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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 831 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (760 journals)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (760 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Policy Studies Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Polish Polar Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Yearbook of Environmental Law     Open Access  
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Population and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Population Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Population Studies: A Journal of Demography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Presence Teleoperators & Virtual Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Present Environment and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Presidential Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Przegląd Prawa Ochrony Środowiska     Open Access  
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Public Money & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Public Works Management & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Regional Environmental Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Religious Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Remediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Renaissance Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ReSource     Full-text available via subscription  
Resources     Open Access  
Resources and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Reuse/Recycle Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Review of English Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Capital Científico     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica de Gestão e Tecnologias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica em Gestão, Educação e Tecnologia Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica TECCEN     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Ciências     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Monografias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Scandinavian Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Studies of Reading     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Social Studies of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Christian Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Interreligious Dialogue     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Sustentabilidade em Debate     Open Access  
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
Tertiary Education and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transition Studies Review     Hybrid Journal  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International
  [SJR: 0.784]   [H-I: 16]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1006-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2817 journals]
  • Influences of Alloying Elements on Oxidation Behavior of Steels and
           Microstructure of Oxide Scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hui-bin WU, Di WANG, Peng-cheng ZHANG, Jin-ming LIANG, Sheng LIU, Di TANG
      In order to figure out the oxidation behavior of steels during heating, five micro-alloyed steels were subjected to continuous and isothermal oxidation using the thermo gravimetric analyzer and the Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructure of oxide scales, especially the thickness fractions of Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and FeO layers, was analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The micro-alloyed steels containing alloying elements (Si, Cr, Ni and Cu) show a higher oxidation resistance compared with the low carbon steel. It is found that alloying elements accumulated at scale/substrate interface during high temperature oxidation. Alloying elements function in two ways in the oxidation of steels: one is enhancing the scale/substrate interface and consequently suppressing the blister of scales; and the other is impeding the outward diffusion of iron cations from substrate to scales, resulting in the decrease of oxidation rate. As the diffusion of iron cations is impeded, the thickness fractions of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 of micro-alloyed steels are more than those of low carbon steels.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Effect of Warm Rolling on Micro-deformation Behavior and Mechanical
           Properties of Columnar-grained Fe-6. 5 mass%Si Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hua-dong FU, Yuan-ke MO, Long-chao ZHUO, Zhi-hao ZHANG, Jian-xin XIE
      Micro-deformation behavior and mechanical properties of columnar-grained Fe-6. 5 mass%Si alloy before and after warm rolling were investigated by means of micro-indentation and three-point bending tests. The results show that the columnar-grained Fe-6. 5 mass%Si alloy before warm rolling presents sink-in mode of micro-indentation, while pile-up mode with a number of arc-shaped deformation bands exists in the warm-rolled alloy. Compared with that of the alloy before warm rolling, the maximum bending fracture stress and maximum bending fracture deflection of the warm-rolled alloy are increased by 96% and 50%, respectively. The different micro-deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the columnar-grained Fe-6. 5 mass%Si alloy are ascribed to the changes of dislocation density, dislocation configuration and long-range order degree, which significantly improve the room temperature plasticity of the alloy after warm rolling.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • One-step Crystallization Kinetic Parameters of the Glass-ceramics Prepared
           from Stainless Steel Slag and Pickling Sludge
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shen-gen ZHANG, Jian YANG, Bo LIU, De-an PAN, Chun-li WU, Alex A. VOLINSKY
      One-step crystallization is one of the most energy conserving methods for glass-ceramics preparation. However, only a few kinetics studies focused on the glass-ceramics prepared by the one-step crystallization. The one-step crystallization kinetic parameters were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energy (E a) and the Avrami parameter (n) were calculated as 152. 79 kJ · mol−1 and 4. 39, respectively. These parameters indicate that continuous nucleation and three-dimensional crystal growth are the dominating mechanisms in the one-step crystallization process of the parent glass. The properties of the obtained glass-ceramics can be compared to the glass-ceramics prepared by the two-stage heat treatment and sintering method. This crystallization kinetics research can be used to evaluate the one-step crystallization potential of a parent glass.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Forming Limit and Thickness Transition Zone Movement for Tailor Rolled
           Blank during Drawing Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hua-wei ZHANG, Xiang-hua LIU, Li-zhong LIU, Ping HU, Jia-lu WU
      The process of automobile lightweight can be promoted by the application of tailor rolled blank (TRB) in the automobile industry. Therefore, research on the formability of TRB is of good practical significance and application value because of the enormous potential of TRB in the aspect of automobile lightweight. Aiming at the present condition of lack of researches on the influence of characteristic parameters on TRB drawing process, the drawing formability of TRB was studied with a combination method of simulation and experiment by taking square box as the research object. Firstly, drawing simulation and experiment of TRB were carried out. Then, effects of thickness transition zone (TTZ) position and blank size on the drawing formability of TRB were analyzed. Forming limit and TTZ movement for TRB square box during the drawing process were respectively discussed, when transition zones of TRB were located at different positions and blanks were of different sizes. The results indicate that lubrication condition exerts greater influence on TRB forming limit in comparison with TTZ movement, and the smaller blank size and TTZ being located at the blank center or slightly offset to the thinner side are preferable for acquiring greater forming limit and smaller TTZ movement.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Flow Behavior and
           Microstructural Evolution of Super Duplex Stainless Steel under Hot
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ming MA, Hua DING, Zheng-you TANG, Jing-wei ZHAO, Zhou-hua JIANG, Guang-wei FAN
