for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 766 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (691 journals)
    - POLLUTION (23 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (41 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (11 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (691 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 192)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International
  [SJR: 0.661]   [H-I: 22]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 1006-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Stress analysis model of strip winding system with a sleeve for a coil of
           thin stainless steel
    • Authors: Yong-hui Park; Kyutae Park; Sung-yeun Won; Wan-kee Hong; Hyun-chul Park
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yong-hui Park, Kyutae Park, Sung-yeun Won, Wan-kee Hong, Hyun-chul Park
      In a strip winding process, the sleeve is a hollow cylinder that is mounted between a strip coil and a mandrel to maintain uniform coil shape when the strip coil is very thin, but its deformation behavior has not been investigated before. Thus, a finite element (FE) model was presented to calculate the stress distribution in a sleeve and strip coil when 1 — 3 mm-thick stainless steel was wound around the sleeve. The FE model was developed by extending a previous model by adding a sleeve between the mandrel and strip, and by modifying the boundary and interaction conditions. The strip winding process was divided into an initial process and a steady-state process. During the initial process, the minimum and maximum pressure required on the belt wrapper to maintain coil shape by self-friction of the strip was calculated by the FE model when the belt wrapper is ejected at the end of the initial process. After the initial process, an analytical model of the steady-state process was established to calculate the stress distribution and was compared with the FE model to validate it. The suggested analytical model took 11 s to give the same stress distribution that the FE model took 30 d to produce.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30002-x
       
  • Interaction mechanism between coal combustion products and coke in raceway
           of blast furnaces
    • Authors: Chong Zou; Liang-ying Wen; Jun-xue Zhao; Rui-meng Shi
      Pages: 8 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chong Zou, Liang-ying Wen, Jun-xue Zhao, Rui-meng Shi
      The interaction mechanism between the combustion products of pulverized coal injected and coke in the raceway of blast furnace was studied through thermodynamic calculation and experiments. The results indicated that additives significantly affected the melting property of coal ash in high temperature zone. Although the unburnt char, raw coal ash, and catalyzed coal ash failed to wet the coke surface, the wettability of the catalyzed coal ash on the coke was greater than that of the raw coal ash. Since the unburnt char had weak reaction with the coke surface, it showed little influence on the surface morphology of the coke. The interaction between the raw coal ash and the coke gave rise to the increase in the pore size on the coke surface. However, the raw coal ash only affected the coke surface and the entrances of the pores owing to its poor fluidity. After being melted, the catalyzed coal ash was expected to immerge into the inside part of the coke and then react with the coke, resulting in an expansion and increase of coke cavities. The raw coal ash and the unburnt char reduced the coke reactivity, while the catalyzed coal ash improved the coke reactivity. Thereinto, the coal ash containing Fe2O3 exhibited a larger influence on the reactivity than that containing CaO.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30003-1
       
  • Effect of screw casing structure on descending of burdens in COREX shaft
           furnace
    • Authors: Zi-long Qiu; Zhi-guo Luo; Heng Zhou; Ren Chen; Feng Wang; Zong-shu Zou
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zi-long Qiu, Zhi-guo Luo, Heng Zhou, Ren Chen, Feng Wang, Zong-shu Zou
      COREX shaft furnace (SF) is a typical screw feeder with a storage container coupled with eight screw casings and screws. The structure of screw casing plays an important role in the moving behavior of burdens, stress distribution, abrasive wear of screws, and energy consumption during the operation of SF. Therefore, a three-dimensional semi-cylindrical model of actual size of COREX-3000 SF was established based on discrete element method to investigate the influences of screw casing structure. The results show that the increase in the gap between the outside of screw flight and screw casing is beneficial for the smooth operation of SF, resulting in uniform descending velocity along the radius of SF in the lower part, decreasing the size of recirculation region, and alleviating stress concentration in the screw casing. Moreover, raising the gap appropriately is also beneficial to weaken screw abrasive wear, decrease energy consumption, and then prolong the service life of the screws. However, enlarging the gap also leads to more undesired high temperature reduction gas into the SF from melter gasifier, thereby deteriorating the operation of SF. Thus, an ideal distance exists between the outside of the screw flight and the screw casing, which is suggested to be equal to the average of particle diameter.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30004-3
       
  • Production of low-silicon molten iron from high-silica hematite using
           biochar
    • Authors: Hui-qing Tang; Xiu-feng Fu; Yan-qi Qin; Shi-yu Zhao; Qing-guo Xue
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hui-qing Tang, Xiu-feng Fu, Yan-qi Qin, Shi-yu Zhao, Qing-guo Xue
      A new method of utilizing high-silica hematite to produce low-silicon molten iron was proposed. In this method, FASTMELT, which comprised direct reduction and melt separation processes, was applied, with highly reactive biochar as the reductant in the direct reduction stage. The proposed method was experimentally investigated and the results show that the method is feasible. In the direct reduction stage, ore-char briquette could achieve a metallization rate of 84% — 88% and residual carbon of 0.27 — 0.89 mass% at temperature of 1373 K, biochar mixing ratio of 0.8 — 0.9, and reduction time of 15 min. Some silica particles remained embedded in the iron phase after the reduction. In the melting separation stage, molten iron with a carbon content of 0.02 — 0.03 mass% and silicon content of 0.02 — 0.18 mass% could be obtained from the metallic briquettes under the above-mentioned conditions; the iron recovery rate was 83% — 91% and impurities in the obtained metal were negligible.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30005-5
       
  • Reduction behavior and mechanism of Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite
           pellets by gas mixture of H2 and CO
    • Authors: Wei Li; Gui-qin Fu; Man-sheng Chu; Miao-yong Zhu
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wei Li, Gui-qin Fu, Man-sheng Chu, Miao-yong Zhu
      Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM) pellets were reduced by H2-CO gas mixture for simulating the reduction processes of Midrex and HYL-III shaft furnaces. The influences of reduction temperature, ratio of φ(H2) to φ(CO), and pellet size on the reduction of HVTM pellets were evaluated in detail and the reduction reaction kinetics was investigated. The results show that both the reduction degree and reduction rate can be improved with increasing the reduction temperature and the H2 content as well as decreasing the pellet size. The rational reduction parameters are reduction temperature of 1050 °C, ratio of φ(H2) to φ(CO) of 2.5, and pellet diameter in the range of 8 — 11 mm. Under these conditions (pellet diameter of 11 mm), final reduction degree of 95.51% is achieved. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the main phases of final reduced pellets under these conditions (pellet diameter of 11 mm) are reduced iron and rutile. The peak intensity of reduced iron increases obviously with the increase in the reduction temperature. Besides, relatively high reduction temperature promotes the migration and coarsening of metallic iron particles and improves the distribution of vanadium and chromium in the reduced iron, which is conducive to subsequent melting separation. At the early stage, the reduction process is controlled by interfacial chemical reaction and the apparent activation energy is 60.78 kJ/mol. The reduction process is controlled by both interfacial chemical reaction and internal diffusion at the final stage and the apparent activation energy is 30.54 kJ/mol.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30006-7
       
  • Morphology, microstructure and decomposition behavior of M2C carbides in
           high speed steel
    • Authors: Xue-feng Zhou; Di Liu; Wang-long Zhu; Feng Fang; Yi-you Tu; Jian-qing Jiang
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Xue-feng Zhou, Di Liu, Wang-long Zhu, Feng Fang, Yi-you Tu, Jian-qing Jiang
      The morphology, microstructure and decomposition behavior of M2C carbides in high speed steels with different chemical compositions have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the morphology and substructure of M2C carbides are very sensitive to chemical compositions of high speed steels. M2C carbides present the plate-like shape in tungsten-molybdenum steel and present the polycrystal orientation in the eutectic cell. In contrast, they show the fibrous shape in molybdenum-base steel and exhibit the monocrystal orientation. Plate-like and fibrous M2C carbides are both metastable and decompose into M6C together with MC at high temperatures. MC nucleates inside the plate-like M2C while it is formed at the fibrous M2C/matrix interface during the decomposition process. Such differences are expected to arise from different compositions of plate-like and fibrous M2C carbides.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30007-9
       
