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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 769 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (695 journals)
    - POLLUTION (23 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (40 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (11 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (695 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Metropolitana de Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Monografias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 212)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.996]   [H-I: 61]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0260-437X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1263
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular
           system toxicity: A case for telemetry
    • Authors: Hoay Yan Cheah; Lik Voon Kiew, Hong Boon Lee, Nina Japundžić-Žigon, Marίa J. Vicent, See Ziau Hoe, Lip Yong Chung
      Abstract: While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T06:55:35.428124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3437
       
  • A novel endpoint for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral
           neuropathy in rodents: biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve
    • Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CiPN) is a frequent adverse effect in patients and a leading safety consideration in oncology drug development. Although behavioral assessment and microscopic examination of the nerves and dorsal root ganglia can be incorporated into toxicity studies to assess CiPN risk, more sensitive and less labor-intensive endpoints are often lacking. In this study, rats and mice administered vincristine (75 μg kg−1 day−1, i.p., for 10 days in rats and 100 μg kg−1 day−1, i.p., for 11 days in mice, respectively) were employed as the CiPN models. Behavioral changes were assessed during the dosing phase. At necropsy, the sural or sciatic nerve was harvested from the rats and mice, respectively, and assessed for mechanical and histopathological endpoints. It was found that the maximal load and the load/extension ratio were significantly decreased in the nerves collected from the animals dosed with vincristine compared with the vehicle-treated animals (P 
       
  • In vitro genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NP in air–liquid interface
    • Abstract: Studies using advanced toxicological methods enabling in vitro conditions that are more realistic are currently needed for understanding the risks of pulmonary exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Owing to the carcinogenicity of certain nickel compounds, the increased production of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) raises occupational safety concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NPs using a recently developed air–liquid interface exposure system. The wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79) was used and cytotoxicity, DNA damage and mutagenicity were studied by testing colony forming efficiency, alkaline DNA unwinding and HPRT mutation assays, respectively. Additionally, co-exposure to a PARP-1 inhibitor was performed to test possible involvement of base excision repair (BER) in repair of Ni-induced DNA damage. The results showed that cell viability was reduced significantly (to 45% and 46%) after 48 hours Ni-NP exposure at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.32 μg cm−2. DNA damage was significantly increased after Ni-NP exposure in the presence of the BER inhibitor indicating that Ni-NP-induced DNA damages are subsequently repaired by BER. Furthermore, there was no increased HPRT mutation frequency following Ni-NP exposure. In conclusion, this study shows that Ni-NP treatment of lung fibroblasts in an air–liquid interface system that mimics real-life exposure, results in increased DNA strand breaks and reduced cellular viability. These DNA lesions were repaired with BER in an error-free manner without resulting in mutations. This study also underlines the importance of appropriate quantification of the actual exposure concentrations during air–liquid interface exposure studies.
       
  • Review of the effects of manufactured nanoparticles on mammalian target
           organs
    • Abstract: Nanotechnology had matured significantly during the last two decades as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Even though the issue of safety of nanotechnology has been raised nearly one decade ago, the rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials has not yet been matched by toxicological investigations. Many recent studies have simply outlined the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs), but few have systematically addressed their potentially adverse biological effects on target organs. Some animal models have shown that NPs could be accumulated in various organs. These accumulations can access the vasculature and target other organs, resulting in a potential health risks. After the brief description of current knowledge on the wide applications of several common NPs, their applications and the toxicokinetics, this review focused on effects of NPs on organ functions and mammal health after acute or chronic exposure, and potential mechanisms of action. Due to their physical properties, the liver, kidneys and lung are the main target organs of NPs. Most of NPs show slight toxicity when exposed to animals, while certain toxic effects like oxidative stress generation, inflammation and DNA damage are commonly observed. The severity of NPs toxicity is dependent upon several factors, including exposure dose and administration, NPs chemistry, size, shape, agglomeration state, and electromagnetic properties, which could provide useful information necessary to control the toxicity of NPs. Finally, the safety evaluation of nanotoxicity was addressed.
       
  • Issue Information
    • Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
       
  • Comparison of four different fuller's earth formulations in skin
           decontamination
    • Abstract: Industrial accidents, wars and terrorist threats are potential sources of skin contamination by highly toxic chemical warfare agents and manufacturing compounds. We have compared the time-dependent adsorption capacity and decontamination efficiency of fuller's earth (FE) for four different formulations for the molecular tracer, 4-cyanophenol (4-CP), in vitro and ex vivo using water decontamination as standard. The adsorption capacity of FE was assessed in vitro for 4-CP aqueous solutions whereas decontamination efficiency was investigated ex vivo by tracking porcine skin 4-CP content using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Decontamination was performed on short time, exposed porcine skin to 4-CP by application of FE: (1) as free powder; (2) loaded on adhesive tape; (3) on powdered glove; or (4) in suspension. Removal rate of 4-CP from aqueous solutions correlates with the amount of FE and its contact time. Decontamination efficiency estimated by the percentage of 4-CP recovery from contaminated porcine skin, achieved 54% with water, ranged between ~60 and 70% with dry FE and reached ~90% with FE suspension. Successful decontamination of the FE suspension, enabling a dramatic reduction of skin contamination after a brief exposure scenario, appears to be rapid, reliable and should be formulated in a new device ready to use for self-application.
       