      Hot compression tests were carried out in the temperature range of 1223–1473 K and strain rate range of 0. 01–30 s−1 to investigate the flow behavior and microstructural evolution of super duplex stainless steel 2507 (SDSS2507). It is found that most of the flow curves exhibit a characteristic of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and the flow stress increases with the decrease of temperature and the increase of strain rate. The apparent activation energy Q of SDSS2507 with varying true strain and strain rate is determined. As the strain increases, the value of Q declines in different ways with varying strain rate. The microstructural evolution characteristics and the strain partition between the two constituent phases are significantly affected by the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z). At a lower lnZ, dynamic recovery (DRV) and continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) of the ferrite dominate the softening mechanism during the compression. At this time, steady state deformation takes place at the last stage of deformation. In contrast, a higher lnZ will facilitate the plastic deformation of the austenite and then activate the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) of the austenite, which leads to a continuous decline of the flow stress even at the last deformation stage together with CDRX of the ferrite.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Descaling Behavior of 430 Hot-rolled Stainless Steel in HCl-based Solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ying-ying YUE, Cheng-jun LIU, Pei-yang SHI, Mao-fa JIANG, Li-yan QIN, Guang-wei FAN
      Descaling of hot-rolled stainless steel is generally implemented through pickling process in HNO3-HF mixed acids, which induces severe environmental concerns of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) gases and nitrites. According to the electrochemical measurement, the mass loss test and the appearance analysis, a new pickling process which employed HCl-based solution was proposed and evaluated to provide theoretical basis for the development of environment-friendly and highly effective pickling process. Under the experimental condition, the HCl-based solution can compete with ordinary HNO3-HF mixed acids in terms of pickling efficiency, surface integrity and the removal of Cr-depleted layer. The descaling process of 430 hot-rolled stainless steel in the HCl-based solution consisted of three steps. The descaling solution penetrated the oxide scales into the underlying metal, dissolving the Cr-depleted layer and part of substrates. The oxide scales peeled off from the stainless steel and a polished and smooth surface was exposed. The descaled stainless steel was dissolved uniformly in the HCl-based solution; therefore, the pickling duration was vital for desired surface integrity. Under the static condition, the appropriate descaling time of 430 hot-rolled stainless steel in HCl-based solution was 400 s.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Reduction of Carbon-bearing Pellets of Oolitic Hematite in a Shaft Furnace
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wei WU, Jian-jun GAO, Jia-qing ZENG, Yuan-hong QI, Jian-chang WANG, Xi-dong ZHANG
      When carbon-bearing pellets of oolitic hematite are treated in a shaft furnace, some problems are typically encountered: the metallization ratio of the metal pellets is low; the carbon-bearing pellets bond with each other at high temperatures; and the separation of phosphorus from iron is difficult. To solve these problems, experiments were conducted on oolitic hematite reduction in a resistance furnace and semi-industrial test shaft furnace. The results showed that the metallization rate reached 90% or greater under the conditions of a reduction temperature of 1150 °C, an atmosphere of simulated flue gas, and a reduction time between 1. 5 and 2. 0 h. The problem of high-temperature bonding among pellets can be solved by increasing the strength of the pellets, coating their surface with a surface transfer agent and maintaining an even temperature inside the shaft furnace. The basicity of the ore blend exerted no obvious effect on the magnetic concentrate and phosphorus content. The phosphorus content in the magnetic concentrate can be further reduced by improving the grinding capacity of the ball mills used in the experiments. On the basis of the experimental results related to oolitic hematite reduction with carbon-bearing pellets in a shaft furnace, the experimental requirements were satisfied with an average 88. 27% total Fe content and 0. 581% P content in the pellets.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Recognition of Blast Furnace Gas Flow Center Distribution Based on
           Infrared Image Processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Lin SHI, You-bin WEN, Guang-sheng ZHAO, Tao YU
      To address the problems about the difficulty in accurate recognition of distribution features of gas flow center at blast furnace throat and determine the relationship between gas flow center distribution and gas utilization rate, a method for recognizing distribution features of blast furnace gas flow center was proposed based on infrared image processing, and distribution features of blast furnace gas flow center and corresponding gas utilization rates were categorized by using fuzzy C-means clustering and statistical methods. A concept of gas flow center offset was introduced. The results showed that, when the percentage of gas flow center without offset exceeded 85%, the average blast furnace gas utilization rate was as high as 41%; when the percentage of gas flow center without offset exceeded 50%, the gas utilization rate was primarily the center gas utilization rate, and exhibited a positive correlation with no center offset degree; when the percentage of gas flow center without offset was below 50% but the sum of the percentage of gas flow center without offset and that of gas flow center with small offset exceeded 86%, the gas utilization rate depended on both the center and the edges, and was primarily the edge gas utilization rate. The method proposed was able to accurately and effectively recognize gas flow center distribution state and the relationship between it and gas utilization rate, providing evidence in favor of on-line blast furnace control.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Prediction of Critical Conditions for Dynamic Recrystallization in 316LN
           Austenitic Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xin-gang LIU, Li-ge ZHANG, Rong-sheng QI, Lei CHEN, Miao JIN, Bao-feng GUO
      Hot compression experiments conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator and metallographic observation tests were employed to study the critical conditions of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 316LN austenitic stainless steel. The true stress-true strain curves of 316LN were obtained at deformation temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1200 °C and strain rates ranging from 0. 001 s−1 to 10 s−1 . Based on the above tests, the critical conditions of DRX were determined and compared with those obtained from work-hardening theory and the Cingara-McQueen flow stress model. Furthermore, the microstructure was observed to validate the calculated results. The ratio of critical strain to peak strain (ɛ c/ɛ p) for 316LN was determined, and the quantitative relationship between the critical strain and the deformation parameters of 316LN was elucidated. The results demonstrated that the onset of DRX corresponds to the constant normalized strain hardening rate (Γ), namely, the critical strain hardening rate Γ c for 316LN is equal to 0. 65.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Effect of Soda Ash on Properties of Mold Flux and Mineralogical Structures
           of Flux Film
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xiu-li HAN, Yi-fei ZHANG, Lei LIU, Li-na LIU, Han ZHANG
      During continuous casting, properties of mold flux and mineralogical structures of flux film play important roles in controlling steel quality. The effect of soda ash on the physical properties and crystallization characteristics of mold flux was investigated using process mineralogy, including polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe, etc. Mold flux was mainly prepared using cement clinker and industrial mineral materials under laboratory conditions, and the mineralogical structures of the flux film were systematically identified and quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that, by increasing the soda ash content from 10 mass% to 18 mass%, the crystallization temperature, critical cooling rate and crystallization ratio of the flux film decreased, but the crystallization ratio still reached 75% after adding soda ash, and the mineral compositions and microstructures of the flux film changed slightly. When the soda ash content exceeded 14 mass%, the critical cooling rate and the crystallization ratio decreased slightly, whereas the mineral content of the flux film changed evidently, with a large amount of cuspidine precipitation and a significant decrease in the wollastonite content until it reached zero, which resulted in deterioration of the lubrication of the flux film.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Wear Behavior and Mechanism of a Sliding Pair of 0. lC-3Cr-2W-V Nitrided
