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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 768 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (693 journals)
    - POLLUTION (23 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (41 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (11 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (693 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 203)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Toxicology
  [SJR: 0.996]   [H-I: 61]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0260-437X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1263
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • The percutaneous toxicokinetics of Sulphur mustard in a damaged skin
           porcine model and the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical
           decontaminant
    • Authors: Charlotte A. Hall; Helen L. Lydon, Christopher H. Dalton, J. Kevin Chipman, John S. Graham, Robert P. Chilcott
      Abstract: This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL 14C–radiolabelled sulphur mustard (14C–SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements. Skin, blood and organ samples were taken post mortem for histopathological assessment, 14C–SM distribution and toxicokinetic analyses. Application of SM to damaged skin without decontamination was rapidly followed by advanced signs of toxicity, including ulceration and decreased blood flow at the exposure site in all animals. WoundStat™ prevented ulceration and improved blood flow at the exposure site in all decontaminated animals (n = 6). Furthermore, significantly smaller quantities of 14C–SM were detected in the blood (45% reduction), and recovered from skin (70% reduction) and skin surface swabs (99% reduction) at 6 h post-challenge. Overall, the distribution of 14C–SM in the internal organs was similar for both groups, with the greatest concentration in the kidneys, followed by the liver and small intestine. WoundStat™ significantly reduced the amount of 14C–SM recovered from the liver, a key organ for SM metabolism and detoxification. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ is a suitable product for reducing the ingress and toxicity of a chemical warfare agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:05:49.176195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3453
       
  • Altered expression of the Olr59, Ethe1, and Slc10a2 genes in the liver of
           F344 rats by neonatal thyroid hormone disruption
    • Authors: Kana Matsubara; Naoki Nakamura, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Naoto Uramaru, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Nariaki Fujimoto
      Abstract: Many concerns have been expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals in the environment. The disruption of thyroid hormones in the neonatal period may lead to permanent effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis as well as related developmental disorders, as thyroid hormones are essential for regulating the growth and differentiation of many tissues. To understand the long-term alteration in gene expressions by neonatal administration of thyroid hormone-like chemicals in general, we identified genes whose expression was altered in the liver, an important component of the thyroid hormone axis, by neonatal exposure to triiodothyronine (T3). T3 was administered to male F344 rats on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5 (week 0). At 8 weeks of age, cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify hepatic genes whose expression was altered by neonatal exposure to T3. Among the up-regulated genes that were identified, the expression of Olr59, Ethe1, and Slc10a2 increased specifically in rats neonatally exposed to T3. Interestingly, altered hepatic expression of these genes indeed increased when a hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), OH-BDE42, which is capable of binding to the TR, was given neonatally. Our data demonstrated that neonatal exposure to thyroid hormones could affect the long-term expression of the genes, which could be useful markers for neonatal effects by thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:47:31.872555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3452
       
  • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-induced mitochondrial energy metabolism
           impairment in liver cells: in vitro and in vivo studies
    • Authors: Yang Xue; Qingqing Chen, Jiao Sun
      Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NPs) have been extensively developed as drug carriers, bone implants, coating materials, etc. in the human body. However, research focusing on the potential side effects of HAP-NPs on the mitochondria-associated energy metabolism in liver cells is lacking. In this study, HAP-NPs with a long diameter of 80 nm and a short diameter of 20 nm were evaluated for their ability to induce mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro system, the buffalo rat hepatocyte (BRL) cell line was directly exposed to the HAP-NPs. The results of these experiments showed that the HAP-NPs induced inhibition of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, which was accompanied by a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, HAP-NPs elevated the hepatic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the levels of GSH and SOD. These data indicated that HAP-NPs induced a lowered rate of electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, accompanied by a decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II and III. Furthermore, HAP-NPs induced a decline in the enzymatic expression in the Krebs cycle. We also investigated the role of Kupffer cells (KCs, rat-derived) in the effects induced by the HAP-NPs. The supernatant from the HAP-NP-treated KCs was used to stimulate the BRL cells. We observed that the HAP-NPs had the ability to induce KC activation. The activation of KCs then led to the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II and III in the BRL cells. In the in vivo study, the TEM examination revealed mitochondrial swelling and vacuolar degeneration in the HAP-NP-treated hepatocytes. In addition, the amount of succinate (Suc), an intermediate in the mitochondrial Krebs cycle, also declined in the 1H NMR spectroscopic measurements. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:55:52.531921-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3450
       
  • Comparative luciferase assay for establishing reliable in vitro screening
           system of juvenile hormone agonists
    • Authors: Hitoshi Miyakawa; Taisen Iguchi
      Abstract: The cultured cell-based in vitro assay using the stringency of ligand-receptor interactions is typically useful for screening certain hormone agonists from among a very large number of molecules. However, ligands are frequently altered or modified through evolution; indeed, even in the same receptor orthologs, different ligand sensitivity profiles are considered to arise among species and/or taxa. Such ligand transition has been observed in juvenile hormone (JH), one of the most important endocrine factors in arthropods. To understand the molecular basis of ligand selectivity alteration in hormone receptors, we compared the amino acid sequences and ligand selectivity of the JH receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), among three insects (Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum) and one crustacean (Daphnia pulex). Compared with D. pulex, we found that the receptors of the three insects showed a higher sensitivity to JH III, which is the major innate JH ligand in insects. Furthermore, point mutation analysis in Met sequences revealed a candidate amino acid residue that is important for increasing JH sensitivity in insects. Amino acid mutations in Met may have affected changes in ligand selectivity intermittently over the course of the evolution of the JH-signaling pathway. These findings are useful to improve the existing (developing) cultured cell-based assay system and may shed light on the relationship between functional diversification in hormonal signaling and the molecular evolution of hormone receptors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:55:34.721642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3459
       
  • Effects of aging on cadmium concentrations and renal dysfunction in
           inhabitants in cadmium-polluted regions in Japan
    • Authors: Hoang Duc Phuc; Teruhiko Kido, Nguyen Thi Phuong Oanh, Ho Dung Manh, Le Thai Anh, Yuko Oyama, Rie Okamoto, Akie Ichimori, Kazuhiro Nogawa, Yasushi Suwazono, Hideaki Nakagawa
      Abstract: The absorption of cadmium (Cd) may lead to Cd-related diseases such as renal tubular dysfunction and bone disease, and it is known to take around 10–30 years to reduce Cd concentrations to half their original levels. Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), protein, glucose and albumin were used as indicators of renal dysfunction caused by Cd exposure. Our previous study found that urinary Cd concentrations had increased recently and that age was more strongly associated with urinary β2-MG concentration than recent Cd body burden. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging on Cd concentrations and renal dysfunction. The Cd, β2-MG, NAG, protein, glucose and albumin concentrations in the urine of 40 Japanese subjects (20 females and 20 males) environmentally exposed to Cd were collected. They lived in the Kakehashi River basin and were divided into three age categories: 50–69, 70–79 and 80–99 years. Significant differences in urinary Cd and β2-MG concentrations were found among age groups, with urinary Cd levels tending to increase with age in both sexes. No significant correlations were found between urinary Cd and any indicators of renal dysfunction. The correlation between age, Cd and indicators of renal dysfunction was observed more clearly in females than in males. Age is more strongly correlated with indicators of renal dysfunction than Cd body burden. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:40:26.271581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3455
       