  • Introduction to graphene special edition
    •  
  • In vitro evaluation of the internalization and toxicological profile of
           silica nanoparticles and submicroparticles for the design of dermal drug
           delivery strategies
    • Abstract: The use of colloidal silica nanoparticles and sub-microparticles (SiPs) have been considered a very interesting strategy for drug delivery applications. In the present study, we have focused our attention on the suitability of these nanomaterials as potential carriers for dermal drug delivery, thus studying their toxicological profile in vitro, cellular uptake and intracellular localization in both human keratinocytes (K17) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) as a function of their particle size (SiPs of 20, 70, 200 and 500 nm). Full characterization of these aspects enabled us to observe a strong cell-type dependency in terms of cytotoxicity and cell internalization, whereas particle size was only relevant for ultra-small SiPs (20 nm), being the most toxic SiPs. For 70, 200 and 500 nm SiPs, the differences in uptake and intracellular trafficking determined the different toxicological profiles in K17 and HDF. In addition, these characteristics can further define different drug delivery strategies. Hence, phagocytosis has been identified as the main internalization mechanism for K17, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis for HDF. This relevant information led us to conclude that fibroblasts would be optimal targets for delivering delicate therapeutic molecules such as proteins or genetic material using SiPs while maintaining a low toxicity profile, whereas keratinocytes could enable accelerated drug release therapies based on SiPs.
       
  • Targeting nano drug delivery to cancer cells using tunable, multi-layer,
           silver-decorated gold nanorods
    • Abstract: Multifunctional nanoparticles have high potential as targeting delivery vehicles for cancer chemotherapy. In this study, silver-decorated gold nanorods (AuNR\Ag) have been successfully used to deliver specific, targeted chemotherapy against breast cancer (MCF7) and prostate carcinoma (PC3) cell lines. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy, and anti-Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM) antibodies were covalently bonded to thiolated polyethylene glycol-coated AuNR\Ag, and the resultant system was used to deliver the drugs to cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, these nanoparticles have a unique spectral signature by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which enables reliable detection and monitoring of the distribution of these chemotherapy constructs inside cells. The development of interest in a plasmonic nano drugs system with unique spectroscopic signatures could result in a clinical approach to the precise targeting and visualization of cells and solid tumors while delivering molecules for the enhanced treatment of cancerous tumors.
       
  • Combinations of genotoxic tests for the evaluation of group 1 IARC
           carcinogens
    • Abstract: Many of the known human carcinogens are potent genotoxins that are efficiently detected as carcinogens in human populations but certain types of compounds such as immunosuppressants, sex hormones, etc. act via non-genotoxic mechanism. The absence of genotoxicity and the diversity of modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens make predicting their carcinogenic potential extremely challenging. There is evidence that combinations of different short-term tests provide a better and efficient prediction of human genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The purpose of this study is to summarize the in vivo and in vitro comet assay (CMT) results of group 1 carcinogens selected from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and to discuss the utility of the comet assay along with other genotoxic assays such as Ames, in vivo micronucleus (MN), and in vivo chromosomal aberration (CA) test. Of the 62 agents for which valid genotoxic data were available, 38 of 61 (62.3%) were Ames test positive, 42 of 60 (70%) were in vivo MN test positive and 36 of 45 (80%) were positive for the in vivo CA test. Higher sensitivity was seen in in vivo CMT (90%) and in vitro CMT (86.9%) assay. Combination of two tests has greater sensitivity than individual tests: in vivo MN + in vivo CA (88.6%); in vivo MN + in vivo CMT (92.5%); and in vivo MN + in vitro CMT (95.6%). Combinations of in vivo or in vitro CMT with other tests provided better sensitivity. In vivo CMT in combination with in vivo CA provided the highest sensitivity (96.7%).
       
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance- and mass spectometry-based metabolomics to
           study maleic acid toxicity from repeated dose exposure in rats
    • Abstract: Maleic acid (MA), a chemical intermediate used in many consumer and industrial products, was intentionally adulterated in a variety of starch-based foods and instigated food safety incidents in Asia. We aim to elucidate possible mechanisms of MA toxicity after repeated exposure by (1) determining the changes of metabolic profile using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, and (2) investigating the occurrence of oxidative stress using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry by using Sprague–Dawley rat urine samples. Adult male rats were subjected to a 28 day subchronic study (0, 6, 20 and 60 mg kg−1) via oral gavage. Urine was collected twice a day on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28; organs underwent histopathological examination. Changes in body weight and relative kidney weights in medium- and high-dose groups were significantly different compared to controls. Morphological alterations were evident in the kidneys and liver. Metabolomic results demonstrated that MA exposure increases the urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-nitroguanine and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; levels of acetoacetate, hippurate, alanine and acetate demonstrated time- and dose-dependent variations in the treatment groups. Findings suggest that MA consumption escalates oxidative damage, membrane lipid destruction and disrupt energy metabolism. These aforementioned changes in biomarkers and endogenous metabolites elucidate and assist in characterizing the possible mechanisms by which MA induces nephro- and hepatotoxicity.
       
  • Assessment of genotoxicity and biodistribution of nano- and micron-sized
           yttrium oxide in rats after acute oral treatment
    • Abstract: The increasing use of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) entails an improved understanding of their potential impact on the environmental and human health. In the present study, the acute oral toxicity of Y2O3 NPs and their microparticles (MPs) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats with 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg−1 body weight doses. Before the genotoxicity evaluation, characterization of the particles by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry was performed. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus and comet assays. Results showed that Y2O3 NP-induced significant DNA damage at higher dose (1000 mg kg−1 body weight) in peripheral blood leukocytes and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum, liver and kidneys at the higher dose only. Furthermore, tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Bioaccumulation of yttrium (Y) in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, Y2O3 NP-treated rats exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance through urine whereas Y2O3 MP-dosed animals depicted the maximum amount of Y in the feces. Hence, the results indicated that bioaccumulation of Y2O3 NPs via its Y ions may induce genotoxic effects.
       