           Steel Rubbing against an Aluminum Bronze Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Guang-hong WANG, Sheng-guan QU, Zhi-hua XIONG, Fu-qiang LAI, Xiao-qiang LI, Mao-sheng YANG
      Wear behavior and mechanism of plasma nitrided steel oscillating against a heat-treated and an untreated aluminum bronze alloy were investigated using an Optimol SRV tribometer. The influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the alloy was evaluated. Furthermore, the wear debris was also examined to understand the wear mechanisms. The results show that a 220–230 μm nitrided layer, which was harder than the substrate, was obtained on the steel surface. The tensile strength and hardness of the alloy are found to be significantly improved by the heat treatment associated with low impact toughness. The heat treatment of the alloy did not obviously decrease the friction coefficient of the nitrided steel-bronze couple. However, the wear loss of the nitrided steel increased when it mated with the treated bronze by a severe three-body abrasion. The nitrided steel was mainly damaged by fatigue spalling. Under plane contact conditions, the wear debris was mainly generated from the bronze part and can escape from the interface before being oxidized, leading to the phase structure of all the debris being copper rather than copper oxides.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Factors Affecting the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-high-strength
           Bainitic Steel Containing W and 0.33 mass% C
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shi-meng ZHOU, Xing-wang CHENG, You-jing ZHANG, Meng WANG, Wen JIANG, Hong-nian CAI
      A novel ultra-high-strength bainitic steel was designed. The analysis of its mechanical properties by quasistatic testing showed that upper bainitic steel exhibited an ultimate tensile strength of 2260 MPa (engineering stress) and an ultimate compressive strength of more than 2700 MPa (true stress). The ultra-high strength of upper bainitic steel was mainly attributed to untempered martensite and upper bainite with a feather-like microstructure. Moreover, lower bainitic steel demonstrated an ultimate tensile strength of 1922 MPa (engineering stress) and an ultimate compressive strength of 2500 MPa (true stress). The ultra-high strength of lower bainitic steel was primarily due to untempered martensite and lower bainite with an acicular microstructure. The untempered martensite in the two kinds of bainitic steels was produced in different ways. The dynamic test results showed that the ultimate compressive strengths of the two bainitic steels were maintained at 1600 MPa (true stress) under high strain rates (1100 and 2200 s−1) at 600 °C, because of the added tungsten, confirming the satisfactory hot hardness property of the steel. Furthermore, lower bainitic steel showed better comprehensive mechanical properties than upper bainitic steel.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Microstructure and Properties of Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloys Reinforced with
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hai-yun LIU, Zhi-liang SONG, Qing CAO, Shao-ping CHEN, Qing-sen MENG
      The hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys with different contents of TiB2 and Nb were prepared by self-shielded flux cored arc welding. The microstructure of a series of hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys added with various TiB2 and Nb contents was investigated by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, their Rockwell hardness, microhardness and resistance to abrasive wear were tested. The results showed that the microstructure of a series of hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys consisted mainly of martensite, austenite, primary M7C3 carbides and eutectic M7C3 carbides. With the addition of TiB2, a new hard-phase TiC was produced in the hardfacing alloys. And in the alloys added with TiB2 and Nb, a new hard composite phase TiC-NbC was formed. The microhardness of the matrix was improved by adding TiB2 and Nb, but the effect on the Rockwell hardness of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys was insignificant. The addition of TiB2 and Nb can also decrease the size of the primary M7C3 carbides and make the primary M7C3 homogeneous. As a result, the reinforced matrix, the more homogeneous primary M7C3 carbides, and the new hard-phase TiC-NbC all improved the wear resistance of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Effect of Temperature on Microstructure and Formability of Al-10 mass% Si
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jie ZHANG, She-ming JIANG, Qi-fu ZHANG, Chang-sheng LIU
      The type-1 aluminized (Al-10 mass% Si) coating on hot stamped steel is used in commercial applications. The effect of temperature on microstructure and formability of the Al-10 mass% Si coating was investigated. Hot-dip aluminized 22MnB5 steel was heated at 870, 900, 930, and 1050 °C for 5 min. After heat treatment at different temperatures, the microstructure of Al-10 mass% Si was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that when the Al-10 mass% Si coating was heated at 870 °C for 5 min, three types of intermetallic phases were formed: two ternary Fe-Si-Al phases (Fe2 SiAl7 + Fe2 Si2 Al5, and Fe2 SiAl2 + Fe2Si2Al5) and one binary Fe-Al phase (FeAl3). The phases in the coating became Fe2SiAl2 + Fe2Si2 Al5 and FeAl3, the binary Fe-Al phase near the interface became Fe2Al5 and the Si-rich layers were decreased with the increase of heating temperature. When the heat treatment was 1050 °C for 5 min, the Si-rich layer disappeared, the coating consisted of FeAl and Fe3Al, and the Kirkendall voids were formed. When the heating temperature was increased through 870, 900, and 930 °C, the coating hardness was reduced and cracks were formed in the coating after hot stamping. The formability of the coating with temperature change was confirmed by a hot stamping test. When heated at 1050 °C, the coating was formable but continuous Kirkendall voids were observed.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of NANOBAIN Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yao HUANG, Xue-li ZHANG, Wei-ning LIU, Xu-min WANG, Jun-ke HAN
      The microstructure and mechanical properties of NANOBAIN steel treated at different isothermal temperatures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEEM), uniaxial tensile tests and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that bainitic ferrite (BF) plate was made of basic shear transformation units arranged in the same direction of subunits. The existence of defects, such as nanoscale twinning and dislocation, suggested that the growth of transformation units was controlled by the surrounding defect plane with dislocation, which was consistent with the moving direction of BF/austenite interface parallel to the twinning plane. The behavior of work hardening indicated that mechanical stability of microstructures obtained at 250 °C and 300 °C was much more stable than that obtained at 210 °C. The evolution of carbon partitioning in retained austenite and bainitic ferrite also indicated that austenite was enriched in carbon at the initial stage step by step; after the formation of BF, the austenite did not seem to be greatly enriched in carbon and the carbon content showed a little decrease instead; subsequently, a phenomenon of little decarburization of supersaturated bainitic ferrite has also been found.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • EBSD Investigation on Effect of Cooling Rate on Microstructure and
           Transformation Textures of High Strength Hot-rolled Steel Plates
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Nancy M. LOPEZ GRANADOS, Armando SALINAS RODRIGUEZ
      The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and transformation textures of high strength hot-rolled steels was investigated. Heat treated samples subjected to different cooling conditions were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopes using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM). The experimental results demonstrate that there is a significant effect of cooling rate on microstructures and textures resulting from phase transformation. Slow cooling rates lead to the appearance of the cube (001) [0 0], rotated cube (001) [ 0]/(001) [1 0], Goss (110)[001] and rotated Goss (110) [1 0] components. In contrast, textures developed at rapid cooling rates are preferably of Cu (112)[11 ], Br (110) [11 ], transformed Cu (113) [1 0] and transformed Br (332) [113]/(112) [1 1]. These texture changes are attributed to the selective character of the phase transformation. The OIM technique was used to have a better understanding of the formation of phases and their relationship between microstructure and processing conditions. The volume fraction of micro-constituents resulting from phase transformation such as bainite, martensite and different types of ferrite, can be measured satisfactorily by this technique correlating image quality of EBSD patterns to specific phases.