  • Structural and functional alterations in Malpighian tubules as biomarkers
           of environmental pollution: synopsis and prospective
    • Authors: Anita Giglio; Pietro Brandmayr
      Abstract: Although a number of biomarkers of pollutant exposure have been identified in invertebrate species, little is known about the effect on Malpighian tubules playing an essential role in excretion and osmoregulation. Analyses of structural and functional alterations on this organ can be useful to predict the effects at the organism and population level in monitoring studies of environmental pollution. The aim of the present review is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on cellular damages induced by xenobiotics in Malpighian tubules both under laboratory and field conditions. We compared studies of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals as mainly environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activities. This report provided evidence that the exposure to xenobiotics has an effect on this organ and reinforces the need for further research integrating molecular biomarkers with analysis on Malpighian tubules. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:35:31.017191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3454
       
  • A quantitative in silico model for predicting skin sensitization using a
           nearest neighbours approach within expert-derived structure–activity
           alert spaces
    • Authors: Steven J. Canipa; Martyn L. Chilton, Rachel Hemingway, Donna S. Macmillan, Alun Myden, Jeffrey P. Plante, Rachael E. Tennant, Jonathan D. Vessey, Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Janet Gould, Jedd Hillegass, Sylvain Etter, Benjamin P. C. Smith, Angela White, Paul Sterchele, Ann De Smedt, Devin O'Brien, Rahul Parakhia
      Abstract: Dermal contact with chemicals may lead to an inflammatory reaction known as allergic contact dermatitis. Consequently, it is important to assess new and existing chemicals for their skin sensitizing potential and to mitigate exposure accordingly. There is an urgent need to develop quantitative non-animal methods to better predict the potency of potential sensitizers, driven largely by European Union (EU) Regulation 1223/2009, which forbids the use of animal tests for cosmetic ingredients sold in the EU. A Nearest Neighbours in silico model was developed using an in-house dataset of 1096 murine local lymph node (LLNA) studies. The EC3 value (the effective concentration of the test substance producing a threefold increase in the stimulation index compared to controls) of a given chemical was predicted using the weighted average of EC3 values of up to 10 most similar compounds within the same mechanistic space (as defined by activating the same Derek skin sensitization alert). The model was validated using previously unseen internal (n = 45) and external (n = 103) data and accuracy of predictions assessed using a threefold error, fivefold error, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) and Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) classifications. In particular, the model predicts the GHS skin sensitization category of compounds well, predicting 64% of chemicals in an external test set within the correct category. Of the remaining chemicals in the previously unseen dataset, 25% were over-predicted (GHS 1A predicted: GHS 1B experimentally) and 11% were under-predicted (GHS 1B predicted: GHS 1A experimentally). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T03:21:38.064119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3448
       
  • Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds
           contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro
           topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin
    • Authors: Helen L. Lydon; Charlotte A. Hall, Christopher H. Dalton, J. Kevin Chipman, John S. Graham, Robert P. Chilcott
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T08:00:31.265147-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3446
       
  • Toxaphene-induced mouse liver tumorigenesis is mediated by the
           constitutive androstane receptor
    • Authors: Zemin Wang; Xilin Li, Qiangen Wu, James C. Lamb, James E. Klaunig
      Abstract: Toxaphene was shown to increase liver tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice following chronic dietary exposure. Preliminary evidence supported a role for the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in the mode of action of toxaphene-induced mouse liver tumors. However, these results could not rule out a role for the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in liver tumor formation. To define further the nuclear receptors involved in this study, we utilized CAR, PXR and PXR/CAR knockout mice (CAR−/−, PXR−/− and PXR−/−/CAR−/−) along with the wild-type C57BL/6. In this study CAR-responsive genes Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10 were induced in the liver of C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice by toxaphene (30–570-fold) (at the carcinogenic dose 320 ppm) and phenobarbital (positive control) (16–420-fold) following 14 days' dietary treatment. In contrast, in CAR−/− mice, no induction of these genes was seen following treatment with either chemical. Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10 were also induced in PXR−/− mice with toxaphene and phenobarbital but were not changed in treated PXR−/−/CAR−/− mice. Similarly, induction of liver pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (CAR activation) activity by toxaphene and phenobarbital was absent in CAR−/− and PXR−/−/CAR−/− mice treated with phenobarbital or toxaphene. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, represents aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation) activity in CAR−/− mice treated with toxaphene or phenobarbital was increased compared with untreated control, but lower overall in activity in comparison to the wild-type mouse. Liver EROD activity was also induced by both phenobarbital and toxaphene in the PXR−/− mice but not in the PXR−/−/CAR−/− mice. Toxaphene treatment increased 7-benzyloxyquinoline activity (a marker for PXR activation) in a similar pattern to that seen with pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase. These observations indicate that EROD and PXR activation are evidence, as expected, of secondary overlap to primary CAR receptor activation. Together, these results definitively show that activation of the CAR nuclear receptor is the mode of action of toxaphene-induced mouse liver tumors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T07:20:33.00805-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3445
       
  • Automated image analysis of intra-tumoral and peripheral endocrine organ
           vascular bed regression using ‘Fibrelength’ as a novel structural
           biomarker
    • Authors: Adam Hargreaves; Alison Bigley, Shirley Price, Jane Kendrew, Simon T. Barry
      Abstract: The study of vascular modulation has received a great deal of attention in recent years as knowledge has increased around the role of angiogenesis within disease contexts such as cancer. Despite rapidly expanding insights into the molecular processes involved and the concomitant generation of a number of anticancer vascular modulating chemotherapeutics, techniques used in the measurement of structural vascular change have advanced more modestly, particularly with regard to the preclinical quantification of off-target vascular regression within systemic, notably endocrine, blood vessels. Such changes translate into a number of major clinical side effects and there remains a need for improved preclinical screening and analysis. Here we present the generation of a novel structural biomarker, which can be incorporated into a number of contemporary image analysis platforms and used to compare tumour versus systemic host tissue vascularity. By contrasting the measurements obtained, the preclinical efficacy of vascular modulating chemotherapies can be evaluated in light of the predicted therapeutic window. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T08:21:00.150677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3438
       
  • Threshold limit values of the cadmium concentration in rice in the
           development of itai-itai disease using benchmark dose analysis
    • Authors: Kazuhiro Nogawa; Masaru Sakurai, Masao Ishizaki, Teruhiko Kido, Hideaki Nakagawa, Yasushi Suwazono
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the benchmark dose (BMD) as the threshold limit level of the cadmium (Cd) concentration in rice for itai-itai disease and/or suspected disease; it was based on the data that previously evaluated the association for such diseases with the Cd concentration in rice by using a logistic regression model. From 1971 to 1976, a total of 2446 rice samples were analyzed across the 88 hamlets in the Jinzu river basin. The mean Cd concentration in rice in each hamlet was used as the index of external Cd exposure of the entire population of the hamlet. We employed the incidence of itai-itai disease and/or suspected disease obtained from the available 55 hamlets. As the threshold, the lower limit of the BMD (BMDL) of the Cd concentration in rice for itai-itai disease and/or suspected disease was estimated using a logistic model, setting the benchmark response at 1% or 2%. The estimated BMDLs of the Cd concentration in rice for itai-itai disease and/or suspected disease were 0.62–0.76 and 0.27–0.56 mg kg−1 in men and women, respectively. The lowest BMDL was 0.27 mg kg−1 in women. In the present study, the threshold limit level of the Cd concentration in rice for itai-itai disease, which is the most severe form of chronic Cd poisoning, was estimated for the first time. This result provides important information about the worldwide standard for the Cd concentration in rice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T07:35:34.350451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3444
       