  • Maternal nicotine exposure leads to decreased cardiac protein disulfide
           isomerase and impaired mitochondrial function in male rat offspring
    • Abstract: Smoking throughout pregnancy can lead to complications during gestation, parturition and neonatal development. Thus, nicotine replacement therapies are a popular alternative thought to be safer than cigarettes. However, recent studies in rodents suggest that fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure alone results in cardiac dysfunction and high blood pressure. While it is well known that perinatal nicotine exposure causes increased congenital abnormalities, the mechanisms underlying longer-term deficits in cardiac function are not completely understood. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that nicotine impairs placental protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) triggering an increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading us to hypothesize that this may also occur in the heart. At 3 months of age, nicotine-exposed offspring had 45% decreased PDI levels in the absence of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Given the association of PDI and superoxide dismutase enzymes, we further observed that antioxidant superoxide dismutase-2 levels were reduced by 32% in these offspring concomitant with a 26–49% decrease in mitochondrial complex proteins (I, II, IV and V) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4, a critical matrix metalloprotease for cardiac contractility and health. Collectively, this study suggests that perinatal nicotine exposure decreases PDI, which can promote oxidative damage and mitochondrial damage, associated with a premature decline in cardiac function.
       
  • Untargeted metabolomics of neuronal cell culture: A model system for the
           toxicity testing of insecticide chemical exposure
    • Abstract: Toxicity testing is essential for the protection of human health from exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. As traditional toxicity testing is carried out using animal models, mammalian cell culture models are becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to animal testing. Combining the use of mammalian cell culture models with screening-style molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics, can uncover previously unknown biochemical bases of toxicity. We have used a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize for the first time the changes in the metabolome of the B50 cell line, an immortalised rat neuronal cell line, following acute exposure to two known neurotoxic chemicals that are common environmental contaminants; the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the organophosphate insecticide malathion. B50 cells were exposed to either the dosing vehicle (methanol) or an acute dose of either permethrin or malathion for 6 and 24 hours. Intracellular metabolites were profiled by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Using principal components analysis, we selected the key metabolites whose abundance was altered by chemical exposure. By considering the major fold changes in abundance (>2.0 or
       
  • Maternal alcohol consumption and altered miRNAs in the developing fetus:
           Context and future perspectives
    • Abstract: Alcohol is a teratogenic agent that can cause a wide range of developmental disorders, and sometimes, the effects persist throughout an individual's lifetime. Researchers have shown the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol-mediated disorders. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major sources of epigenetic modifications, especially microRNAs. The association of microRNAs with alcohol consumption leads to a new focus on finding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol toxicity. It has been suggested that alcohol alters the relative expression of microRNAs and regulates target mRNA expression in both in vitro and in vivo models. Currently, we lack information regarding the relationship between altered microRNA expression and disease phenotypes in alcohol-mediated disorders. In this review, we tried to gather all of the available information about the alcohol-mediated dysregulation of microRNA expression in utero. We hope that our efforts will help future researchers identify major microRNAs in the field of prenatal alcohol toxicity and related therapeutics.
       
  • Increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rat
           offspring exposed to fluoxetine during fetal and neonatal life involves
           the NLRP3 inflammasome and augmented de novo hepatic lipogenesis
    • Abstract: Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given vehicle or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) orally for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 6 months of age, we assessed whether SSRI exposure altered components of the hepatic triglyceride biosynthesis pathway in the offspring and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes. Male SSRI-exposed offspring had a significant increase in the steady-state mRNA levels of Elovl6 and Dgat1 and core components of the NLRP3 inflammasome (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation recruitment domain [ASC] and caspase-1). Augmented expression of Asc in the SSRI-exposed offspring coincided with increased histone acetylation in the proximal promoter region. Given that we have previously demonstrated that antenatal exposure to SSRIs can lead to fatty liver in the offspring, this raises concerns regarding the long-term metabolic sequelae of fetal SSRI exposure. Moreover, this study suggests that elevated hepatic triglyceride levels observed in the SSRI-exposed offspring may be due, in part, to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and augmentation of de novo lipogenesis.
       