  • Highly ameliorated gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage dynamics
           of nanocrystalline and amorphous LaMg12-type alloys prepared by mechanical
           milling
    • Authors: Dian-chen Feng; Hao Sun; Zhong-hui Hou; Dong-liang Zhao; Xi-tao Wang; Yang-huan Zhang
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dian-chen Feng, Hao Sun, Zhong-hui Hou, Dong-liang Zhao, Xi-tao Wang, Yang-huan Zhang
      Nanocrystalline and amorphous LaMg12-type alloy-Ni composites with a nominal composition of LaMg11 Ni + x wt. % Ni (x = 100, 200) were synthesized via ball milling. The influences of ball milling duration and Ni adding amount x on the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage dynamics of the alloys were systematically studied. Gaseous hydrogen storage performances were studied by a differential scanning calorimeter and a Sievert apparatus. The dehydrogenation activation energy of the alloy hydrides was evaluated by Kissinger method. The electrochemical hydrogen storage dynamics of the alloys was investigated by an automatic galvanostatic system. The H atom diffusion and apparent activation enthalpy of the alloys were calculated. The results demonstrate that a variation in Ni content remarkably enhances the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage dynamics performance of the alloys. The gaseous hydriding rate and high-rate discharge (HRD) ability of the alloys exhibit maximum values with varying milling duration. However, the dehydriding kinetics of the alloys is always accelerated by prolonging milling duration. Specifically, rising milling time from 5 to 60 h makes the hydrogen desorption ratio (a ratio of the dehydrogenation amount in 20 min to the saturated hydrogenation amount) increase from 57% to 66% for x=100 alloy and from 57% to 70% for x = 200. Moreover, the improvement of gaseous hydrogen storage kinetics is attributed to the descending of dehydrogenation activation energy caused by the prolonging of milling duration and growing of Ni content.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30008-0
       
  • Influence of on-line tempering parameters on microstructure of
           medium-carbon steel
    • Authors: Hua Zhang; Yan-xin Wu; Jian-xun Fu; Jie Xu; Qi-jie Zhai
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hua Zhang, Yan-xin Wu, Jian-xun Fu, Jie Xu, Qi-jie Zhai
      A new process involving ultra-fast cooling (UFC) and on-line tempering (OLT) was proposed to displace austempering process, which usually implements in a salt/lead bath and brings out serious pollution in the industrial application. The optimization of the new process, involving the evolution of the microstructure of medium-carbon steel during various cooling paths, was studied. The results show that the cooling path affected the final microstructure in terms of the fraction of pearlite, grain size and distribution of cementite in pearlite. Increasing the cooling rate or decreasing the OLT temperature contributes to restraining the transformation from austenite to ferrite, and simultaneously retains more austenite for the transformation of pearlite. It is also noted that bainite was observed in the microstructure at the cooling rate of 45 °C/s and the OLT temperature of 500 °C. Through either increasing the cooling rate or decreasing the OLT temperature, the distribution of cementite in pearlite is more dispersed and grain is refined. Taking the possibility of industrial applications into account, the optimal process of cooling at 45 °C/s followed by OLT at 600 °C after hot rolling was determined, which achieves a microstructure containing nearly full pearlite with an average grain size of approximately 7 μm and a homogeneously dispersed distribution of cementite in pearlite.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30009-2
       
  • Dependence of tensile properties on microstructural features of
           bimodal-sized ferrite/cementite steels
    • Authors: Jiang-li Ning; Yun-li Feng; Ming-ming Wang; Shen-bai Zheng; Jie Li
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jiang-li Ning, Yun-li Feng, Ming-ming Wang, Shen-bai Zheng, Jie Li
      A medium-carbon steel was processed through different warm rolling techniques, and the microstructural features with bimodal grain size distribution were found to be different. The combination of strength and ductility was ameliorated in the steel processed through warm rolling characterized by biaxial reduction. The enhanced strength is attributed to the densely distributed fine intragranular cementite particles and the small grain size in the coarse grain regions. The enhanced uniform elongation is due to the improved work hardening behavior at the large-strain stage. This work hardening behavior is predominantly ascribed to the finely dispersed intragranular particles. The relatively small grain size with nearly equiaxed shape in the coarse grain regions helps stabilize the uniform deformation to a large strain.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30010-9
       
  • Oxidation resistance, thermal expansion and area specific resistance of
           Fe-Cr alloy interconnector for solid oxide fuel cell
    • Authors: Liu-zhen Bian; Zhi-yuan Chen; Li-jun Wang; Fu-shen Li; Kuo-chih Chou
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Liu-zhen Bian, Zhi-yuan Chen, Li-jun Wang, Fu-shen Li, Kuo-chih Chou
      It is promising for metal especially ferritic stainless steel (FSS) to be used as interconnector when the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is operated at temperature lower than 800 °C. However, there are many challenges for FSS such as anti-oxidant, poisoning to cathode and high area specific resistance (ASR) when using as SOFC interconnector. The effect of Cr content (12 — 30 mass%) in Fe-Cr alloys on thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), oxidation resistance, microstructure of oxidation scale and ASR was investigated by thermo-gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and four-probe DC technique. The TEC of Fe-Cr alloys is (11 — 13) × 10−6 K−1, which excellently matches with other SOFC components. Alloys have excellent oxidation resistance when Cr content exceeds 22 mass% because of the formation of chromium on the surface of alloy. The oxidation rate constants k d and k s decrease rapidly with increasing the Cr content and then increase slowly when the Cr content is higher than 22 mass%. The kinetic results indicate that Cr evaporation must be considered at high temperature for Fe-Cr alloys. After the alloys were oxidized in air at 800 °C for 500 h, log(ASR/T) (T is the absolute temperature) presents linear relationship with 1/T and the conduct activation energy is 0.6 — 0.8 eV (Cr16-30). Optimal Cr content is 22 — 26 mass% considering the oxidation resistance and ASR.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30011-0
       
  • Microstructure and texture evolution during recrystallization of
           low-carbon steel sheets
    • Authors: Dong-dong Zhuang; Lei-gang Wang; Yao Huang; Xiao-min Li; Hua-yang Zhang; De-wei Ren
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dong-dong Zhuang, Lei-gang Wang, Yao Huang, Xiao-min Li, Hua-yang Zhang, De-wei Ren
      Aluminum killed low-carbon steel sheets were cold rolled at different reduction ratios and annealed using different temperatures and holding time. The Vickers hardness was examined. The results show that when cold rolling reduction ratios increase from 40% to 81%, recrystallization temperatures decrease from 602 °C to 572 °C during 4 h isochronal annealing, as well recrystallization holding time decreases from 117 min to 5 min during isothermal annealing at 610 °C. All recrystallization temperatures and holding time can be calculated using the annealing experiment results. Microstructure was examined through electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results show that as rolling direction preferentially grows, equiaxed grains grow into cake-type during recrystallization. Cake-type grains are more beneficial to obtaining ideal <111>//ND (normal direcrtion) orientation texture. {111} orientation grains nucleate and grow up preferentially. Deformation grains of {111} <110> orientations grow into new recrystallization grains of {111} <123> and {111} <112> during recrystallization. Texture formation can be explained by directional nucleation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30012-2
       
  • Microstructure, texture and precipitates of grain-oriented silicon steel
           produced by thin slab casting and rolling process
    • Authors: Si-qian Bao; Yang Xu; Gang Zhao; Xiang-bin Huang; Huan Xiao; Chuan-long Ye; Na-na Song; Qing-ming Chang
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Si-qian Bao, Yang Xu, Gang Zhao, Xiang-bin Huang, Huan Xiao, Chuan-long Ye, Na-na Song, Qing-ming Chang
      A grain-oriented silicon steel strip with AlN as main inhibitor was produced by thin slab casting and rolling (TSCR) process. The microstructure, texture and precipitates of the hot-rolled strip were investigated by use of optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The result shows that the microstructure and texture exhibit a through-thickness gradient similar to that of the hot-rolled strip produced by conventional high-temperature slab-reheating process; the preferred orientation varies from {110} <001> in the surface layer to {001} <110> in the center layer, and the Goss texture with a maximum intensity mainly concentrates on the surface layer. In addition, some other texture components, for example rotated Goss texture, form in the 1/4 thickness layer, which are not observed in the hot-rolled strip produced by conventional high-temperature slab-reheating process. The precipitates in the hot-rolled strip are mainly (Mn, Cu)S and AlN compound particles with dimension of 100 — 200 nm, and the fine precipitates are significantly less than that in the hot-rolled strip produced by conventional high-temperature slab-reheating process. Moreover, the areal density of the fine precipitates in the center layer is more than that in the surface layer.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30013-4
       
