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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 771 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (697 journals)
    - POLLUTION (23 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (40 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (11 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (697 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Internacional de Ciências     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Metropolitana de Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Monografias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.996]   [H-I: 61]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0260-437X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1263
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular
           system toxicity: A case for telemetry
    • Authors: Hoay Yan Cheah; Lik Voon Kiew, Hong Boon Lee, Nina Japundžić-Žigon, Marίa J. Vicent, See Ziau Hoe, Lip Yong Chung
      Abstract: While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T06:55:35.428124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3437
       
  • Maduramicin induces apoptosis and necrosis, and blocks autophagic flux in
           myocardial H9c2 cells
    • Abstract: Maduramicin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is widely used as an anticoccidial agent in the poultry industry. It has been reported that maduramicin may cause heart and skeletal muscle cell damage, resulting in heart failure, skeletal muscle degeneration and even death in animals and humans, if improperly used. However, the molecular mechanism behind its capability to cause death of cardiac cells is not known. Here, we show that maduramicin induced apoptosis and necrosis in rat myocardial cells (H9c2). Maduramicin did not apparently upregulate the expression of pro‐apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAD, BAK and BAX) or downregulate the expression of anti‐apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bcl‐2, Bcl‐xL, Mcl‐1 and survivin). Interestingly, maduramicin increased the expression of DR4 and TRAIL, activating caspases 8/3 and triggering cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). In addition, maduramicin induced nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor. Furthermore, maduramicin blocked autophagic flux, as evidenced by inducing accumulation of both LC3‐II and p62/SQSTM1. Taken together, the above results suggest that maduramicin executes its toxicity in the myocardial cells at least by inducing caspase‐dependent cell death through TRAIL/DR4‐mediated extrinsic pathway and caspase‐independent cell death by inducing apoptosis inducing factor nuclear translocation and blocking autophagic flux. Our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of maduramicin's toxicity in myocardial cells.
       
  • Protective roles of hepatic gamma‐aminobutyric acid signaling in acute
           ethanol exposure‐induced liver injury
    • Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a consequence of heavy and prolonged alcohol consumptions. We previously demonstrated a hepatic gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system that protects the liver from toxic injury. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the hepatic GABA signaling system in the process of acute ethanol exposure‐induced liver injury. Our results showed that the expression of GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and type A GABA receptor (GABAAR) subunits was upregulated in ethanol‐treated mice compared with saline‐treated controls. Remarkably, pretreatment of mice with GABA (1.5 mg kg−1 body weight, intraperitoneal injection [i.p.]) or with the GABAAR agonist muscimol (1.2 mg kg−1 body weight, i.p.) protected the liver against ethanol toxicity and improved liver function, whereas pretreatment of mice with the GABAAR antagonist bicuculline (2.0 mg kg−1 body weight, i.p.) worsened the liver function. Further analyses suggest that GABAAR‐mediated signaling protects the liver from ethanol injury by, at least partially, inhibiting the IRE1α‐ASK1‐JNK pro‐apoptotic pathway in hepatocytes in the process of ethanol‐induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response.
       
  • Protective effect of metoclopramide against organophosphate‐induced
           apoptosis in the murine skin fibroblast L929
    • Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy of metoclopramide (MCP) against the organophosphates paraoxon (POX)‐ and malathion (MLT)‐induced apoptosis in the murine L929 skin fibroblasts. L929 cells were exposed to either POX (10 nm) or 1.0 μm MLT in the absence and presence of increased concentrations of MCP. The protective effect of MCP on these organophosphate‐stimulated apoptotic events was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis after staining with annexin‐V/propidium iodide, processing and activation of the executioner caspase‐3, cleavage of the poly‐ADP ribose polymerase, fragmentation of the nucleosomal DNA and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ). Our results showed that increased doses of MCP alone (≥10 μm) did not induce apoptosis or activation of caspase‐3. Pretreatment of the cells with MCP attenuated all the apoptotic events triggered by the organophosphate compounds in a dose‐dependent manner reaching ~70–80% protection when they were preincubated at 1 and 5 μm of the drug before the addition of POX and MLT, respectively. Interestingly, MCP did not offer a significant protective effect against the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor‐α, cisplatinum, etoposide or paclitaxel, which stimulate apoptosis by various mechanisms, suggesting that the anti‐apoptotic effect of the drug is specific to organophosphates. The strong and specific anti‐apoptotic activity of subclinical doses of MCP against the cytotoxicity of organophosphate compounds suggests its potential clinical application in treating their poisoning.
       
  • Development of an alternative zebrafish model for drug‐induced
           intestinal toxicity
    • Abstract: An evaluation of intestinal toxicity is important because the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract is the first barrier for oral xenobiotics. Until now, a rat model has been recommended as the standard intestinal toxicity model and the Caco‐2 cell line, originated from a human colon adenocarcinoma, has been used as an alternative to this model, but there are limitations regarding cost‐effectiveness and the need for mimicry of the human system. In this study, we investigated whether zebrafish could be a valid alternative to rats and Caco‐2 cells as an intestinal toxicity model. We focused on intestinal gene expression of cytochrome P450 3A65, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and intestinal function. Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted using three models: zebrafish, Sprague–Dawley rats and Caco‐2 cells, and the transcript levels and patterns of indicator genes were analyzed in conjunction with histopathological changes. Our results suggested that representative intestinal toxicants, indomethacin, diclofenac and methotrexate, induced significant transcript level changes in marker genes such as CYP3A, inducible nitric oxide synthase, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, BCL2 associated X, B‐cell lymphoma 2, caspase 9, tumor protein p53, nuclear factor‐κB, interleukin‐1β, tumor necrosis factor‐alphaα and toll‐like receptor 2 in the zebrafish model as in the rat and Caco‐2 cells models. These results suggest that zebrafish model is sufficiently worth developing as an intestinal toxicity model that can replace or compensate the rat model or Caco‐2 cell model.
       
  • The percutaneous toxicokinetics of VX in a damaged skin porcine model and
           the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical decontaminant
    • Abstract: This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for the decontamination of superficial, nerve agent‐contaminated wounds. Anaesthetized animals were randomly assigned to either control (n = 7), no decontamination (n = 12) or WoundStat™ (n = 12) treatment groups. Pigs were exposed to a 5× LD50 dose of neat, radiolabelled S‐[2‐(diisopropylamino)ethyl]‐O‐ethyl methyl‐phosphonothioate (VX; or equivalent volume of sterile saline for the control group) via an area of superficially damaged skin on the ear. WoundStat™ was applied at 30 seconds post‐exposure to assigned animals. The VX contaminant (or saline) and decontaminant remained in place for the duration of the study (up to 6 hours). Physiological parameters and signs of intoxication were recorded during the exposure period. Skin and organ samples were taken post mortem for 14C–VX distribution analyses. Blood samples were taken periodically for toxicokinetic and whole‐blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity analyses. VX exposure was accompanied by a rapid decrease in AChE activity in all animals, regardless of decontamination. However, decontamination significantly improved survival rate and time and reduced the severity of signs of intoxication. In addition, the distribution of 14C–VX in key internal organs and post mortem blood samples was significantly lower in the WoundStat™ treatment group. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ may be a suitable medical countermeasure for increasing both survival rate and time following VX exposure. The results also suggest that AChE activity is not a useful prognostic indicator.
       
  • Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency
           decontamination: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non‐toxic at the dose applied. This review focuses on studies that employed chemical warfare agent simulants in decontamination contexts, to identify those simulants most suitable for use in HVTs of emergency decontamination. Twenty‐two simulants were identified, of which 17 were determined unsuitable for use in HVTs. The remaining simulants (n = 5) were further scrutinized for potential suitability according to toxicity, physicochemical properties and similarities to their equivalent toxic counterparts. Three suitable simulants, for use in HVTs were identified; methyl salicylate (simulant for sulphur mustard), diethyl malonate (simulant for soman) and malathion (simulant for VX or toxic industrial chemicals). All have been safely used in previous HVTs, and have a range of physicochemical properties that would allow useful inference to more toxic chemicals when employed in future studies of emergency decontamination systems.
       
  • Effects of exposure to six chemical ultraviolet filters commonly used in
           personal care products on motility of MCF‐7 and MDA‐MB‐231 human
           breast cancer cells in vitro
    • Abstract: Benzophenone (BP)‐1, BP‐2, BP‐3, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC), 4‐methylbenzilidenecamphor and homosalate are added to personal care products to absorb ultraviolet light. Their presence in human milk and their oestrogenic activity suggests a potential to influence breast cancer development. As metastatic tumour spread is the main cause of breast cancer mortality, we have investigated the effects of these compounds on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines. Increased motility of oestrogen‐responsive MCF‐7 human breast cancer cells was observed after long‐term exposure (>20 weeks) to each of the six compounds at ≥10−7 m concentrations using three independent assay systems (scratch assay, live cell imaging, xCELLigence technology) and increased invasive activity was observed through matrigel using the xCELLigence system. Increased motility of oestrogen‐unresponsive MDA‐MB‐231 human breast cancer cells was observed after 15 weeks of exposure to each of the six compounds by live cell imaging and xCELLigence technology, implying the increased migratory activity was not confined to oestrogen‐responsive cells. Molecular mechanisms varied between compounds and cell lines. Using MCF‐7 cells, reduction in E‐cadherin was observed following 24 weeks' exposure to 10−5 m BP‐1 and 10−5 m homosalate, and reduction in β‐catenin was noted following 24 weeks' exposure to 10−5 m OMC. Using MDA‐MB‐231 cells, increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 were observed after 15 weeks exposure to 10−7 m OMC and 10−7 m 4‐methylbenzilidenecamphor. Although molecular mechanisms differ, these results demonstrate that exposure to any of these six compounds can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells.
       
  • A genomic characterization of the influence of silver nanoparticles on
           bone differentiation in MC3T3‐E1 cells
    • Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications. Previous studies demonstrated that AgNPs significantly enhanced bone cell mineralization and differentiation in MC3T3–1 cells, a model in vitro system, when compared to several other NPs. This increased bone deposition was evaluated by phenotypic measurements and assessment of the expression of miRNAs associated with regulation of bone morphogenic proteins. In the present study, we used RNA‐seq technology, a more direct measurement of gene expression, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone differentiation induced by AgNP treatment. Key factors associated with the osteoclast pathway were significantly increased in response to AgNP exposure including Bmp4, Bmp6 and Fosl1. In addition, genes of metabolism and toxicity pathways were significantly regulated as well. Although this study suggests the potential for AgNPs to influence bone morphogenesis in injury or disease applications, further investigation into the efficacy and safety of AgNPs in bone regeneration is warranted.
       
  • Diethylstilbestrol impaired oogenesis of yellow catfish juveniles through
           disrupting hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and germ cell
           development
    • Abstract: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a non‐steroidal estrogen, has been found to cause altered germ cell development and disordered ovarian development in fish females. However, the mechanisms that might be involved are poorly understood. In this study, female juveniles of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) (120 days post‐hatching) were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 ng l−1) of DES for 28 days. After the endpoint of exposure, decreased ovary weight and gonadosomatic index, as well as various ovarian impairments were observed in response to DES. Besides, DES elevated the mRNA levels of vitellogenin 1 (vtg 1) and estrogen receptor 1 (esr 1) in liver and decreased 17β‐estradiol level in plasma. Correspondingly, suppressed mRNA levels of the key genes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (such as cyp19a1b, gnrh‐II, fshβ and lhβ in brain and fshr, lhr and cyp19a1a in ovary) after DES exposure were also observed. The declined level of plasma 17β‐estradiol and altered gene expressions of genes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis were thus supposed to be closely related to the disrupted oogenesis in DES‐treated fish. Analyses further demonstrated that, higher concentration of DES elevated the expression ratio of bax/bcl‐2, indicating the enhanced apoptosis occurred in ovary. Moreover, DES upregulated the expressions of genes involved in proliferation (cyclin d1 and pcna), meiotic entry (cyp26a1 and scp3) and meiotic maintenance (dmc1), resulting in arrested oogenesis in catfish. The present study greatly extended our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive toxicity of DES on fish oogenesis.
       
  • Aberrant expression of miR‐451a contributes to
           1,2‐dichloroethane‐induced hepatic glycerol gluconeogenesis disorder
           by inhibiting glycerol kinase expression in NIH Swiss mice
    • Abstract: The identification of aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression during chemical‐induced hepatic dysfunction will lead to a better understanding of the substantial role of miRNAs in liver diseases. 1,2‐Dichloroethane (1,2‐DCE), a chlorinated organic toxicant, can lead to hepatic abnormalities in occupationally exposed populations. To explore whether aberrant miRNA expression is involved in liver abnormalities mediated by 1,2‐DCE exposure, we examined alterations in miRNA expression patterns in the livers of NIH Swiss mice after dynamic inhalation exposure to 350 or 700 mg m–3 1,2‐DCE for 28 days. Using a microarray chip, we discovered that only mmumiR‐451a was significantly upregulated in the liver tissue of mice exposed to 700 mg m–3 1,2‐DCE; this finding was validated by quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. In vitro study revealed that it was metabolite 2‐chloroacetic acid, not 1,2‐DCE that resulted in the upregulation of mmu‐miR‐451a in the mouse AML12 cell line. Furthermore, our data showed that the upregulation of mmu‐miR‐451a induced by 2‐chloroacetic acid could suppress the expression of glycerol kinase and lead to the inhibition of glycerol gluconeogenesis in mouse liver tissue and AML12 cells. These observations provide evidence that hepatic mmu‐miR‐451a responds to 1,2‐DCE exposure and might induce glucose metabolism disorders by suppressing the glycerol gluconeogenesis process.
       
  • A practical approach to assess inhalation toxicity of metal oxide
           nanoparticles in vitro
    • Abstract: Exposure of humans to metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) occurs mainly via air, and inhaled metal oxide NPs may generate inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the proinflammatory potential of six metal oxide NPs (CeO2, Mn2O3, CuO, ZnO, Co3O4 and WO3; 27–108 μg ml−1) using human primary 3‐dimensional airway epithelium (MucilAir™) and dendritic cell (DC) models. Metal oxide NPs were mainly aggregated/agglomerated in the cell media, as determined by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and differential centrifugal sedimentation. WO3 and ZnO were highly soluble, both with and without respiratory mucus. Proinflammatory signalling by the epithelium was evaluated after a 24 hour exposure by increased interleukin‐6 and ‐8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 cytokine release, which occurred only for CuO. Moreover, maturation of immature human DCs, which play a key role in the lung immune system, were evaluated by expression of surface markers HLA‐DR, CD80, CD83 and CD86 after a 48 hour exposure. Only Mn2O3 consistently upregulated DC maturation markers. Furthermore, by addition of medium from metal oxide NP‐exposed 3‐dimensional airway cultures to metal oxide NP‐exposed DC cultures, the interplay between lung epithelium and DCs was studied. Such an interplay was again only observed for Mn2O3 and in one of five DC donors. Our results show that, even when using dosages that represent very high in vivo exposure levels, up to 27 hours of constant human airway exposure, metal oxide NPs cause minimal proinflammatory effects and that epithelial cells not necessarily interfere with DC maturation upon metal oxide NP exposure. The present approach exemplifies a relevant translation towards human safety assessment.
       
