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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 806 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (737 journals)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (737 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Information Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IngenierĂ­a HidrĂ¡ulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Gambling Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Innovation - climate     Open Access  
International innovation. Environment     Open Access  
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Iranian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Irish Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Irish Journal of Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Israel Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Journal Cover   Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International
  [SJR: 0.784]   [H-I: 16]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1006-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Effect of δ Phase on Mechanical Properties of GH4169 Alloy at Room
           Temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Neng-yong YE, Ming CHENG, Shi-hong ZHANG, Hong-wu SONG, Hong-wei ZHOU, Ping-bo WANG
      Tensile tests of GH4169 alloy were performed at room temperature. Different fractions, distributions and shapes of δ phase was prepared by aging treated at 880 °C, 930 °C and 980 °C for 5 h or 10 h. The effect of δ phase on the mechanical properties of GH4169 alloy was investigated. The results show that 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of GH4169 alloy increase by 61 MPa and 78 MPa respectively when the fraction of δ phase increases from 2.20% to 5.21%. Then, the ultimate tensile strength remains at 1 012 MPa even when the fraction of δ phase reaches 7.56%. The fraction effect of δ phase on the strength improvement of GH4169 alloy is more significant than morphology, and the critical fraction value is 5.21%. In addition, the elongation decreases by 14.1% when the fraction of δ phase increases from 2.20% to 7.56%. Excessive needle or short rod shaped δ phase is responsible for the reduction of elongation.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Electrochemical Behavior and Microstructure of Recyclable
           Aluminium-magmesium Alloy Hot-dip Coating Deposited on Low Carbon Steel
           Substrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Panomkorn KWAKHONG, Apichart ARTNASEAW, Chaiyaput KRUEHONG
      With the abundance and good corrosion resistance of aluminium, hot-dip technique was used to prepare the recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on low carbon steel substrates. Electrochemical behavior of this coating was investigated by anodic polarization and open circuit potential measurement. Its microstructure and composition were observed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The long lasting corrosion performance of coated steels was investigated under the salt fog spray test. From anodic polarization curves and open circuit potential, recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg coating performed adequate sacrificial ability. At 0.40 V, current density of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating was about 200 000 times higher than that of pure recycled Al coating, and was about 0.5 times lower than that of Zn coating. The microstructure of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on the steel substrate consisted of Al3Mg2, Al-Fe intermetallic compound and Al matrix. The results from salt fog spray test showed that recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coated steel had similar corrosion resistance ability to Zn coated steel.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Progress in the Research and Manufacture of GH4169 Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jin-hui DU, Xu-dong LU, Qun DENG, Zhong-nan BI
      GH4169 alloy has been widely used in fields such as aviation, aerospace, and petrochemical, because of its excellent combination of mechanical and processing properties. These properties include good high-temperature strength, excellent creep and fatigue resistance, and good processing and welding performance. The requirement for high performance, high reliability, and long service life of modern engines has led to the incentive to develop GH4169 alloys with improved performance, such as increased temperature-bearing capacity, improved creep endurance, and better fatigue resistance. Advances during the past thirty years in basic research and industrial technology related to GH4169 alloy were systematically summarized, including advances in alloy modification, melting process optimization, and hot deformation technology.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Prediction of Nitrogen Diffusivity in α-ferrite Based on
           Thermodynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jae-gil JUNG, Seok-jae LEE
      A thermodynamic based equation to predict the diffusivity of nitrogen in α-ferrite was investigated in consideration of the equilibrium nitrogen concentration. The temperature-dependent jump distance calculated from the lattice parameter of ferrite was used to derive the frequency factor as a function of temperature. The calculation accuracy for nitrogen diffusivity using the proposed thermodynamic based equation was improved by comparing the calculation results using previous empirical equations based on Arrhenius type relationship with measured diffusivity of nitrogen for α-ferrite at different temperatures.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Tensile Behavior of the Second Generation Single Crystal Superalloy DD6
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Zhen-xue SHI, Shi-zhong LIU, Jian YU, Jia-rong LI
      Tensile properties of the second generation single crystal superalloy DD6 were investigated from 20 °C to 1 100 °C. Microstructure evolution and fracture mechanism were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the tensile strength decreases slightly with increasing temperature from 20 °C to 400 °C. The tensile strength of the alloy increases with the increase of temperature from 400 °C to 800 °C. Above 800 °C, the yield strength of the alloy decreases greatly with increasing temperature. The elongation and contraction of area almost present opposite tendency in contrast to changes of the tensile strength. At lower and intermediate temperature (from 20 °C to 850 °C), the tensile fracture mechanism shows quasi-cleavage mode, while at high temperature (980 °C and 1 100 °C), it is dimple mode. The γ′ precipitate morphology still maintains cubic after tensile fracture at lower and intermediate temperature. The γ′ phase changes into rectangular solid at high temperature. The γ′ phase is sheared by anti-phase boundary (APB) or stacking faults at lower and intermediate temperature. At high temperature, dislocations overcome γ′ through by-passing mechanism.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Elemental Quantitative Distribution and Statistical Analysis on Cross
           Section of Stainless Steel Sheet by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled
           Plasma Mass Spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Qian-hua LUO, Hai-zhou WANG
      An innovative application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) technique in illustrating elemental distributions on stainless steel sheets was presented. The technique proved to be a systematic and accurate approach in producing visual images or maps of elemental distributions at cross-sectional surface of a stainless steel sheet. Two stainless steel sheets served as research objects: 3 mm×1 300 mm hot-rolled stainless steel plate and 1 mm×1 260 mm cold-rolled plate. The cross-sectional surfaces of the two samples at 1/4 position along the width direction were scanned (raster area −44 mm2 and 11 mm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 100 μm, and laser power 1.6 mJ) in a laser ablation chamber. The laser ablation system was coupled to a quadrupole ICP-MS, which made the detection of ion intensities of 27Al+, 44Ca+, 47Ti+, 55Mn+ and 56Fe+ within an area of interest possible. One-dimensional (1D) content line distribution maps and two-dimensional (2D) contour maps for specific positions or areas were plotted to indicate the element distribution of a target area with high accuracy. Statistic method was used to analyze the acquired data by calculating median contents, maximum segregation, statistic segregation and content-frequency distribution.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Modified Arrhenius-type Constitutive Model and Artificial Neural