      PubDate: 2016-03-11T05:41:37Z
  • Metadynamic Recrystallization Behavior of As-cast 904L Superaustenitic
           Stainless Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wei ZHANG, Jing ZHANG, Ying HAN, Rong LIU, De-ning ZOU, Guan-jun QIAO
      The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of as-cast 904 L superaustenitic stainless steel was investigated by double pass isothermal compression tests at temperatures of 950 — 1150 °C, strain rates of 0.05 — 5 s−1 and interval of 1 — 100 s. The effects of working parameters (deformation temperature, strain rate, pre-strain and interval time) on the flow curves and microstructural evolution were discussed. The MDRX fraction increased obviously with the increase of deformation temperature, strain rate and interval time. The MDRX softening was controlled by the migration of grain boundary, annihilation of dislocation and dynamic recrystallization. Moreover, the kinetic model was established for the prediction of MDRX behavior of as-cast 904 L superaustenitic stainless steel based on the experimental data. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental values was achieved (correlation coefficient R 2=0.98), indicating a satisfactory accuracy.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Distribution Characteristics and Reinforcing Behavior of (Ti, Nb)C
           Reinforced Particle in the Coating Fabricated by Laser Rapid Cladding
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Qing-tang LI, Yong-ping LEI, Han-guang FU, Zhong-wei WU, Jian LIN
      (Ti, Nb)C reinforced Fe-based laser coatings were prepared with normal and high scanning velocities of the laser beam. The distribution characteristics of reinforced particles in the coatings were investigated. The mechanical properties of coatings were tested. The results showed that the morphologies of the microstructure and the reinforced particle changed dramatically at high solidification rate due to rapid laser processing compared with that prepared by normal processing. Two kinds of particles were observed in the coating. One was (Ti, Nb)C multiple carbide particle with the size of micron and sub-micron scales, in which a mass of dislocations were found. Another was nano-sized particle including α-Fe and (Ti, Nb) C obtained by rapid solidification. The microstructure of the coatings was highly refined and a large number of twin crystals were found in matrix. The results of mechanical properties test revealed that the wear resistance of the coating was improved by rapid laser processing, compared with that of the coating prepared with normal speeds. The above-mentioned conclusion indicated that rapid laser cladding can promote not only the processing efficiency but also the mechanical properties of the coating.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Effect of Cyclic Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of
           Medium Carbon Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhi-qing LÜ, Hui-fang ZHANG, Qing MENG, Zhen-hua WANG, Wan-tang FU
      The microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon steel after cyclic heat treatment were investigated. The effects of cyclic numbers and long time annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental steel were compared. A short-duration (5 min) holding at 1023 K (above A 1 temperature) and a short-duration (3 min) holding at 893 K are adopted in each cyclic heat treatment. The spheroidization is accelerated during cyclic heat treatment, and the spheroidizing ratio grows with cyclic numbers. After 12-cycle heat treatments, there are few incompletely spheroidized regions in the specimens, and cementite lamellae mostly change into cementite particles. The morphological character of cementite for 12 cycles is similar to that undergoing annealing for 10 h at 973 K. The strength of the experimental steel after 5-cycle heat treatment is the lowest in the following cyclic heat treatment, but it is still higher than that of specimens with subcritical annealing over a long period (10 h). After 12-cycle heat treatment, the strength of the experimental steel is close to that of the normalized steel, and the plasticity is the best in all heat-treated specimens.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Microstructure Characterization and Mechanical Properties of TRIP-aided
           Steel under Rapid Heating for Different Holding Time
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): De-chao XU, Yan-dong LIU, Jun LI, Qing-ge MENG, Pei LI
      In order to develop a comprehensive understanding about the effect of different holding time under rapid heating on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, continuous annealing process simulations were performed using a thermal system with resistance heating method. The morphology and distribution of all phases present in the microstructure and the mechanical properties of TRIP steel were revealed. It appeared that the final tensile strength of the TRIP steel increased and retained austenite carbon content decreased with increasing holding time. An overlap between ferrite recrystallization and austenitization was observed during intercritical holding. In addition, the work hardening of the samples was evaluated by calculating the instantaneous n value as a function of the true strain. The difference in work hardening behavior corresponds to the rate of the retained austenite transformation during straining, which can be attributed to the carbon content and the morphology of the retained austenite.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Fuzzy C-means Rule Generation for Fuzzy Entry Temperature Prediction in a
           Hot Strip Mill
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): José Angel BARRIOS, César VILLANUEVA, Alberto CAVAZOS, Rafael COLAS
      Variable estimation for finishing mill set-up in hot rolling is greatly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions and product changes. The fuzzy C-means algorithm was evaluated for rule-base generation for fuzzy and fuzzy grey-box temperature estimation. Experimental data were collected from a real-life mill and three different sets were randomly drawn. The first set was used for rule-generation, the second set was used for training those systems with learning capabilities, while the third one was used for validation. The performance of the developed systems was evaluated by five performance measures applied over the prediction error with the validation set and was compared with that of the empirical rule-base fuzzy systems and the physical model used in plant. The results show that the fuzzy C-means generated rule-bases improve temperature estimation; however, the best results are obtained when fuzzy C-means algorithm, grey-box modeling and learning functions are combined. Application of fuzzy C-means rule generation brings improvement on performance of up to 72%.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Application of Wood Char in Processing Oolitic High-phosphorus Hematite
           for Phosphorus Removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hui-qing TANG, Yan-qi QIN, Teng-fei QI, Zhi-lei DONG, Qing-guo XUE
      Phosphorus removal from oolitic high-phosphorus hematite using direct reduction followed by melting separation was investigated. At the direct reduction stage, highly volatile wood char was prepared by carbonizing jujube wood at 673 K for 2 h and was used as reducing agent. The results of the direct reduction tests show that at a temperature of 1373 K, a char mixing ratio of 0.8, and a reduction time of 10 — 25 min, the briquettes reached a metallization degree of 80% — 84% and a residual carbon content of 0.13 — 1.98 mass%. Phosphorus remained in the gangue as calcium phosphate after reduction. The results of the melting separation tests show that residual carbon in reduced briquette negatively affects the phosphorus content (w [p]) in hot metal. When the reduced briquettes obtained under the aforementioned conditions were used for melting separation, hot metal suitable for basic oxygen steelmaking (w [p]<0.4 mass%) could not be obtained from metallic briquettes with a residual carbon content more than 1.0 mass%. In contrast, it could be obtained from metallic briquettes with residual carbon content less than 0.35 mass% by mixing with 2%—4% Na2CO3.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Work Hardening Behavior and Stability of Retained Austenite for Quenched