  • Effects of neonatal 17α-ethinyloestradiol exposure on female-paced
           mating behaviour in the rat
    • Authors: Chiaki Komine; Shingo Nakajima, Yasuhiko Kondo, Yasuyuki Horii, Midori Yoshida, Maiko Kawaguchi
      Abstract: Correct perinatal oestrogen levels are critical for sexual differentiation. For example, perinatal exposure to oestrogen causes masculinization and defeminization of the brain in female rats and also induces delayed effects after maturation characterized by early onset of abnormal oestrus cycling. However, the mechanisms underlying the above effects of oestrogen remain to be fully determined. 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE), a common synthetic oestrogen widely used in oral contraceptives, binds specifically to oestrogen receptors. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of a single neonatal injection of high- or low-dose EE on reproductive behaviours. Female rats within 24 h after birth were subcutaneously injected with sesame oil, EE (0.02, 2 mg kg−1) and 17β-oestradiol (E2) (20 mg kg−1). Between 11 and 15 weeks of age, sexual behaviour was tested twice in a paced mating situation. Latency to enter, lordosis and soliciting behaviour were recorded. Both high-dose EE- and E2-treated females showed a significantly lower lordosis quotient, decreased soliciting behaviours, increased rejection and fighting numbers. Accessibility to males was also delayed by neonatal E2 exposure, although it was shortened by high-dose EE exposure. In contrast, low-dose EE-treated females did not exhibit impaired sexual behaviour. These results suggest that single neonatal exposure to a high dose of EE or E2 disturbs the normal development of the female brain, resulting in impaired sexual behaviours in a female-paced mating situation. Besides, the differences noted between high-dose EE- and E2-treated females might be caused by different affinities of the oestrogen receptors, metabolic rates or mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:45:39.271089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3449
       
  • Role of connexin 43 in cadmium-induced proliferation of human prostate
           epithelial cells
    • Authors: Qingping Liu; Xiaoli Ji, Zehe Ge, Haipeng Diao, Xiuli Chang, Lihua Wang, Qing Wu
      Abstract: Connexins (Cxs), the subunits of gap junction channels, are involved in many physiological processes. Aberrant control of Cxs and gap junction intercellular communication may contribute to many diseases, including the promotion of cancer. Cd exposure is associated with increased risk of human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The roles of Cxs in the effects of Cd on the prostate have, however, not been reported previously. In this study, the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was exposed to Cd. A low dose of Cd stimulated cell proliferation along with a lower degree of gap junction intercellular communication and an elevated level of the protein Cx43. Cd exposure increased the levels of intracellular Ca2+ and phosphorylated Cx43 at the Ser368 site. Knockdown of Cx43 using siRNA blocked Cd-induced proliferation and interfered with the Cd-induced changes in the protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin B1, p27Kip1 (p27) and p21Waf1/Cip1 (p21). The increase in Cx43 expression induced by Cd was presumably mediated by the androgen receptor, because it was abolished upon treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide. Thus, a low dose of Cd promotes cell proliferation in RWPE-1, possibly mediated by Cx43 expression through an effect on cell cycle-associated proteins. Cx43 might be a target for prostatic diseases associated with Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:40:36.656654-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3441
       
  • Carboxylated nanodiamonds can be used as negative reference in in vitro
           nanogenotoxicity studies
    • Authors: H. Moche; V. Paget, D. Chevalier, E. Lorge, N. Claude, H. A. Girard, J. C. Arnault, S. Chevillard, F. Nesslany
      Abstract: Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications. However, a few studies highlighted an in vitro genotoxic activity for detonation NDs, which was not evidenced in one of our previous work quantifying γ-H2Ax after 20 and 100 nm high-pressure high-temperature ND exposures of several cell lines. To confirm these results, in the present work, we investigated the genotoxicity of the same 20 and 100 nm NDs and added intermediate-sized NDs of 50 nm. Conventional in vitro genotoxicity tests were used, i.e., the in vitro micronucleus and comet assays that are recommended by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety for the toxicological evaluation of nanomedicines. In vitro micronucleus and in vitro comet assays (standard and hOGG1-modified) were therefore performed in two human cell lines, the bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o– cells and the colon carcinoma T84 cells. Our results did not show any genotoxic activity, whatever the test, the cell line or the size of carboxylated NDs. Even though these in vitro results should be confirmed in vivo, they reinforce the potential interest of carboxylated NDs for biomedical applications or even as a negative reference nanoparticle in nanotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T07:15:29.055648-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3443
       
  • Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular
           system toxicity: A case for telemetry
    • Authors: Hoay Yan Cheah; Lik Voon Kiew, Hong Boon Lee, Nina Japundžić-Žigon, Marίa J. Vicent, See Ziau Hoe, Lip Yong Chung
      Abstract: While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T06:55:35.428124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3437
       
  • Arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine characterized by
           consolidated plasma and liver lipidomics as an early onset marker for
           tamoxifen-induced hepatic phospholipidosis
    • Authors: Kosuke Saito; Keisuke Goda, Akio Kobayashi, Naohito Yamada, Kyoko Maekawa, Yoshiro Saito, Shoichiro Sugai
      Abstract: Lipid profiling has emerged as an effective approach to not only screen disease and drug toxicity biomarkers but also understand their underlying mechanisms of action. Tamoxifen, a widely used antiestrogenic agent for adjuvant therapy against estrogen-positive breast cancer, possesses side effects such as hepatic steatosis and phospholipidosis (PLD). In the present study, we administered tamoxifen to Sprague–Dawley rats and used lipidomics to reveal tamoxifen-induced alteration of the hepatic lipid profile and its association with the plasma lipid profile. Treatment with tamoxifen for 28 days caused hepatic PLD in rats. We compared the plasma and liver lipid profiles in treated vs. untreated rats using a multivariate analysis to determine differences between the two groups. In total, 25 plasma and 45 liver lipids were identified and altered in the tamoxifen-treated group. Of these lipids, arachidonic acid (AA)-containing phosphatidylcholines (PCs), such as PC (17:0/20:4) and PC (18:1/20:4), were commonly reduced in both plasma and liver. Conversely, tamoxifen increased other phosphoglycerolipids in the liver, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (18:1/18:1) and phosphatidylinositol (18:0/18:2). We also examined alteration of AA-containing PCs and some phosphoglycerolipids in the pre-PLD stage and found that these lipid alterations were initiated before pathological alteration in the liver. In addition, changes in plasma and liver levels of AA-containing PCs were linearly associated. Moreover, levels of free AA and mRNA levels of AA-synthesizing enzymes, such as fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, were decreased by tamoxifen treatment. Therefore, our study demonstrated that AA-containing PCs might have potential utility as novel and predictive biomarkers for tamoxifen-induced PLD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T03:25:51.161293-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3442
       
  • Evaluation of divided attention psychophysical task performance and
           effects on pupil sizes following smoked, vaporized and oral cannabis
           administration
    • Authors: Matthew N. Newmeyer; Madeleine J. Swortwood, Megan E. Taylor, Osama A. Abulseoud, Thomas H. Woodward, Marilyn A. Huestis
      Abstract: Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6.9% [~50.4 mg] THC) cannabis administration. Significant effects following inhaled doses were not observed due to delayed tasks administration 1.5 and 3.5 h post-dose, but significant impairment was observed after oral dosing (blood THC concentrations peaked 1.5–3.5 h post-dose). Occasional smokers' odds of exhibiting ≥2 clues on the OLS or WAT following oral dosing were 6.4 (95% CI 2.3–18.4) times higher than after placebo, with THC and 11-hydroxy-THC blood concentrations individually producing odds ratios of 1.3 (1.1–1.5) and 1.5 (1.3–1.8) for impairment in these tasks, respectively. Pupil sizes after oral dosing under the direct lighting condition were significantly larger than after placebo by mean (SE, 95% CI) 0.4 (0.1, 0.2–0.6) mm at 1.5 h and 0.5 (0.2, 0.2–0.8) mm at 3.5 h among all participants. Oral cannabis administration impaired occasional cannabis users' performance on the OLS and WAT tasks compared to placebo, supporting other reports showing these tasks are sensitive to cannabis-related impairment. Occasional smokers' impairment was related to blood THC and 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations. These are important public health policy findings as consumption of edible cannabis products increases. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T03:20:47.354758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3440
       