  • Preventive effects of fructose and N‐acetyl‐L‐cysteine against
           cytotoxicity induced by the psychoactive compounds
           N‐methyl‐5‐(2‐aminopropyl)benzofuran and
           3,4‐methylenedioxy‐N‐methamphetamine in isolated rat hepatocytes
    • Abstract: Psychoactive compounds, N‐methyl‐5‐(2‐aminopropyl)benzofuran (5‐MAPB) and 3,4‐methylenedioxy‐N‐methamphetamine (MDMA), are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and/or experimental animals. As previous studies suggested that these compounds elicited cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes, the protective effects of fructose and N‐acetyl‐l‐cysteine (NAC) on 5‐MAPB‐ and MDMA‐induced toxicity were studied in rat hepatocytes. These drugs caused not only concentration‐dependent (0–4 mm) and time‐dependent (0–3 hours) cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (reduced form; GSH) but also an increase in the oxidized form of GSH. The toxic effects of 5‐MAPB were greater than those of MDMA. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with either fructose at a concentration of 10 mm or NAC at a concentration of 2.5 mm prevented 5‐MAPB−/MDMA‐induced cytotoxicity. In addition, the exposure of hepatocytes to 5‐MAPB/MDMA caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, although the preventive effect of fructose was weaker than that of NAC. These results suggest that: (1) 5‐MAPB−/MDMA‐induced cytotoxicity is linked to mitochondrial failure and depletion of cellular GSH; (2) insufficient cellular ATP levels derived from mitochondrial dysfunction were ameliorated, at least in part, by the addition of fructose; and (3) GSH loss via oxidative stress was prevented by NAC. Taken collectively, these results indicate that the onset of toxic effects caused by 5‐MAPB/MDMA may be partially attributable to cellular energy stress as well as oxidative stress.
       
  • Allopurinol suppresses expression of the regulatory T‐cell migration
           factors TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 in HaCaT keratinocytes via restriction of
           nuclear factor‐κB activation
    • Abstract: Recent studies have shown that sparse distribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the skin might be involved in the onset of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Treg migration toward epithelial cells is regulated by certain chemokines, including TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22. In this study, we analyzed the effect of allopurinol (APN), a drug known to cause severe adverse reactions, on the expression of factors affecting Treg migration and the mechanisms involved. APN inhibited the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐α‐ and interferon (IFN)‐γ‐associated expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells in a dose‐dependent manner. Consistent with this, APN also suppressed TNF‐α‐ and IFN‐γ‐induced production of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 proteins and the migration of C‐C chemokine receptor type 4‐positive cells. Activity of the transcription factors NF‐κB and STAT1, which are involved in TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression, was also investigated. APN inhibited activation of NF‐κB, but not that of STAT1. Furthermore, it restricted p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that APN inhibits TNF‐α‐ and IFN‐γ‐induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 production through downregulation of p38 MAPK and NF‐κB signaling, resulting in the sparse distribution of Tregs in the skin of patients with APN‐associated Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis.
       
  • Potential hazards of fenvalerate in massive pollution influence the
           apoptosis sensitivity
    • Abstract: Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used in agricultural, domestic and veterinary applications. Fen induces abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis, which are linked to its hazardous effects. However, this view is controversial and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, the effects of Fen on cadmium (Cd)‐induced apoptosis and the associated molecular mechanisms were investigated in human myeloid leukemia U937 cells. U937 cells were treated with 50 μm cadmium chloride (CdCl2) with or without Fen pretreatment at 1–50 μm. Apoptosis was evaluated by externalization of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane. The expression levels of apoptosis‐related proteins, including Bcl‐2 family members were determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that pretreatment with Fen at 20 μm for 12 hours significantly inhibited Cd‐induced apoptosis. Decreased expression of pro‐apoptotic Bcl‐2 family proteins (Noxa and Bid) and increased expression of anti‐apoptotic proteins (Bcl‐xL, Mcl‐1 and XIAP) were observed after combined treatment with Fen and CdCl2. Phosphorylation of ERK and AKT was increased, while phosphorylation of JNK was decreased by the combined treatment, compared with CdCl2 treatment alone. In conclusion, Fen decreased apoptotic sensitivity induced by Cd in U937 cells. This effect was associated with activation of ERK and AKT, suppression of JNK and changes in expression of Bcl‐2 family proteins and XIAP. The present findings suggest a potential influence of Fen on Cd toxicity via suppression of apoptosis. Fen decreased apoptotic sensitivity induced by Cd, and thus it may contribute carcinogenic risk and influence on cancer therapy.
       
  • Cytoprotective effects of xanthohumol against methylglyoxal‐induced
           cytotoxicity in MC3T3‐E1 osteoblastic cells
    • Abstract: Methylglyoxal (MG) has been suggested to be a major source of intracellular reactive carbonyl compounds, and has been implicated in increasing the levels of advanced glycation end products in age‐related diseases. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus) and beer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of xanthohumol on MG‐induced cytotoxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells. Xanthohumol attenuated MG‐induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by improved cell viability, and prevented MG‐induced MG‐protein adducts, inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide production. In addition, xanthohumol increased glyoxalase I activity, glutathione, heme oxygenase‐1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 levels in the presence of MG. Pretreatment with xanthohumol before MG exposure reduced MG‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy induced by MG. Notably, the autophagy‐reducing effect of xanthohumol was abolished after the addition of Ex527, a selective inhibitor of sirtuin 1, suggesting that xanthohumol is an effective sirtuin 1 activator for reducing autophagy. Taken together, our findings suggest xanthohumol as a promising new strategy for preventing diabetic osteopathy.
       
  • Dermatotoxicology of sulfur mustard: Historical perspectives from World
           War I
    • Abstract: Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology.
       
  • Issue Information
    • Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
       
  • Long‐term exposure to bisphenol S damages the visual system and reduces
           the tracking capability of male zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    • Abstract: Bisphenol S (BPS) is widely detected in aquatic environments and in human bodies. BPS has reproductive and thyroid disrupting effects, but its effect on the visual system remains unknown. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to BPS at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg l−1 until 120 days post‐fertilization in a semistatic system, and the effect of BPS on the visual behavior was examined using the optokinetic response and the optomotor response tests in male zebrafish. The retinal histology, mRNA expression of photoreceptor opsin genes (zfrho, zfblue, zfgr1, zfred and zfuv) and apoptosis‐related genes (bax and bcl‐2) were also assessed. Long‐term BPS exposure decreased the tracking capability of male zebrafish, consistent with structural damage to the retina. BPS induced different amounts of vacuoles in the retinal pigment epithelium, and 1000 μg l−1 BPS exposure decreased the length of the inner plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer and retina, and induced an irregular arrangement of photoreceptor cells. The expression levels of the opsin genes (zfred, zfgr1 and zfrho) were significantly elevated, indicating an enhanced spectral sensitivity to red, green and dim light to compensate for the reduction of the optomotor response. Together, the results showed for the first time that long‐term exposure to BPS damaged the structure of male zebrafish retina and reduced their tracking capability.
       
  • Effect of cadmium on kitl pre‐mRNA alternative splicing in murine
           ovarian granulosa cells and its associated regulation by miRNAs
    • Abstract: In this study, we established an in vitro exposure model of murine ovarian granulosa cells to observe the effect of Cd on alternative splicing of the kitl pre‐mRNA and subsequently to explore the role of kitl gene expression regulation‐related miRNAs through miRNA prediction, miRNA chip, bioinformatics and real‐time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results showed that the kitl1/kitl2 mRNA ratio was significantly different (P 
       
  • Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
           activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in
           HepG2 cells
    • Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04–4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4–2500 ng mg−1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration–response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs.
       
  • Chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS)
    • Abstract: Arsenic and its compounds are well-established, potent, environmentally widespread and persistent toxicants with metabolic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, epigenetic and carcinogenic effects. Arsenic occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, but anthropogenic arsenic emissions have surmounted the emissions from important natural sources such as volcanism. Inorganic arsenicals exhibit acute and chronic toxicities in virtually all cell types and tissues, and hence arsenic intoxication affects multiple systems. Whereas acute arsenic intoxication is rare and relatively easy to diagnose, chronic arsenic intoxication (CAsI) is common but goes often misdiagnosed. Based on a review of the literature as well as our own clinical experience, we propose a chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS). A distinctive feature of CAsIDS is the use of bone arsenic load as an essential criterion for the individual risk assessment of chronic arsenic intoxication, combined with a systemic clinical assessment. We present clinical examples where CAsIDS is applied for the diagnosis of CAsI, review the main topics of the toxicity of arsenic in different cell and organ systems and discuss the therapy and prevention of disease caused or aggravated by chronic arsenic intoxication. CAsIDS can help physicians establish the diagnosis of CAsI and associated conditions.
       
  • Estrogenic chemicals at body burden levels attenuate energy metabolism in
           3T3-L1 adipocytes
    • Abstract: The study aimed to examine effects of environmental estrogens at body burden levels on energy metabolism in fat cells. Acclimation of T47D-KBluc cells in estrogen-deprived medium was established for high performance of estrogen-responsive luciferase reporter assay. With the assay, relative estrogenic potency of four selected estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, i.e. diethylstilbestrol, β-estradiol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A, were determined. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the ER agonists at both EC80 and EC100 caused rapid and transient phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in an ER-dependent manner. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the ER agonists at EC80 for 24 hours exhibited significant downregulation in mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic function. Importantly, EC80 values of 4-nonylphenol (6.0 × 10−10 m) and bisphenol A (1.0 × 10−8 m) are in the range of human body burdens. The finding that estrogenic chemicals at body burden levels cause significant impact on fat cell energy metabolism raises an important public health issue that deserves more attention.
       
  • Butyltin compounds alter secretion of interleukin 6 from human immune
           cells
    • Abstract: Butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) are organotin compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial applications; as a result, these compounds have been found in human blood. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a proinflammatory mediator that is produced by T lymphocytes and monocytes. It is responsible for immune response regulation as well as tissue repair and cellular growth. Both BTs decrease the ability of human natural killer cells to destroy tumor cells and alter the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and IL-1 beta (β) from human lymphocytes ex vivo. Here, we show that BTs alter the secretion of IL-6 from increasingly reconstituted preparations of human immune cells. IL-6 secretion was examined after 24 hour, 48 hour or 6 day exposures to TBT and DBT in highly enriched human natural killer cells, monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), PBMCs, granulocytes and a preparation combining both PBMCs and granulocytes (PBMCs + granulocytes). The results indicated that both BTs altered IL-6 secretion from all cell preparations. Significant decreases of IL-6 secretion were seen at the highest concentration of TBT (200 nm) and DBT (5–2.5 μm) while the lower concentrations of DBT (0.05 and 0.1 μm) caused elevation of IL-6 secretion. The data indicate that BT-induced alterations of IL-6 secretion from immune cells may be a significant consequence of BT exposures that may potentially affect immune competence.
       
  • Tissue distribution following 28 day repeated oral administration of
           aluminum-based nanoparticles with different properties and the in vitro
           toxicity
    • Abstract: The tissue distribution and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) depend on their physical and chemical properties both in the manufactured condition and within the biological system. We characterized three types of commercially available aluminum-based NPs (Al-NPs), two rod-type aluminum oxide NPs (Al2O3, AlONPs), with different aspect ratios (short [S]- and long [L]-AlONPs), and spherical aluminum cerium oxide NPs (AlCeO3, AlCeONPs). The surface area was in order of the S-AlONPs > L-AlONPs > AlCeONPs. Very importantly, we found that AlCeONPs is Al2O3-coated CeO2 NPs, but not AlCeO3 NPs, and that the Al level in AlCeONPs is approximately 20% of those in S- and L-AlONPs. All three types of Al-NPs were slightly ionized in gastric fluid and rapidly particlized in the intestinal fluid. There were no significant differences in the body weight gain following 28 days of repeated oral administration of the three different types of Al-NPs. All Al-NPs elevated Al level in the heart, spleen, kidney and blood at 24 hours after the final dose, accompanied by the altered tissue level of redox reaction-related trace elements. Subsequently, in four types of cells derived from the organs which Al-NPs are accumulated, H9C2 (heart), HEK-293 (kidney), splenocytes and RAW264.7 (blood), S-AlONPs showed a very low uptake level and did not exert significant cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity and uptake level were the most remarkable in cells treated with AlCeONPs. In conclusion, we suggest that the physicochemical properties of NPs should be examined in detail before the release into the market to prevent unexpected adverse health effects.
       
  • NOX4- and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress induced by silver nanoparticles
           in vascular endothelial cells
    • Abstract: It has been widely reported that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induce oxidative stress in various cell lines. However, the mechanism for this effect and its consequences for cellular signaling are poorly understood. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the toxicity and investigate the associated molecular mechanisms caused by exposure to AgNPs. We demonstrated that AgNP exposure significantly and dose-dependently decreased the cell viability, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and led to early apoptosis in HUVECs. Our findings showed that AgNPs induced excess ROS production that affected the signaling pathways by a mechanism that depended on activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity through upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) protein expressions. Moreover, AgNPs could disrupt the inactivation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response, which is considered another important element for oxidative stress caused by AgNPs in HUVECs. The redox imbalance between NOX4 and Nrf2 was an important cause for the ROS overproduction that led to cell injury in HUVECs. The results provided insight into the mechanisms of oxidative stress induced by AgNPs in vascular endothelial cells.
       
  • A novel endpoint for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral
           neuropathy in rodents: biomechanical properties of peripheral nerve
    • Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CiPN) is a frequent adverse effect in patients and a leading safety consideration in oncology drug development. Although behavioral assessment and microscopic examination of the nerves and dorsal root ganglia can be incorporated into toxicity studies to assess CiPN risk, more sensitive and less labor-intensive endpoints are often lacking. In this study, rats and mice administered vincristine (75 μg kg−1 day−1, i.p., for 10 days in rats and 100 μg kg−1 day−1, i.p., for 11 days in mice, respectively) were employed as the CiPN models. Behavioral changes were assessed during the dosing phase. At necropsy, the sural or sciatic nerve was harvested from the rats and mice, respectively, and assessed for mechanical and histopathological endpoints. It was found that the maximal load and the load/extension ratio were significantly decreased in the nerves collected from the animals dosed with vincristine compared with the vehicle-treated animals (P 
       
  • In vitro genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NP in air–liquid interface
    • Abstract: Studies using advanced toxicological methods enabling in vitro conditions that are more realistic are currently needed for understanding the risks of pulmonary exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Owing to the carcinogenicity of certain nickel compounds, the increased production of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) raises occupational safety concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NPs using a recently developed air–liquid interface exposure system. The wild-type Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79) was used and cytotoxicity, DNA damage and mutagenicity were studied by testing colony forming efficiency, alkaline DNA unwinding and HPRT mutation assays, respectively. Additionally, co-exposure to a PARP-1 inhibitor was performed to test possible involvement of base excision repair (BER) in repair of Ni-induced DNA damage. The results showed that cell viability was reduced significantly (to 45% and 46%) after 48 hours Ni-NP exposure at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.32 μg cm−2. DNA damage was significantly increased after Ni-NP exposure in the presence of the BER inhibitor indicating that Ni-NP-induced DNA damages are subsequently repaired by BER. Furthermore, there was no increased HPRT mutation frequency following Ni-NP exposure. In conclusion, this study shows that Ni-NP treatment of lung fibroblasts in an air–liquid interface system that mimics real-life exposure, results in increased DNA strand breaks and reduced cellular viability. These DNA lesions were repaired with BER in an error-free manner without resulting in mutations. This study also underlines the importance of appropriate quantification of the actual exposure concentrations during air–liquid interface exposure studies.
       
