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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 766 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (702 journals)
    - POLLUTION (22 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (33 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (9 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (702 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

International innovation. Environment     Open Access  
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Enviromental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Health Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Regulation and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access  
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Irish Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Irish Journal of Earth Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Israel Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ISRN Environmental Chemistry     Open Access  
Italian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Agrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Volcanology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Black Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Health and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Climate     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Coastal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Contemporary European Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Toxicology
   [11 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0260-437X - ISSN (Online) 1099-1263
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1602 journals]   [SJR: 0.689]   [H-I: 47]
  • Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon
           Caco2 cells evaluated by fluorescent microscopy of cytochalasin
           B‐blocked micronucleus formation
    • Authors: Saura C. Sahu; Shambhu Roy, Jiwen Zheng, Jeffrey J. Yourick, Robert L. Sprando
      Abstract: As a consequence of the increased use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics to prevent fungal and bacterial growth, there is a need for validated rapid screening methods to assess the safety of nanoparticle exposure. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential genotoxicity of 20‐nm nanosilver. The average silver nanoparticle size as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was 20.4 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The silver concentration in a 20‐nm nanosilver solution determined by the inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP‐MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml−1. Analysis by ICP‐MS and TEM demonstrated the uptake of 20‐nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Genotoxicity was determined by the cytochalasin B‐blocked micronucleus assay with acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Concentration‐ and time‐dependent increases in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei induced by the nanosilver was observed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 15 µg ml−1 in both HepG2 and Caco2 cells compared with the control. Our results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Caco2 cells in terms of micronuclei formation induced by nanosilver exposure. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells in culture, represent potential screening models for prediction of genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles by in vitro micronucleus assay. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2014-06-06T09:15:06.224268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3028
       
  • Time‐dependent bioaccumulation of distinct rod‐type TiO2
           nanoparticles: Comparison by crystalline phase
    • Authors: Eun-Jung Park; Gwang-Hee Lee, Cheolho Yoon, Min-Sung Kang, Soo Nam Kim, Myung-Haing Cho, Jae-Ho Kim, Dong-Wan Kim
      Abstract: A complete understanding of the interaction between nanoparticles and biological systems, including nanoparticle uptake and distribution and the biological responses, could guide the design of safer and more effective nanoparticles than those currently available. In this study, we compared the distribution in mice over time of two rod‐type titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiNPs) that feature distinct phases, anatase (ATO) and brookite (BTO). Surface areas of BTO and ATO were estimated to be 102 and 268 m2 g–1, respectively, and negative charge on the surface of ATO was higher than that of BTO in deionized water. Both TiNPs were rapidly distributed into tissues after injection. At 4 weeks after injection, both TiNPs were maximally accumulated in the spleen, followed by the liver, but the total accumulation of ATO in tissues measured in this study was more than that of BTO. Moreover, the cellular antioxidant function was similar although the levels of Ti measured in tissues were distinct between the two TiNPs. Based on these results, we suggest that the fate of TiNPs in the body may differ according to the size and surface charge of the TiNPs even when their shape is the same. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-29T08:38:10.446352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3006
       