           Network-based Model for Constitutive Relationship of 316LN Stainless Steel
           during Hot Deformation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): An HE, Xi-tao WANG, Gan-lin XIE, Xiao-ya YANG, Hai-long ZHANG
      Hot compression experiments of 316LN stainless steel were carried out on Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulator in deformation temperature range of 1 223–1 423 K and strain rate range of 0.001–1 s−1. The flow behavior was investigated to evaluate the workability and optimize the hot forging process of 316LN stainless steel pipes. Constitutive relationship of 316LN stainless steel was comparatively studied by a modified Arrhenius-type analytical constitutive model considering the effect of strain and by an artificial neural network model. The accuracy and effectiveness of two models were respectively quantified by the correlation coefficient and absolute average relative error. The results show that both models have high reliabilities and could meet the requirements of engineering calculation. Compared with the analytical constitutive model, the artificial neural network model has a relatively higher predictability and is easier to work in cooperation with finite element analysis software.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Influence of Marine Aerobic Biofilms on Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Feng-ling XU, Ji-zhou DUAN, Cun-guo LIN, Bao-rong HOU
      The influence of marine aerobic biofilms on the corrosion of 316L stainless steel (SS) in aerated and deaerated seawater was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarisation curves, current-potential curves and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). EIS and SEM-EDS results showed that the aerobic biofilms inhibited 316L SS corrosion within the test duration. Comparison of results under aerated and deaerated conditions revealed that O2 enhanced the inhibition efficiency of the aerobic biofilms. This result indicated that living cells were necessary for the aerobic biofilms to inhibit the corrosion of 316L SS. Polarization curves indicated that the biofilms mainly inhibited anode action. Current-potential curves under deaerated conditions showed that electron transfer processes occurred between microorganisms and electrodes. Moreover, 316L SS as an electron acceptor was protected from corrosion.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Analysis of Solidification of High Manganese Steels Using Improved
           Differential Thermal Analysis Method
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Chang-ling ZHUANG, Jian-hua LIU, Christian BERNHARD, Peter PRESOLY
      High manganese steels can damage the differential thermal analysis (DTA) instrument due to the manganese evaporation during high temperature experiments. After analyzing the relationship between residual oxygen and manganese evaporation, tantalum metal was employed to modify the crucible of DTA, and zirconium getter together with strict gas purification measures were applied to control the volatilization of manganese. By these modifications, problems of thermocouple damage and DTA instrument contamination were successfully resolved. Cobalt samples were adopted to calibrate the accuracy of DTA instruments under the same trial condition of high manganese steel samples, and the detection error was confirmed to be less than 1 °C. Liquidus and solidus temperatures of high Mn steels were measured by improved DTA method. It was found that the liquidus temperatures of samples tested by experiments increased linearly with the heating rates. To eliminate the effects of the heating rate, equilibrium liquidus temperature was determined by fitting the liquidus temperatures at different heating rates, and referred as real liquidus temperature. No clear relationship between solidus temperatures and heating rates was found, and the solidus temperature was finally set as the average value of several experimental data.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Numerical Simulation and Vertical Motion Control of Rolls for Variable
           Gauge Rolling
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Yu ZHANG, Jian TAN
      The vertical motion control of the roll was studied in order to improve the accuracy in simulation of variable gauge rolling. The discretization was carried out in the transition zone of TRB according to the principle of volume invariance. Based on this assumption, the formula for time step of vertical motion of rolls was proposed and the time-displacement curve of the vertical motion of rolls was established. In the preliminary simulation, the time-displacement curve was used as an initial method to control the vertical motion of rolls. Based on the simulation result, the formula for vertical velocity of roll in variable gauge rolling was derived from the common rolling principle. According to the formula, reasonable vertical velocity of rolls in the subsequent simulation was determined. It can accurately control the motion of rolls along the vertical direction. The desired thickness and outline profile of transition zone were acquired and the formula proved effective by the simulation. Further analysis shows that the di fference of thickness in the thick zone and the thin zone of TRB, length of the transition zone of TRB, radius of work rolls and rotation speed of rolls have a significant effect on the vertical velocity of rolls.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Hot Rolled Strip Re-reddening Temperature Changing Law during Ultra-fast
           Cooling
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Lian-yun JIANG, Chun-jiang ZHAO, Jian-hui SHI, Guo YUAN, Xue-qiang WANG, Qing-xue HUANG
      Temperature deviation between surface and the center of hot rolled strip is formed during ultra-fast cooling (UFC). Surface temperature would rise when temperature deviation goes up to an extent, and strip re-reddening phenomenon will appear. Strip re-reddening affects the stability of strip microstructure, property and temperature control precision. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research on re-reddening temperature changing law to improve strip property and temperature control precision. Strip temperature trends for various strip thicknesses and ultra-fast cooling rates were obtained by numerical calculation method. Re-reddening temperature, temperature deviation between surface and center, and boundary layer position changing law were obtained. By comparison, some conclusions were obtained: UFC re-reddening temperature and laminar cooling (LC) re-reddening temperature were linear to ultra-fast cooling rate respectively. Ultra-fast cooling rate affected UFC re-reddening temperature greatly, but it had little effect on LC re-reddening temperature. Equations which were used to calculate UFC re-reddening temperature, LC re-reddening temperature and maximum temperature deviation were obtained. The position of boundary layer stayed in 1/4 strip thickness.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Orthogonal Experiments on Direct Reduction of Carbon-bearing Pellets of
           Bayer Red Mud
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Dun-cheng FAN, Wen NI, Ai-yun YAN, Jian-yue WANG, Wei-hua CUI
      To recycle residual iron efficiently in Bayer red mud, three-factor three-level orthogonal experiments on carbon-bearing pellets of Bayer red mud were conducted on the basis of their characteristics. The influences of CaO dosage, temperature and roasting time on total iron content and iron recovery of reduced iron powder were studied. Results showed that these factors slightly influenced iron recovery, but significantly influenced total iron content. The principal factor influencing total iron content was CaO dosage, followed by temperature and roasting time. An increase in CaO dosage could decrease total iron content, whereas an increase in temperature and an extension of roasting time could improve total iron content. The reduced iron powder with total iron content of 88.41% and iron recovery rate of 97.97% can be obtained under the optimal conditions of temperature of 1 275 °C, roasting time of 60 min and CaO dosage of 7.5%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the reduced pellets showed that iron minerals in red mud were almost completely reduced to metallic iron. The principal factor influencing the total iron content of reduced iron powder was the grain size of metallic iron particles. An increase in CaO dosage hindered the growth of metallic iron particles, whereas an increase in temperature and an extension of roasting time could neutralise the effect of CaO dosage. Therefore, CaO dosage should be decreased when iron minerals in red mud can be adequately reduced into metallic iron.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • A Green Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for Optimization of