  • Review of the effects of manufactured nanoparticles on mammalian target
           organs
    • Abstract: Nanotechnology had matured significantly during the last two decades as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Even though the issue of safety of nanotechnology has been raised nearly one decade ago, the rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials has not yet been matched by toxicological investigations. Many recent studies have simply outlined the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs), but few have systematically addressed their potentially adverse biological effects on target organs. Some animal models have shown that NPs could be accumulated in various organs. These accumulations can access the vasculature and target other organs, resulting in a potential health risks. After the brief description of current knowledge on the wide applications of several common NPs, their applications and the toxicokinetics, this review focused on effects of NPs on organ functions and mammal health after acute or chronic exposure, and potential mechanisms of action. Due to their physical properties, the liver, kidneys and lung are the main target organs of NPs. Most of NPs show slight toxicity when exposed to animals, while certain toxic effects like oxidative stress generation, inflammation and DNA damage are commonly observed. The severity of NPs toxicity is dependent upon several factors, including exposure dose and administration, NPs chemistry, size, shape, agglomeration state, and electromagnetic properties, which could provide useful information necessary to control the toxicity of NPs. Finally, the safety evaluation of nanotoxicity was addressed.
       
  • Comparison of four different fuller's earth formulations in skin
           decontamination
    • Abstract: Industrial accidents, wars and terrorist threats are potential sources of skin contamination by highly toxic chemical warfare agents and manufacturing compounds. We have compared the time-dependent adsorption capacity and decontamination efficiency of fuller's earth (FE) for four different formulations for the molecular tracer, 4-cyanophenol (4-CP), in vitro and ex vivo using water decontamination as standard. The adsorption capacity of FE was assessed in vitro for 4-CP aqueous solutions whereas decontamination efficiency was investigated ex vivo by tracking porcine skin 4-CP content using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Decontamination was performed on short time, exposed porcine skin to 4-CP by application of FE: (1) as free powder; (2) loaded on adhesive tape; (3) on powdered glove; or (4) in suspension. Removal rate of 4-CP from aqueous solutions correlates with the amount of FE and its contact time. Decontamination efficiency estimated by the percentage of 4-CP recovery from contaminated porcine skin, achieved 54% with water, ranged between ~60 and 70% with dry FE and reached ~90% with FE suspension. Successful decontamination of the FE suspension, enabling a dramatic reduction of skin contamination after a brief exposure scenario, appears to be rapid, reliable and should be formulated in a new device ready to use for self-application.
       
  • Introduction to graphene special edition
    •  
  • In vitro evaluation of the internalization and toxicological profile of
           silica nanoparticles and submicroparticles for the design of dermal drug
           delivery strategies
    • Abstract: The use of colloidal silica nanoparticles and sub-microparticles (SiPs) have been considered a very interesting strategy for drug delivery applications. In the present study, we have focused our attention on the suitability of these nanomaterials as potential carriers for dermal drug delivery, thus studying their toxicological profile in vitro, cellular uptake and intracellular localization in both human keratinocytes (K17) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) as a function of their particle size (SiPs of 20, 70, 200 and 500 nm). Full characterization of these aspects enabled us to observe a strong cell-type dependency in terms of cytotoxicity and cell internalization, whereas particle size was only relevant for ultra-small SiPs (20 nm), being the most toxic SiPs. For 70, 200 and 500 nm SiPs, the differences in uptake and intracellular trafficking determined the different toxicological profiles in K17 and HDF. In addition, these characteristics can further define different drug delivery strategies. Hence, phagocytosis has been identified as the main internalization mechanism for K17, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis for HDF. This relevant information led us to conclude that fibroblasts would be optimal targets for delivering delicate therapeutic molecules such as proteins or genetic material using SiPs while maintaining a low toxicity profile, whereas keratinocytes could enable accelerated drug release therapies based on SiPs.
       
  • Targeting nano drug delivery to cancer cells using tunable, multi-layer,
           silver-decorated gold nanorods
    • Abstract: Multifunctional nanoparticles have high potential as targeting delivery vehicles for cancer chemotherapy. In this study, silver-decorated gold nanorods (AuNR\Ag) have been successfully used to deliver specific, targeted chemotherapy against breast cancer (MCF7) and prostate carcinoma (PC3) cell lines. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy, and anti-Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM) antibodies were covalently bonded to thiolated polyethylene glycol-coated AuNR\Ag, and the resultant system was used to deliver the drugs to cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, these nanoparticles have a unique spectral signature by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which enables reliable detection and monitoring of the distribution of these chemotherapy constructs inside cells. The development of interest in a plasmonic nano drugs system with unique spectroscopic signatures could result in a clinical approach to the precise targeting and visualization of cells and solid tumors while delivering molecules for the enhanced treatment of cancerous tumors.
       
  • Combinations of genotoxic tests for the evaluation of group 1 IARC
           carcinogens
    • Abstract: Many of the known human carcinogens are potent genotoxins that are efficiently detected as carcinogens in human populations but certain types of compounds such as immunosuppressants, sex hormones, etc. act via non-genotoxic mechanism. The absence of genotoxicity and the diversity of modes of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens make predicting their carcinogenic potential extremely challenging. There is evidence that combinations of different short-term tests provide a better and efficient prediction of human genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The purpose of this study is to summarize the in vivo and in vitro comet assay (CMT) results of group 1 carcinogens selected from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and to discuss the utility of the comet assay along with other genotoxic assays such as Ames, in vivo micronucleus (MN), and in vivo chromosomal aberration (CA) test. Of the 62 agents for which valid genotoxic data were available, 38 of 61 (62.3%) were Ames test positive, 42 of 60 (70%) were in vivo MN test positive and 36 of 45 (80%) were positive for the in vivo CA test. Higher sensitivity was seen in in vivo CMT (90%) and in vitro CMT (86.9%) assay. Combination of two tests has greater sensitivity than individual tests: in vivo MN + in vivo CA (88.6%); in vivo MN + in vivo CMT (92.5%); and in vivo MN + in vitro CMT (95.6%). Combinations of in vivo or in vitro CMT with other tests provided better sensitivity. In vivo CMT in combination with in vivo CA provided the highest sensitivity (96.7%).
       
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance- and mass spectometry-based metabolomics to
           study maleic acid toxicity from repeated dose exposure in rats
    • Abstract: Maleic acid (MA), a chemical intermediate used in many consumer and industrial products, was intentionally adulterated in a variety of starch-based foods and instigated food safety incidents in Asia. We aim to elucidate possible mechanisms of MA toxicity after repeated exposure by (1) determining the changes of metabolic profile using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, and (2) investigating the occurrence of oxidative stress using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry by using Sprague–Dawley rat urine samples. Adult male rats were subjected to a 28 day subchronic study (0, 6, 20 and 60 mg kg−1) via oral gavage. Urine was collected twice a day on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28; organs underwent histopathological examination. Changes in body weight and relative kidney weights in medium- and high-dose groups were significantly different compared to controls. Morphological alterations were evident in the kidneys and liver. Metabolomic results demonstrated that MA exposure increases the urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-nitroguanine and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α; levels of acetoacetate, hippurate, alanine and acetate demonstrated time- and dose-dependent variations in the treatment groups. Findings suggest that MA consumption escalates oxidative damage, membrane lipid destruction and disrupt energy metabolism. These aforementioned changes in biomarkers and endogenous metabolites elucidate and assist in characterizing the possible mechanisms by which MA induces nephro- and hepatotoxicity.
       