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels as a biomarker for
           short‐term N‐butyl‐N‐(4‐hydroxybutyl)
           nitrosamine‐induced rat bladder carcinogenesis bioassay
    • Authors: Shin Wakui; Tomoko Mutou, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Masahiro Ikegami, Hideki Wanibuchi, Shoji Fukushima
      Abstract: Generically, carcinogenic effects of chemicals in bladder carcinogenesis are judged by induction of papillary or nodular (PN) hyperplasia in rats given N‐butyl‐N‐(4‐hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) for 4 weeks and the test chemical for 22–28 weeks. However, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) begins early in rat BBN bladder carcinogenesis. To establish a short‐term rat bladder carcinogenic bioassay, we analyzed the correlations between VEGF, VEGF mRNA and bladder lesions inductions at 10 and 26 weeks after BBN treatment. Six‐week‐old male Wistar (slc) rats were given 0.05% BBN for 4, 10 or 26 weeks. To avoid individual rat bias, the bladders were investigated by partial cystectomy at 10 weeks and total cystectomy at 26 weeks. After induction, PN hyperplasia and carcinoma in rats increased with the length of BBN treatment and immunohistochemical VEGF expression also increased following carcinogenesis, but the immunoreactivity of individual lesions was quite variable. Moreover, induction of PN hyperplasia at 10 weeks’ BBN treatment was not significantly correlated with that at 26 weeks' treatment; thus, it was not possible to predict the carcinogenic effect due to the induction of PN hyperplasia at 26 weeks' BBN treatment by that at 10 weeks' treatment. However, VEGF mRNA levels of rat bladders at 10 weeks' BBN treatment revealed a strong significant correlation with the incidence of bladder lesions at 26 weeks' treatment. Here, we suggest that quantitative VEGF mRNA levels are a good biomarker for a short‐term BBN‐induced bioassay for rat bladder carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-28T09:25:42.146279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3021
       
  • Developmental toxicity assay using high content screening of zebrafish
           embryos
    • Authors: Susan Lantz-McPeak; Xiaoqing Guo, Elvis Cuevas, Melanie Dumas, Glenn D. Newport, Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paule, Jyotshna Kanungo
      Abstract: Typically, time‐consuming standard toxicological assays using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model evaluate mortality and teratogenicity after exposure during the first 2 days post‐fertilization. Here we describe an automated image‐based high content screening (HCS) assay to identify the teratogenic/embryotoxic potential of compounds in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Automated image acquisition was performed using a high content microscope system. Further automated analysis of embryo length, as a statistically quantifiable endpoint of toxicity, was performed on images post‐acquisition. The biological effects of ethanol, nicotine, ketamine, caffeine, dimethyl sulfoxide and temperature on zebrafish embryos were assessed. This automated developmental toxicity assay, based on a growth‐retardation endpoint should be suitable for evaluating the effects of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants in a high throughput manner. This approach can significantly expedite the screening of potential teratogens and developmental toxicants, thereby improving the current risk assessment process by decreasing analysis time and required resources. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2014-05-28T09:20:58.316539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3029
       
  • Cardiotoxicity evaluation of anthracyclines in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    • Authors: Ying Han; Jing-pu Zhang, Jian-qin Qian, Chang-qin Hu
      Abstract: Drug‐induced cardiotoxicity is a leading factor for drug withdrawals, and limits drug efficacy and clinical use. Therefore, new alternative animal models and methods for drug safety evaluation have been given great attention. Anthracyclines (ANTs) are widely prescribed anticancer agents that have a cumulative dose relationship with cardiotoxicity. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of ANTs in early developing zebrafish embryos, especially their effects on the heart. LC50 values for daunorubicin, pirarubicin, doxorubicin (DOX), epirubicin and DOX‐liposome at 72 h post‐fertilization were 122.7 μM, 111.9 μM, 31.2 μM, 108.3 μM and 55.8 μM, respectively. At the same time, zebrafish embryos were exposed to ANTs in three exposure stages and induced incomplete looping of the heart tube, pericardia edema and bradycardia in a dose‐dependent manner, eventually leading to death. DOX caused the greatest heart defects in the treatment stages and its liposome reduced the effects on the heart, while daunorubicin produced the least toxicity. Genes and proteins related to heart development were also identified to be sensitive to ANT exposure and downregulated by ANTs. It revealed ANTs could disturb the heart formation and development. ANTs induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish has similar effects in mammalian models, indicating that zebrafish may have a potential value for assessment of drug‐induced developmental cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-22T16:22:52.444139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3007
       