           and Partitioned Steels
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Cun-yu WANG, Ying CHANG, Jie YANG, Wen-quan CAO, Han DONG, Yi-de WANG
      Both microstructure and mechanical properties of low alloy steels treated by quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process were examined. The mixed microstructure of martensite and large-fractioned retained austenite (about 27.3 %) was characterized and analyzed, excellent combinations of total elongation of 19 % and tensile strength of 1835 MPa were obtained, and three-stage work hardening behavior was demonstrated during tensile test. The enhanced mechanical properties and work hardening behavior were explained based on the transformation-induced plasticity effect of large-fractioned austenite.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Constitutive Modeling for Flow Behaviors of Superaustenitic Stainless
           Steel S32654 during Hot Deformation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): En-xiang PU, Han FENG, Min LIU, Wen-jie ZHENG, Han DONG, Zhi-gang SONG
      Hot deformation behavior of superaustenitic stainless steel S32654 was investigated with hot compression tests at temperatures of 950 — 1250 °C and strain rates of 0.001 — 10 s−1. Above 1150 °C, with strain rate lower than 0.1 s−1, the flow curves exhibit nearly steady-state behavior, while at higher strain rate, continuous flow softening occurs. To provide a precise prediction of flow behavior for the alloy, the constitutive modeling considering effect of strain was derived on the basis of the obtained experimental data and constitutive relationship which incorporated Arrhenius term and hyperbolic-sine type equation. The material constants α, n, Q and lnA are found to be functions of the strain and can be fitted employing eighth-order polynomial. The developed constitutive model can be employed to describe the deformation behavior of superaustenitic stainless steel S32654.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Effects of Alloy Element and Microstructure on Corrosion Resistant
           Property of Deposited Metals of Weathering Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Xiao-ming XIAO, Yun PENG, Cheng-yong MA, Zhi-ling TIAN
      Alloy element and microstructure are key factors that dominate mechanical and corrosion resistant properties of weathering steel. The effect of Mo on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistant property of deposited metal was investigated. Experimental results show that with the increase of Mo content in deposited metals, the phase transformation temperature decreases, and the ferrite zone in CCT diagram moves rightward, resulting in enlarged bainite zone and reduced ferrite and pearlite zone. The addition of 0.24 mass% Mo in deposited metal results in the increase of tensile strength, more M-A constituent and less high angle grain which reduce the low temperature toughness. It is found that Mo can raise the weathering resistance of deposited metal in industrial atmosphere. Analysis indicates that Mo may enrich in the inner rust layer, produce MoO3, enhance the formation of compact rust film and impede the anode dissolution reaction. Granular bainite in deposited metals displays better corrosion resistance than acicular ferrite during the initial corrosion stage, but its long-term influence on the corrosion resistance is limited.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Influence of Na2CO3 as Additive on Direct Reduction of Boron-bearing
           Magnetite Concentrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yong-li LI, Jing-kui QU, Guang-ye WEI, Tao QI
      Boron-bearing magnetite concentrate is typically characterized by low grade of iron and boron (w TFc = 51 %— 54 %, w B2O3 = 6 % — 8%), as well as the close intergrowth of ascharite phase and magnetite phase. A promising technology was proposed to separate iron and boron by coupling the direct reduction of iron oxides and Na activation of boron minerals together. The influence of Na2CO3 as additive on the direct reduction of boron-bearing magnetite was studied by chemical analysis, kinetic analysis, XRD analysis and SEM analysis. The results showed that the addition of Na2CO3 not only activated boron minerals, but also reduced the activation energy of the reaction and promoted the reduction of iron oxides. Besides, the addition of Na2CO3 changed the composition and melting point of non-ferrous phase, and then promoted the growth and aggregation of iron grains, which was conducive to the subsequent magnetic separation. Thus, the coupling of the two processes is advantageous.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Evaluation of Microstructure and Magnetic Properties in Non-oriented
           Electrical Steel Strained by Tension
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): J. SALINAS B., A. SALINAS R.
      The effects of deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels were investigated. Box-annealed electrical steel sheets were deformed by tension at four different strains: 3%, 8%, 12% and 25%. The internal grain misorientation caused by tensile deformation was measured by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) with grain orientation spread (GOS) as an indicator of the lattice distortion. The experimental results showed that the average GOS value increases with the strain. The microstructure and crystallographic texture of deformed samples did not show a significant change in samples strained below 25%. However, the magnetic properties were strongly affected: coercivity was directly proportional to the square root of the GOS value and energy losses increased as the strain level was increased.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Study on Reaction of CO2 Gas with
           Hot Metal
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Guo WEI, Zhi-tao LI, Zi-liang LI, Qiang-jian GAO, Feng-man SHEN
      The reaction of CO2 gas with hot metal was investigated based on the thermodynamic analysis and experimental results. It shows that both silicon and carbon in hot metal can be oxidized by CO2 gas in the temperature range of 1300— 1500 °C. When using graphite crucible, temperature has little influence on final mass percent of carbon W [c] because of the carburization effect. Decarburization degree rises significantly with increasing gas injection rate and W [c] can be reduced to 3.2% at most when using MgO crucible. Lower temperature or higher gas injection rate is propitious to promote desilication reaction, but only 5% — 10% of desilication ratio could be obtained in 20 min. The final mass percent of silicon W [Si] when using MgO crucible is lower than that when using graphite crucible. Experimental results also demonstrate that CO2 injection has no effect on the concentration of manganese, sulfur and phosphorus in hot metal. In view of the weak oxidation ability and temperature drop of hot metal, CO2 gas is suggested to be used as carrier gas in desilication process rather than oxidizing agent.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Flow Characteristics and Inclusion Removal in a Ten-strand Continuous
           Casting Tundish: Physical Modelling and Industrial Trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Shu-guo ZHENG, Miao-yong ZHU, Ye-lian ZHOU, Wang SU