           Byproduct Gases in Iron and Steel Industry
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Hai-ning KONG
      Byproduct gas is an important secondary energy in iron and steel industry, and its optimization is vital to cost reduction. With the development of iron and steel industry to be more eco-friendly, it is necessary to construct an integrated optimized system, taking economics, energy consumption and environment into consideration. Therefore, the environmental cost caused by pollutants discharge should be factored in total cost when optimizing byproduct gas distribution. A green mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for the optimization of byproduct gases was established to reduce total cost, including both operation cost and environmental cost. The operation cost included penalty for gas deviation, costs of fuel and water consumption, holder booster trip penalty, and so forth; while the environmental cost consisted of penalties for both direct and indirect pollutants discharge. Case study showed that the proposed model brought an optimum solution and 2.2% of the total cost could be reduced compared with previous one.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • A 2.5-dimensional Analytical Model of Cold Leveling for Plates with
           Transverse Wave Defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Wei-hua CHEN, Juan LIU, Zhen-shan CUI, Ying-jie WANG, Ying-rui WANG
      Waves occurring in cold-rolled plates or sheets can be divided into longitudinal and transverse waves. Classical leveling theories merely solve the problem of longitudinal waves, while no well accepted method can be employed for transverse waves. In order to investigate the essential deformation law of leveling for plates with transverse waves, a 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) analytical approach was proposed. In this model, the plate was transversely divided into some strips with equal width; the strips are considered to be in the state of plane strain and each group of adjacent strips are assumed to be deformation compatible under stress. After calculation, the bending deformation of each strip and the leveling effect of overall plate were obtained by comprehensive consideration of various strips along with the width. Bending of roller is a main approach to eliminate the transverse waves, which is widely accepted by the industry, but the essential effect of bending of roller on the deformation of plates and the calculation of bending of roller are unknown. According to the 2.5-D analytical model, it can be found that, for plates, it is neutral plane offsetting and middle plane elongation or contraction under inner stress that can effectively improve plate shape. Taking double side waves as an example, the appropriate values of bending of roller were obtained by the 2.5-D analytical model related to different initial unevenness, which was applicable to the current on-line adjusting of bending of roller in rolling industry.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Comprehensive Utilization of Ludwigite Ore Based on Metallizing Reduction
           and Magnetic Separation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Xiao-jiao FU, Jia-qi ZHAO, Shuang-yin CHEN, Zheng-gen LIU, Tong-lai GUO, Man-sheng CHU
      With the aim of high-efficiency utilization of Dandong ludwigite ore, a new process of metallizing reduction and magnetic separation was proposed, and the effects of reduction temperature, reduction time, carbon ratio, ore size and coal size on the efficiency of the process were investigated in details, and relevant mechanisms were elucidated by SEM and EDS. The optimum technological parameters for metallizing reduction and magnetic separation on ludwigite ore were obtained as reduction temperature of 1 250 °C, reduction time of 60 min, carbon ratio of 1.4, ore size of 0.500–2.000 mm, and coal size of 0.50–1.50 mm. After adopting the optimum parameters, the iron content and recovery ratio of iron in magnetic substance are 87.78% and 88.02%, respectively, while the recovery ratios of boron, magnesium and silicon in non-magnetic substance are 88.86%, 94.60% and 98.66%, respectively. After metallizing reduction and magnetic separation, valuable elements of ludwigite ore could be separated and utilized in subsequent steelmaking process and hydrometallurgy process.


      PubDate: 2015-08-16T10:04:05Z
       
  • Verification of Interpretation of Dynamic Strain Aging for Intermediate
           Temperature Embrittlement in Ni-Bi Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Wu-qiang YANG , Min XU , Ye MENG , Lei ZHENG , Xiao-dong MENG
      Intermediate temperature embrittlement (ITE) is a general phenomenon in Ni alloys and recently was interpreted by dynamic strain aging (DSA). The relationship between ITE and DSA was studied by a binary Ni-Bi alloy. The experimental alloy of well-controlled purity was produced by vacuum induction melting and then heat-treated properly. Tensile tests were performed at various tensile temperatures, and the elongation at fracture was used to indicate the ductility. In order to identify the mechanisms of fracture and ITE, fracture morphologies of the samples of low ductility were observed by scanning electron microscopy. According to the tensile ductility, Ni-Bi alloy shows an obvious embrittlement behavior in the intermediate temperature range (700 – 750 °C). However, the stress-strain curves of Ni-Bi alloy and the fracture morphologies indicate that DSA does not exist over the whole temperature range. Based on the experimental results and literatures, the interpretation of DSA was then discussed and proved to be invalid for elucidating the general feature of ITE in Ni-Bi alloy and Ni-based superalloys.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Preparation of Sintered (Ce1−x Ndx)30FebalCu0.1B1 Magnets by
           Blending Powder Method
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Shu-lin HUANG , Hai-bo FENG , Ming-gang ZHU , An-hua LI , Yue ZHANG , Wei LI
      Magnets with nominal compositions of (Nd1-x Ce x )30 Febal Cu0.1 B1 (x = 0, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.4, mass %) have been fabricated by blending powder method. The remanence (B r), intrinsic coercivity (H c) and maximum energy product (BH)max of the RE2Fe14B type magnets deteriorated when Nd was replaced by Ce. The chemical composition and crystal structure of magnet were investigated systemically. Backscattered electron (BSE) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results revealed that Ce-rich and Ce-lean matrix grains coexisted in the magnets. The magnetic coupling mechanism among the double hard magnetic phases was discussed. Low melting point RE-Cu phase was in favor of the formation of uniform continuous grain boundary. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation showed the presence of fcc (Nd, Ce)O x phase in the grain boundary. When the Ce content was 15% of the total amounts of all the rare earth, the maximum energy product of the sintered magnet was 359.8 kJ/m3.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Optimization of Calcium Addition to High-strength Low-alloy Steels
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Gu-jun CHEN , Sheng-ping HE , Yin-tao GUO , Bo-yi SHEN , Shuo ZHAO , Qian WANG
      Nozzle blockage is a common problem during continuous casting of Al-killed steel, and calcium treatment is widely used to resolve it. In consideration of the production costs, the technology of nonmetallic inclusion control was studied to optimize the Ca consumption. The proposed process of slag washing was employed, and the refining slag composition, deoxidation conditions and alloying systems were optimized. Using these measures, the steel cleanliness before Ca addition was improved significantly, and the corresponding Ca consumption was reduced. Moreover, the continuous casting could be conducted smoothly.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Effect of Tempcore Processing on Mitigating Problems of Tramp Elements in