  • A trivalent approach for determining in vitro toxicology: Examination of
           oxime K027
    • Authors: Adriana Prado; Georg A. Petroianu, Dietrich E. Lorke, Jeremy W. Chambers
      Abstract: Unforeseen toxic effects contribute to compound attrition during preclinical evaluation and clinical trials. Consequently, there is a need to correlate in vitro toxicity to in vivo and clinical outcomes quickly and effectively. We propose an expedited evaluation of physiological parameters in vitro that will improve the ability to predict in vivo toxicity of potential therapeutics. By monitoring metabolism, mitochondrial physiology and cell viability, our approach provides insight to the extent of drug toxicity in vitro. To implement our approach, we used human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and neuroblastoma cells (SH‐SY5Y) to monitor hepato‐ and neurotoxicity of the experimental oxime K027. We utilized a trivalent approach to measure metabolism, mitochondrial stress and induction of apoptosis in 96‐well formats. Any change in these three areas may suggest drug‐induced toxicity in vivo. K027 and pralidoxime, an oxime currently in clinical use, had no effect on glycolysis or oxygen consumption in HepG2 and SH‐SY5Y cells. Similarly, these oximes did not induce oxidant generation nor alter mitochondrial membrane potential. Further, K027 and pralidoxime failed to activate effector caspases, and these oximes did not alter viability. The chemotherapeutic agent, docetaxel, negatively affected metabolism, mitochondrial physiology and viability. Our studies present a streamlined high‐throughput trivalent approach for predicting toxicity in vitro, and this approach reveals that K027 has no measurable hepatotoxicity or neurotoxicity in vitro, which correlates with their in vivo data. This approach could eliminate toxic drugs from consideration for in vivo preclinical evaluation faster than existing toxicity prediction panels and ultimately prevent unnecessary experimentation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-22T16:22:49.472421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3013
       
  • Synergistic cytotoxicity and DNA strand breaks in cells and plasmid DNA
           exposed to uranyl acetate and ultraviolet radiation
    • Authors: Janice Wilson; Mary C. Zuniga, Filbert Yazzie, Diane M. Stearns
      Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) has a chemical toxicity that is independent of its radioactivity. The purpose of this study was to explore the photoactivation of uranyl ion by ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a chemical mechanism of uranium genotoxicity. The ability of UVB (302 nm) and UVA (368 nm) radiation to photoactivate uranyl ion to produce single strand breaks was measured in pBR322 plasmid DNA, and the presence of adducts and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites that could be converted to single strand breaks by heat and piperidine was analyzed. Results showed that DNA lesions in plasmid DNA exposed to UVB‐ or UVA‐activated DU were only slightly heat reactive, but were piperidine sensitive. The cytotoxicity of UVB‐activated uranyl ion was measured in repair‐proficient and repair‐deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The cytotoxicity of co‐exposures of uranyl ion and UVB radiation was dependent on the order of exposure and was greater than co‐exposures of arsenite and UVB radiation. Uranyl ion and UVB radiation were synergistically cytotoxic in cells, and cells exposed to photoactivated DU required different DNA repair pathways than cells exposed to non‐photoactivated DU. This study contributes to our understanding of the DNA lesions formed by DU, as well as their repair. Results suggest that excitation of uranyl ion by UV radiation can provide a pathway for uranyl ion to be chemically genotoxic in populations with dermal exposures to uranium and UV radiation, which would make skin an overlooked target organ for uranium exposures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-15T09:03:01.061665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3015
       