  • Physicochemical characteristics of pristine and functionalized graphene
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials have received significant attention in the last decade due to their interesting properties. Its electrical and thermal conductivity and strength make graphene well suited for a variety of applications, particularly for use as a composite material in plastics. Furthermore, much work is taking place to utilize graphene as a biomaterial for uses such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration scaffolds. Owing to the rapid progress of graphene and its potential in many marketplaces, the potential toxicity of these materials has garnered attention. Graphene, while simple in its purest form, can have many different chemical and physical properties. In this paper, we describe our toxicity evaluation of pristine graphene and a functionalized graphene sample that has been oxidized for enhanced hydrophilicity, which was synthesized from the pristine sample. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta-potential, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. We discuss the disagreement between the size of imaged samples analyzed by atomic force microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the samples each exhibit quite different surface chemistry and structure, which directly affects their interaction with aqueous environments and is important to consider when evaluating the toxicity of materials both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Endocrine disruption: In silico interactions between phthalate
           plasticizers and corticosteroid binding globulin
    • Abstract: Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties. Increasing evidence indicates that steroid nuclear receptors and steroid binding proteins are the main targets of endocrine disruption. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a steroid binding protein that binds and transports cortisol in the blood circulation and is a potential target for endocrine disruption. An imbalance of cortisol in the body leads to many health problems. Induced fit docking of nine important and environmentally relevant phthalate plasticizers (DMP, BBP, DBP, DIBP, DnHP, DEHP, DINP, DnOP, DIDP) showed interactions with 10–19 amino acid residues of CBG. Comparison of the interacting residues of CBG with phthalate ligands and cortisol showed an overlapping of the majority (53–82%) of residues for each phthalate. Five of nine phthalate compounds and cortisol shared a hydrogen bonding interaction with the Arg-252 residue of CBG. Long-chain phthalates, such as DEHP, DINP, DnOP and DIDP displayed a higher binding affinity and formed a number of interactions with CBG in comparison to short-chain phthalates. The similarity in structural binding characteristics of phthalate compounds and native ligand cortisol suggested potential competitive conflicts in CBG-cortisol binding function and possible disruption of cortisol and progesterone homeostasis.
       
  • Impact of dispersant on early life stages of the water flea Daphnia magna
           and the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica
    • Abstract: In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, over 1 million gallons of dispersant were applied in Gulf of Mexico offshore waters; Corexit 9500 was the most applied dispersant. The impact on organisms in nearshore and freshwaters has received little scrutiny. Acute 48 h toxicity of Corexit 9500 and a new hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) dispersant-like compound were evaluated for the freshwater indicator organism, Daphnia magna and for larval and early spat stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. For D. magna, Corexit 9500 demonstrated toxicity (EC50 of 0.14 [0.13, 0.15] ppm) similar to the 10-kDa HPEI (EC50 of 0.16 [0.12, 0.19] ppm). HPEI toxicity increased as a function of molecular weight (1.2 to 750 kDa). The 10 kDa size HPEI was further investigated because it dispersed crude oil with equal effectiveness as Corexit. For Corexit, 100% oyster mortality was detected for the ≤0.2-mm size classes and mortality >50% for the 0.3- and 0.7-mm size classes at the two greatest concentrations (25 and 50 ppm). HPEI (10 kDa) exhibited low mortality rates (
       