           Low C Steel Produced from Recycled Material
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Ahmed RAMADAN , A.Y. SHASH , I.S. EL-MAHALLAWI , D. SENK , Taha MATTAR
      The effect of tramp elements in the steel was intensively studied. It was found that the solubility of tramp elements decreased as the temperature decreased under normal cooling conditions. The tramp elements (Cu, Pb, and Sn) diffused toward the grain boundaries, and intermetallic compounds or rich phases which have low melting points were formed, causing reduction in ductility and failure during the bending test. Rebars with Cu content which were left to air cooling after the last step showed drop in elongation, up to 32%. On contrast, the samples with high percentage of tramp elements (Cu, Pb, and Sn) in the billet, which were rolled and subjected to Tempcore process, did not show drop in elongation or failure in bending test (especially for rebar with diameter less than 32 mm); however, copper must be less than 0. 35 mass % to prevent the precipitation of Cu-rich zones of critical size in 32 mm. When quenching was applied, the tramp elements remained in the interstitial supersaturated solid solution positions inside the grains and would not have the chance to diffuse and form precipitates, hindering the copper precipitates from reaching the critical size necessary for impairing the properties. This would hinder the occurrence of the harmful effect of the tramp elements on the elongation or the hot shortness after rolling.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Characteristics and Metallurgical Effects of Medium Basicity Refining Slag
           on Low Melting Temperature Inclusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Hui-xiang YU , Xin-hua WANG , Jing ZHANG , Wan-jun WANG
      Recently, large sized CaO-Al2 O3 inclusions with low melting temperature have been the main reason for lowering mechanical properties of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plates. New philosophy, i. e. refining by top slag with relatively low basicity and Al2 O3 content, was proposed to control such kind of inclusions. Firstly, the characteristics of refining slag, such as component activities and sulphide capacity (C s) of CaO-A12O3-SiO2-MgO slag, were studied through thermodynamic calculation. Then, slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out in laboratory to investigate the exact chemical composition of refining slag together with thermodynamic analysis. Finally, industrial trials were done to verify the desulphurization ability and inclusions control in steel refined by the new slag. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the slags with basicity of 3. 5 and Al2 O3 content of 20% and basicity of 5.0 and A12O3 content of 20% or 25% have high values of CaO activity, sulphide capacity and ratio of MgO activity to Al2 O3 activity. Laboratory equilibrium experiments showed that the slag with basicity of about 4. 5 and Al2 O3 content of about 20% is helpful for increasing the melting temperature of inclusions in steel. After introducing such kind of refining slag in industrial trials, the sulphur content in eight heats of steel is below 20 × 10−6, which meets the requirement of HSLA steel, and most inclusions distribute in relatively high melting zone (±1773 K) of CaO-Al2O3-MgO(-SiO2) quasi-ternary diagram. New philosophy of top refining slag is feasible to control low melting point inclusions of CaO-Al2O3 system in HSLA steel.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Characterization and Thermodynamics of Al2O3-MnO-SiO2 (-MnS) Inclusion
           Formation in Carbon Steel Billet
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Guo-cheng WANG , Sheng-li LI , Xin-gang AI , Chong-min ZHANG , Chao-bin LAI
      A method to extract inclusion particles from solid steel by electrolysis with organic electrolyte solution was introduced; meanwhile, thermodynamics of inclusion formation was calculated using FactSage software. The results showed that there were two kinds of inclusions in the billet, i. e. Al2 O3-MnO-SiO2-MnS (AMS-MnS) and A12O3-MnO-SiO2 (AMS). Most of AMS-MnS inclusion particles, with diameter of 10 – 30 µm, showed three-layer structures: SiO2-rich core with a small quantity of Mn, intermediate AMS layer, and MnS outer layer containing small quantities of Al and O. Most AMS inclusion particles were 50 – 90 µm and exhibited homogeneous composition. Thermodynamic results indicated that SiO2-rich core could form firstly by Si reacting with O in molten steel at temperatures above 1923 K during Si-Fe alloy addition, and then, the SiO2-rich core could react with Mn and Al to form liquid AMS enveloping the SiO2-rich core at 1823 – 1873 K. MnS began to precipitate from AMS when temperature reached 1728 K. Liquid AMS could form by coupled reaction among Si, Mn, Al and O in molten steel.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • An Estimation of Component Activity of Vanadium-bearing Liquid Iron and
           Transition Temperature of Vanadium Oxidization Using MIVM
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Ya-yu LI , Zhen-nan LIU , Dong-ping TAO
      The component activity of Mn in Fe-C-Mn system as well as the component activities of C and Si in Fe-C-Si system was predicted by applying the pseudo-multicomponent approach of the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) and the Wagner interaction parameter formalism (WIPF) respectively. The average relative errors between the predicted values of MIVM and the experimental data for the three components were 4.5%, 17.0% and 13.0%, respectively, and those between the calculation results of the WIPF and the experimental data were 18.0% for Mn, 9.0% for C and 27.0% for Si. The results indicated that the MIVM method could better predict the component activity of carbonaceous iron-based solution. Based on the data in an actual blowing process, the MIVM method was applied to predict the component activities of C and V as well as the transition temperature of vanadium oxidization (TTVO) in Fe-C-V-Si quaternary iron-based solution, and a comparative analysis of the predictions against the experimental data was carried out, with their average relative errors being 24.0% for C, 7.3% for V and 1.0% for TTVO respectively. On that basis, the TTVO at Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co., Ltd. was estimated by the MIVM method and an expression that the TTVO changed with composition and temperature of iron solutions was obtained by multiple linear regression method. The research results showed that the estimated values were in good agreement with the practical data.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Effect of Aging on Hardening Behavior of 15-5 PH Stainless Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Xin-yuan PENG , Xian-liang ZHOU , Xiao-zhen HUA , Zhen-wei WEI , Hua-ying LIU
      Microstructure transformation and aging hardening behavior of 15-5 PH stainless steel were studied by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the 15-5 PH stainless steel consists of NbC precipitates and lath matensite with a high dislocation density after solution treatment. With increasing aging temperature and aging time, the martensitic laths were resolved gradually. Meanwhile, the nanometric-sized Cu precipitates gradually coarsened and lost their coherency with the martensite matrix, which exhibited an elliptical shape finally. Fine Cu precipitates can lead to significant dispersion hardening effect, while the coarsened Cu precipitates have no contribution to strengthening. The reversed austenite was observed in the specimens aged at 550 °C and above; moreover, the amount of reversed austenite increased as aging temperature increased. The precipitation hardening behavior of 15-5 PH stainless steel may depend on the balance between the softening caused by the formation of reversed austenite and the hardening caused by the precipitation of copper.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Hot Deformation Behavior of Vanadium-microalloyed Medium-carbon Steel for
           Fracture Splitting Connecting Rod