  • Endocrine disruption effects of p,p′‐DDE on juvenile zebrafish
    • Authors: Marta Sofia Monteiro; Maria Pavlaki, Augusto Faustino, Alexandra Rêma, Mariana Franchi, Letícia Gediel, Susana Loureiro, Inês Domingues, Jaime Rendón von Osten, Amadeu Mortágua Velho Maia Soares
      Abstract: The persistent organic pollutant p,p′‐DDE, the major metabolite of the insecticide DDT, has displayed evidence of endocrine disruption through the inhibition of androgen binding to androgen receptors in different species. Although p,p′‐DDE was continuously detected in wild fish with abnormal gonad development such as intersex, little is known about its mode of action during gonad development in fish. To elucidate the potential endocrine effects of this pollutant in zebrafish (Danio rerio), juveniles (30 days post hatch) were exposed to p,p′‐DDE during the critical window of sexual differentiation. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 µg l–1 over 14 days and were maintained in control water for an additional 4 months. As core endpoints, the vitellogenin (vtg) concentration was measured at the end of exposure, and sex ratio and the gonadosomatic index were assessed 4 months after the end of exposure. An increase in vtg production in whole body homogenate was observed in fish exposed to 0.2 and 2.0 µg l–1 p,p′‐DDE. No significant differences were displayed in morphological parameters such as the gonadosomatic index of males and females or sex ratio. However, exposed females presented histopathological changes that include the reduction of the number of mature oocytes, which might impair their successful reproduction. These results demonstrate the ability of p,p′‐DDE to cause endocrine disruption in zebrafish exposed during gonad differentiation of juvenile specimens. Furthermore, vtg induction by p,p′‐DDE in juvenile zebrafish arises as a predictive marker for adverse effects of this DDT metabolite on the ovarian function of female zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-15T08:55:11.837345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3014
       
  • Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAv) changed the expressions of proliferative
           related factors and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in rat bladder
    • Authors: Zhang Lin; Liu Shengnan, Wang Fei, Song Yingli, Sun Qingshan, Sheng Wei, Xi. Shuhua, Sun Guifan
      Abstract: Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), the major urinary metabolite of inorganic arsenic, is a urinary bladder carcinogen and bladder tumor promoter in adult rats. Increased urothelial cellular proliferation has been considered as an earlier phenotype in DMAV‐induced bladder carcinogenesis. The present study examined the ultrastructural changes of bladder epithelial cells and expressions of proliferation factors, as well as the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to DMAV for 10 weeks by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), qRT‐PCR, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA methods. The results showed that DMAV administered in the drinking water produced urothelial cytotoxicity and ultrastructural changes in rats. PCNA, cyclin D1 and COX‐2 mRNA expressions and immunoreactivities were elevated in bladder urothelium. In addition, 200 ppm DMAV treatment increased the transforming growth factor‐beta 1 (TGF‐β1) secretion and decreased tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF)‐α level in the urine of rats. These data suggest that chronic inflammation, bladder epithelium lesions and proliferation might be the basic process of the chronic toxicity effects in DMAV‐treated rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-15T08:46:33.106421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3001
       
  • The in Vitro estrogenic activities of triclosan and triclocarban
    • Authors: Hongyu Huang; Guizhen Du, Wei Zhang, Jialei Hu, Di. Wu, Ling Song, Yankai Xia, Xinru Wang
      Abstract: Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), as broad spectrum antibacterial agents, are distributed widely in the environment and humans. Most studies have focused on their distribution and biodegradation, but the endocrine‐disrupting effects of these chemicals, especially their estrogenic effects, are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the estrogenic effects of TCS and TCC using a series of in vitro assays, including the ER reporter gene assay in the CV‐1 cells, E‐screen assay and evaluation of estrogen‐responsive genes in the MCF‐7 cells. The tested concentrations of TCS and TCC were both from 1 × 10–9 to 1 × 10–6 M. Results showed that TCS and TCC exerted estrogenic activities by inducing luciferase activities in an ER reporter gene assay, promoting the proliferation of the MCF‐7 cells, up‐regulating the expression of pS2 and down‐regulating ERα expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in the MCF‐7 cells. We further found that TCS and TCC could alter the expression of multiple microRNAs (mir‐22, mir‐206 and mir‐193b) in the MCF‐7 cells, which would help understand the mechanisms of their estrogenic effects on regulating the expression of ERα. In brief, our results demonstrated the potential estrogenic effects and profiled in vitro data for further risk assessment of TCS and TCC. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-16T05:43:52.122225-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3012
       