  • T lymphocytes dominate local leukocyte infiltration in response to
           intradermal injection of functionalized graphene-based nanomaterial
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBN) have many potential biomedical applications. However, information regarding their biological properties and interactions with cells and/or soluble factors within a complex tissue is limited. The objective of this study was to use the growing feather (GF) of chickens as a minimally invasive cutaneous test-site to assess and monitor leukocyte recruitment in response to intradermal GBN injection. Specifically, the dermis of 20 GFs per chicken was injected with 10 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-vehicle or 10 μl of 300 μg ml−1 oxygen-functionalized (f) GBN (6 chickens/treatment). GFs were collected before- (0) and at 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days post-injection and used for leukocyte-population analysis of immunofluorescently stained pulp cell suspensions or histological examination. Based on flow-cytometric cell population analysis, lymphocytes and macrophages were the major leukocyte-populations infiltrating GFs in response to f-GBN presence. Compared with PBS-controls, levels of T cells (γδ-, αβ-, CD4- and CD8-T cells) were greatly elevated in f-GBN-injected GFs within 6 h and remained elevated throughout the 7-day examination period. f-GBN's effects on local tissue leukocyte recruitment were not reflected in the blood, except for a higher percentage of lymphocytes on 7 days. These observations together with a visual examination of f-GBN-injected GF tissue-sections suggest a delayed-type hypersensitivity-like, inflammatory cell-mediated response to the non-biodegradable f-GBN. The GF ‘in vivo test-tube‘system together with blood sampling provided unique insight into the time-course, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of immune system activities initiated by the presence of f-GBN in a complex tissue of a living animal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Effect of bisphenol A on reproductive processes: A review of in vitro, in
           vivo and epidemiological studies
    • Abstract: As bisphenol A (BPA) is characterized by a pronounced influence on human hormonal regulation, particular attention has been aimed at understanding its role in reproductive processes in males and females, as well as on fetal development. Owing to the increasing number of alarming reports on the negative consequences of the presence of BPA in human surroundings, more and more studies are being undertaken to clarify the negative effects of BPA on human reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to collect and summarize data on the influence of BPA exposure on reproductive health. Based on an analysis of selected publications it was stated that there is strong proof confirming that BPA is an ovarian, uterine and prostate toxicant at a level below the lowest observed adverse effect level (50 mg kg−1 bodyweight) as well as a level below the proposed safe level (4 μg kg−1 bodyweight). It seems there is also reliable evidence in relation to the negative effect of BPA on sperm quality and motility. Limited evidence also pertains to the case of the potential of BPA to affect polycystic ovary syndrome occurrence. Although in epidemiological studies this disease was common, in studies on animal models such results were still not confirmed. No unambiguous results of epidemiological studies and with animal models were obtained in relation to the evaluation of associations between BPA and implantation failure in women, evaluation of associations between BPA and sexual dysfunction in men, and impact of BPA on birth rate, birth weight and length of gestation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Potential applications and human biosafety of nanomaterials used in
           nanomedicine
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnology, potential applications of nanomaterials in medicine have been widely researched in recent years. Nanomaterials themselves can be used as image agents or therapeutic drugs, and for drug and gene delivery, biological devices, nanoelectronic biosensors or molecular nanotechnology. As the composition, morphology, chemical properties, implant sites as well as potential applications become more and more complex, human biosafety of nanomaterials for clinical use has become a major concern. If nanoparticles accumulate in the human body or interact with the body molecules or chemical components, health risks may also occur. Accordingly, the unique chemical and physical properties, potential applications in medical fields, as well as human biosafety in clinical trials are reviewed in this study. Finally, this article tries to give some suggestions for future work in nanomedicine research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Genotoxic effects of old landfill leachate on HepG2 cells after
           nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis membrane treatment process
    • Abstract: Toxicity assessment of nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis (nitration/UF/RO) project, which has recently been widely used as an efficient process with applications in practical leachate treatment, was very limited. In the present study, DNA damage of leachates was investigated before and after the nitration/UF/RO process by a battery of assays with human hepatoma cells. Methyletrazolium assay showed a high cytotoxicity of 97.1% after being exposed to the highest concentration of raw leachate for 24 h, and a cytotoxicity of 26% in effluent at a concentration of 30% (v/v). Both comet assay (24 h) and γH2AX flow cytometer assay (3 h) showed increased levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to raw leachate and after nitration/UF-treated leachate followed by a significant increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. However, the effluent after nitration/UF/RO treatment showed no significant difference compared to negative control for γH2AX flow cytometer assay but slight DNA damage at concentrations of 20% and 30% (v/v) as well as increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase. Analysis showed that nitration/UF/RO process exhibited high removal of physicochemical indexes and significant reduction of toxic and genotoxic effects of leachate, but still demands an improvement to reduce all possible negative risks to the environment and humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vitamin D