  • Megakaryocyte expansion and macrophage infiltration in bone marrow of rats
           subchronically treated with MNX, N-nitroso environmental degradation
           product of munitions compound RDX
           (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)
    • Authors: Sindhura Ramasahayam; Sridhar Jaligama, Sahar M. Atwa, Joshua T. Salley, Marissa Thongdy, Benny L. Blaylock, Sharon A. Meyer
      Abstract: Hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), environmental degradation product of munitions hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), causes seizures in rats with acute oral exposure like parent RDX. Our previous studies have additionally reported hematotoxicity with acute MNX exposure manifested as myelosuppression, anemia and splenic hemosiderosis. This study explored whether MNX administered subchronically continued to target bone marrow to elicit peripheral blood cytopenia. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were gavaged daily for 4 or 6 weeks with 47 mg kg−1 day−1 MNX (¼ LD50) or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide in corn oil) and hematological and clinical chemistry parameters, spleen weights, spleen and bone marrow histopathology and immunohistochemistry with ED1 anti-CD68 macrophage marker were evaluated 24 h after the last dose. Unexpectedly, no decrease in blood erythroid parameters was seen with subchronic MNX and convulsions and tremors ceased after 2 weeks of treatment. Toxicological effects observed were MNX-induced increases in blood granulocyte and platelet counts and in bone marrow megakaryocyte and ED1+-macrophage density. MNX was without effect on bone marrow cellularity and picrosirius red stained/collagen fiber deposition. Spleen weight increased modestly with extramedullary hematopoiesis evident, but hemosiderin and relative red and white pulp areas were unaffected. Collectively, this study demonstrated that erythroid effects characteristic of acute MNX exposure were not evident with subchronic exposure. However, megakaryocyte proliferation in bone marrow coincident with thrombocytosis after subchronic MNX exposure suggested continued hematotoxicity, but with a qualitatively different outcome. Granulocytosis and increased bone marrow macrophages implicated an inflammatory component in MNX hematotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T03:15:53.528673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3439
       
  • T lymphocytes dominate local leukocyte infiltration in response to
           intradermal injection of functionalized graphene-based nanomaterial
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBN) have many potential biomedical applications. However, information regarding their biological properties and interactions with cells and/or soluble factors within a complex tissue is limited. The objective of this study was to use the growing feather (GF) of chickens as a minimally invasive cutaneous test-site to assess and monitor leukocyte recruitment in response to intradermal GBN injection. Specifically, the dermis of 20 GFs per chicken was injected with 10 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-vehicle or 10 μl of 300 μg ml−1 oxygen-functionalized (f) GBN (6 chickens/treatment). GFs were collected before- (0) and at 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days post-injection and used for leukocyte-population analysis of immunofluorescently stained pulp cell suspensions or histological examination. Based on flow-cytometric cell population analysis, lymphocytes and macrophages were the major leukocyte-populations infiltrating GFs in response to f-GBN presence. Compared with PBS-controls, levels of T cells (γδ-, αβ-, CD4- and CD8-T cells) were greatly elevated in f-GBN-injected GFs within 6 h and remained elevated throughout the 7-day examination period. f-GBN's effects on local tissue leukocyte recruitment were not reflected in the blood, except for a higher percentage of lymphocytes on 7 days. These observations together with a visual examination of f-GBN-injected GF tissue-sections suggest a delayed-type hypersensitivity-like, inflammatory cell-mediated response to the non-biodegradable f-GBN. The GF ‘in vivo test-tube‘system together with blood sampling provided unique insight into the time-course, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of immune system activities initiated by the presence of f-GBN in a complex tissue of a living animal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Issue Information
    • Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
       
  • Effect of bisphenol A on reproductive processes: A review of in vitro, in
           vivo and epidemiological studies
    • Abstract: As bisphenol A (BPA) is characterized by a pronounced influence on human hormonal regulation, particular attention has been aimed at understanding its role in reproductive processes in males and females, as well as on fetal development. Owing to the increasing number of alarming reports on the negative consequences of the presence of BPA in human surroundings, more and more studies are being undertaken to clarify the negative effects of BPA on human reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to collect and summarize data on the influence of BPA exposure on reproductive health. Based on an analysis of selected publications it was stated that there is strong proof confirming that BPA is an ovarian, uterine and prostate toxicant at a level below the lowest observed adverse effect level (50 mg kg−1 bodyweight) as well as a level below the proposed safe level (4 μg kg−1 bodyweight). It seems there is also reliable evidence in relation to the negative effect of BPA on sperm quality and motility. Limited evidence also pertains to the case of the potential of BPA to affect polycystic ovary syndrome occurrence. Although in epidemiological studies this disease was common, in studies on animal models such results were still not confirmed. No unambiguous results of epidemiological studies and with animal models were obtained in relation to the evaluation of associations between BPA and implantation failure in women, evaluation of associations between BPA and sexual dysfunction in men, and impact of BPA on birth rate, birth weight and length of gestation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Potential applications and human biosafety of nanomaterials used in
           nanomedicine
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnology, potential applications of nanomaterials in medicine have been widely researched in recent years. Nanomaterials themselves can be used as image agents or therapeutic drugs, and for drug and gene delivery, biological devices, nanoelectronic biosensors or molecular nanotechnology. As the composition, morphology, chemical properties, implant sites as well as potential applications become more and more complex, human biosafety of nanomaterials for clinical use has become a major concern. If nanoparticles accumulate in the human body or interact with the body molecules or chemical components, health risks may also occur. Accordingly, the unique chemical and physical properties, potential applications in medical fields, as well as human biosafety in clinical trials are reviewed in this study. Finally, this article tries to give some suggestions for future work in nanomedicine research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Genotoxic effects of old landfill leachate on HepG2 cells after
           nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis membrane treatment process
    • Abstract: Toxicity assessment of nitration/ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis (nitration/UF/RO) project, which has recently been widely used as an efficient process with applications in practical leachate treatment, was very limited. In the present study, DNA damage of leachates was investigated before and after the nitration/UF/RO process by a battery of assays with human hepatoma cells. Methyletrazolium assay showed a high cytotoxicity of 97.1% after being exposed to the highest concentration of raw leachate for 24 h, and a cytotoxicity of 26% in effluent at a concentration of 30% (v/v). Both comet assay (24 h) and γH2AX flow cytometer assay (3 h) showed increased levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to raw leachate and after nitration/UF-treated leachate followed by a significant increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. However, the effluent after nitration/UF/RO treatment showed no significant difference compared to negative control for γH2AX flow cytometer assay but slight DNA damage at concentrations of 20% and 30% (v/v) as well as increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase. Analysis showed that nitration/UF/RO process exhibited high removal of physicochemical indexes and significant reduction of toxic and genotoxic effects of leachate, but still demands an improvement to reduce all possible negative risks to the environment and humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vitamin D
    • Abstract: Despite the plethora of studies discussing the benefits of vitamin D on physiological functioning, few mathematical models of vitamin D predict the response of the body on low-concentration supplementation of vitamin D under sunlight-restricted conditions. This study developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model utilizing published human data on the metabolic cascade of orally derived, low-concentration (placebo, 5 μg and 10 μg) supplementation of vitamin D over the course of 28 days in the absence of sunlight. Vitamin D and its metabolites are highly lipophilic and binding assays of these compounds in serum may not account for binding by lipids and additional proteins. To compensate for the additional bound amounts, this study allowed the effective adipose–plasma partition coefficient to vary dynamically with the concentration of each compound in serum utilizing the Hill equation for binding. Through incorporating the optimized parameters with the adipose partition coefficient adaptation to the PBPK model, this study was able to fit serum concentration data for circulating vitamin D at all three supplementation concentrations within confidence intervals of the data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA
           damage in lymphocytes
    • Abstract: Over the past few decades nanotechnology and material science has progressed extremely rapidly. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) owing to their unique magnetic properties have a great potential for their biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, there is an inevitable need to address the issue of safety and health effects of these nanoparticles. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of IONPs on rats' lymphocytes. Using different assays, we studied diverse parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase activity, antioxidant enzymes activity and DNA damage measurements. Intracellular metal uptake and ultrastructure analysis were also carried out through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy respectively. The results show that the IONP-induced oxidative stress was concentration-dependent in nature, with significant (P 
       