  • Preparation of porous titanium materials by powder sintering process and
           use of space holder technique
    • Authors: Xin-sheng Wang; Zhen-lin Lu; Lei Jia; Jiang-xian Chen
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Xin-sheng Wang, Zhen-lin Lu, Lei Jia, Jiang-xian Chen
      It is shown that an adapted powder sintering process can successfully prepare a 24.0%—35.5% porous titanium composite using 20 μm Ti powder and rice husk particles ranging in size between 250 μm and 600 μm. The phase constituents of the porous Ti composite samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern sintered at 1250 °C. The generation of silicon in the form of a TiSi2 solid solution, injected into the substrate, illustrates the solid solution strengthening effect. The average grain size of the tested sample and the grain boundary area increase along with the silicon content. This indicates that silicon is dispersed within the green compact of Ti. As the distance from a hole becomes greater, the nanohardness increases until it reaches a maximum hardness of 3.5 GPa at approximately 1.5 mm. This may be due to the solid solution strengthening of SiO2. However, nanohardness is 3.3 GPa at a distance of approximately 0.5 mm from a hole's edge. The compressive strength is measured to be in the range of 440 — 938 MPa. The strain reaches 14.8% — 16.6% under compression testing. A large number of cleavage steps appear following a fracture. The observed fracture is a brittle fracture. Porous Ti composites with about 36% porosity have promising potential biomaterial applications, specifically related to bone implants and biological bearings.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30014-6
       
  • A first-principles study on electronic structures and elastic properties
           of metal doped α-Fe(N) high nitrogen steel
    • Authors: Ji-chun Yang; Xiang-jun Liu; Gui-xiao Jia; Xiao-yang Fu
      Pages: 103 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ji-chun Yang, Xiang-jun Liu, Gui-xiao Jia, Xiao-yang Fu
      The binding energies, electronic structures and elastic properties of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Mg doped α-Fe(N) systems have been investigated using a first-principles method. The calculated results show that the dopings of Ti, V, Cr and Co improve the stability of α-Fe(N), and the stability of α-Fe(N) is slightly weakened by Mn and Ni, and the doping of Mg is disadvantageous. For Ti, V, Cr and Mn doped α-Fe(N) systems in which the doping metals are on the left side of Fe in the element periodic table and α-Fe(N) systems doped by Co and Ni on the right side of Fe, their corresponding cohesive forces decrease with decreasing atomic radius of the doping species. The obvious interaction exists among M3d, Fe4s3p3d and N2p. In these doping systems, metal atoms lose electrons, while N gains electrons. Dopings of Ti, V, Cr and Mn in α-Fe(N) strengthen the interaction between N and the surrounding metals, and it is not apparent for the dopings of Co, Ni and Mg. Elastic calculations of Fe15 MN systems show that, except for the Fe15 MgN system, shear modulus G and Young modulus E of Fe15 MN systems are improved, and the bulk modulus B slightly decreases, namely, total elastic properties are enhanced. The magnitude change rule of E reflecting the cohesive force between atoms is consistent with that for the binding energies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30015-8
       
  • Tensile deformation behavior of high strength anti-seismic steel with
           multi-phase microstructure
    • Authors: Zheng-yun Zhang; Jian-chun Cao; Zhong-hua Zhong; Xiao-long Zhou; Wei Chen; Yin-hui Yang
      Pages: 111 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zheng-yun Zhang, Jian-chun Cao, Zhong-hua Zhong, Xiao-long Zhou, Wei Chen, Yin-hui Yang
      To investigate the tensile deformation behavior of high strength anti-seismic steel with multi-phase microstructure, tensile tests with strains of 0.05, 0.12 and 0.22 were performed at room temperature. Microstructure of tested steels was observed by means of optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tensile mechanical properties of tested steels were obtained, and the influence of bainite content on deformation behavior was also discussed. Meanwhile, the deformation mechanism of steel with three kinds of microstructures of bainite, pearlite and ferrite was analyzed. Results show that tested steel with high volume fraction of bainite exhibits a continuous deformation behavior, and this may be attributed to a higher bainite volume fraction and a lower mobile dislocation density. The morphology of microstructure will influence the mechanical properties of tested steels. An increasing content of bainite can improve the tensile strength, but reduce the plasticity and toughness of the tested steels. In the deformation process of 0.039Nb steel, the ferrite and bainite have priorities to deform, and the deformation exhibits co-deformation of all microstructures in the later stage of deformation. In the deformation process of 0.024Nb-0.032V steel, the ferrite and pearlite have priorities to deform, and the deformation exhibits co-deformation of all microstructures in the later stage of deformation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-25T11:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(17)30016-x
       
  • Modelling Effect of Circulation Flow Rate on Inclusion Removal in RH
           Degasser
    • Authors: Shu-guo ZHENG; Miao-yong ZHU
      Pages: 1243 - 1248
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Shu-guo ZHENG, Miao-yong ZHU
      Based on the similarity principles, a 1 : 7 scale physical model was established to study the behavior of molten steel flow and inclusion removal in a 145 t Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) degasser. On the basis of the quantitative measurements of the circulation flow rate and inclusion removal under various lifting gas flow rates, the effect of circulation flow rate on inclusion removal was investigated in the RH degasser. The inclusion removal rate shows the trend of first increase and then decrease twice with increasing the circulation flow rate when the circulation flow rates are smaller than 104. 7 L/min. Whereas, the inclusion removal rate increases again with the further increase in circulation flow rate when the circulation flow rate is larger than 104. 7 L/min. At lower circulation flow rates, inclusions are mainly removed by Stokes flotation to the slag/steel interface after inclusions are transferred near the slag/steel interface by the circulation flow. At higher circulation flow rates, the collision and aggregation of inclusions improves the inclusion removal efficiency. With the further increase in the circulation flow rate, inclusions are mainly removed by following the turbulent fluctuation (turbulent diffusion) to the slag/steel interface after inclusions are transferred near the slag/steel interface by the circulation flow.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30183-2
       
  • Transverse Bending Characteristics in U-channel Forming of Tailor Rolled
           Blank
    • Authors: Hua-wei ZHANG; Ying-ping GUAN; Jia-lu WU; Xiang-hua LIU
      Pages: 1249 - 1254
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Hua-wei ZHANG, Ying-ping GUAN, Jia-lu WU, Xiang-hua LIU
      Research on the formability of tailor rolled blank (TRB) is of good practical significance and application value because of the enormous potential of TRB in the aspect of automobile lightweight. However, the forming of TRB is problematic because of the varying properties; especially, springback is a main challenge. The transverse bending (bending axis is perpendicular to the rolling direction) of TRB U-channel was studied through simulation and experiment. The forming characteristics of TRB U-channel during transverse bending were analyzed. The mechanisms of forming defects, including bending springback and thickness transition zone (TTZ) movement, were revealed. On this basis, effects of blank geometric parameters on springback and TTZ movement were discussed. The results indicate that springback and TTZ movement happen during transverse bending of TRB U-channel. Nonuniform stress distribution is the most fundamental reason for the occurrence of springback of TRB during transverse bending. Annealing can eliminate nonuniform stress distribution, and thus diminish springback of TRB, especially springback on the thinner side. Therefore, springback of the whole TRB becomes more uniform. However, annealing can increase the TTZ movement. Blank thickness and TTZ position are the main factors affecting the formability of TRB U-channel during transverse bending.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30184-4
       