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Wei-jun HUI , Si-lian CHEN , Cheng-wei SHAO , Yong-jian ZHANG , Han DONG
      Single compression tests were carried out with a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator to investigate hot deformation behavior of two vanadium-microalloyed medium-carbon steels for fracture splitting connecting rod. The tests were performed to a total true strain of 0.92 at true strain rates ranging from 10−2 to 10 s−1 and deformation temperature of 900 – 1150 °C. The results show that hot deformation behavior of the tested steels is similar to that of conventional medium-carbon microalloyed steels and dynamic recrystallization is easier to occur at higher deformation temperature and lower strain rate. The austenite deformation resistance and activation energy of deformation increase with increasing vanadium content from 0. 15% to 0. 28% and thus the starting time of dynamic recrystallization was delayed. Finer recrystallized austenite grain could be obtained at higher strain rate, lower deformation temperature and higher vanadium content. TEM observation of the specimens quenched just before and after deformation reveals that vanadium is mainly in dissolved solute condition in austenite and thus affects the dynamic recrystallization behavior of the tested steels mainly through solute-drag effect.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Effect of Annealing Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of
           1100 MPa Grade TRIP Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Hong-xiang YIN , Zheng-zhi ZHAO , Ai-min ZHAO , Xiao LI , Han-jiang HU , Jiang-tao LIANG
      To develop super-high strength TRIP steel for automobile application with good combination of strength and plasticity, an ultra-high-strength TRIP steel 0. 2%C-2. 0% Si-1. 8% Mn was investigated at different intercritical annealing temperatures and bainitic isothermal temperatures. Microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties were tested under a uniaxial tensile testing machine. It shows that the best comprehensive mechanical properties were obtained for the experimental steel particularly annealed at 820 °C and austempered at 410 °C. Yield strength of the tested steel mainly depends on ferrite, while the high strength of the tested steel is related to martensite which forms through blocky austenite transformation during cooling and subsequent tensile test attributed to the TRIP effect. Hence, it could be concluded that the grain size of the retained austenite and carbon content in retained austenite are the main reasons for high elongation of the tested steel.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Influence of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of Low-alloy Steel in Cargo
           Oil Tank O2-CO2-SO2-H2S Wet Gas Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Peng ZHOU , Jin-ming LIANG , Fei ZHANG , Hui-bin WU , Di TANG
      As international maritime organization (IMO) draft 289 was adopted to develop a low-alloy anti-corrosion steel for the deck of cargo oil tank and to understand corrosion mechanism, corrosion behavior of a low-alloy steel with chromium contents was studied in O2-CO2-SO2-H2S wet gas environment. Corrosion rate was measured, and the microstructure and morphology of corrosion product film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase and chemical composition of the corrosion product film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The effect of misorientation distribution on corrosion resistance of steel was evaluated by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that corrosion rate decreased with increasing chromium content in the low-alloy steel, and the corrosion type was general corrosion. The phenomenon of chromium enrichment was found in corrosion product film consisting of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, sulphur, FeS2 and Fe1–x S. The increase of chromium content decreases the amount of high-angle grain boundaries, thus resulting in the improvement of corrosion resistance.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Ultrasonic Fatigue Damage Behavior of 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel
           Based on Micro-plasticity and Heat Dissipation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Chao HE , Ren-hui TIAN , Yong-jie LIU , Jiu-kai LI , Qing-yuan WANG
      Very high cycle fatigue behavior (107 – 109 cycles) of 304L austenitic stainless steel was studied with ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz). The characteristics of fatigue crack initiation and propagation were discussed based on the observation of surface plastic deformation and heat dissipation. It was found that micro-plasticity (slip markings) could be observed on the specimen surface even at very low stress amplitudes. The persistent slip markings increased clearly along with a remarkable process of heat dissipation just before the fatigue failure. By detailed investigation using a scanning electron microscope and an infrared camera, slip markings appeared at the large grains where the fatigue crack initiation site was located. The surface temperature around the fatigue crack tip and the slip markings close to the fracture surface increased prominently with the propagation of fatigue crack. Finally, the coupling relationship among the fatigue crack propagation, appearance of surface slip markings and heat dissipation was analyzed for a better understanding of ultrasonic fatigue damage behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Effect of Martensite Fine Structure on Mechanical Properties of an 1100
           MPa Grade Ultra-high Strength Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Fan ZHEN , Kuan ZHANG , Zhi-long GUO , Jin-bo QU
      An 1100 MPa grade ultra-high strength steel with different martensite fine structures, characterized by prior austenite grain size, martensite packet size, block width and lath width, was studied by various heat treatment processes. The result shows that with decreasing prior austenite grain size, both the packet size and block width decrease, while the lath width has virtually no change. Accordingly, both strength and toughness increase, while total elongation decreases. The yield strength has a Hall-Petch type relationship with the prior austenite grain size, packet size and block width, and the block width may be regarded as a key factor influencing strength. On the other hand, the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is found to be more related to the packet size, which may be considered as a dominant factor influencing toughness.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Structure and Performance Changes of Ni-Co-Al Shape Memory Alloys in
           Relation to Co/Al Atomic Ratio
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Jia JU , Feng XUE , Liu-xia SUN
      As a potential ferromagnetic shape memory alloy, Ni-Co-Al has excellent mechanical properties, large magentic-field-induced strain and high martensitic transformation temperature. The relationship between microstructure and performance (mechanical and magnetic properties) of Ni-Co-Al with different Co/Al atomic ratios (R Co/A1) was investigated. Samples exhibit β and γ dual-phase structure. The γ phase grows coarse and the volume fraction of γ phase increases with the rise of R Co/A1. Besides, sample with high amount of γ phase content has smaller β grains owing to the pinning effect of γ phase. The martensite, transformed from β phase, is tetragonal L10 structure with a (1 1) twinning plane. The martensitic transformation temperature of samples ascends with increasing R Co/A1 owing to more Co embedded into the cell, which makes the valence electron concentration (e/a) of system rise. The saturation magnetization (M s) of samples increases as R Co/A1 rises because Co-rich γ phase has excellent magnetic property. Meanwhile, both compressive and micro-hardness tests reveal that the samples containing more γ phase have excellent ductility due to the intrinsic good ductility nature of γ phase.


      PubDate: 2015-07-15T20:28:33Z
       
  • Life Cycle Assessment of Iron Ore Sintering Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Zong-ping LI , Xiao-hui FAN , Gui-ming YANG , Jin-chao WEI , Ying SUN , Min WANG