  • Cyclosporine exacerbates ketamine toxicity in zebrafish: Mechanistic
           studies on drug–drug interaction
    • Abstract: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug commonly used in organ transplant patients to prevent allograft rejections. Ketamine is a pediatric anesthetic that noncompetitively inhibits the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors. Adverse drug–drug interaction effects between ketamine and CsA have been reported in mammals and humans. However, the mechanism of such drug–drug interaction is unclear. We have previously reported adverse effects of combination drugs, such as verapamil/ketamine and shown the mechanism through intervention by other drugs in zebrafish embryos. Here, we show that ketamine and CsA in combination produce developmental toxicity even leading to lethality in zebrafish larvae when exposure began at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), whereas CsA did not cause any toxicity on its own. We also demonstrate that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) completely reversed the adverse effects. Both ketamine and CsA are CYP3A4 substrates. Although ketamine and CsA independently altered the expression of the hepatic marker CYP3A65, a zebrafish ortholog of human CYP3A4, both drugs together induced further increase in CYP3A65 expression. In the presence of ALCAR, however, CYP3A65 expression was normalized. ALCAR has been shown to prevent ketamine toxicity in mammal and zebrafish. In conclusion, CsA exacerbated ketamine toxicity and ALCAR reversed the effects. These results, providing evidence for the first time on the reversal of the adverse effects of CsA/ketamine interaction by ALCAR, would prove useful in addressing potential occurrences of such toxicities in humans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • AMPK activator acadesine fails to alleviate isoniazid-caused mitochondrial
           instability in HepG2 cells
    • Abstract: Isoniazid (INH) is a first-line antituberculosis drug that is adversely associated with hepatotoxicity. Recently, impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis involved in this side effect has been noticed. Mitochondrial homeostasis is achieved by the balance between the generation of functional mitochondria by biogenesis and elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can maintain mitochondrial stability through positive control of these two processes. In this study, we showed that AMPK activator acadesine (AICAR) alleviated INH-caused impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (SIRT1)–peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1 α) pathway in HepG2 cells. However, mitochondrial instability and apoptosis were caused by AICAR along with an unexpected decrease in INH-induced cytoprotective autophagy. Therefore, AICAR failed to alleviate INH-caused mitochondrial instability in HepG2 cells due to its inhibitory effect on autophagy induced by INH. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and
           carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements
    • Abstract: A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg−1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg−1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg−1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2 weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Assessment of the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 environmental
           chemicals in zebrafish embryos and larvae by using OECD TG 212
    • Abstract: Fish embryo toxicity tests are used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental chemicals in aquatic organisms. Previously, we used a short-term toxicity test published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (test no. 212: Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-Fry Stages [OECD TG 212]) to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of aniline and several chlorinated anilines in zebrafish embryos and larvae. To expand upon this previous study, we used OECD TG 212 in zebrafish embryos and larvae to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of 20 additional environmental chemicals that included active pharmaceutical ingredients, pesticides, metals, aromatic compounds or chlorinated anilines. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed to the test chemicals until 8 days post-fertilization. A delayed lethal effect was induced by 16 of the 20 test chemicals, and a positive correlation was found between heart rate turbulence and mortality. We also found that exposure to the test chemicals at concentrations lower than the lethal concentration induced the sublethal effects of edema, body curvature and absence of swim-bladder inflation. In conclusion, the environmental chemicals assessed in the present study induced both lethal and sublethal effects in zebrafish embryos and larvae, as assessed by using OECD TG 212. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • PM2.5-induced lung inflammation in mice: Differences of inflammatory
           response in macrophages and type II alveolar cells
    • Abstract: Particulate matter 2.5 (
       