  • Recycling of High Ferrous Bauxite Reducing Slag for Synthesis of CaAl2 Si2
           O8-Al2 O3-CaAl12 O19 Composite
    • Authors: Ying-yi ZHANG; Yuan-hong QI; Zong-shu ZOU
      Pages: 1255 - 1261
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ying-yi ZHANG, Yuan-hong QI, Zong-shu ZOU
      CaAl2Si2O8-Al2 O3-CaAl12O19 (CAS2-Al2 O3-CA6) composite was synthesized through reaction sintering alumina and bauxite reducing slag. The CAS2-Al2O3-CA6 composite was mainly composed of α-Al2O3, CAS2, and CA6. Gehlenite (Ca2 Al2SiO7, C2AS) phase was effectively transformed to CAS2 and CA6 through high-temperature reaction sintering under weak oxidizing atmosphere at 1400 °C for 4 h. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) analysis indicated that black and needle-shaped Al2 O3, rhombic or irregular polygonal-shaped FeAl2 O4, and glassy phase Ca2 Al2SiO7 disappeared after the reaction sintering. The light gray and flaky hexagon crystals of CaAl12 O19 (10 μm) and the grainy particles of Al2O3 (2–7 μm) were observed in the CAS2-Al2O3-CA6 composite. The gray crystals of CAS2 act as the binding phase and are distributed around CA6 and Al2O3. CAS2-Al2 O3-CA6 composite exhibits high refractoriness and service temperature, which are 1650 °C and 1450 °C, respectively. Reaction sintering of alumina and bauxite reducing slag is a feasible method for the synthesis of CAS2-Al2 O3-CA6 composite.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30185-6
       
  • Control Model of Multifunctional Hot Metal Ladles
    • Authors: Bang-fu HUANG; Nai-yuan TIAN; Zhi-wei MA; Zhe SHI; Xiao-lei ZHOU
      Pages: 1262 - 1267
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Bang-fu HUANG, Nai-yuan TIAN, Zhi-wei MA, Zhe SHI, Xiao-lei ZHOU
      For further research on the control model of multifunctional hot metal ladles between the ironmaking and steelmaking interface, the hot metal ladles of K steel plant were taken as the object to analyze the operation process. The factors of blast furnace supply and basic oxygen furnace demand were proposed. According to the principle of supply and demand balance, the control model of hot metal was researched under the following factor conditions: equal to, greater than, and less than 1, respectively. The distribution model of the blast furnace, steelmaking works, and online buffering was proposed. When the supply and demand factor is equal to 1, the turnover number of hot metal ladles equals 16 and the turnover cycle of hot metal ladles equals 512 min. When the factor is greater than 1, the total number of hot metal ladles is equal to the normal turnover number plus the turnover number of the cast iron machine. When the factor is less than 1, the total number of hot metal ladles is equal to the normal turnover number plus the accumulating number. Satisfactory effects were obtained by applying the control model in production. The numbers of turnover ladles and accumulating ladles were reduced.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30186-8
       
  • Friction Estimation and Roll Force Prediction during Hot Strip Rolling
    • Authors: Wei-gang LI; Chao LIU; Ning FENG; Xi CHEN; Xiang-hua LIU
      Pages: 1268 - 1276
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Wei-gang LI, Chao LIU, Ning FENG, Xi CHEN, Xiang-hua LIU
      A mathematical model of friction coefficient was proposed for the roll force calculation of hot-rolled strips. The online numerical solving method of the roll force calculation formula based on the proposed friction model was developed and illustrated by the practical calculation case. Then, the friction coefficient during hot strip rolling was estimated from the measured roll force by force model inversion. And then, the expression of friction model was proposed by analyzing the calculation process of stress state coefficient, and the model parameters were determined by the shared parameter multi-model nonlinear optimization method. Finally, the industrial experiments demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the related models. The accuracy of the new roll force model based on the built friction model was much higher than that of the traditional Sims model, and it could be applied in the online hot rolling process control.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30187-x
       
  • Dislocation Pipe Diffusion of Mn during Annealing of 5Mn Steel
    • Authors: Jie LIN; Xi-nan LUO; Xiao-yan ZHONG; Hui-hua ZHOU; Cun-yu WANG; Jie SHI; Han DONG
      Pages: 1277 - 1280
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Jie LIN, Xi-nan LUO, Xiao-yan ZHONG, Hui-hua ZHOU, Cun-yu WANG, Jie SHI, Han DONG
      The dislocation pipe diffusion of Mn during annealing of 5Mn steel was experimentally investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Many dislocations existed inside the ferrite and terminated at the α/γ interface of the sample after intercritical annealing at 650 °C for 1 min. Line scans of Mn distribution demonstrated a high Mn concentration in austenite and Mn enrichment at dislocations, indicating that the dislocation pipe diffusion of Mn during intercritical annealing occurred in addition to the γ/α interface diffusion. In-situ TEM observations at 500 °C revealed that due to Ostwald ripening, large cementite precipitates grew while small cementite precipitates dissolved via Mn diffusion along the dislocations between them.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30188-1
       
  • Microstructure Characteristic and Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of
           Surface Nano-crystallization Modified Carbon Steel
    • Authors: Zhao-jun CHENG; Dan SONG; Jin-yang JIANG; Jing-hua JIANG; Xiao-long MA; Kai YOU; Ai-bin MA
      Pages: 1281 - 1289
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Zhao-jun CHENG, Dan SONG, Jin-yang JIANG, Jing-hua JIANG, Xiao-long MA, Kai YOU, Ai-bin MA
      The surface nano-crystallization (SNC) of carbon steel was achieved via a high-speed rotating wire-brushing process. Microstructure characteristics of SNC steel were systematically studied. The SNC steel surface exhibited marked deformed plastic flows and high surface roughness. Due to the accumulated strains, a deformed gradient layer with thickness of 40–50 μm was produced, and the grain size of the topmost zone was about 50–100 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that enhanced Fe oxides and Cr oxides were generated. Electrochemical corrosion tests, including open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and potentiostatic polarization (PP) were conducted to study the corrosion behavior of SNC steel in 3.5 mass% NaCl solution, where an improved corrosion resistance was observed. The resulted improvement resulted from the dominated positive effects (the attached Cr alloying element and enhanced oxide film) against the negative effects (the higher roughness and the improved corrosion activity of surface microstructure).

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30189-3
       
  • Influence of Lamellar Direction in Pearlitic Steel Wire on Mechanical
           Properties and Microstructure Evolution
    • Authors: Tian-zhang ZHAO; Guang-liang ZHANG; Shi-hong ZHANG; Ling-yun ZHANG
      Pages: 1290 - 1296
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Tian-zhang ZHAO, Guang-liang ZHANG, Shi-hong ZHANG, Ling-yun ZHANG
      During cold drawing of pearlitic steel wire, the lamellar structure becomes gradually aligned with the drawing axis, which contributes to the ultra-high strength. A direct simulation about the mechanical behaviors and microstructural evolution of pearlitic lamellae was presented. A representative volume element (RVE) containing one pearlitic colony was established based on the real transmission electron microscope (TEM.) observation. The deformation of pearlitic colony during tension, shear and wire drawing were successfully simulated. The numerical results show that this metallographic texture leads to a strong anisotropy. The colony has higher yielding stress when the lamellar direction is parallel and perpendicular to the tensile direction. The lamellar evolution is strongly dependent on the initial direction and deformation mode. The formation of typical period shear bands is analyzed. In the wire drawing, the pearlitic colony at the sub-surface experiences a complex strain path: rotation, stretching along the die surface, and rotation back.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30190-x
       
  • Deformation Behavior of Ti-5. 6Al-4. 8Sn-2. 0Zr-1. 0Mo-0. 35Si-0. 85Nd
           Alloy in β/Quasi-β Forging Process
    • Authors: Ke-lu WANG; Shi-qiang LU; Xian-juan DONG; Xin LI; De-lai OUYANG
      Pages: 1297 - 1302
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ke-lu WANG, Shi-qiang LU, Xian-juan DONG, Xin LI, De-lai OUYANG
      The hot deformation behavior of Ti-5. 6Al-4. 8Sn-2. 0Zr-l. 0Mo-0. 35Si-0. 85Nd alloy in β/quasi-β forging process was studied using isothermal compression tests over temperature range from 1040 °C to 1100 °C and strain rates form 0. 001 s−1 to 70 s−1. The results show that the flow stress and microstructure are sensitive to thermomechanical parameters. The processing maps based on the dynamic materials model at strain of 0. 3 and 0. 7 were established. The optimum deformation thermomechanical parameters at a strain of 0. 7 have two regions that exhibit the peak of power dissipation efficiency. One is the region of 1062–1100 °C and 10−3–10−1.5 s−1; and another which represents dynamic recrystallization is 1040–1045 °C and 10−18–10−09 s−1. The instable region is located where the strain rate is larger than 1 s−1 which corresponds to the mechanical instability.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30191-1
       