      Iron ore sintering is an energy-intensive process associated with emission of pollutants in iron and steel industry. In order to comprehensively evaluate the environmental impacts of sintering, a detailed life cycle assessment of a sintering plant was conducted. Life cycle inventory showed that, in the production of 1 t sinter ore, 241. 53 kg CO2, 22. 68 kg CO, 0. 294 kg SO2, 0.63 kg NO x , 1.18 μg dioxin and 0. 48 kg dust were discharged. Global warming potentials, acidification potentials, photochemical ozone creation potentials and human toxicity potentials were selected as four impact categories, and the evaluation index for the sintering plant was calculated as 3. 45 × 10−12. Finally, based on the environmental impact analysis, several measures of reducing environmental loadings of the sintering plant were provided, which included the utilization of denitrification equipment, recirculation of the hot waste gas and process improvement to reduce fuel consumption.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Influence of Coating MgO on Sticking and Functional Mechanism during
           Fluidized Bed Reduction of Vanadium Titano-magnetite
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Lei GUO , Jin-tao YU , Jing-kun TANG , Yin-he LIN , Zhan-cheng GUO , Hui-qing TANG
      The vanadium titano-magnetite (VTM) iron ore fines of 110–150 μm in diameter were reduced in a transparent quartz fluidized bed by 70%CO-30%H2 (volume fraction) mixtures. MgO powders served as coating agent to solve sticking problem. Two coating methods were introduced in this experiment: high temperature injection method and briquetting→oxidizing roast→crushing method. According to the experimental results, the minimum effective coating amount of MgO was 0.1 mass%. The metallization ratio (MR) of the product rose from around 58% to above 90% with the above treatments. To investigate the sticking mechanism of fine ore, the morphology evolution was investigated. Instead of iron whiskers, an interlaced fibrous porous surface formed. The ulvospinel (2FeO · TiO2) in VTM is more difficult to be reduced than FeO according to thermodynamic calculation. XRD results showed that MgO diffused into Fe2O3 lattice before forming pleonaste (MgO · Fe2O3) during oxidizing roast at 1273 K. The melting point of the pleonaste is 1986 K and that made contribution to prevent the sticking problem.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Corrosion Behavior of High Performance Offshore Platform Steel with
           Chromium and Nickel Addition in the Environment Containing Chloride Ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yan-lei ZHOU , Xiang-jun ZHANG , Tao JIA , Zhen-yu LIU
      The characterization of corrosion products formed on a high performance offshore platform steel in the environment containing chloride ions has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the corrosion process can be divided into the initial stage and the later stage. The main constituents of rust layers are α-FeOOH, β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4 and large amounts of amorphous compounds. With increasing corrosion time, the mass fraction of α-FeOOH and Fe3O4 increased, while that of γ-FeOOH and β-FeOOH changed slightly. The enrichment of Cr and Ni at the inner/outer interface, especially the side of inner rust, can be observed in the later corrosion stage of Cr-Ni steel, which can promote the formation of compact inner rust layer, impeding the transmission of corrosion mediums and slowing down the electrochemical reaction process.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Intelligent Multivariable Modeling of Blast Furnace Molten Iron Quality
           Based on Dynamic AGA-ANN and PCA
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Meng YUAN , Ping ZHOU , Ming-liang LI , Rui-feng LI , Hong WANG , Tian-you CHAI
      Blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process has complex and nonlinear dynamic characteristics. The molten iron temperature (MIT) as well as Si, P and S contents of molten iron is difficult to be directly measured online, and large-time delay exists in offline analysis through laboratory sampling. A nonlinear multivariate intelligent modeling method was proposed for molten iron quality (MIQ) based on principal component analysis (PCA) and dynamic genetic neural network. The modeling method used the practical data processed by PCA dimension reduction as inputs of the dynamic artificial neural network (ANN). A dynamic feedback link was introduced to produce a dynamic neural network on the basis of traditional back propagation ANN. The proposed model improved the dynamic adaptability of networks and solved the strong fluctuation and resistance problem in a nonlinear dynamic system. Moreover, a new hybrid training method was presented where adaptive genetic algorithms (AGA) and ANN were integrated, which could improve network convergence speed and avoid network into local minima. The proposed method made it easier for operators to understand the inside status of blast furnace and offered real-time and reliable feedback information for realizing close-loop control for MIQ. Industrial experiments were made through the proposed model based on data collected from a practical steel company. The accuracy could meet the requirements of actual operation.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Effect of Nickel on Formation Mechanisms of Silico-ferrite of Calcium and
           Aluminum (SFCA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Xin-yu LI , Bu-xin SU , Lei-ge XIA , Jian-liang ZHANG , Hong-wei GUO
      Under the pressures of both the decrease of high-grade high-quality iron ore resources and the increase of raw material costs, the iron and steel enterprises in China turn to adopt iron ores which contain special elements such as nickel, manganese, etc. in the sintering blend. Analytical reagents were used for sintering experiments, and the sinters were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mineralogical microscopy to study the effect of nickel on the silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) bonding phase formation during sintering. The results indicated that SFCA was divided into nickel-containing and nickel-free areas due to the presence of nickel. The increasing content of nickel would greatly reduce the content of SFCA and promote the formation of calcium aluminum silicate. A great deal of Fe2O3 participated in the crystal transition to Fe3O4, reducing the amount of Fe2O3 involved in the formation of calcium ferrite. When the blending ratio of NiO, which is used to provide the nickel in the sintering process, is less than 3%, the calcium ferrite is in substantially interleaving corrosion with hematite and magnetite. Both the porosity and silicate glass phase content are low, which contributes to the sintering production.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • A Coupled Thermodynamic Model for Prediction of Inclusions Precipitation
           during Solidification of Heat-resistant Steel Containing Cerium
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yan-dong LI , Cheng-jun LIU , Chun-long LI , Mao-fa JIANG
      A coupled thermodynamic model of inclusions precipitation both in liquid and solid phase and microsegregation of solute elements during solidification of heat-resistant steel containing cerium was established. Then the model was validated by the SEM analysis of the industrial products. The type and amount of inclusions in solidification structure of 253MA heat-resistant steel were predicted by the model, and the valuable results for the inclusions controlling in 253MA steel were obtained. When the cerium addition increases, the types of inclusions transform from SiO2 and MnS to Ce2O3 and Ce2O2S in 253MA steel and the precipitation temperature of SiO2 and MnS decreases. The inclusions CeS and CeN convert to Ce2O3 and Ce2O2S as the oxygen content increases and Ce2O3 and CeN convert to Ce2O2S, Ce3S4, and MnS as the sulfur content increases. The formation temperature of SiO2 increases when the oxygen content increases and the MnS precipitation temperature increases when the sulfur content increases. There is only a small quantity of inclusions containing cerium in 253MA steel with high cleanliness, i.e., low oxygen and sulfur contents. By contrast, a mass of SiO2, MnS and Ce2O2S are formed in steel when the oxygen and sulfur contents are high enough. The condition that MnS precipitates in 253MA steel is 1.2w [O] + w [s]>). 01% and SiO2 precipitates when 2w [O]+w [s]>0.017% (w [S]<0.005%) and w [O]>0. 006% (w [S]>0. 005%).