  • Diethylhexyl phthalate magnifies deposition of 14C–bisphenol A in
           reproductive tissues of mice
    • Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in diverse common products, including cosmetics, food packaging, thermal receipt paper and plastic containers. This exposes most people in developed countries through ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation. Two ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) can interact in disrupting blastocyst implantation in inseminated females. We hypothesized that DEHP might increase the bioavailability of BPA in tissues by competing for metabolic enzymes. We injected 0, 3, 9 or 18 mg DEHP into female and male mice and allowed 30 min for the chemical to circulate before giving them a food supplement containing 50 μg kg−1 14C–BPA. Animals were dissected 1 h following 14C–BPA administration and various tissue samples were acquired. Samples were solubilized and radioactivity was measured via liquid scintillation counting. In cycling females, DEHP increased BPA deposition in the muscle, uterus, ovaries and blood serum relative to controls. In peri-implantation females, DEHP increased deposition of BPA in the uterus, ovaries and serum relative to controls. In males, DEHP doses increased BPA deposition in serum and epididymis relative to controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DEHP competes with BPA for conjugating enzymes such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, thereby magnifying the presence of BPA in estrogen-binding reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Mechanism of graphene-induced cytotoxicity: Role of endonucleases
    • Abstract: Graphene, a crystalline allotrope or carbon, presents numerous useful properties; however, its toxicity is yet to be determined. One of the most dramatic and irreversible toxic abilities of carbon nanomaterials is the induction of DNA fragmentation produced by endogenous cellular endonucleases. This study demonstrated that pristine graphene exposed to cultured kidney tubular epithelial cells is capable of inducing DNA fragmentation measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which is usually associated with cell death. TUNEL (cell death) and endonuclease activity measured using a near infrared fluorescence probe was significantly higher in cells containing graphene aggregates detected by Raman spectroscopy. The elevation of TUNEL coincided with the increased abundance of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), active caspase-3 and endonucleases (deoxyribonuclease I [DNase I] and endonuclease G [EndoG]), as measured by quantitative immunocytochemistry. Specific inhibitors for HO-1, HSP90, caspase-3, DNase I and EndoG almost completely blocked the DNA fragmentation induced by graphene exposure. Therefore, graphene induces cell death through oxidative injury, caspase-mediated and caspase-independent pathways; and endonucleases DNase I and EndoG are important for graphene toxicity. Inhibition of these pathways may ameliorate cell injury produced by graphene. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Non-animal assessment of skin sensitization hazard: Is an integrated
           testing strategy needed, and if so what should be integrated'
    • Abstract: There is an expectation that to meet regulatory requirements, and avoid or minimize animal testing, integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed that rely on assays representing key events (KEs) in the skin sensitization adverse outcome pathway. Three non-animal assays have been formally validated and regulatory adopted: the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSens™ assay and the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). There have been many efforts to develop integrated approaches to testing and assessment with the “two out of three” approach attracting much attention. Here a set of 271 chemicals with mouse, human and non-animal sensitization test data was evaluated to compare the predictive performances of the three individual non-animal assays, their binary combinations and the “two out of three” approach in predicting skin sensitization potential. The most predictive approach was to use both the DPRA and h-CLAT as follows: (1) perform DPRA – if positive, classify as sensitizing, and (2) if negative, perform h-CLAT – a positive outcome denotes a sensitizer, a negative, a non-sensitizer. With this approach, 85% (local lymph node assay) and 93% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions were correct, whereas the “two out of three” approach had 69% (local lymph node assay) and 79% (human) of non-sensitizer predictions correct. The findings are consistent with the argument, supported by published quantitative mechanistic models that only the first KE needs to be modeled. All three assays model this KE to an extent. The value of using more than one assay depends on how the different assays compensate for each other's technical limitations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • In vivo noninvasive analysis of graphene nanomaterial pharmacokinetics
           using photoacoustic flow cytometry
    • Abstract: Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC provides unique insight on how chemical modifications of GBNs affect their distribution in blood circulation and how quickly they are eliminated from the flow. Overall, PAFC provided unique data crucial for understanding GBN toxicity through real-time detection of GBNs using their intrinsic light absorption contrast. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Association between YAP expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast
           tissue with arsenic urinary levels
    • Abstract: The Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis and it has been noted that loss of critical components of this pathway can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important component of this Hippo pathway because YAP is the nuclear effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and it is crucial for the response to oxidative stress induced by cellular process and by different xenobiotics, including arsenic. It has been proposed that YAP dysregulation can contribute to a malignant cellular phenotype acting as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the expression of YAP in neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast tissue of women chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. YAP expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 120 breast biopsies from women with breast cancer and from women with other non-neoplastic breast pathologies. Arsenic concentration was quantified in urine. The results disclosed a significant lower percentage of cytoplasm YAP expression in cases and that YAP high-intensity staining in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus decreases the risk for breast cancer. In conclusion, our overall data suggest that YAP may act as a tumor suppressor protein because their reduced expression in cases, which can induce an environment favorable for inhibition of apoptosis and promoting cellular proliferation by increasing genetic instability of cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Adhesive force between graphene nanoscale flakes and living biological
           cells
    • Abstract: We report on a measurement technique that quantifies the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes and the cell wall of live Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in-fluid Peak Force- Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping mode. To measure the adhesive force, we made use of the negative charge of E. coli cells to allow them to stick to positively charged surfaces, such as glass or silicon, that were covered by poly-L-Lysine. With this approach, cells were held in place for AFM characterization. Both pristine graphene (PG) flakes and functionalized graphene (FG) flakes were put on the E. coli cells and measurements of lateral size, flake thickness, and adhesion were made. Using this approach, the measured values of the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes (total thickness of 50 nm) and E. coli was determined to be equal or greater than 431 ± 65pN for (PG) and 694 ± 98pN for the (FG). More interestingly, the adhesive force of a graphene flake (thickness 1.3 nm) with the cell is determined to be equal or greater than 38.2 ± 16.4pN for the (PG) and 34.8 ± 15.3pN for the (FG). These interaction values can play an important role in determining and understanding the possible toxicity of graphene flakes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Graphene and carbon nanotubes activate different cell surface receptors on
           macrophages before and after deactivation of endotoxins
    • Abstract: Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs. The gel-clot limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and chromogenic-based LAL assays were used to detect endotoxins. Results revealed that the CBNs contained greater amounts of endotoxin than are approved by major regulatory agencies (0.5 EU ml−1). Three repeated cycles of autoclaving reduced the endotoxin in the test materials. Macrophages were incubated with pyrogenated and depyrogenated pristine graphene and MWCNTs to test differences in phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, and expression of genes involved in macrophage activation. The uptake of depyrogenated CBNs was significantly reduced as compared with pyrogenated CBNs. Exposure of macrophages to depyrogenated CBNs resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression for TLR signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, and downstream signal transduction molecules. Furthermore, macrophages exposed to both types of CBNs showed the downregulation of TLR5 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. The results of this study reaffirm that assessment of endotoxin and other bacterial contamination is critical when evaluating the cellular toxicity of nanomaterials. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • Review of mechanisms of deoxynivalenol-induced anorexia: The role of gut
           microbiota
    • Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal-based foods or other food productions, produced by Fusarium species. Because of the high occurrence of DON in food combined with vast consumption of cereals and grain worldwide, the DON-contaminated food is a very harmful factor for human and animal health. DON has been reported to induce anorexia at lower or chronic doses in animal models. However, further researches for DON-induced anorexia are limited. Previous publications demonstrated a close link between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, two kinds of gut microbiota, with weight loss and the effect of low administration of DON on neurotransmitters in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pons/medulla. These data are similar to other studies, which show selective 5HTα receptor agonists apparently causing hyperphagia whereas 5HT1β agonists appear to induce anorexia. Thus, the neurochemical effects of lower DON exposure can be as a result of peripheral toxicological events such as emesis, which overwhelmed its more subtle feed refusal activity. Besides, changes in the microbiota have an impact on stress-related behaviors like anxiety and depression, which can lead to weight loss through decreased feed intake. Gut dysbiosis is also associated with brain dysfunction and with behavioral changes. These conclusions illustrate as well a potential explanation for DON-induced anorexia.In this review, we summarize information about DON-induced anorexia from previous studies and provide our opinion for future investigations that could establish a link between gut microbiota, neurotransmitters, anorexia and weight loss under the DON exposure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Adult neurobehavioral alterations in male and female mice following
           developmental exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen): characterization of
           a critical period
    • Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected. Mice of both sexes were exposed to two doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg kg–1, 4 h apart) on postnatal days (PND) 3, 10 or 19. Spontaneous behavior, when introduced to a new home environment, was observed at the age of 2 months. We show that adverse effects on adult behavior and cognitive function occurred in both male and female mice exposed to paracetamol on PND 3 and 10, but not when exposed on PND 19. These neurodevelopmental time points in mice correspond to the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy and the time around birth in humans, supporting existing human data. Considering that paracetamol is the first choice treatment for pain and/or fever during pregnancy and early life, these results may be of great importance for future research and, ultimately, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Effect of triclosan on anuran development and growth in a larval amphibian
           growth and development assay
    • Abstract: A larval amphibian growth and development assay was performed to evaluate the potential effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of triclosan (TCS) on amphibian development and growth. Xenopus laevis were exposed to TCS 0.0 (control), 6.3, 12.5 and 25.0 μg l–1 (estimated maximum tolerable concentration) until 10 weeks post-metamorphosis. At median metamorphosis time (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62), five larvae per replicate were collected for snout–vent length, hind limb length and body weight measurements, and histopathological examination of thyroid glands. Endpoints evaluated at test termination were based on draft guidance (USEPA, ) and included: survival; snout–vent length; body weight; gender; nuptial pad development (males); and liver, kidney, gonad and gonadal ducts histopathology. Exposure to TCS did not decrease survival, induce general signs of toxicity, affect median metamorphosis time or alter sex ratios. Exposure to TCS 12.5 and 25 μg l–1 increased growth during the metamorphic stages relative to the control, but did not influence growth during the post-metamorphic phase. Overall, several statistically significant findings were found in larvae exposed to TCS, such as a decrease in the prevalence of stage 3 Müllerian ducts in the anterior trunk sections of TCS 25.0 μg l–1 dose group females as compared to controls; most were not considered toxicologically relevant. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • p53-competent cells and p53-deficient cells display different
           susceptibility to oxygen functionalized graphene cytotoxicity and
           genotoxicity
    • Abstract: Due to the distinctive physical, electrical, and chemical properties of graphene nanomaterials, numerous efforts pursuing graphene-based biomedical and industrial applications are underway. Oxidation of pristine graphene surfaces mitigates its otherwise hydrophobic characteristic thereby improving its biocompatibility and functionality. Yet, the potential widespread use of oxidized graphene derivatives raises concern about adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein maintains cellular and genetic stability after toxic exposures. Here, we show that p53 functional status correlates with oxygen functionalized graphene (f-G) cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro. The f-G exposed p53-competent cells, but not p53-deficient cells, initiated G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed reactive oxygen species, and entered apoptosis. There was p53-dependent f-G genotoxicity evident as increased structural chromosome damage, but not increased gene mutation or chromatin loss. In conclusion, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential for f-G in exposed cells was dependent on the p53 functional status. These findings have broad implications for the safe and effective implementation of oxidized graphene derivatives into biomedical and industrial applications. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
       