  • Assessment of genotoxicity and biodistribution of nano- and micron-sized
           yttrium oxide in rats after acute oral treatment
    • Abstract: The increasing use of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) entails an improved understanding of their potential impact on the environmental and human health. In the present study, the acute oral toxicity of Y2O3 NPs and their microparticles (MPs) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats with 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg−1 body weight doses. Before the genotoxicity evaluation, characterization of the particles by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry was performed. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus and comet assays. Results showed that Y2O3 NP-induced significant DNA damage at higher dose (1000 mg kg−1 body weight) in peripheral blood leukocytes and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum, liver and kidneys at the higher dose only. Furthermore, tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Bioaccumulation of yttrium (Y) in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, Y2O3 NP-treated rats exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance through urine whereas Y2O3 MP-dosed animals depicted the maximum amount of Y in the feces. Hence, the results indicated that bioaccumulation of Y2O3 NPs via its Y ions may induce genotoxic effects.
       
  • Maternal nicotine exposure leads to decreased cardiac protein disulfide
           isomerase and impaired mitochondrial function in male rat offspring
    • Abstract: Smoking throughout pregnancy can lead to complications during gestation, parturition and neonatal development. Thus, nicotine replacement therapies are a popular alternative thought to be safer than cigarettes. However, recent studies in rodents suggest that fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure alone results in cardiac dysfunction and high blood pressure. While it is well known that perinatal nicotine exposure causes increased congenital abnormalities, the mechanisms underlying longer-term deficits in cardiac function are not completely understood. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that nicotine impairs placental protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) triggering an increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading us to hypothesize that this may also occur in the heart. At 3 months of age, nicotine-exposed offspring had 45% decreased PDI levels in the absence of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Given the association of PDI and superoxide dismutase enzymes, we further observed that antioxidant superoxide dismutase-2 levels were reduced by 32% in these offspring concomitant with a 26–49% decrease in mitochondrial complex proteins (I, II, IV and V) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4, a critical matrix metalloprotease for cardiac contractility and health. Collectively, this study suggests that perinatal nicotine exposure decreases PDI, which can promote oxidative damage and mitochondrial damage, associated with a premature decline in cardiac function.
       
  • Untargeted metabolomics of neuronal cell culture: A model system for the
           toxicity testing of insecticide chemical exposure
    • Abstract: Toxicity testing is essential for the protection of human health from exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. As traditional toxicity testing is carried out using animal models, mammalian cell culture models are becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to animal testing. Combining the use of mammalian cell culture models with screening-style molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics, can uncover previously unknown biochemical bases of toxicity. We have used a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize for the first time the changes in the metabolome of the B50 cell line, an immortalised rat neuronal cell line, following acute exposure to two known neurotoxic chemicals that are common environmental contaminants; the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the organophosphate insecticide malathion. B50 cells were exposed to either the dosing vehicle (methanol) or an acute dose of either permethrin or malathion for 6 and 24 hours. Intracellular metabolites were profiled by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Using principal components analysis, we selected the key metabolites whose abundance was altered by chemical exposure. By considering the major fold changes in abundance (>2.0 or
       
  • Maternal alcohol consumption and altered miRNAs in the developing fetus:
           Context and future perspectives
    • Abstract: Alcohol is a teratogenic agent that can cause a wide range of developmental disorders, and sometimes, the effects persist throughout an individual's lifetime. Researchers have shown the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol-mediated disorders. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major sources of epigenetic modifications, especially microRNAs. The association of microRNAs with alcohol consumption leads to a new focus on finding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol toxicity. It has been suggested that alcohol alters the relative expression of microRNAs and regulates target mRNA expression in both in vitro and in vivo models. Currently, we lack information regarding the relationship between altered microRNA expression and disease phenotypes in alcohol-mediated disorders. In this review, we tried to gather all of the available information about the alcohol-mediated dysregulation of microRNA expression in utero. We hope that our efforts will help future researchers identify major microRNAs in the field of prenatal alcohol toxicity and related therapeutics.
       
  • Increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rat
           offspring exposed to fluoxetine during fetal and neonatal life involves
           the NLRP3 inflammasome and augmented de novo hepatic lipogenesis
    • Abstract: Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given vehicle or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) orally for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 6 months of age, we assessed whether SSRI exposure altered components of the hepatic triglyceride biosynthesis pathway in the offspring and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes. Male SSRI-exposed offspring had a significant increase in the steady-state mRNA levels of Elovl6 and Dgat1 and core components of the NLRP3 inflammasome (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation recruitment domain [ASC] and caspase-1). Augmented expression of Asc in the SSRI-exposed offspring coincided with increased histone acetylation in the proximal promoter region. Given that we have previously demonstrated that antenatal exposure to SSRIs can lead to fatty liver in the offspring, this raises concerns regarding the long-term metabolic sequelae of fetal SSRI exposure. Moreover, this study suggests that elevated hepatic triglyceride levels observed in the SSRI-exposed offspring may be due, in part, to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and augmentation of de novo lipogenesis.
       
  • Physicochemical characteristics of pristine and functionalized graphene
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials have received significant attention in the last decade due to their interesting properties. Its electrical and thermal conductivity and strength make graphene well suited for a variety of applications, particularly for use as a composite material in plastics. Furthermore, much work is taking place to utilize graphene as a biomaterial for uses such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration scaffolds. Owing to the rapid progress of graphene and its potential in many marketplaces, the potential toxicity of these materials has garnered attention. Graphene, while simple in its purest form, can have many different chemical and physical properties. In this paper, we describe our toxicity evaluation of pristine graphene and a functionalized graphene sample that has been oxidized for enhanced hydrophilicity, which was synthesized from the pristine sample. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta-potential, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. We discuss the disagreement between the size of imaged samples analyzed by atomic force microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the samples each exhibit quite different surface chemistry and structure, which directly affects their interaction with aqueous environments and is important to consider when evaluating the toxicity of materials both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Endocrine disruption: In silico interactions between phthalate
           plasticizers and corticosteroid binding globulin
    • Abstract: Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties. Increasing evidence indicates that steroid nuclear receptors and steroid binding proteins are the main targets of endocrine disruption. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a steroid binding protein that binds and transports cortisol in the blood circulation and is a potential target for endocrine disruption. An imbalance of cortisol in the body leads to many health problems. Induced fit docking of nine important and environmentally relevant phthalate plasticizers (DMP, BBP, DBP, DIBP, DnHP, DEHP, DINP, DnOP, DIDP) showed interactions with 10–19 amino acid residues of CBG. Comparison of the interacting residues of CBG with phthalate ligands and cortisol showed an overlapping of the majority (53–82%) of residues for each phthalate. Five of nine phthalate compounds and cortisol shared a hydrogen bonding interaction with the Arg-252 residue of CBG. Long-chain phthalates, such as DEHP, DINP, DnOP and DIDP displayed a higher binding affinity and formed a number of interactions with CBG in comparison to short-chain phthalates. The similarity in structural binding characteristics of phthalate compounds and native ligand cortisol suggested potential competitive conflicts in CBG-cortisol binding function and possible disruption of cortisol and progesterone homeostasis.
       