      The flow characteristics and inclusion removal in a ten-strand continuous casting tundish were investigated with physical modelling and industrial trials. The results show that, among the strands, the strand with the minimum dimensionless time of the first appearance of tracer at the tundish exit appears to be the worst one for inclusion removal, while the strand with the maximum dimensionless mean residence time shows the best inclusion removal efficiency. The inclusion number decreases with increasing inclusion size for all strands. The inclusion number distribution among strands is the same for all inclusion sizes and the descending order of inclusion number is basically consistent with the ascending order of dimensionless mean residence time among individual strands. However, when the strand with the minimum dimensionless time of the first appearance of tracer at the tundish exit is not the same one with the minimum dimensionless mean residence time, the former seems to be inferior to the latter for inclusion removal.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Semi-continuous Equal-channel
           Angular Extruded Interstitial-free Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bo YAN, Si-hai JIAO, Dian-hua ZHANG
      An innovative method called semi-continuous equal-channel angular extrusion (SC-ECAE) has been developed to produce ultrafine grained steel by inducing severe plastic deformation. In contrast to the external forces that are exerted on specimens in traditional ECAE, the driving forces are applied on the dies in the novel SC-EACE process. Commercial interstitial-free steel sheets with width of 160 mm and thickness of 2 mm were processed repeatedly to various passes at room temperature using this method. The microstructural evolution was characterized using high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and the mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing. The EBSD images indicated that the fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs) began to increase gradually after four passes; after six passes, elongated HAB structures with nearly submicron-scale average spacings were formed. The tensile testing results showed that strengthening was accompanied by a decrease in tensile ductility, but no significant anisotropy was observed. After 10 passes, a final HAB fraction of about 90% and an overall grain size of 0.55 μm, yield strength of 638.7 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 710.3 MPa, and a total elongation of 12.0 % were obtained.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Analysis of Non-uniform Mechanical Behavior for a Continuous Casting Mold
           Based on Heat Flux from Inverse Problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 2
      Author(s): Feng-ming DU, Xu-dong WANG, Yu LIU, Tian-yi LI, Man YAO
      The distortion of mold plates plays an important role in the formation of surface cracks on continuously cast steel products. To investigate the non-uniform distortion of a mold, a full-scale stress model of the mold was developed. An inverse algorithm was applied to calculate the heat flux using the temperatures measured by the thermocouples buried inside the mold plates. Based on this, a full-scale, finite-element stress model, including four copper plates, a nickel layer and water slots in different depths, was built to determine the complex mechanical behavior of the continuous casting mold used to produce steel slabs. The heat flux calculated by the inverse algorithm was applied to the stress model to analyze the non-uniform mechanical behavior. The results showed that the stress and distortion distributions of the four copper plates were not symmetrical, which reflected the non-uniform distortion behaviors of copper plates, water slots, nickel layer and the corner region of the mold. The gap between the mold and the slab was increased because of the corner distortion, which was very important for the heat transfer of initial solidifying shell, and it may be a major reason for the slow cooling of the slab corner.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T15:38:20Z
  • Estimation of Energy Consumption in COREX Process Using a Modified Rist
           Operating Diagram
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Wen-long ZHAN, Keng WU, Zhi-jun HE, Qi-hang LIU, Xiao-juan WU
      Fuel consumption in the COREX-3000 process run in Baosteel is currently higher than the design index. Therefore, mass and heat balance equations for the COREX process were established using the basic principles included in the Rist operating diagram for blast furnace (BF) as a reference. Thermodynamic calculations were then used to modify the Rist operating diagram so that it was suitable for the COREX process. The modified Rist operating diagram was then applied for the evaluation of metallization rate (MR) and fuel structure to reduce the energy consumption in the COREX process. The modified Rist operating diagram for the shaft furnace (SF) provided a nearly ideal value for the restriction point W when the metallization rate was increased, while the point P on the operating line for the melter gasifier (MG) moved upward due to reduction in the heat required in hearth. The feasibility of reducing the energy consumption during the COREX process by changing the fuel structure was also demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:38:17Z
  • Population Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Ti-stabilized Ultra-low Carbon
           Steels after Deoxidation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Wen YANG, Ying ZHANG, Li-feng ZHANG, Hao-jian DUAN, Li WANG
      Population density function (PDF), which can eliminate the arbitrariness caused by the choice of the number and the size of bins compared to the well-used histograms, was introduced to analyze the amount of inclusions. The population evolution of oxide inclusions in forms of PDF in Ti-stabilized ultra-low carbon steels after deoxidation during industrial RH refining and continuous casting processes was analyzed using an automated SEM-EDS system. It was found that after deoxidation till the early stage of casting, the alumina inclusions exhibited a lognormal PDF distribution, and three factors including the existence of a large amount of alumina clusters, the generation of alumina from the reduction of Al-Ti-O inclusions and the reoxidation of molten steel were estimated as the reasons. The shape parameter σ was high after deoxidation and then decreased after Ti treatment, indicating that in a short period after deoxidation, the size of alumina inclusions was widely distributed. After Ti treatment, the distribution of inclusion size was more concentrated. The scale parameter m decreased with time during the whole refining process, indicating that the proportion of large inclusions decreased during refining. Contrarily, the Al-Ti-O inclusions presented a fractal PDF distribution except at the end of casting with fractal dimension D of 4.3, and the constant of proportionality C decreased with time during RH refining and increased during casting process. The reoxidation of steel by slag entrapped from ladle was considered as the reason for the lognormal PDF behavior of Al-Ti-O inclusions at the end of casting.

      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:38:17Z
  • Analysis on Initial Defects Based on Mechanical State of Meniscus Shell
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Xiang-ning MENG, Ren-gan LIN, Jie YANG, Xiao-jing ZUO, Miao-yong ZHU
      The meniscus shell plays an important role in slab quality and process operation for continuously cast steel. One decisive reason is initial solidifying shell and growing dendrite under the mechanical stress caused by mold oscillation and liquid steel flow to generate disturbance of casting. The mechanical state of meniscus shell was analyzed using mathematical models in combination with thermo-physical properties and flow rate of steel to shed light on the formation of initial defects. The results show that the mold oscillation is a critical factor on the initial crack formation because the periodic stress makes the shell bending. The formed crack may also expand and propagate due to the following secondary cooling and straightening behavior. The primary dendrite has high possibility to be broken by fluid flow in the solidification front to lead to the non-uniform thickness of solidifying shell. The inter-dendrite bridging is also likely to be formed to produce other internal defects, such as air hole and solute enrichment in the residual molten steel located in the bridging area.