  • Profiling of the silica-induced molecular events in lung epithelial cells
           using the RNA-Seq approach
    • Abstract: Silicosis is a prolonged, irreversible and incurable occupational disease, and there is a significant number of newly diagnosed cases every year in Hong Kong. Due to the long latency of the disease, the diagnosis can be missed until detailed clinical examination at a later stage. For a better control of this deadly disease, detailing the pro-inflammatory and fibrotic events in the macrophage would be instrumental in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and essential for the significant biomarkers discovery. In this in vitro study, human cell line model A549 lung epithelial cells were used. The immediate molecular events underneath the activation of quartz silica polymorphs were followed in a time course of 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 16 and 24 h. The transcriptome library was prepared and subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. Data analysis was performed by pathway analysis tools and verified by real-time PCR. The results showed that triggered genes were mainly found in the immune response and inflammatory pathways. An interesting finding was the association of the DNA-binding protein inhibitor (ID) family in the silica exposure to lung cells. The linkage of ID1, ID2 and ID3 to cancer may rationalize themselves to be the markers indicating an early response of silicosis. However, further studies are required to consolidate the roles of these genes in silicosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Gender-specific histopathological response in guppies Poecilia reticulata
           exposed to glyphosate or its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid
    • Abstract: Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l−1) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l−1). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l−1) and AMPA (82 mg l−1) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response. In both exposure assays, fish presented mainly progressive changes, such as proliferation of the interlamellar epithelium, partial and total fusion of secondary lamellae. The liver showed mainly regressive changes, such as steatosis, pyknotic nuclei and high distribution of collagen fibers. Unusually large hepatocytes as degenerated cells were also detected. Histopathological changes in gills were similar for the males and females, but the liver response was different between the genders. The hepatic inflammatory changes were more common in males. The increase in the area of hepatocyte vacuoles is gender dependent with higher values in the male compared to the female guppies exposed to GLY and AMPA. Multiparametric analysis indicated that the male guppies are more sensitive than females, particularly in the presence of AMPA. Our study shows that the histopathological assessment associated with gender-specific response can be successfully used in ecotoxicological assessment of GLY and the metabolite AMPA. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Environmental perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure drives T cell activation
           in bottlenose dolphins
    • Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable compounds that have been associated with immunotoxicity in epidemiologic studies and experimental rodent models. Lengthy half-lives and resistance to environmental degradation result in bioaccumulation of PFAAs in humans and wildlife. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most prevalent PFAA detected within the environment, is found at high levels in occupationally exposed humans. We have monitored the environmental exposure of dolphins in the Charleston, SC region for over 10 years and levels of PFAAs, and PFOS in particular, were significantly elevated. As dolphins may serve as large mammal sentinels to identify the impact of environmental chemical exposure on human disease, we sought to assess the effect of environmental PFAAs on the cellular immune system in highly exposed dolphins. Herein, we utilized a novel flow cytometry-based assay to examine T cell-specific responses to environmental PFAA exposure ex vivo and to exogenous PFOS exposure in vitro. Baseline PFOS concentrations were associated with significantly increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation from a heterogeneous resident dolphin population. Further analysis demonstrated that in vitro exposure to environmentally relevant levels of PFOS promoted proinflammatory cytokine production and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings indicate that PFOS is capable of inducing proinflammatory interferon-gamma, but not immunoregulatory interleukin-4 production in T cells, which may establish a state of chronic immune activation known to be associated with susceptibility to disease. These findings suggest that PFOS directly dysregulates the dolphin cellular immune system and has implications for health hazards. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Chronic exposure to graphene-based nanomaterials induces behavioral
           deficits and neural damage in Caenorhabditis elegans
    • Abstract: Nanomaterials of graphene and its derivatives have been widely applied in recent years, but whose impacts on the environment and health are still not well understood. In the present study, the potential adverse effects of graphite (G), graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the motor nervous system were investigated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. After being characterized using TEM, SEM, XPS and PLE, three nanomaterials were chronically exposed to C. elegans for 6 days. In total, 50–100 mg l−1 GO caused a significant reduction in the survival rate, but G and GDDs showed low lethality on nematodes. After chronic exposure of sub-lethal dosages, three nanomaterials were observed to distribute primarily in the pharynx and intestine; but GQDs were widespread in nematode body. Three graphene-based nanomaterials resulted in significant declines in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, mean speed, bending angle-frequency and wavelength of the crawling movement were significantly reduced after exposure. Using transgenic nematodes, we found high concentrations of graphene-based nanomaterials induced down-expression of dat-1::GFP and eat-4::GFP, but no significant changes in unc-47::GFP. This indicates that graphene-based nanomaterials can lead to damages in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. The present data suggest that chronic exposure of graphene-based nanomaterials may cause neurotoxicity risks of inducing behavioral deficits and neural damage. These findings provide useful information to understand the toxicity and safe application of graphene-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Genome resequencing analysis of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 strains TA98
           and TA100 for the establishment of a next-generation sequencing-based
           mutagenicity assay
    • Abstract: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potentially useful technology to achieve a more precise evaluation of chemical mutagenicity. To establish NGS-based mutagenicity assays, which enable the direct detection of chemically induced mutations in a whole genome manner, the selection of appropriate biological resources and their precise genome sequences are essential. Here, we performed genome re-sequencing analyses of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 strains TA98 and TA100, which have been frequently used in mutagenicity assays. We identified several strain-specific mutations including those that were relevant to their known phenotypes (his, ΔuvrB and rfa). The details of rfa mutations were first clarified in this study, which was a frameshift variant in rfaF and a missense variant in rfaC in TA98 and TA100, respectively. The uvrB deletion in TA98 was larger than that in TA100, which suggested differences in defects of lipopolysaccharide synthesis between these strains. The re-sequenced genome data of TA98 and TA100 will help us establish NGS-based bacterial mutagenicity assays and understand the biological events seen in them. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • The use of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro
           model to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles to endothelium: a review
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnologies, nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly produced and used in many commercial products, which could lead to the contact of human blood vessels with NPs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the adverse effects of NPs to relevant cells lining human blood vessels, especially endothelial cells (ECs) that cover the lumen of blood vessels. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are among one of the most popular models used for ECs in vitro. In the present review, we discussed studies that have used HUVECs as a model to investigate the EC–NP interactions, the toxic effects of NPs on ECs and the mechanisms. The results of these studies indicated that NPs could be internalized into HUVECs by the endocytosis pathway as well as transported across HUVECs by exocytosis and paracellular pathways. Exposure of HUVECs to NPs could induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, eNOS uncoupling and endothelial activation, which could be explained by NP-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and dysfunction of organelles. In addition, some studies have also evaluated the influences of microenvironment (e.g. the presence of proteins and excessive nutrients), the physiological and/or pathological stimuli related to the diversity of ECs (e.g. shear stress, cyclic stretch and inflammatory stimuli), and the physicochemical properties of NPs on the responses of ECs to NP exposure. In conclusion, it has been suggested that HUVECs could be considered as a relatively reliable and simple in vitro model for ECs to predict and evaluate the toxicity of NPs to endothelium. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Diphenyl diselenide protects against methylmercury-induced inhibition of
           thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase in human neuroblastoma
           cells: a comparison with ebselen
    • Abstract: Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an important environmental toxicant, may lead to serious health risks, damaging various organs and predominantly affecting the brain function. The toxicity of MeHg can be related to the inhibition of important selenoenzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxifiers and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study investigated the mechanisms by which diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] and ebselen interfered with the interaction of mercury (MeHg) and selenoenzymes (TrxR and GPx) in an in vitro experimental model of cultured human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Our results established that (PhSe)2 and ebselen increased the activity and expression of TrxR. In contrast, MeHg inhibited TrxR activity even at low doses (0.5 μm). Coexposure to selenocompounds and MeHg showed a protective effect of (PhSe)2 on both the activity and expression of TrxR. When selenoenzyme GPx was evaluated, selenocompounds did not alter its activity or expression significantly, whereas MeHg inhibited the activity of GPx (from 1 μm). Among the selenocompounds only (PhSe)2 significantly protected against the effects of MeHg on GPx activity. Taken together, these results indicate a potential use for ebselen and (PhSe)2 against MeHg toxicity. Furthermore, for the first time, we have demonstrated that (PhSe)2 caused a more pronounced upregulation of TrxR than ebselen in neuroblastoma cells, likely reflecting an important molecular mechanism involved in the antioxidant properties of this compound. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Methylparaben-induced decrease in collagen production and viability of
           cultured human dermal fibroblasts
    • Abstract: Parabens owing to their many advantageous properties are widely applied in cosmetics, food products and pharmaceuticals. However, recent research results have shown that they possess the ability to accumulate in the human body and exert many adverse effects. In this study, the impact of methylparaben (MP) as the most frequently used preservative in cosmetics, on human dermal fibroblasts and collagen production was evaluated. In cells treated with 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05% MP a dose-dependent decrease in collagen biosynthesis was revealed, which was positively correlated with the activity of prolidase responsible for the recovery of proline. Consequently, the concentration of total collagen secreted into the medium was markedly diminished. A similar reduction in expression of the major skin collagen type I at both the protein and mRNA level as well as collagen type III and VI at the mRNA level was also detected. The decrease in the collagen level may result not only from the reduced synthesis but also increased degradation owing to MP-induced activation of pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa). The increase in activity of MMP-2 (66 kDa) was accompanied by a reduction in the inhibitory activity of TIMP-2. In addition, an inhibitory effect of MP on cell survival and proliferation was revealed in this study. The increased expression and nuclear translocation of caspase-3 as well as increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression may suggest MP-induced cell apoptosis. In summary, we have provided new data on the adverse effects of methylparaben on human dermal fibroblasts and the main structural protein of the skin. Further studies on the mechanisms responsible for its action are in progress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Mechanism of arsenite toxicity in embryonic stem cells
    • Abstract: Environmental arsenite exposure has been linked to cancer as well as other diseases, presenting an important and serious public health problem. Toxicity of inorganic arsenite (iAs) has been investigated using animal models and cell culture, yet its developmental effects are poorly understood. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of iAs toxicity to ascertain insight into development and differentiation processes using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The results showed that iAs exposure affected morphology and integrity of ESC colonies as well as inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, excluding concentrations
       