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • High Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of GH4742 Alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): He-yong QIN , Gang CHEN , Qiang ZHU , Chuan-jie WANG , Peng ZHANG
      High temperature low cycle fatigue tests on GH4742 superalloy were studied under the total strain-controlled conditions at 650 °C. Combined with fatigue test data, fatigue properties of the alloy were analyzed. Fracture morphology and dislocation structure were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that fatigue life and fatigue resistance of GH4742 alloy decreased significantly with increasing total strain amplitude. The cyclic hardening, cyclic softening and cyclic stability phenomena of the alloy occurred during the low cycle fatigue process. The increasing total strain amplitude is conducive to the formation of γ′ phase. Fatigue crack propagation is controlled jointly by ductile and brittle fracture. Inhomogeneous deformation and deformation restricted in slip bands are the main reasons for the reduction of fatigue life of GH4742 alloy.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Effects of Particle Size on Nitridation Kinetics of Manganese Powder
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ting LUO , Jian-hua LIU , Hong-bo LIU , Jian LIU
      Isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the nitridation kinetics of manganese powder with different particle sizes at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The apparent activation energy and nitridation kinetics equations of manganese powder with different particle sizes were obtained from unreacted shrinking core model and Arrhenius formula. It was found that the nitridation mechanism was controlled by interfacial chemical reaction. The apparent activation energy and the apparent rate constant of nitridation reaction were affected by particle sizes. With the decrease of particle size, the apparent activation energy decreased whilst the apparent rate constant increased. It was suggested that the refinement of the manganese powder contributed to the increase of molar surface energy, which accounted for the lower apparent activation energy.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Cyclic Softening of P92
           Ferritic-martensitic Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Zhen ZHANG , Zheng-fei HU , Li-kun FAN , Bin WANG
      The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of P92 martensitic steel was investigated under different controlled strain amplitudes at room and high temperatures (873 K). The cyclic stress responses at all temperatures and strain amplitudes exhibited obviously rapid softening behavior at the early stage of fatigue life, and there was no saturated stage at high temperature. The fracture surfaces of the fatigue samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. It was shown that crack initiation and propagation occurred transgranularly at both testing temperatures. A typical character was the high density crack branches or secondary cracks along fatigue striations at high temperature, which initiated from the oxidized inclusions and grain boundaries. Further investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the softening behavior was attributed to the microstructure evolution during fatigue life, such as annihilation of dislocations and migration of martensite laths as well as carbide coarsening, especially for samples tested at high temperature.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Phase Transformation and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of C300 Weld
           Metal after Aging Treatment at Different Temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Shuai YANG , Yun PENG , Xiao-mu ZHANG , Zhi-ling TIAN
      The influence of aging temperature on phase transformation and mechanical properties of weld metal of maraging steel (grade C300) was studied. Microstructure was analyzed by means of optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum analysis. Gibbs free energy of Ni3Ti and Fe2Mo at different temperature was calculated by Thermal-calc software. The microstructure of weld metal in as-welded state is martensite. The yield strength of weld metal after 430 °C aging process may increase to 1561 MPa from 890 MPa in as-welded state, which is ascribed to the formation of spinodal constitute and GP zones. After 480 °C aging process, there are great deal of Ni3Ti precipitates in the martensite matrix and 10% reverted austenite phase in the cellular grain boundary, and the yield strength increases to 1801 MPa. After aging process at 580 °C, there are many Fe2Mo precipitates in the martensite matrix and 30% reverted austenite phase in the cellular grain boundary, and the yield strength is 1329 MPa, which is the lowest among the three cases. The phase transformation may also influence the toughness. It is found that precipitates make the toughness decrease and reverted austenite increases it. The mechanism of phase transformation on strength and toughness is discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Hot Stamping Parameters Optimization of Boron Steel Using a Response
           Surface Methodology Based on Central Composite Design
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ming-dong HUANG , Bao-yu WANG , Jing ZHOU
      The effect of hot stamping parameters on the mechanical properties of 22MnB5 steel sheet with thickness of 1.1 mm is studied. The considered parameters are austenization temperature (800–1000 °C), austenitizing soaking time (60–540 s), initial deformation temperature (560–800 °C) and tool temperature (20–220 °C). In order to obtain hot stamped parts with optimal mechanical properties, response surface methodology based on the central composite design has been employed to design the experiment matrix. Tensile strength of hot stamped parts is determined as the relation in the mathematical model. The optimal condition and objective effects of parameters are determined via this relation. The statistical analysis showed that all four factors significantly affect the tensile strength of the hot stamped parts. The optimum austenization temperature is found to be 918.89 °C with the austenitizing soaking time, initial deformation temperature and tool temperature of 279. 45 s, 684. 69 °C and 21. 85 °C, respectively. These optimal hot stamping parameters prove to have high tensile strength (1631. 84 MPa) where deviation between predicted and actual response falls within 2%.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Determination of Flow Curve and Plastic Anisotropy of Medium-thick Metal
           Plate: Experiments and Inverse Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Xin-cun ZHUANG , Hua XIANG , Tao WANG , Zhen ZHAO , Tan LI
      Sheet bulk metal forming is widely used for medium-thick metal plate due to its convenience in the manufacture of accurately finished 3D functional components. To obtain precise anisotropy and flow curve of metal plate is a prerequisite for correct simulation of sheet bulk metal forming processes. Inverse analysis of compression test was introduced here to evaluate the sensitivity of different flow curve models and geometric influence of compression test specimen. Besides, a methodology was proposed to compute plastic anisotropic coefficients of Hill quadratic yield criterion, which is based on the ratios of flow curves obtained by inverse analysis of compression tests using specimens cut in six directions on the medium-thick metal plate. The obtained flow curves and anisotropic coefficients were compared with those calculated from tensile tests. Flow curves based on inverse analysis of compression tests cover the curves of the tensile tests well, while the anisotropic coefficients are different, especially for the coefficient related to the RT45 direction. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the calculated material properties and those based on the traditional tensile tests were applied in a rim-hole process simulation. The simulation results based on the material properties from inverse analysis of compression tests accorded with the tested properties better.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Surface Carbon Chemical States of Ion Implanted AISI 440C Martensitic
           Stainless Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Jie JIN , Feng-bin LIU , Yun-bo CHEN , Ke-wei GAO
      Carbon atoms segregate in the surface region for polished AISI 440C stainless steel. After ion implantation, the surface carbon atoms exist in different forms. To elucidate their existence, surface structures and carbon chemical states of unimplanted, N+ implanted, Ti+ implanted and N+/Ti+ co-implanted samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that various phases form in the surface or subsurface region after ion implantation, while the surface topography of the samples remains intact. For polished unimplanted sample, besides some Fe3C phase and C-C phase, Cr x Cy phase dominates its surface region. Little change of carbon chemical states occurs after N+ ion implantation. For Ti+ implanted sample, besides some metal oxycarbide phases, most carbon amorphous phases form in surface region. Concerning N+/Ti+ co-implantation, Cr x C y , compound as well as Fe3C phase dominates the surface region while no C-C phase is found. In addition, compared with single-ion implantation, N+/Ti+ co-implantation would increase the ion implantation depth significantly. The formed phases of the carbon atoms play an important role in affecting the surface properties of AISI 440C stainless steel.


