteristics with marked fatigue resistance and superior toughness. Upon increasing the heating temperature from 700 to 900 °C, the initial coarse ferrite-pearlite structure transform into equiaxed ultrafine ferrite (1—3 μm) and precipitates such as (Nb, Ti)(C, N) are uniformly distributed in the matrix. The average dislocation density of the specimens after hot roll-forming at heating temperature of 900 °C decreases dramatically compared with those of the specimens subjected to the cold RFP. Furthermore, a typical characteristic of ductile fracture mechanism and the high impact energy are more convinced that the specimens deformed above 900 °C have obtained an optimal combination of strength and toughness.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30048-1
  • High temperature oxidation resistance of CrN/(Ti, Al, Zr, Cr)N bilayer
           films deposited by multi-arc ion plating
    • Authors: Shi-lu Zhao; Zhen Zhang; Jun Zhang; Jian-ming Wang; Zheng-gui Zhang; Shuang-hong Wang
      Pages: 343 - 349
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shi-lu Zhao, Zhen Zhang, Jun Zhang, Jian-ming Wang, Zheng-gui Zhang, Shuang-hong Wang
      CrN/(Ti, Al, Zr, Cr) N bilayer films were successfully deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating process using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. As a result of bilayered structure and addition of alloying elements (e. g. Al and Cr), the films exhibited excellent high temperature oxidation resistance under both short-term isothermal (up to 800 °C) and long-term cyclic (up to 600 °C) exposure conditions. Combined with pre-established outstanding tribological properties (e. g. maximum hardness of 4000 HV0.01 and maximum adhesion strength over 200 N), these observations make such films quite a promising candidate to extend the cutting tool life span and boost the performance in high-productivity, high-speed and high-feed cutting or in dry machining conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30049-3
  • Microstructure failure in ferrite-martensite dual phase steel under
           in-situ tensile test
    • Authors: Rui-bin Gou; Wen-jiao Dan; Wei-gang Zhang; Min Yu; Chun-yu Zhang; Yin-hu Qiao; Lu Ma
      Pages: 350 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Rui-bin Gou, Wen-jiao Dan, Wei-gang Zhang, Min Yu, Chun-yu Zhang, Yin-hu Qiao, Lu Ma
      To investigate microstructure failure in ferrite-martensite dual phase steel, in-situ observations were performed on multiple plate DP800 specimens during uniaxial tensile tests. Microstructure evolution of the observed region was investigated in details. The experimental data showed that micro-cracks in various regions differed in the initiation time, and micro-failures mainly occurred from the locations with typical characteristics of stress concentration (i. e. ferrite interiors, the interfaces of ferrite-martensite grains and the martensite-martensite interfaces). Growth of micro-crack generally experienced the following stages: cracking from martensite boundaries, tiny particles in ferrite interiors, or martensite interiors, propagating in ferrite, bypassing martensite boundaries, or passing through martensite-martensite interfaces, finally ending on martensite boundaries. Martensite was one important source of micro-failure and changed the propagation of micro-cracks significantly. Microstructure deformation was inhomogeneous in the stage of plastic deformation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30050-x
  • Development of Chinese duplex stainless steel in recent years
    • Authors: Zhi-gang Song; Han Feng; Shao-mei Hu
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhi-gang Song, Han Feng, Shao-mei Hu
      The development in research, production, applications, and national standards of Chinese duplex stainless steel (DSS) in recent years was introduced in light of the worldwide development in the field of DSS. The results showed that the output of Chinese DSS increased greatly, and at the same time its grade gradually evolved into a collaborative developing series including the main grade type 2205 and other DSS types in recent years. Economical DSS and super DSS underwent rapid development, especially after 2010. In recent years, the application of Chinese DSS has been expanded further not only in traditional application areas such as the petrochemical industry, but also in diverse new fields such as oil and gas transportation, chemical tanker manufacturing, nuclear power plants, and construction. Moreover, due to the increase in output and improvement in quality, as well as applications in Chinese projects, Chinese DSS has also been exported to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and other regions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T19:45:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30018-3
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Heriot-Watt University
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