      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:38:17Z
  • Critical Shear Offset of Fracture in a Zr-based Metallic Glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhi-yuan LIU, Yong YANG, Chain-tsuan LIU
      The nanoscale shear band operation process of Zr55 Pd10 Cu20 Ni5 Al10 metallic glass (MG) was reined in by constant force during well-designed loading-holding-unloading cyclic microcompression test. Through the test, it is revealed that the whole shear banding process involves three stages: shear band initiation, shear sliding and shear band arrest. Based on the energy balance principle, the size-affected speed of shear sliding is interpreted. The energy originated from the shear sliding leads to heat-up of the shear plane; therefore, the temperature in shear band increases with the size of shear offset caused by the energy accumulation during shear sliding. Taking the glass transition temperature as the critical temperature of fracture for the Zr-based MG, the critical shear offset is predicted to be approximately 190 μm, fully in line with the experimental observation. This directly proved that the fracture of the MG is caused by the temperature rise during shear sliding.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Interactions of Shear Bands in a Ductile Metallic Glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li-shan HUO, Jun-qiang WANG, Jun-tao HUO, Yuan-yun ZHAO, He MEN, Chun-tao CHANG, Xin-min WANG, Run-wei LI
      Shear bands play a key role in the plastic deformation of metallic glasses (MGs). Even though there are extensive studies on the initiation and propagation of shear bands, the interactions among them have not been systematically studied yet. The interactions between the primary shear bands (PSBs) and secondary shear bands (SSBs) in a ductile Zr-based MG were studied. The residual stress near PSBs can deflect the propagation direction and reduce the propagation velocity of SSBs, which contributes to the plasticity and toughness of the MG. It was demonstrated that the probability and strength of the interactions between PSBs and SSBs would become stronger for MGs with larger Young's modulus and smaller shear modulus, i.e., larger Poisson's ratio. These results are valuable in understanding the plastic deformation of MGs and may be helpful in designing new MGs with desirable mechanical properties.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Effect of Oxygen on Microstructure Evolution and Glass Formation of
           Zr-based Metallic Glasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jia-lin CHENG, Guang CHEN, Qiang-qiang ZENG, Lu YUN, Feng XU
      The effect of oxygen on the microstructure evolution and glass formation of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) was studied in detail. It was found that oxygen did not form oxides or dissolve in glass matrix, but induced the precipitation of α-Zr which has the high affinity and solubility of oxygen in the Zr-based bulk metallic glass (Zr-BMG). With the precipitation of α-Zr, the remaining melts contain much lower oxygen content and have strong glass formation, resulting in the formation of α-Zr/BMG composite. The findings provide an important insight into the mechanism of the oxygen on glass formation, and give us a useful guideline to avoid the oxygen detrimental for designing new BMGs.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Serration Behavior in Zr-Cu-Al Glass-forming Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhong WANG, Jiao-jiao LI, Li-wei REN, Yong ZHANG, Jun-wei QIAO, Bao-cheng WANG
      The metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were studied by statistical analysis during plastic deformation at the strain rates of 2×10−2, 2×10−3, and 2×10−4 s−1, respectively. No serration events occur in both MGMCs and BMGs during compression tests at the strain rate of 2×10−2 s−1 When deformed at the strain rate of 2 × 10−3 s−1, the BMG displays a larger plasticity, which is due to the larger serration events followed by a series of small serrations caused by the continuous movement of free volume. The amplitudes and elastic-energy densities increase with increasing the strain rates owing to many serrations in MGMCs. It is deduced that the Young's modulus decreases from the normalized stress drop and fluctuations are observed on stress-strain curves, which is attributed to a lower coefficient according to the stick-slip model.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Crystallization of a Ti-based Bulk Metallic Glass Induced by
           Electropulsing Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yong-jiang HUANG, Xiang CHENG, Hong-bo FAN, Shi-song GUAN, Zhi-liang NING, Jian-fei SUN
      The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMC) has been studied. The maximum current density applied during EPT can exert a crucial role on tuning the microstructure of the BMC. When the maximum current density is no more than 2720 A/mm2, the samples retains amorphous nature, whereas, beyond that, crystalline phases precipitate from the glassy matrix. During EPT, the maximum temperature within the samples EPTed at the maximum current densities larger than 2720 A/mm2 is higher than the crystallization temperature of the BMG, leading to the crystallization event.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Twinning Behavior of a Basal Textured Commercially Pure Titanium Alloy TA2
           at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jin-ru LUO, Xiao SONG, Lin-zhong ZHUANG, Ji-shan ZHANG
      Twinning greatly affects the microstructure and mechanical performance of titanium alloys. The twinning behavior of a basal textured commercially pure titanium TA2 plates rolled to 4% reduction at the ambient and cryogenic temperatures has been investigated. Microstructures of the rolled samples were investigated by optical microscope (OM) and the twinning analysis was carried out based on orientation data collected by electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD). {11 2} contraction twins, {11 4} contraction twins and {10 2} extension twins have been observed. Twinning mode activity varied with rolling temperature. Twinning is considered as the dominant deformation mechanism during rolling at both temperatures for the strain condition. Larger proportion of grains activates twinning during cryorolling, and greater number and more diverse types of twins are observed; manifestly related to the suppression of dislocation slips at the cryogenic temperature. {11 2} contraction twins are the dominate twin type within samples rolled at both temperatures. Several {11 4} contraction twins are observed in the cryorolled sample while there are only a few in the sample rolled at room temperature. A few tiny {10 2} twins have been identified in both samples. {11 4} contraction twins are preferentially activated at cryogenic deformation temperature and the {10 2} extension twins may result in local strain accommodation.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Constitutive Models for Compressive Deformation of AZ80 Magnesium Alloy
           under Multiple Loading Directions and Strain Rates
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Xu-qing CHANG, Li-ying ZHANG, Yong-biao YANG, Jing-li REN
      Two constitutive models, the modified Johnson-Cook model and the logarithm linear relation model based on empirical approach and data analysis, were presented to illustrate compressive deformation of magnesium alloys AZ80 under multiple loading directions and strain rates. The results of stress-strain curve analysis and sensitivity index analysis suggested that the stress held large fluctuations in loading direction of 90°. Model testing signified that the logarithm linear relation model was more proper than the modified Johnson-Cook model in view of relative mean square error and correlation coefficients. Moreover, numerical simulation building on established models also indicated that the logarithm linear model is more precise than the modified Johnson-Cook model.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Tribological Properties of a Dendrite-reinforced Ti-based Metallic Glass
           Matrix Composite under Different Conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Teng ZHANG, Xiao-min LIN, Hui-jun YANG, Yong LIU, Yong-sheng WANG, Jun-wei QIAO
      The tribological properties of the in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite (Ti42 Zr22 V14 -Cu5 Be17) prepared by copper mould casting were analyzed at different normal loads under the dry condition and rainwater. The results showed that the average value of the frictional coefficients and micro-hardness ascended with increasing the normal load, while the wear rate showed a trend of decline under the dry condition. The electrochemical test results showed that the surface of samples was pitting corroded in the rainwater. The matrices were corroded first. Then the dendrites were exposed, leading to the damage of the surface. Both the frictional coefficients and wear rate of the composite in the rainwater were larger than those under the dry condition, primarily owing to the corrosion of chloride ions on the worn surface. The wear mechanisms of composites were mainly adhesive wear, accompanied by the abrasive wear under the dry condition and corrosive wear in the rainwater. The composites have higher wear resistance both under the dry condition and rainwater due to the lower wear rate.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Amorphization of Ni61Nb39 Alloy by Laser Surface Treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhong-xiang LU, Ran LI, Yan LI, Tao ZHANG