  • Laves Phase in 22Cr-27Ni-2Ti-Al Austenitic Valve Steel
    • Authors: Li-min WANG; Cheng-cheng XUE; Gang YANG; Zheng-dong LIU
      Pages: 1303 - 1308
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Li-min WANG, Cheng-cheng XUE, Gang YANG, Zheng-dong LIU
      The Thermo-Calc software was employed to calculate the equilibrium phase of 22Cr-27Ni-2Ti-Al austenitic valve steel, and the Laves phase in this steel was investigated after solid solution and aging by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results show that the microstructure of the experimental steel consists of γ, γ′, Laves and NbC. Laves phases mainly precipitate on grain boundaries, with granular and fibrous morphologies. The size of the granular Laves phase is about 50–600 nm, and the fibrous Laves phase is composed of short strip Laves phases which are 300–600 nm in length and 50–150 nm in width. These two morphologies of Laves phase coarsen with increasing aging temperature, and this steel possesses the highest strength and hardness at aging temperature of 760 °C.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30192-3
       
  • Constitutive Modeling for Thixoforming of 9Cr18 Semi-solid Alloy and 3D
           Forecast Mapping
    • Authors: Ya-Ping LI; Ren-bo SONG; Yong-jin WANG
      Pages: 1309 - 1315
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ya-Ping LI, Ren-bo SONG, Yong-jin WANG
      Thixotropic compression tests were carried out on 9Cr18 semi-solid alloy through Gleeble-1500 thermal simulation machine. According to the experiment analysis, macro separation occurred during thixoforming. The liquid film was extruded outside to the surface and solidified to form eutectic structure. The solid particles were connected with each other and underwent plastic deformation. According to the comparison between Zhou-Guan model and modified Zhou-Guan model, it could be observed that the adding of thixotropic factor played an important role in the regression and the latter one was more credible. The modified Zhou-Guan model could well describe the thixoforming behavior. 3D forecast mapping was built for 9Cr18 semi-solid alloy in thixoforming temperature range. It would provide valuable information for selecting process parameters during thixoforming in the manufacture process.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30193-5
       
  • Effects of Si and Cr on Complete Decarburization Behavior of High Carbon
           Steels in Atmosphere of 2 vol. % O2
    • Authors: Yang-bo LIU; Wei ZHANG; Qian TONG; Qi-song SUN
      Pages: 1316 - 1322
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Yang-bo LIU, Wei ZHANG, Qian TONG, Qi-song SUN
      The effects of chemical compositions, especially silicon and chromium contents, on the complete decarburization behaviors of steels in atmosphere of 2 vol. % O2 and 98 vol. % N2 were investigated by using a simultaneous thermal analyzer. Complete decarburization was observed at both 750 and 800 °C for 60Si2MnA steel, while 750 °C only for 92A steel. For GCr15 steel, no decarburization was found at 750 or 800 °C, and only partial decarburization was observed at 850 °C. It indicates that silicon promotes while chromium prevents the complete decarburization of steels in atmosphere with 2 vol. % O2. The main reason is that silicon increases while chromium reduces the equilibrium concentration of ferrite at the interface of ferrite and austenite, which results in the complete decarburization.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30194-7
       
  • Effects of Chromium, Vanadium and Austenite Deformation on Transformation
           Behaviors of High-strength Spring Steels
    • Authors: Gang NIU; Yin-li CHEN; Hui-bin WU; Xuan WANG; Mao-fang ZUO; Zhi-jun XU
      Pages: 1323 - 1332
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Gang NIU, Yin-li CHEN, Hui-bin WU, Xuan WANG, Mao-fang ZUO, Zhi-jun XU
      The phase transformation behavior during continuous cooling of high-strength spring steels containing different amounts of Cr was studied. Furthermore, the effects of combining Cr with V as well as austenite deformation on the transformation kinetics were investigated in the method of dilatometry and metallography hardness. The results showed that, with the increase of Cr, the pearlite transformation field was enlarged, the ferrite transformation field was narrowed, and the entire phase field shifted to the right. With the addition of V, the start transformation temperature of undercooling austenite (A r3) was gradually increased, but the ferrite and pearlite transformation fields were not affected. Besides, the minimum critical cooling rate of martensitic transformation was also reduced. In addition, the dynamic continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve moves to the top left compared with the static CCT curve. The transformed microstructures showed that the addition of V and the deformation not only refined the overall transformed microstructures but also reduced the lamellar spacing of pearlite. The alloying elements Cr and V promoted the Vickers hardness. However, the effect of Cr on the Vickers hardness of martensite was stronger and the influence of V on that of pearlite was stronger. Moreover, the Vickers hardness affected by the austenite deformation was more complex and strongly depended on the transformed microstructures.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30195-9
       
  • Effects of Mo and Mn on Pitting Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel
    • Authors: Li-cong AN; Jing CAO; Lin-cai WU; Hong-huan MAO; Yi-tao YANG
      Pages: 1333 - 1341
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Li-cong AN, Jing CAO, Lin-cai WU, Hong-huan MAO, Yi-tao YANG
      Effects of Mo and Mn elements on pitting corrosion resistance of lean duplex stainless steel in Cl− media solution have been studied. Gravimetric tests in 6 mass% FeCl3 at 35 °C and potentiodynamic analysis in 3.5 mass% NaCl were carried out. The corrosion potential (E ccor) and the pitting potential (E pit) are shifted to a more noble potential because of the presence of Mo around the pits. While the presence of Mn could sharply reduce the value of pitting resistance equivalent number (PREn) and the pits can be formed more easily. The pits are found generating at the phase with a lower PREn. The identical tendencies between the E pit and PREn of weaker phase are the same. A corrosion mechanism has been proposed to determinate pitting corrosion behavior based on microstructural observations.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30196-0
       
  • Hot Deformation Behavior of SA508GR. 4N Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure
           Vessels
    • Authors: Ning LIU; Zheng-dong LIU; Xi-kou HE; Zhi-qiang YANG; Long-teng MA
      Pages: 1342 - 1348
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ning LIU, Zheng-dong LIU, Xi-kou HE, Zhi-qiang YANG, Long-teng MA
      A hot compression experiment (1073–1473 K, strain rates of 0.001–10s−1) of SA508GR. 4N low alloy steel was performed using a Gleeble-3800 thermal-mechanical simulator, and the hot deformation behavior of the steel was investigated by analyzing both the true stress-true strain curves and its microstructures. The thermal deformation equation and hot deformation activation energy (Q) of SA508GR. 4N steel were obtained by regression with a classic hyperbolic sine function. The hot processing map of SA508GR. 4N steel was also established. An empirical equation for the stress peak was described for practical applications. The SA508GR. 4N steel showed a critical Zener-Hollomon parameter (lnZ c) for dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 37.44, below which full DRX may occur. The sensitivity of the SA508GR.4N steel increased linearly with test temperature, such that higher temperatures led to enhanced workability.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T21:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30197-2
       
  • Periodic Layered Structure Formed during Interfacial Reaction
    • Authors: Xian-man ZHANG; Hong-feng LUO; Liu-yong SHI
      Pages: 1127 - 1133
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Xian-man ZHANG, Hong-feng LUO, Liu-yong SHI
      A review of the periodic layered structure (PLS) formed during reactive diffusion was presented. The formation of PLS is a very interesting and complex phenomenon during the reactive diffusion process. It was firstly discovered occasionally. The formation of PLS has been reported in various solid state diffusion couples such as Zn/Ni3Si, Mg/SiO2, Zn/Cix Tiy and so on, and some controversial theoretical models and formation mechanism of PLS were put forward. However, there have been few reports about the PLS formed during hot dip. The development of PLS was reviewed, and the recent progress referring to the formation of PLS during the hot dip aluminizing of a novel Fe-Cr-B cast steel was especially introduced. However, not all of the borides could form PLS in their interfacial reaction with molten Al. PLS only formed at the Cr-rich Fe2B/Al interface, while Mo-rich Fe2B fractured. A general qualitative description for the interfacial reaction of Fe-Cr-B cast steel with molten Al was represented. Further investigation on the constituents of the alternating phases and formation mechanism of PLS needs to be done. At last, the development trends of PLS were proposed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30167-4
       