    • Abstract: Despite the plethora of studies discussing the benefits of vitamin D on physiological functioning, few mathematical models of vitamin D predict the response of the body on low-concentration supplementation of vitamin D under sunlight-restricted conditions. This study developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model utilizing published human data on the metabolic cascade of orally derived, low-concentration (placebo, 5 μg and 10 μg) supplementation of vitamin D over the course of 28 days in the absence of sunlight. Vitamin D and its metabolites are highly lipophilic and binding assays of these compounds in serum may not account for binding by lipids and additional proteins. To compensate for the additional bound amounts, this study allowed the effective adipose–plasma partition coefficient to vary dynamically with the concentration of each compound in serum utilizing the Hill equation for binding. Through incorporating the optimized parameters with the adipose partition coefficient adaptation to the PBPK model, this study was able to fit serum concentration data for circulating vitamin D at all three supplementation concentrations within confidence intervals of the data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA
           damage in lymphocytes
    • Abstract: Over the past few decades nanotechnology and material science has progressed extremely rapidly. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) owing to their unique magnetic properties have a great potential for their biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, there is an inevitable need to address the issue of safety and health effects of these nanoparticles. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of IONPs on rats' lymphocytes. Using different assays, we studied diverse parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase activity, antioxidant enzymes activity and DNA damage measurements. Intracellular metal uptake and ultrastructure analysis were also carried out through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy respectively. The results show that the IONP-induced oxidative stress was concentration-dependent in nature, with significant (P 
       
  • Cyclosporine exacerbates ketamine toxicity in zebrafish: Mechanistic
           studies on drug–drug interaction
    • Abstract: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug commonly used in organ transplant patients to prevent allograft rejections. Ketamine is a pediatric anesthetic that noncompetitively inhibits the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors. Adverse drug–drug interaction effects between ketamine and CsA have been reported in mammals and humans. However, the mechanism of such drug–drug interaction is unclear. We have previously reported adverse effects of combination drugs, such as verapamil/ketamine and shown the mechanism through intervention by other drugs in zebrafish embryos. Here, we show that ketamine and CsA in combination produce developmental toxicity even leading to lethality in zebrafish larvae when exposure began at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), whereas CsA did not cause any toxicity on its own. We also demonstrate that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) completely reversed the adverse effects. Both ketamine and CsA are CYP3A4 substrates. Although ketamine and CsA independently altered the expression of the hepatic marker CYP3A65, a zebrafish ortholog of human CYP3A4, both drugs together induced further increase in CYP3A65 expression. In the presence of ALCAR, however, CYP3A65 expression was normalized. ALCAR has been shown to prevent ketamine toxicity in mammal and zebrafish. In conclusion, CsA exacerbated ketamine toxicity and ALCAR reversed the effects. These results, providing evidence for the first time on the reversal of the adverse effects of CsA/ketamine interaction by ALCAR, would prove useful in addressing potential occurrences of such toxicities in humans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • AMPK activator acadesine fails to alleviate isoniazid-caused mitochondrial
           instability in HepG2 cells
    • Abstract: Isoniazid (INH) is a first-line antituberculosis drug that is adversely associated with hepatotoxicity. Recently, impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis involved in this side effect has been noticed. Mitochondrial homeostasis is achieved by the balance between the generation of functional mitochondria by biogenesis and elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can maintain mitochondrial stability through positive control of these two processes. In this study, we showed that AMPK activator acadesine (AICAR) alleviated INH-caused impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (SIRT1)–peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1 α) pathway in HepG2 cells. However, mitochondrial instability and apoptosis were caused by AICAR along with an unexpected decrease in INH-induced cytoprotective autophagy. Therefore, AICAR failed to alleviate INH-caused mitochondrial instability in HepG2 cells due to its inhibitory effect on autophagy induced by INH. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and
           carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements
    • Abstract: A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg−1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg−1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg−1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2 weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Assessment of the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 environmental
           chemicals in zebrafish embryos and larvae by using OECD TG 212
    • Abstract: Fish embryo toxicity tests are used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental chemicals in aquatic organisms. Previously, we used a short-term toxicity test published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (test no. 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-Fry Stages [OECD TG 212]) to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of aniline and several chlorinated anilines in zebrafish embryos and larvae. To expand upon this previous study, we used OECD TG 212 in zebrafish embryos and larvae to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 additional environmental chemicals that included active pharmaceutical ingredients, pesticides, metals, aromatic compounds or chlorinated anilines. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed to the test chemicals until 8 days post-fertilization. A delayed lethal effect was induced by 16 of the 20 test chemicals, and a positive correlation was found between heart rate turbulence and mortality. We also found that exposure to the test chemicals at concentrations lower than the lethal concentration induced the sublethal effects of edema, body curvature and absence of swim-bladder inflation. In conclusion, the environmental chemicals assessed in the present study induced both lethal and sublethal effects in zebrafish embryos and larvae, as assessed by using OECD TG 212. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • PM2.5-induced lung inflammation in mice: Differences of inflammatory
           response in macrophages and type II alveolar cells
    • Abstract: Particulate matter 2.5 (
       