  • Impact of dispersant on early life stages of the water flea Daphnia magna
           and the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica
    • Abstract: In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, over 1 million gallons of dispersant were applied in Gulf of Mexico offshore waters; Corexit 9500 was the most applied dispersant. The impact on organisms in nearshore and freshwaters has received little scrutiny. Acute 48 h toxicity of Corexit 9500 and a new hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI) dispersant-like compound were evaluated for the freshwater indicator organism, Daphnia magna and for larval and early spat stages of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. For D. magna, Corexit 9500 demonstrated toxicity (EC50 of 0.14 [0.13, 0.15] ppm) similar to the 10-kDa HPEI (EC50 of 0.16 [0.12, 0.19] ppm). HPEI toxicity increased as a function of molecular weight (1.2 to 750 kDa). The 10 kDa size HPEI was further investigated because it dispersed crude oil with equal effectiveness as Corexit. For Corexit, 100% oyster mortality was detected for the ≤0.2-mm size classes and mortality >50% for the 0.3- and 0.7-mm size classes at the two greatest concentrations (25 and 50 ppm). HPEI (10 kDa) exhibited low mortality rates (
       
  • T lymphocytes dominate local leukocyte infiltration in response to
           intradermal injection of functionalized graphene-based nanomaterial
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBN) have many potential biomedical applications. However, information regarding their biological properties and interactions with cells and/or soluble factors within a complex tissue is limited. The objective of this study was to use the growing feather (GF) of chickens as a minimally invasive cutaneous test-site to assess and monitor leukocyte recruitment in response to intradermal GBN injection. Specifically, the dermis of 20 GFs per chicken was injected with 10 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-vehicle or 10 μl of 300 μg ml−1 oxygen-functionalized (f) GBN (6 chickens/treatment). GFs were collected before- (0) and at 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days post-injection and used for leukocyte-population analysis of immunofluorescently stained pulp cell suspensions or histological examination. Based on flow-cytometric cell population analysis, lymphocytes and macrophages were the major leukocyte-populations infiltrating GFs in response to f-GBN presence. Compared with PBS-controls, levels of T cells (γδ-, αβ-, CD4- and CD8-T cells) were greatly elevated in f-GBN-injected GFs within 6 h and remained elevated throughout the 7-day examination period. f-GBN's effects on local tissue leukocyte recruitment were not reflected in the blood, except for a higher percentage of lymphocytes on 7 days. These observations together with a visual examination of f-GBN-injected GF tissue-sections suggest a delayed-type hypersensitivity-like, inflammatory cell-mediated response to the non-biodegradable f-GBN. The GF ‘in vivo test-tube‘system together with blood sampling provided unique insight into the time-course, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of immune system activities initiated by the presence of f-GBN in a complex tissue of a living animal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Effect of bisphenol A on reproductive processes: A review of in vitro, in
           vivo and epidemiological studies
    • Abstract: As bisphenol A (BPA) is characterized by a pronounced influence on human hormonal regulation, particular attention has been aimed at understanding its role in reproductive processes in males and females, as well as on fetal development. Owing to the increasing number of alarming reports on the negative consequences of the presence of BPA in human surroundings, more and more studies are being undertaken to clarify the negative effects of BPA on human reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to collect and summarize data on the influence of BPA exposure on reproductive health. Based on an analysis of selected publications it was stated that there is strong proof confirming that BPA is an ovarian, uterine and prostate toxicant at a level below the lowest observed adverse effect level (50 mg kg−1 bodyweight) as well as a level below the proposed safe level (4 μg kg−1 bodyweight). It seems there is also reliable evidence in relation to the negative effect of BPA on sperm quality and motility. Limited evidence also pertains to the case of the potential of BPA to affect polycystic ovary syndrome occurrence. Although in epidemiological studies this disease was common, in studies on animal models such results were still not confirmed. No unambiguous results of epidemiological studies and with animal models were obtained in relation to the evaluation of associations between BPA and implantation failure in women, evaluation of associations between BPA and sexual dysfunction in men, and impact of BPA on birth rate, birth weight and length of gestation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Potential applications and human biosafety of nanomaterials used in
           nanomedicine
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnology, potential applications of nanomaterials in medicine have been widely researched in recent years. Nanomaterials themselves can be used as image agents or therapeutic drugs, and for drug and gene delivery, biological devices, nanoelectronic biosensors or molecular nanotechnology. As the composition, morphology, chemical properties, implant sites as well as potential applications become more and more complex, human biosafety of nanomaterials for clinical use has become a major concern. If nanoparticles accumulate in the human body or interact with the body molecules or chemical components, health risks may also occur. Accordingly, the unique chemical and physical properties, potential applications in medical fields, as well as human biosafety in clinical trials are reviewed in this study. Finally, this article tries to give some suggestions for future work in nanomedicine research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Genotoxic effects of old landfill leachate on HepG2 cells after
           nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis membrane treatment process
    • Abstract: Toxicity assessment of nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis (nitration/UF/RO) project, which has recently been widely used as an efficient process with applications in practical leachate treatment, was very limited. In the present study, DNA damage of leachates was investigated before and after the nitration/UF/RO process by a battery of assays with human hepatoma cells. Methyletrazolium assay showed a high cytotoxicity of 97.1% after being exposed to the highest concentration of raw leachate for 24 h, and a cytotoxicity of 26% in effluent at a concentration of 30% (v/v). Both comet assay (24 h) and γH2AX flow cytometer assay (3 h) showed increased levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to raw leachate and after nitration/UF-treated leachate followed by a significant increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. However, the effluent after nitration/UF/RO treatment showed no significant difference compared to negative control for γH2AX flow cytometer assay but slight DNA damage at concentrations of 20% and 30% (v/v) as well as increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase. Analysis showed that nitration/UF/RO process exhibited high removal of physicochemical indexes and significant reduction of toxic and genotoxic effects of leachate, but still demands an improvement to reduce all possible negative risks to the environment and humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vitamin D
    • Abstract: Despite the plethora of studies discussing the benefits of vitamin D on physiological functioning, few mathematical models of vitamin D predict the response of the body on low-concentration supplementation of vitamin D under sunlight-restricted conditions. This study developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model utilizing published human data on the metabolic cascade of orally derived, low-concentration (placebo, 5 μg and 10 μg) supplementation of vitamin D over the course of 28 days in the absence of sunlight. Vitamin D and its metabolites are highly lipophilic and binding assays of these compounds in serum may not account for binding by lipids and additional proteins. To compensate for the additional bound amounts, this study allowed the effective adipose–plasma partition coefficient to vary dynamically with the concentration of each compound in serum utilizing the Hill equation for binding. Through incorporating the optimized parameters with the adipose partition coefficient adaptation to the PBPK model, this study was able to fit serum concentration data for circulating vitamin D at all three supplementation concentrations within confidence intervals of the data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Cyclosporine exacerbates ketamine toxicity in zebrafish: Mechanistic
           studies on drug–drug interaction
    • Abstract: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug commonly used in organ transplant patients to prevent allograft rejections. Ketamine is a pediatric anesthetic that noncompetitively inhibits the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors. Adverse drug–drug interaction effects between ketamine and CsA have been reported in mammals and humans. However, the mechanism of such drug–drug interaction is unclear. We have previously reported adverse effects of combination drugs, such as verapamil/ketamine and shown the mechanism through intervention by other drugs in zebrafish embryos. Here, we show that ketamine and CsA in combination produce developmental toxicity even leading to lethality in zebrafish larvae when exposure began at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), whereas CsA did not cause any toxicity on its own. We also demonstrate that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) completely reversed the adverse effects. Both ketamine and CsA are CYP3A4 substrates. Although ketamine and CsA independently altered the expression of the hepatic marker CYP3A65, a zebrafish ortholog of human CYP3A4, both drugs together induced further increase in CYP3A65 expression. In the presence of ALCAR, however, CYP3A65 expression was normalized. ALCAR has been shown to prevent ketamine toxicity in mammal and zebrafish. In conclusion, CsA exacerbated ketamine toxicity and ALCAR reversed the effects. These results, providing evidence for the first time on the reversal of the adverse effects of CsA/ketamine interaction by ALCAR, would prove useful in addressing potential occurrences of such toxicities in humans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • Mechanism of graphene-induced cytotoxicity: Role of endonucleases