  • Effects of Magnetic Pressure Constraint on Dynamic Deformation and
           Oscillation Behavior of Metal Free Surface
    • Authors: Yang LI; An-yuan DENG; Chuan-qi YIN; Sai-juan ZHANG; En-gang WANG
      Pages: 1134 - 1141
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yang LI, An-yuan DENG, Chuan-qi YIN, Sai-juan ZHANG, En-gang WANG
      A new method was presented to constrain deformation and oscillations of liquid metal free surface by using a high frequency magnetic field. A magnetic field generator was designed to investigate its feasibility using numerical simulation and physical simulation. The results indicate the feasibility of controlling bulge deformation of liquid metal surface using magnetic pressure. Sunken deformation with a slight fluctuation occurs on the surface when magnetic pressure acts on the static liquid metal surface. The largest amplitude remains within ±0.8 mm even if current reaches 1400 A. In case of the bump-type deformation, the magnetic pressure strengthens gravity field by the superposition effect, dissipates the kinetic energy of metal flow impacting on free surface in advance, reduces the velocity of free surface, and decreases the bulge height. On the region without magnetic field, the liquid metal surface rises and tends to be flat because of the significant damping effect on surface fluctuation. The constraint strength of the magnetic pressure increases with the augment of current intensity. However, different heights of bulge deformation should have a corresponding reasonable coil current for achieving the best constraint effect.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30168-6
       
  • Numerical Analysis of Complicated Heat and Mass Transfer inside a Wustite
           Pellet during Reducing to Sponge Iron by H2 and CO Gaseous Mixture
    • Authors: Zare Ghadi ARIYAN; Valipour MOHAMMAD SADEGH; Biglari MOJTABA
      Pages: 1142 - 1150
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Zare Ghadi ARIYAN, Valipour MOHAMMAD SADEGH, Biglari MOJTABA
      Heat and mass transfer through a wustite pellet during converting to sponge iron was investigated. Pellet was reduced by a gaseous mixture containing CO and H2. The grain model was considered to simulate gas-solid reaction rate. A finite volume method (FVM) was implemented for solving the governing equations. The heat transfer mechanism around the pellet includes radiation and convection and within the pellet, effective heat transfer is considered as a blend of particles conduction and intraparticle radiation. Heat and mass distribution along the radius of pellet for two cases of reducing gases composed of pure H2 and pure CO was investigated. Local fractional reduction through the pellet was plotted to examine the heat and mass transfer behavior within the pellet and find their relevance with reduction degree. Afterwards, the impacts of pertinent parameters including gas ratio, pellet size and porosity were studied.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30169-8
       
  • Multivariable Dynamic Modeling for Molten Iron Quality Using Incremental
           Random Vector Functional-link Networks
    • Authors: Li ZHANG; Ping ZHOU; He-da SONG; Meng YUAN; Tian-you CHAI
      Pages: 1151 - 1159
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Li ZHANG, Ping ZHOU, He-da SONG, Meng YUAN, Tian-you CHAI
      Molten iron temperature as well as Si, P, and S contents is the most essential molten iron quality (MIQ) indices in the blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, which requires strict monitoring during the whole ironmaking production. However, these MIQ parameters are difficult to be directly measured online, and large-time delay exists in off-line analysis through laboratory sampling. Focusing on the practical challenge, a data-driven modeling method was presented for the prediction of MIQ using the improved multivariable incremental random vector functional-link networks (M-I-RVFLNs). Compared with the conventional random vector functional-link networks (RVFLNs) and the online sequential RVFLNs, the M-I-RVFLNs have solved the problem of deciding the optimal number of hidden nodes and overcome the overfitting problems. Moreover, the proposed M-I-RVFLNs model has exhibited the potential for multivariable prediction of the MIQ and improved the terminal condition for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) dynamic system, which is suitable for the BF ironmaking process in practice. Ultimately, industrial experiments and contrastive researches have been conducted on the BF No. 2 in Liuzhou Iron and Steel Group Co. Ltd. of China using the proposed method, and the results demonstrate that the established model produces better estimating accuracy than other MIQ modeling methods.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30170-4
       
  • Oxidation Kinetics, Structural Changes and Element Migration during
           Oxidation Process of Vanadium-titanium Magnetite Ore
    • Authors: Feng PAN; Qing-shan ZHU; Zhan DU; Hao-yan SUN
      Pages: 1160 - 1167
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Feng PAN, Qing-shan ZHU, Zhan DU, Hao-yan SUN
      The oxidation kinetics, structural changes, and elements migration during the oxidation process of the vanadium-titanium magnetite (VTM) ore were analyzed. Kinetics analysis indicated that the oxidation process was controlled by diffusion control and could be divided into interface diffusion and lattice diffusion with apparent activation energy of 99.69 kJ/mol and 144.08 kJ/mol in the range of 800 – 1000 °C, respectively. The surface structure changed with the oxidization temperature as follows: dense surface→nano-sized sheets→submicron particles→molten particles. The compact structure changed into porous one because of the elements migration and enrichment. Both Fe and Ti elements migrated in the opposite direction during the oxidation process. The V element in the raw ore stably existed in the form of V5+ state, some vanadium migrated and occupied the tetrahedral sites of the hematite during the oxidation process.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30171-6
       
  • Effect of Noncontact Ultrasonic Technology on Solidification Quality of
           Electroslag Steel
    • Authors: Xiao-fang SHI; Li-zhong CHANG; Zheng-hai ZHU; Jian-jun WANG; Li ZHOU
      Pages: 1168 - 1176
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Xiao-fang SHI, Li-zhong CHANG, Zheng-hai ZHU, Jian-jun WANG, Li ZHOU
      A new electroslag furnace with ultrasonic vibration introduced through water-cooled base plate was designed and the effects of ultrasonic power on the distribution of elements, compactness and carbides in the electroslag remelting (ESR) ingots was investigated. The results showed that the distribution of elements on the entire excitation section changed with the change of ultrasonic power under experimental conditions. The statistical segregation of elements was minimum when the ultrasonic power was 500 W, whereas excessively high or excessively low power was not conducive to the uniform distribution of elements. Meanwhile, the compactness of ESR ingots gradually increased with the increase in ultrasonic power and distribution of compactness was the most uniform when ultrasonic power reached 500 W. Further increase in the ultrasonic power was not conducive to the improvement of compactness. The distribution characteristic of carbides was similar to the distribution of elements and compactness. The results indicated that the ultrasonic vibration introduced through water-cooled base plate was advantageous in improving solidification quality. However, this method needed reasonable ultrasonic power. Moreover, the effects of ultrasonic power varied for different elements.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30172-8
       
  • Evaluation of Zero and Sub-zero Temperature Tensile and Impact Properties
           of Quenched and Tempered Steel Weldments
    • Authors: M. BALAKRISHNAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN; M.A. MUTHU MANICKAM
      Pages: 1177 - 1187
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): M. BALAKRISHNAN, V. BALASUBRAMANIAN, M.A. MUTHU MANICKAM
      Combat vehicles using armour grade quenched and tempered (Q&T) steel are needed to be operated under different climatic conditions. However, the properties meeting the room temperature test conditions may not necessarily be required to meet the low temperature operating conditions. The influences of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process, flux cored arc welding (FCAW) processes and test temperatures below room temperature up to–60 °C on tensile and impact toughness properties of armour grade Q&T steel welds were reported. The tensile and impact properties of the joints showed incremental trend with respect to the decrement in test temperature up to −40 °C irrespective of the welding processes used. The increment in tensile and impact properties of SMAW and FCAW joints subjected to the low temperature environment is due to plastic strain-induced phase transformation of retained austenite into martensite phase. Among the two processes, SMAW process welded joint showed better tensile and impact properties than its FCAW counterpart joints.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30173-x
       