  • Diethylhexyl phthalate magnifies deposition of 14C–bisphenol A in
           reproductive tissues of mice
    • Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in diverse common products, including cosmetics, food packaging, thermal receipt paper and plastic containers. This exposes most people in developed countries through ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation. Two ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) can interact in disrupting blastocyst implantation in inseminated females. We hypothesized that DEHP might increase the bioavailability of BPA in tissues by competing for metabolic enzymes. We injected 0, 3, 9 or 18 mg DEHP into female and male mice and allowed 30 min for the chemical to circulate before giving them a food supplement containing 50 μg kg−1 14C–BPA. Animals were dissected 1 h following 14C–BPA administration and various tissue samples were acquired. Samples were solubilized and radioactivity was measured via liquid scintillation counting. In cycling females, DEHP increased BPA deposition in the muscle, uterus, ovaries and blood serum relative to controls. In peri-implantation females, DEHP increased deposition of BPA in the uterus, ovaries and serum relative to controls. In males, DEHP doses increased BPA deposition in serum and epididymis relative to controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DEHP competes with BPA for conjugating enzymes such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, thereby magnifying the presence of BPA in estrogen-binding reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Mechanism of graphene-induced cytotoxicity: Role of endonucleases
    • Abstract: Graphene, a crystalline allotrope or carbon, presents numerous useful properties; however, its toxicity is yet to be determined. One of the most dramatic and irreversible toxic abilities of carbon nanomaterials is the induction of DNA fragmentation produced by endogenous cellular endonucleases. This study demonstrated that pristine graphene exposed to cultured kidney tubular epithelial cells is capable of inducing DNA fragmentation measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which is usually associated with cell death. TUNEL (cell death) and endonuclease activity measured using a near infrared fluorescence probe was significantly higher in cells containing graphene aggregates detected by Raman spectroscopy. The elevation of TUNEL coincided with the increased abundance of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), active caspase-3 and endonucleases (deoxyribonuclease I [DNase I] and endonuclease G [EndoG]), as measured by quantitative immunocytochemistry. Specific inhibitors for HO-1, HSP90, caspase-3, DNase I and EndoG almost completely blocked the DNA fragmentation induced by graphene exposure. Therefore, graphene induces cell death through oxidative injury, caspase-mediated and caspase-independent pathways; and endonucleases DNase I and EndoG are important for graphene toxicity. Inhibition of these pathways may ameliorate cell injury produced by graphene. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Non-animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated
           testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated'
    • Abstract: There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimize animal testing, integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the skin sensitization adverse outcome pathway. Three non-animal assays have been formally validated and regulatory adopted: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ assay and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). There have been many efforts to develop integrated approaches to testing and assessment with the “two out of three” approach attracting much attention. Here a set of 271 chemicals with mouse, human and non-animal sensitization test data was evaluated to compare the predictive performances of the three individual non-animal assays, their binary combinations and the “two out of three” approach in predicting skin sensitization potential. The most predictive approach was to use both the DPRA and h-CLAT as follows: (1) perform DPRA – if positive, classify as sensitizing, and (2) if negative, perform h-CLAT – a positive outcome denotes a sensitizer, a negative, a non-sensitizer. With this approach, 85% (local lymph node assay) and 93% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions were correct, whereas the “two out of three” approach had 69% (local lymph node assay) and 79% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions correct. The findings are consistent with the argument, supported by published quantitative mechanistic models that only the first KE needs to be modeled. All three assays model this KE to an extent. The value of using more than one assay depends on how the different assays compensate for each other's technical limitations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • In vivo noninvasive analysis of graphene nanomaterial pharmacokinetics
           using photoacoustic flow cytometry
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC provides unique insight on how chemical modifications of GBNs affect their distribution in blood circulation and how quickly they are eliminated from the flow. Overall, PAFC provided unique data crucial for understanding GBN toxicity through real-time detection of GBNs using their intrinsic light absorption contrast. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Association between YAP expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast
           tissue with arsenic urinary levels
    • Abstract: The Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis and it has been noted that loss of critical components of this pathway can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important component of this Hippo pathway because YAP is the nuclear effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and it is crucial for the response to oxidative stress induced by cellular process and by different xenobiotics, including arsenic. It has been proposed that YAP dysregulation can contribute to a malignant cellular phenotype acting as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the expression of YAP in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast tissue of women chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. YAP expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 120 breast biopsies from women with breast cancer and from women with other non-neoplastic breast pathologies. Arsenic concentration was quantified in urine. The results disclosed a significant lower percentage of cytoplasm YAP expression in cases and that YAP high-intensity staining in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus decreases the risk for breast cancer. In conclusion, our overall data suggest that YAP may act as a tumor suppressor protein because their reduced expression in cases, which can induce an environment favorable for inhibition of apoptosis and promoting cellular proliferation by increasing genetic instability of cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Adhesive force between graphene nanoscale flakes and living biological
           cells
    • Abstract: We report on a measurement technique that quantifies the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes and the cell wall of live Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in-fluid Peak Force- Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping mode. To measure the adhesive force, we made use of the negative charge of E. coli cells to allow them to stick to positively charged surfaces, such as glass or silicon, that were covered by poly-L-Lysine. With this approach, cells were held in place for AFM characterization. Both pristine graphene (PG) flakes and functionalized graphene (FG) flakes were put on the E. coli cells and measurements of lateral size, flake thickness, and adhesion were made. Using this approach, the measured values of the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes (total thickness of 50 nm) and E. coli was determined to be equal or greater than 431 ± 65pN for (PG) and 694 ± 98pN for the (FG). More interestingly, the adhesive force of a graphene flake (thickness 1.3 nm) with the cell is determined to be equal or greater than 38.2 ± 16.4pN for the (PG) and 34.8 ± 15.3pN for the (FG). These interaction values can play an important role in determining and understanding the possible toxicity of graphene flakes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Graphene and carbon nanotubes activate different cell surface receptors on
           macrophages before and after deactivation of endotoxins
    • Abstract: Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs. The gel-clot limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and chromogenic-based LAL assays were used to detect endotoxins. Results revealed that the CBNs contained greater amounts of endotoxin than are approved by major regulatory agencies (0.5 EU ml−1). Three repeated cycles of autoclaving reduced the endotoxin in the test materials. Macrophages were incubated with pyrogenated and depyrogenated pristine graphene and MWCNTs to test differences in phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and expression of genes involved in macrophage activation. The uptake of depyrogenated CBNs was significantly reduced as compared with pyrogenated CBNs. Exposure of macrophages to depyrogenated CBNs resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression for TLR signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, and downstream signal transduction molecules. Furthermore, macrophages exposed to both types of CBNs showed the downregulation of TLR5 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. The results of this study reaffirm that assessment of endotoxin and other bacterial contamination is critical when evaluating the cellular toxicity of nanomaterials. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • Adult neurobehavioral alterations in male and female mice following
           developmental exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen): characterization of
           a critical period
    • Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected. Mice of both sexes were exposed to two doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg kg–1, 4 h apart) on postnatal days (PND) 3, 10 or 19. Spontaneous behavior, when introduced to a new home environment, was observed at the age of 2 months. We show that adverse effects on adult behavior and cognitive function occurred in both male and female mice exposed to paracetamol on PND 3 and 10, but not when exposed on PND 19. These neurodevelopmental time points in mice correspond to the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy and the time around birth in humans, supporting existing human data. Considering that paracetamol is the first choice treatment for pain and/or fever during pregnancy and early life, these results may be of great importance for future research and, ultimately, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Effect of triclosan on anuran development and growth in a larval amphibian
           growth and development assay
    • Abstract: A larval amphibian growth and development assay was performed to evaluate the potential effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of triclosan (TCS) on amphibian development and growth. Xenopus laevis were exposed to TCS 0.0 (control), 6.3, 12.5 and 25.0 μg l–1 (estimated maximum tolerable concentration) until 10 weeks post-metamorphosis. At median metamorphosis time (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62), five larvae per replicate were collected for snout–vent length, hind limb length and body weight measurements, and histopathological examination of thyroid glands. Endpoints evaluated at test termination were based on draft guidance (USEPA, ) and included: survival; snout–vent length; body weight; gender; nuptial pad development (males); and liver, kidney, gonad and gonadal ducts histopathology. Exposure to TCS did not decrease survival, induce general signs of toxicity, affect median metamorphosis time or alter sex ratios. Exposure to TCS 12.5 and 25 μg l–1 increased growth during the metamorphic stages relative to the control, but did not influence growth during the post-metamorphic phase. Overall, several statistically significant findings were found in larvae exposed to TCS, such as a decrease in the prevalence of stage 3 Müllerian ducts in the anterior trunk sections of TCS 25.0 μg l–1 dose group females as compared to controls; most were not considered toxicologically relevant. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • p53-competent cells and p53-deficient cells display different
           susceptibility to oxygen functionalized graphene cytotoxicity and
           genotoxicity
    • Abstract: Due to the distinctive physical, electrical, and chemical properties of graphene nanomaterials, numerous efforts pursuing graphene-based biomedical and industrial applications are underway. Oxidation of pristine graphene surfaces mitigates its otherwise hydrophobic characteristic thereby improving its biocompatibility and functionality. Yet, the potential widespread use of oxidized graphene derivatives raises concern about adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein maintains cellular and genetic stability after toxic exposures. Here, we show that p53 functional status correlates with oxygen functionalized graphene (f-G) cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro. The f-G exposed p53-competent cells, but not p53-deficient cells, initiated G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed reactive oxygen species, and entered apoptosis. There was p53-dependent f-G genotoxicity evident as increased structural chromosome damage, but not increased gene mutation or chromatin loss. In conclusion, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential for f-G in exposed cells was dependent on the p53 functional status. These findings have broad implications for the safe and effective implementation of oxidized graphene derivatives into biomedical and industrial applications. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • Profiling of the silica-induced molecular events in lung epithelial cells
           using the RNA-Seq approach
    • Abstract: Silicosis is a prolonged, irreversible and incurable occupational disease, and there is a significant number of newly diagnosed cases every year in Hong Kong. Due to the long latency of the disease, the diagnosis can be missed until detailed clinical examination at a later stage. For a better control of this deadly disease, detailing the pro-inflammatory and fibrotic events in the macrophage would be instrumental in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and essential for the significant biomarkers discovery. In this in vitro study, human cell line model A549 lung epithelial cells were used. The immediate molecular events underneath the activation of quartz silica polymorphs were followed in a time course of 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 16 and 24 h. The transcriptome library was prepared and subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. Data analysis was performed by pathway analysis tools and verified by real-time PCR. The results showed that triggered genes were mainly found in the immune response and inflammatory pathways. An interesting finding was the association of the DNA-binding protein inhibitor (ID) family in the silica exposure to lung cells. The linkage of ID1, ID2 and ID3 to cancer may rationalize themselves to be the markers indicating an early response of silicosis. However, further studies are required to consolidate the roles of these genes in silicosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Chronic exposure to graphene-based nanomaterials induces behavioral
           deficits and neural damage in Caenorhabditis elegans
    • Abstract: Nanomaterials of graphene and its derivatives have been widely applied in recent years, but whose impacts on the environment and health are still not well understood. In the present study, the potential adverse effects of graphite (G), graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the motor nervous system were investigated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. After being characterized using TEM, SEM, XPS and PLE, three nanomaterials were chronically exposed to C. elegans for 6 days. In total, 50–100 mg l−1 GO caused a significant reduction in the survival rate, but G and GDDs showed low lethality on nematodes. After chronic exposure of sub-lethal dosages, three nanomaterials were observed to distribute primarily in the pharynx and intestine; but GQDs were widespread in nematode body. Three graphene-based nanomaterials resulted in significant declines in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, mean speed, bending angle-frequency and wavelength of the crawling movement were significantly reduced after exposure. Using transgenic nematodes, we found high concentrations of graphene-based nanomaterials induced down-expression of dat-1::GFP and eat-4::GFP, but no significant changes in unc-47::GFP. This indicates that graphene-based nanomaterials can lead to damages in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. The present data suggest that chronic exposure of graphene-based nanomaterials may cause neurotoxicity risks of inducing behavioral deficits and neural damage. These findings provide useful information to understand the toxicity and safe application of graphene-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • The use of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro
           model to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles to endothelium: a review
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnologies, nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly produced and used in many commercial products, which could lead to the contact of human blood vessels with NPs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the adverse effects of NPs to relevant cells lining human blood vessels, especially endothelial cells (ECs) that cover the lumen of blood vessels. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are among one of the most popular models used for ECs in vitro. In the present review, we discussed studies that have used HUVECs as a model to investigate the EC–NP interactions, the toxic effects of NPs on ECs and the mechanisms. The results of these studies indicated that NPs could be internalized into HUVECs by the endocytosis pathway as well as transported across HUVECs by exocytosis and paracellular pathways. Exposure of HUVECs to NPs could induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, eNOS uncoupling and endothelial activation, which could be explained by NP-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and dysfunction of organelles. In addition, some studies have also evaluated the influences of microenvironment (e.g. the presence of proteins and excessive nutrients), the physiological and/or pathological stimuli related to the diversity of ECs (e.g. shear stress, cyclic stretch and inflammatory stimuli), and the physicochemical properties of NPs on the responses of ECs to NP exposure. In conclusion, it has been suggested that HUVECs could be considered as a relatively reliable and simple in vitro model for ECs to predict and evaluate the toxicity of NPs to endothelium. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Mechanism of arsenite toxicity in embryonic stem cells
    • Abstract: Environmental arsenite exposure has been linked to cancer as well as other diseases, presenting an important and serious public health problem. Toxicity of inorganic arsenite (iAs) has been investigated using animal models and cell culture, yet its developmental effects are poorly understood. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of iAs toxicity to ascertain insight into development and differentiation processes using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The results showed that iAs exposure affected morphology and integrity of ESC colonies as well as inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, excluding concentrations
       
  • A review on acridinylthioureas and its derivatives: biological and
           cytotoxic activity
    • Abstract: Acridines possess two characteristics that have led many researchers to consider the agents interesting targets for future development as potential farmacophores: the planar acridine skeleton, which is able to intercalate into DNA, and the intense fluorescence of the agents. This review offers a study of the multifunctional character of acridines and the synthesis of novel acridine derivatives, with particular focus being placed on isothiocyanates and their congeners, e.g. thioureas, isothioureas, quaternary ammonium salts and platinum/gold conjugates. The review provides an overview of the structure, spectral properties, DNA binding and biological activity of acridinylthiourea congeners. These acridinylthiourea derivatives display significant cytotoxic activities against different types of cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
 
 
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