    • Abstract: Graphene, a crystalline allotrope or carbon, presents numerous useful properties; however, its toxicity is yet to be determined. One of the most dramatic and irreversible toxic abilities of carbon nanomaterials is the induction of DNA fragmentation produced by endogenous cellular endonucleases. This study demonstrated that pristine graphene exposed to cultured kidney tubular epithelial cells is capable of inducing DNA fragmentation measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which is usually associated with cell death. TUNEL (cell death) and endonuclease activity measured using a near infrared fluorescence probe was significantly higher in cells containing graphene aggregates detected by Raman spectroscopy. The elevation of TUNEL coincided with the increased abundance of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), active caspase-3 and endonucleases (deoxyribonuclease I [DNase I] and endonuclease G [EndoG]), as measured by quantitative immunocytochemistry. Specific inhibitors for HO-1, HSP90, caspase-3, DNase I and EndoG almost completely blocked the DNA fragmentation induced by graphene exposure. Therefore, graphene induces cell death through oxidative injury, caspase-mediated and caspase-independent pathways; and endonucleases DNase I and EndoG are important for graphene toxicity. Inhibition of these pathways may ameliorate cell injury produced by graphene. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Non-animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated
           testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated'
    • Abstract: There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimize animal testing, integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the skin sensitization adverse outcome pathway. Three non-animal assays have been formally validated and regulatory adopted: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ assay and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). There have been many efforts to develop integrated approaches to testing and assessment with the “two out of three” approach attracting much attention. Here a set of 271 chemicals with mouse, human and non-animal sensitization test data was evaluated to compare the predictive performances of the three individual non-animal assays, their binary combinations and the “two out of three” approach in predicting skin sensitization potential. The most predictive approach was to use both the DPRA and h-CLAT as follows: (1) perform DPRA – if positive, classify as sensitizing, and (2) if negative, perform h-CLAT – a positive outcome denotes a sensitizer, a negative, a non-sensitizer. With this approach, 85% (local lymph node assay) and 93% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions were correct, whereas the “two out of three” approach had 69% (local lymph node assay) and 79% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions correct. The findings are consistent with the argument, supported by published quantitative mechanistic models that only the first KE needs to be modeled. All three assays model this KE to an extent. The value of using more than one assay depends on how the different assays compensate for each other's technical limitations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • In vivo noninvasive analysis of graphene nanomaterial pharmacokinetics
           using photoacoustic flow cytometry
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC provides unique insight on how chemical modifications of GBNs affect their distribution in blood circulation and how quickly they are eliminated from the flow. Overall, PAFC provided unique data crucial for understanding GBN toxicity through real-time detection of GBNs using their intrinsic light absorption contrast. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Adhesive force between graphene nanoscale flakes and living biological
           cells
    • Abstract: We report on a measurement technique that quantifies the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes and the cell wall of live Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in-fluid Peak Force- Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping mode. To measure the adhesive force, we made use of the negative charge of E. coli cells to allow them to stick to positively charged surfaces, such as glass or silicon, that were covered by poly-L-Lysine. With this approach, cells were held in place for AFM characterization. Both pristine graphene (PG) flakes and functionalized graphene (FG) flakes were put on the E. coli cells and measurements of lateral size, flake thickness, and adhesion were made. Using this approach, the measured values of the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes (total thickness of 50 nm) and E. coli was determined to be equal or greater than 431 ± 65pN for (PG) and 694 ± 98pN for the (FG). More interestingly, the adhesive force of a graphene flake (thickness 1.3 nm) with the cell is determined to be equal or greater than 38.2 ± 16.4pN for the (PG) and 34.8 ± 15.3pN for the (FG). These interaction values can play an important role in determining and understanding the possible toxicity of graphene flakes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Graphene and carbon nanotubes activate different cell surface receptors on
           macrophages before and after deactivation of endotoxins
    • Abstract: Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs. The gel-clot limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and chromogenic-based LAL assays were used to detect endotoxins. Results revealed that the CBNs contained greater amounts of endotoxin than are approved by major regulatory agencies (0.5 EU ml−1). Three repeated cycles of autoclaving reduced the endotoxin in the test materials. Macrophages were incubated with pyrogenated and depyrogenated pristine graphene and MWCNTs to test differences in phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and expression of genes involved in macrophage activation. The uptake of depyrogenated CBNs was significantly reduced as compared with pyrogenated CBNs. Exposure of macrophages to depyrogenated CBNs resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression for TLR signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, and downstream signal transduction molecules. Furthermore, macrophages exposed to both types of CBNs showed the downregulation of TLR5 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. The results of this study reaffirm that assessment of endotoxin and other bacterial contamination is critical when evaluating the cellular toxicity of nanomaterials. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • p53-competent cells and p53-deficient cells display different
           susceptibility to oxygen functionalized graphene cytotoxicity and
           genotoxicity
    • Abstract: Due to the distinctive physical, electrical, and chemical properties of graphene nanomaterials, numerous efforts pursuing graphene-based biomedical and industrial applications are underway. Oxidation of pristine graphene surfaces mitigates its otherwise hydrophobic characteristic thereby improving its biocompatibility and functionality. Yet, the potential widespread use of oxidized graphene derivatives raises concern about adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein maintains cellular and genetic stability after toxic exposures. Here, we show that p53 functional status correlates with oxygen functionalized graphene (f-G) cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro. The f-G exposed p53-competent cells, but not p53-deficient cells, initiated G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed reactive oxygen species, and entered apoptosis. There was p53-dependent f-G genotoxicity evident as increased structural chromosome damage, but not increased gene mutation or chromatin loss. In conclusion, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential for f-G in exposed cells was dependent on the p53 functional status. These findings have broad implications for the safe and effective implementation of oxidized graphene derivatives into biomedical and industrial applications. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • The use of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro
           model to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles to endothelium: a review
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnologies, nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly produced and used in many commercial products, which could lead to the contact of human blood vessels with NPs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the adverse effects of NPs to relevant cells lining human blood vessels, especially endothelial cells (ECs) that cover the lumen of blood vessels. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are among one of the most popular models used for ECs in vitro. In the present review, we discussed studies that have used HUVECs as a model to investigate the EC–NP interactions, the toxic effects of NPs on ECs and the mechanisms. The results of these studies indicated that NPs could be internalized into HUVECs by the endocytosis pathway as well as transported across HUVECs by exocytosis and paracellular pathways. Exposure of HUVECs to NPs could induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, eNOS uncoupling and endothelial activation, which could be explained by NP-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and dysfunction of organelles. In addition, some studies have also evaluated the influences of microenvironment (e.g. the presence of proteins and excessive nutrients), the physiological and/or pathological stimuli related to the diversity of ECs (e.g. shear stress, cyclic stretch and inflammatory stimuli), and the physicochemical properties of NPs on the responses of ECs to NP exposure. In conclusion, it has been suggested that HUVECs could be considered as a relatively reliable and simple in vitro model for ECs to predict and evaluate the toxicity of NPs to endothelium. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
 
 
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