  • Relationship between Hydrogen Diffusion and Blistering Nucleation and
           Growth
    • Authors: Jin-xu LI; Hang YIN; Xi-na YANG; Qian LI; Ping ZHANG; Chun-qian XIE; Yan-jing SU; Li-jie QIAO
      Pages: 1188 - 1194
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jin-xu LI, Hang YIN, Xi-na YANG, Qian LI, Ping ZHANG, Chun-qian XIE, Yan-jing SU, Li-jie QIAO
      The formation condition of hydrogen blister in 18Ni maraging steel without any inner or external stress was investigated. The results show that the critical diffusible hydrogen concentration of a blister forming is about 1.4 × 10−5, which is corresponding to the current density of 30 mA/cm2 during cathodic charging in a sodium hydroxide solution. For a 0.1 cm thick sample, no matter the current density is equal to or much larger than the critical value, it spends at least about 132 h to form a hydrogen blister when hydrogen charging in single direction. It is approximately equal to the time for hydrogen atom to diffuse throughout the sample, which exactly depends on the hydrogen diffusion coefficient and the penetration depth. The very first clear suggestion was reported that the incubation period for hydrogen blister nucleation was necessary. According to the Fick’s laws, calculations show that the normalized hydrogen concentration in the escaping surface almost reaches 0.96 times of the charging surface, which means that the diffusion almost reaches a dynamic balance. A model was illustrated to describe the competitive relationship between hydrogen diffusion and blister formation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30174-1
       
  • Laser Surface Alloying of Low Carbon Steel Using High-entropy Alloy
           Precursors
    • Authors: Xiao-tao LIU; Wen-bin LEI; Qun-jiao WANG; Wei-ping TONG; Chang-sheng LIU; Jian-zhong CUI
      Pages: 1195 - 1199
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Xiao-tao LIU, Wen-bin LEI, Qun-jiao WANG, Wei-ping TONG, Chang-sheng LIU, Jian-zhong CUI
      The Al0.5 CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy powders with simple face-centered-cubic (FCC) solid solution structure were introduced into the surface layer of a low carbon steel during laser surface alloying. A high performance surface layer with extremely fine martensite as the dominant phase was obtained, resulting in a great improvement in microhardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. The great enhancement of microhardness and wear resistance of the laser alloyed layer is mainly due to the formation of extremely fine martensite hard phase, the solid solution strengthening of the alloying elements in supersaturated α-Fe solid solution, and the existence of size effect and strain effect under rapid solidification. The enhancement of corrosion resistance is due to the alloying of Al, Co, Ni, Cr and Cu in the laser alloyed layer.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30175-3
       
  • Corrosion Behavior of Fe-based Bulk Metallic Glass and In-situ
           Dendrite-reinforced Metallic Glass Matrix Composites in Acid Solution
    • Authors: Fan YANG; Sheng-feng GUO; Ai-dong LAN; Hui-jun YANG; He-feng ZHOU
      Pages: 1200 - 1205
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Fan YANG, Sheng-feng GUO, Ai-dong LAN, Hui-jun YANG, He-feng ZHOU
      The corrosion behavior study was conducted on a novel Fe77 Mo3, P9 C7.5 B1.5 in-situ metallic glass matrix composite (MGMC). This composite sample was developed by introduction of bcc α-Fe dendrites as reinforcing phase. The corrosion behavior of this composite was compared to its monolithic counterpart and other Fe-based alloys such as 304L and 2304L stainless steels. The corrosion resistance of MGMCs in H2SO4 solution shows inferior to that of other Fe-based alloys. Experiments suggest that Fe-BMGs samples possess better corrosion resistance property than that of Fe-MGMCs. The possible underlying reasons can be the inhomogeneity induced by the precipitation of α-Fe dendrites in the MGMCs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30176-5
       
  • Fracture Characteristics of Fully Pearlitic Steel Wire in Tension and
           Torsion
    • Authors: Tian-zhang ZHAO; Guang-liang ZHANG; Shi-hong ZHANG; Ling-yun ZHANG
      Pages: 1206 - 1212
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Tian-zhang ZHAO, Guang-liang ZHANG, Shi-hong ZHANG, Ling-yun ZHANG
      The fracture characteristics of fully pearlitic steel wires with fine and randomly oriented lamellae have been investigated after tension and torsion, respectively. It is found that the predominant fracture mode under small pre-deformation is dimple. The analysis of the colony size and the lamellar structure near the fracture surface indicates that each dimple roots from one colony. A simulation of tensile deformation with several pearlitic colonies based on the real scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows that the plastic deformation concentrates and the stress traxiality is larger at the boundaries of colonies. It demonstrates the microcracks initialize at colony boundaries. Thus, the colony size is a significant factor for fracture behaviors under small pre-deformation. On the other hand, the fracture surface is investigated after large pre-deformation via torsion. The results show that fracture characteristics vary with radius from dimples, elongated dimples to the fibrous structure. It indicates that the fracture characteristics are dependent on the pre-deformation. The fracture mode under large pre-deformation becomes an anisotropic fibrous structure instead of dimples.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30177-7
       
  • Solid Solute Regularity of La Atom in α-Fe Supercell by
           First-principles
    • Authors: Cai-xia WANG; Jian YANG; Sha LIU; Xiao-lei XING; Ji-bo WANG; Xue-jun REN; Qing-xiang YANG
      Pages: 1213 - 1218
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Cai-xia WANG, Jian YANG, Sha LIU, Xiao-lei XING, Ji-bo WANG, Xue-jun REN, Qing-xiang YANG
      The structure stability, elastic property and electronic structure of α-FT supercell with La atom were investigated by first-principles, in which, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew Burke Ernzerhof (PBE) was used as exchange-correlation functional. α-Fe supercells with La atom include α-Fe supercell with La atom in octahedral interstitial solid solute (La-OISS), that with La atom in tetrahedral interstitial solid solute (La-TISS) and that with La atom in substitutional solid solute (La-SSS). The results show that the La-SSS α-Fe supercell is more stable than La-OISS one. The resistance to volume change, reversible deformation and stiffness of La-OISS α-Fe supercell are stronger than those of La-SSS one. Moreover, the degrees of anisotropy and ionization in La-SSS α-Fe supercell are both stronger than those in La-OISS one. The bonding strength between La atom and Fe atom in La-SSS α-FT supercell is larger than that in La-OISS one.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30178-9
       
  • Oxidation Behavior of Fe-based Amorphous Ribbons
    • Authors: Shu-lan ZHANG; He-ping LIU; Xiao-tong FU
      Pages: 1219 - 1225
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Shu-lan ZHANG, He-ping LIU, Xiao-tong FU
      The oxidation behavior of Fe-based amorphous ribbons was tested by annealing at 380 °C in air for different time with heat treatment furnace and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanism of oxides formation of the amorphous ribbons was discussed in detail. The results showed that the oxides were mostly B2O2, SiO2 and Fe2O3 or FeO. With the increase of annealing time and holding temperature, the fraction of the oxides on the ribbon surface increased and the size of the oxides became larger due to the generation of new oxides and the coalescence of small oxides. The oxides have different shapes, such as round, rod and needle-shaped. Experimental results also showed that the oxides nucleated at fish scale, air pocket and impurities in priority, and the growth of the oxides was controlled by the diffusion of atoms. With the increase of the distance to the ribbon surface, the oxygen concentration decreased dramatically. Due to the low binding energy of B2O3 and the large diffusion coefficient of B atom, the B element was oxidized firstly compared with other elements. Moreover, the oxidation depths of the B2O3 and SiO2 were larger than that of Fe2O3.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30179-0
       
  • Effects of Rare Earth, Titanium, and Magnesium Additions on
           Microstructures and Properties of High-boron Medium-carbon Alloy
    • Authors: Xiao-li SHI; Ye-hua JIANG; Rong ZHOU
      Pages: 1226 - 1233
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Xiao-li SHI, Ye-hua JIANG, Rong ZHOU
      In order to improve the toughness and wear resistance of high-boron medium-carbon alloy (HBMCA), a novel wear-resistant HBMCA comprising granular borocarbide was obtained by titanium, magnesium, and rare earth modifications. These modifications gave rise to greatly refined as-cast eutectic borocarbide structures and a less interconnected continuous borocarbide network. Heat treatment mostly produced broken and spheriodized borocarbides that tended to exist as isolated particles in modified HBMCA. The heat treated modified HBMCA exhibited enhanced hardness than pristine and impact toughness was improved significantly to 12.5 J/cm2. In addition, it displayed 2.39 and 1.7 times greater wear resistance than high-speed steel (HSS) and high nickel-chromium alloy steel (Cr25) at high temperature (500 °C), respectively. Here, the modification mechanisms involving Re2O3, TiN, and MgO/MgS heterogeneous nuclei were discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30180-7
       