      PubDate: 2015-06-27T10:28:57Z
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Electromagnetic Field and Flow Pattern in a
           Continuous Slab Caster with In-roll Type Strand Electromagnetic Stirring
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jian GONG , He-ping LIU , Xian-hui WANG , Yan-ping BAO
      The electromagnetic field and flow analysis model were developed to simulate the electromagnetic field and the flow pattern in a vertical curved continuous slab caster with the in-roll type strand electromagnetic stirring. The transient electromagnetic field distribution and the induced electromagnetic force were numerically described. The effects of stirring current, stirring frequency, and different stirrer configurations on the electromagnetically driven flow field in the strand were investigated and the optimization of the stirring parameters was discussed by performing a relative comparison of numerical results. Results show that the in-roller type strand electromagnetic stirrer (SEMS) pair generates the fluctuating magnetic fields, penetrating through the cast slab and periodically parallel shifting along the slab wide face with time evolution. The transient induced electromagnetic forces travels toward the magnetic flux shifting direction. Different stirring parameters (i. e. current and frequency) and stirrer configurations affect the stirring strength and the flow recirculation pattern in the strand, which are closely related to metallurgical performances of the stirrers. There is an optimum frequency to obtain the maximum stirring. The present model provides a relatively theoretical insight into the in-roll type strand electromagnetic stirring system for best operating.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Optimization and Scheduling of Byproduct Gas System in Steel Plant
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jing-hui YANG , Jiu-ju CAI , Wen-qiang SUN , Jing-yu LIU
      A mathematical model was proposed to optimize byproduct gas system and reduce the total cost. The scope and boundaries of the system were also discussed at the same time. Boilers and gasholders were buffer users to solve the fluctuation of byproduct gases. The priority of gasholders should be ranked the last. The allocation of surplus gases among gasholders and boilers was also discussed to make full use of gases and realize zero emission targets. Case study shows that the proposed model made good use of byproduct gases and at least 7.8% operation cost was reduced, compared with real data in iron and steel industry.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Self-reduction of Manganese-rich Slag Briquette Containing Carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Bo ZHANG , Zheng-liang XUE , Ting-ting ZHU , Jiang DONG
      The self-reduction experiment of manganese-rich slag briquette containing carbon was carried out in a high-temperature carbon tube furnace. The main factors affecting the reduction rate were analyzed, and the kinetic model of reduction was established. The results show that the increase of basicity of briquette has an obvious effect on improving reduction rate. When the carbon ratio of briquettes is 1. 2 and its basicity is 1. 0, the reduction rate can reach 90%. It can accelerate reduction process and decrease reduction time when the appropriate flux CaF2 is added to the briquette. The apparent activation energy of chemical reaction is 24. 07 kJ/mol, and the apparent activation energy of internal diffusion is 107.55 kJ/mol by calculation. Therefore, the reduction rate of briquette is determined by the mass transfer of CO in the product layer.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • A New Technology for Copper Slag Reduction to Get Molten Iron and Copper
           Matte
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jun ZHANG , Yuan-hong QI , Ding-liu YAN , Hai-chuan XU
      The change of iron composition as well as the removal of copper from iron was investigated in the reduction process, and a new way to deal with copper slag was proposed. The iron in copper slag exists mainly in the form of fayalite, and the copper sulfide content accounts for just about 50%. Therefore, the magnetic separation as well as grinding floatation method is not suitable, and a pyrogenic treatment on copper slag is necessary. The carburization and desulfurization process is restricted to a degree within the carbon composite pellets, and copper matte phase precipitates from copper slag in the reduction process, which is immiscible with molten iron and slag. The copper content decreases to 0.4 % as the carbon content in molten iron reaches 3. 84 %, and the removal ratio of copper from molten iron approaches to 80%. The reduction and sulfurization process can be completed in one step, and the copper is separated from iron based on the ternary system of iron-matte-slag.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Reduction Kinetics of Fine Iron Ore Powder in Mixtures of H2-N2 and
           H2-H2O-N2 of Fluidized Bed
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jian-ming PANG , Pei-min GUO , Pei ZHAO
      Reduction kinetics of fine iron ore powder in different gas mixtures were investigated in high-temperature fluidized bed at a scale of kilograms. Influence of processing parameters, such as particle size, gas flow velocity, height of charge, temperature, compositions of gas mixture, and percentage of inert components, on reduction kinetics was experimentally determined under the condition of fluidization. The equations for calculating instantaneous and average oxidation rates were deduced. It was found that an increasing H2O percentage in the gas mixture could obviously decrease the reduction rate because the equilibrium partial pressure of H2 decreased with increasing content of H2O in the gas mixture and then the driving force of reduction reaction was reduced. When the H2 content was high, the apparent reaction rate was so rapid when the average size of iron ore fines was less than 1 mm that the reaction temperature can be as low as 750 °C; when the average size of iron ore fines was more than 1 mm, a high reaction temperature of 800 °C was required. In addition, it was also found that the content of H2O should be less than 10% for efficient reduction.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Critical Heat Flux of Blast Furnace Hearth in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yang-long LI , Shu-sen CHENG , Chuan CHEN
      The critical heat flux surveys of thirteen Chinese blast furnaces were carried out. The mathematical model of hearth bottom was established and the temperature field was simulated by utilizing the method of inverse problem based on the collected parameters and temperature data. The critical heat flux and dangerous critical heat flux of hearth were defined and analyzed as well as the initial and investigative critical heat flux of hearth, and the influences of thermal conductivity and residual thickness of carbon bricks on critical heat flux were discussed. The relationships between critical heat flux of stave and hearth bricks were also compared. It is found that the dangerous critical heat flux of these blast furnaces ranged from 9.38 to 57 kW/m2. Therefore, there was no uniform critical heat flux of hearth due to the structure design, refractory materials selection, construction quality of hearth and other factors. The heat flux should be lower than the critical heat flux with corresponding thickness of carbon bricks to control the erosion of hearth. The critical heat flux of stave would be much lower than that of hearth bricks with the air gap. However, the critical heat flux of stave should be higher than that of hearth bricks when gas existed between furnace shell and staves.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Effect of Biochar as Reductant on Magnetizing-roasting Behavior of Pyrite
           Cinder
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Xiao-hui FAN , Qiong DENG , Min GAN , Hai-bo WANG
      The effect of biochar substituted for anthracite as reductant on magnetizing-roasting pyrite cinder was investigated. The key of magnetizing-roasting is the gasification reaction between reductants and CO2. Since biochar could react with CO2 more rapidly at lower temperature, the reactivity of biochar is better than that of anthracite. The gasification of biochar could produce reducing condition of φ CO / (φ CO + φ CO2) about 10% – 20% between 700–800 °C, which is in accord with the atmosphere and temperature of Fe2O3 reduction. So it is beneficial to the reduction of iron mineral of pyrite cinder. Compared with anthracite, biochar could decrease the roasting temperature from 825 to 750 °C and roasting time from 20 to 15 min, which shows that a better effect of magnetization could be obtained in the condition of lower temperature and shorter time. Using biochar as reductant, iron concentrate extracted from pyrite cinder as about 61% iron grade could be produced, and the recovery is over 90% under the condition of above 90% grinding particle less than 0.045 mm and magnetic intensity of 0.121–0.194 T.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
  • Phosphorus Capacity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FexO Slag
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jian-chao LI , Qing LÜ , Xiao-jie LIU , Shu-hui ZHANG , Dong-hui LIU
      The CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Fe x O slag occurs in the production process of Corex ironmaking technology. Most of its metallurgical properties, especially the phosphorus property, are different from the slag produced from blast furnace or converter. In order to explore the dephosphorization ability of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Fe x O slag, its phosphorus capacity was measured at 1673 K by gas-slag-metal equilibrium technique. An iron crucible was used as the reaction vessel, Ag alloy with 0.2% P was used as the metal phase which equilibrated with CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Fe x O slag, and a constant flow of CO-CO2-N2 gas was used to provide oxygen partial pressure in the experiment. The effects of MgO, Fe x O and basicity on slag phosphorus capacity were investigated by single factor test. The results show that the phosphorus capacity rises firstly and then decreases with increasing MgO content under the condition of basicity 1. 3, Fe x O content of 2% and Al2O3 content of 12%. The phosphorus value reaches maximum as the MgO content is 8%. When the basicity of slag is 1. 1, MgO content is 10%, and Al2O3 is 12%, the phosphorus capacity increases with the increase of Fe x O content. The phosphorus capacity rises linearly when the basicity is increased from 1. 1 to 1. 5.


      PubDate: 2015-05-07T17:41:35Z
       
 
 
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