      The surface of Ni61 Nb39 crystalline ingot was treated by laser surface melting with different processing parameters. A fully amorphous layer with a thickness of approximately 10 μm could be produced on the top surface under optimal parameters. An amorphous-crystalline composite layer with the depth from 10 to 50 μm, consisting of amorphous matrix and intermetallic phases of Ni3Nb and Ni6Nb7, could be formed. The micro-hardness (about 831 HV) of the treated surface was remarkably improved by nearly 100% compared with the value of the crystalline substrate caused by the formation of the fully amorphous structure. A finite volume simulation was adopted to evaluate the temperature distribution in the laser-affected zone of Ni61 Nb39 alloys and to reveal the mechanism of glass formation in the laser-affected zone.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Influence of Zn Addition on Microstructures and Martensitic Transformation
           in CuZr-based Alloys
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kai-kai SONG, Dian-yu WU, Feng WAN, Xiao-jun BAI, Chong-de CAO
      Compositional dependences on microstructures and martensitic transformation behaviors in (Cu0.5 Zr0.5)100–x Zn x (x = 1.5, 2.5, 4, 5, 7.0, 10.0, and 14.0 at. %) alloys were investigated. It was found that CuZr martensites were present in the present alloys. With increasing Zn content, the volume fractions of CuZr martensitic crystals and B2 CuZr phase gradually decrease and increase, respectively. With the addition of high Zn contents (i.e., 7.0, 10.0, and 14.0 at. %), the matrix proves to be eutectic. Thermal analysis results show that the initial martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) decreases from (412±5) K to (329±5) K as the Zn content increases from 1.5 at. % to 14.0 at, %. The values of Ms of Cu-Zr-Zn shape memory alloys are inversely proportional to the number and concentrations of valence electrons (i.e., e v/a and c v), respectively, implying that the martensitic transformation in CuZr-Zn alloys could be of electronic nature.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Rate Dependence of Serrated Flow and Its Effect on Shear Stability of Bulk
           Metallic Glasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Bao-an SUN, Chain-tsuan LIU, Yong YANG
      The rate dependence of serrated flow and its effects on the stability of shear banding were systematically investigated in a prototypic bulk metallic glass. It was found that with the increase of external strain rate, the serrated flow is gradually suppressed and could completely disappear at a critical strain rate. The serration size, characterized by the mean stress drop amplitude, decreases inversely with the strain rate, while the waiting time for serration decreases with the strain rate in a power-law manner. The rate dependence of the serrated flow has important effects on the dynamics and stability of shear banding process, and leads to an optimal plasticity achieved around the critical strain rate for the disappearance of serrated flow. These results are discussed and interpreted in terms of the microscopic deformation theory and the stick-slip dynamics of shear banding for bulk metallic glasses.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Insight on Viscoelasticiy of Ti16.7 Zr16.7 Hf16.7 Cu16.7 Ni16.7 Be16.7
           High Entropy Bulk Metallic Glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ji-chao QIAO, Jean-marc PELLETIER, Ning LI, Yao YAO
      High entropy bulk metallic glasses show promising mechanical and physical properties. Dynamic mechanical properties of Ti16.7 Zr16.7 Hf16.7 Cu16.7 NU16.7 Be16.7 high entropy bulk metallic glass were investigated by mechanical spectroscopy (or called dynamic mechanical analysis). The main (α) relaxation was observed in the framework of the loss modulus G“, which is related to the dynamic glass transition behaviour for the glassy materials. From physical model point of view, dynamic mechanical properties of the Ti16.7 Zr16.7 Hf16.7 Cu16.7 Ni16.7 Be16.7 high entropy bulk metallic glass show good agreement compared with the quasi-point defects theory.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Spray-deposited
           Al-21. 47Si-4. 73Fe-2. 5Cu-0. 9Mg Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yan-dong JIA, Fu-yang CAO, Pan MA, Jing-shun LIU, Jian-fei SUN, Gang WANG
      Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Mg alloy was prepared by spray deposition and was further processed by hot extrusion as well as T6 heat-treatment. The results indicate that the microstructure of the deposited alloy is composed of primary Si particles with average size of less than 5 μm, α-Al, Al2 CuMg, β-Al5 EeSi and δ-Al4FeSi2 (rectangular shape), and no eutectic silicon is found due to the special solidification behavior. The age hardening curves reveal two peaks. The uniform ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the elongation of the peak-aged Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Mg alloy are 468. 3 MPa, 0.61% at 298 K and 267.4 MPa, 6.42% at 573 K, respectively. The fracture surfaces display brittle fracture morphology at 298 K, whereas it varies to mixture of brittle and ductile failure with increasing the temperature.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Self-organized Criticality Behavior in Bulk Metallic Glasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jun-wei QIAO, Zhong WANG
      Serrated flows are known as repeated yielding of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) during plastic deformation under different loading conditions, which are associated with the operation of shear banding. According to the statistics of some parameters, the shear avalanches can display a self-organized critical state, suggesting a large ductility of BMGs. The emergence of the self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior in different BMGs is due to the temperature, strain rate, and chemical compositions. The SOC behavior is accompanied with the following phenomena: the interactions occur in the shear bands; the incubation time is longer than the relaxation time; the time interval is lacking of typical time scale; and the spatial or temporal parameters should display a power-law distribution.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • Serration and Noise Behavior in Advanced Materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yong ZHANG, Wei-hua WANG, Peter K. LIAW, Gang WANG, Jun-wei QIAO

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
  • A Brief Review of High Entropy Alloys and Serration Behavior and Flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yong ZHANG, Jun-wei QIAO, Peter K. LIAW
      Multicomponent alloys with high entropy of mixing, e.g., high entropy alloys (HEAs) and/or multiprincipal-element alloys (MEAs), are attracting increasing attentions, because the materials with novel properties are being developed, based on the design strategy of the equiatomic ratio, multicomponent, and high entropy of mixing in their liquid or random solution state. Recently, HEAs with the ultrahigh strength and fracture toughness, excellent magnetic properties, high fatigue, wear and corrosion resistance, great phase stability/high resistance to heat-softening behavior, sluggish diffusion effects, and potential superconductivity, etc., were developed. The HEAs can even have very high irradiation resistance and may have some self-healing effects, and can potentially be used as the first wall and nuclear fuel cladding materials. Serration behaviors and flow units are powerful methods to understand the plastic deformation or fracture of materials. The methods have been successfully used to study the plasticity of amorphous alloys (also bulk metallic glasses, BMGs). The flow units are proposed as: free volumes, shear transition zones (STZs), tension-transition zones (TTZs), liquid-like regions, soft regions or soft spots, etc. The flow units in the crystalline alloys are usually dislocations, which may interact with the solute atoms, interstitial types, or substitution types. Moreover, the flow units often change with the testing temperatures and loading strain rates, e.g., at the low temperature and high strain rate, plastic deformation will be carried out by the flow unit of twinning, and at high temperatures, the grain boundary will be the weak area, and play as the flow unit. The serration shapes are related to the types of flow units, and the serration behavior can be analyzed using the power law and modified power law.

      PubDate: 2016-01-16T10:25:25Z
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