  • Correlation between Primary and Secondary Recrystallization Texture
           Components in Low-temperature Reheated Grain-oriented Silicon Steel
    • Authors: Gong-tao LIU; Zhi-qiao LIU; Ping YANG; Wei-min MAO
      Pages: 1234 - 1242
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 11
      Author(s): Gong-tao LIU, Zhi-qiao LIU, Ping YANG, Wei-min MAO
      Low-temperature slab-reheated grain-oriented silicon steel is characterized by a sharp {411}<148> primary recrystallization texture. To date, the influence of this texture on secondary recrystallization is not clear. Micro-textures in primary and secondary recrystallizcd sheets of low-temperature reheated grain-oriented silicon steel were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. By comparing the textures and microstructures of specific primary recrystallized grains neighboring secondary grains with those of other primary grains, the influences of primary recrystallization textures and microstructures on the orientations of secondary grains were investigated. Results show that for low-temperature reheated grain-oriented silicon steel, the primary recrystallization sheet comprises {411}<148>, {111}<112>, and {001}<120> texture components. During secondary recrystallization, the {111}<112> primary recrystallized grains were easily consumed by abnormally grown Goss, deviated Goss, Brass, or {210}<001> grains; the {411}<148> primary recrystallized grains were more resistant to being swallowed; and the {001}<120> grains were the most resistant to being consumed. For a particular primary grain, the distribution of its surrounding grain boundaries determined how easily it is consumed during secondary recrystallization. Primary grains surrounded by 20°–15° grain boundaries were consumed much earlier than those having grain boundaries above 15°, which is in accordance with high-energy grain boundary theory. In addition, special ∑9 boundaries between {111}<148> and Goss grains move more slowly than ∑9 boundaries between {111}<112> and Goss grains, which is attributed to the different positions of <110> rotation axis with respect to the normals of grain boundaries.

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30181-9
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Jet Behavior and Impingement Characteristics of
           Preheating Shrouded Supersonic Jets
    • Authors: Guang-sheng WEI; Rong ZHU; Ting CHENG; Fei ZHAO
      Pages: 997 - 1006
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Guang-sheng WEI, Rong ZHU, Ting CHENG, Fei ZHAO
      As a novel supersonic jet technology, preheating shrouded supersonic jet was developed to deliver oxygen into molten bath efficiently and affordably. However, there has been limited research on the jet behavior and impingement characteristics of preheating shrouded supersonic jets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were established to investigate the effects of main and shrouding gas temperatures on the characteristics of flow field and impingement of shrouded supersonic jet. The preheating shrouded supersonic jet behavior was simulated and measured by numerical simulation and jet measurement experiment respectively. The influence of preheating shrouded supersonic jet on gas jet penetration and fluid flow in liquid bath was calculated by the CFD model which was validated against water model experiments. The results show that the uptrend of the potential core length of shrouded supersonic jet would be accelerated with increasing the main and shrouding gas temperatures. Also, preheating supersonic jets demonstrated significant advantages in penetrating and stirring the liquid bath.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30150-9
       
  • Effect of MgO on Oxidation Process of Fe3O4 in Pellets
    • Authors: Qiang-jian GAO; Yan song SHEN; Xin JIANG; Hai-yan ZHENG; Feng-man SHEN; Chang-sheng LIU
      Pages: 1007 - 1011
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Qiang-jian GAO, Yan song SHEN, Xin JIANG, Hai-yan ZHENG, Feng-man SHEN, Chang-sheng LIU
      Induration process of oxidized pellets involves the oxidation of Fe3O4 and re-crystallization of Fe2O3. The oxidation process of Fe3O4 is significant for pellets to obtain better ambient strength. Thus, the effect of MgO on oxidation process of Fe3O4 was investigated. The unreacted core model was applied to analyze the oxidizing induration process of pellets. The experimental results show that MgO plays a negative role in the oxidation process of Fe3O4. The oxidation rate of Fe3O4 in MgO-fluxed pellets (95.0% Fe3O4 +5.0% MgO) is slower than that in standard acid pellets (100% Fe3O4). The relation between oxidation ratio of Fe3O4 and time was calculated based on the unreacted core model for both MgO-fluxed pellets and standard acid pellets. According to verification experiments, the values calculated by model coincide well with the experimental values. Therefore, the unreacted core model could be applied to describe the oxidizing induration process of pellets.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30151-0
       
  • Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation and Experimental Analysis of
           Austenite Grain Growth Behavior in Hot Forging Processes of 300M Steel
           Large Components
    • Authors: Jiao LUO; Ying-gang LIU; Miao-quan LI
      Pages: 1012 - 1019
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Jiao LUO, Ying-gang LIU, Miao-quan LI
      The microstructure models were integrated into finite element (FE) code, and a three-dimensional (3D) FE analysis on the entire hot forging processes of 300M steel large components was performed to predict the distributions of effective strain, temperature field and austenite grain size. The simulated results show that the finest grains distribute in the maximum effective strain region because large strain induces the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. However, coarse macro-grains appear in the minimum effective strain region. Then, 300M steel forging test was performed to validate the results of FE simulation, and microstructure observations and quantitative analysis were implemented. The average relative difference between the calculated and experimental austenite grain size is 7.56%, implying that the present microstructure models are reasonable and can be used to analyze the hot forging processes of 300M steel.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30152-2
       
  • New Formulas of Shear Strain during Equal-channel Angular Pressing Process
           with Consideration of Influences of Velocity and Motion Trajectory
    • Authors: Dian-tao ZHANG; Zhen LI; Yun-xiang TONG; Yu-feng ZHENG; Li LI
      Pages: 1020 - 1027
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Dian-tao ZHANG, Zhen LI, Yun-xiang TONG, Yu-feng ZHENG, Li LI
      The influences of die parameters on shear strain were investigated by using two-dimensional finite element simulation. New formulas of shear strain were proposed. According to the results of formulas, the shear strain showed a linear dependence on the difference between internal and external fillet radius and the slope was determined by the intersection angle. The simulation results indicated that the velocities of the points from different zones were different in the specimen and the motion trajectories of different points did not follow geometrical laws. The influences of the average velocity and the motion trajectory on shear strain were incorporated in the formula to calculate the shear strain produced during equal-channel angular pressing process. The reliability of simulation results has been partially validated by experiments.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30153-4
       
  • Model Algorithm Research on Cooling Path Control of Hot-rolled Dual-phase
           Steel
    • Authors: Xiao-qing XU; Xiao-dong HAO; Shi-guang ZHOU; Chang-sheng LIU; Qi-fu ZHANG
      Pages: 1028 - 1034
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Xiao-qing XU, Xiao-dong HAO, Shi-guang ZHOU, Chang-sheng LIU, Qi-fu ZHANG
      With the development of advanced high strength steel, especially for dual-phase steel, the model algorithm for cooling control after hot rolling has to achieve the targeted coiling temperature control at the location of downcoiler whilst maintaining the cooling path control based on strip microstructure along the whole cooling section. A cooling path control algorithm was proposed for the laminar cooling process as a solution to practical difficulties associated with the realization of the thermal cycle during cooling process. The heat conduction equation coupled with the carbon diffusion equation with moving boundary was employed in order to simulate temperature change and phase transformation kinetics, making it possible to observe the temperature field and the phase fraction of the strip in real time. On this basis, an optimization method was utilized for valve settings to ensure the minimum deviations between the predicted and actual cooling path of the strip, taking into account the constraints of the cooling equipment's specific capacity, cooling line length, etc. Results showed that the model algorithm was able to achieve the online cooling path control for dual-phase steel.

      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:49:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1006-706x(16)30154-6
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.197.136.128
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016