  • A review on acridinylthioureas and its derivatives: biological and
           cytotoxic activity
    • Abstract: Acridines possess two characteristics that have led many researchers to consider the agents interesting targets for future development as potential farmacophores: the planar acridine skeleton, which is able to intercalate into DNA, and the intense fluorescence of the agents. This review offers a study of the multifunctional character of acridines and the synthesis of novel acridine derivatives, with particular focus being placed on isothiocyanates and their congeners, e.g. thioureas, isothioureas, quaternary ammonium salts and platinum/gold conjugates. The review provides an overview of the structure, spectral properties, DNA binding and biological activity of acridinylthiourea congeners. These acridinylthiourea derivatives display significant cytotoxic activities against different types of cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Alumina at 50 and 13 nm nanoparticle sizes have potential
           genotoxicity
    • Abstract: Although nanomaterials have the potential to improve human life, their sideline effects on human health seem to be inevitable and still are unknown. Some studies have investigated the genotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles (AlNPs); however, this effect is still unclear due to insufficient evaluation and conflicting results. Using a battery of standard genotoxic assays, the present study offers evidence of the genotoxicity associated with aluminum oxide (alumina) at NP sizes of 50 and 13 nm, when compared with bulk alumina (10 μm). The genotoxicity induced by alumina at bulk and NP sizes was evaluated with Ames test, comet test, micronucleus assay and sperm deformity test. The mechanism related to the induction of reactive oxygen species was explored as well. Our results showed that AlNPs (13 and 50 nm) were able to enter cells and induced DNA damage, micronucleus in bone marrow, sperm deformation and reactive oxygen species induction in a time-, dose- and size-dependent manner. Therefore, we conclude that AlNPs (13 and 50 nm), rather than bulk alumina, induce markers of genotoxicity in mice, with oxidative stress as a potential mechanism driving these genotoxic effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Evidence for persistent organochlorine pollutants in the human adrenal
           cortex
    • Abstract: Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed. A gas-chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Triple Quad GC-MS) system was used for the analysis. Data were analyzed using Random Forest and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. OCPs and PCBs were found in specimens from both types. A subset of pollutants characterized APA more than NA. Higher concentrations (μg g−1) in APA were observed for α-, β-, and γ- Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1.48 ± 3.32 vs. 0.17 ± 0.19, P = 0.028; 2.81 ± 2.10 vs. 0.96 ± 0.98, P = 0.011; 2.16 ± 4.85 vs. 0.17 ± 0.26, P = 0.004, respectively), as well as for Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and for PCBs 28, 52 and 101 (3.41 ± 3.11 vs. 0.97 ± 1.06, P = 0.021; 2.34 ± 4.68 vs. 0.25 ± 0.22, P = 0.039; 0.58 ± 1.19 vs. 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.002; 0.26 ± 0.43 vs. 0.05 ± 0.00, P = 0.001, respectively). Environmental organochlorine pollutants were shown to be present in the human normal and abnormal adrenal cortex, deserving future investigation on their possible role as adrenal endocrine disruptors in human disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
  • Reproductive disorders in female rats after prenatal exposure to
           betamethasone
    • Abstract: Betamethasone is the drug of choice for antenatal treatment, promoting fetal lung maturation and decreasing mortality. Previous studies in rats reported male programming and alteration in sperm parameters and sexual behavior following intrauterine betamethasone exposure. The impact on the female reproductive development is not known. In this study, rat female offspring was assessed for sexual development, morphophysiology of the reproductive tract and fertility after maternal exposure to 0.1 mg kg−1 of betamethasone or vehicle on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19. The treatment promoted reduction of litter weight on postnatal day 1, morphological masculinization in females, delay in the age of puberty onset, reduction in estrus number, increase in estrous cycle length and increase in luteinizing hormone serum levels and uterus weight. The females from the betamethasone group showed an increase of myometrial uterine area and decrease in endometrial uterine area. These animals also performed less lordosis during the sexual behavior test and showed impaired reproductive performance. The uterus showed higher contraction in the treated group as shown by a pharmacological assay. In conclusion, prenatal betamethasone exposure in rats promoted female masculinization, altered sexual development and reproductive parameters. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
       
 
 
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