  • Usefulness of urinary kidney injury molecule‐1 (Kim‐1) as a
           biomarker for cisplatin‐induced sub‐chronic kidney injury
    • Authors: Ken-ichiro Nan-ya; Masatomo Kajihara, Natsuki Kojima, Masakuni Degawa
      Abstract: We explored biomarkers suitable for monitoring sub‐chronic kidney injury using the three rat models of cisplatin (CDDP)‐induced kidney injury, which were designed to extend the current knowledge beyond the sub‐acute exposure period. In the pilot study, a single intravenous administration of 1.5 mg kg–1 CDDP to rats was confirmed to result in no histopathological changes. Subsequently, CDDP was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 1.5 mg kg–1 for 4 days at 24‐h intervals (Experimental model 1) and for up to 10 weeks at weekly intervals (Experimental models 2 and 3), and the changes in blood and urine components, such as recently recommended urinary biomarkers (Kim‐1, clusterin and so on) and traditional blood biomarkers (blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine), were examined together with the histopathological changes in renal tissues during the development of the kidney injury in each model. In these experimental models, a significant increase in urinary Kim‐1 was observed prior to the histopathological changes in renal tissues, and these changes were retained after the adverse histopathological changes. Significant changes in all of the other urinary biomarkers examined occurred along with the histopathological changes. In addition, the increase in urinary Kim‐1 after weekly treatment with CDDP for 4 weeks was reduced in a time‐dependent manner after cessation of the drug. The present findings indicate that urinary Kim‐1 is the most useful biomarker for CDDP‐induced rat sub‐chronic kidney injury among the biomarkers examined. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-16T05:43:48.985818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2999
       
  • Evaluation of developmental toxicity using undifferentiated human
           embryonic stem cells
    • Authors: Eui-Man Jung; Yeo-ul Choi, Hong-Seok Kang, Hyun Yang, Eui-Ju Hong, Beum-Soo An, Jun-young Yang, Ki. Hwan Choi, Eui-Bae Jeung
      Abstract: An embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been developed to evaluate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals with an in vitro system. In the present study, novel methods to screen toxic chemicals during the developmental process were evaluated using undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells. By using surface marker antigens (SSEA‐4, TRA‐1‐60 and TRA‐1‐81), we confirmed undifferentiated conditions of the used hES cells by immunocytochemistry. We assessed the developmental toxicity of embryotoxic chemicals, 5‐fluorouracil, indomethacin and non‐embryotoxic penicillin G in different concentrations for up to 7 days. While expressions of the surface markers were not significantly affected, the embryotoxic chemicals influenced their response to pluripotent ES cell markers, such as OCT‐4, NANOG, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2), teratocarcinoma‐derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Most of the pluripotent ES cell markers were down‐regulated in a dose‐dependent manner after treatment with embryotoxic chemicals. After treatment with 5‐fluorouracil, indomethacin and penicillin G, we observed a remarkable convergence in the degree of up‐regulation of development, cell cycle and apoptosis‐related genes by gene expression profiles using an Affymetrix GeneChips. Taken together, these results suggest that embryotoxic chemicals have cytotoxic effects, and modulate the expression of ES cell markers as well as development‐, cell cycle‐ and apoptosis‐related genes that have pivotal roles in undifferentiated hES cells. Therefore, we suggest that hES cells may be useful for testing the toxic effects of chemicals that could impact the embryonic developmental stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-16T05:43:46.307596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3010
       
  • Serum enhanced cytokine responses of macrophages to silica and iron oxide
           particles and nanomaterials: a comparison of serum to lung lining fluid
           and albumin dispersions
    • Authors: David M. Brown; Helinor Johnston, Eva Gubbins, Vicki Stone
      Abstract: The potential hazard to humans exposed to nanomaterials such as silica and iron oxide was investigated using an in vitro macrophage cell culture system. Amorphous silica and iron oxide particles and nanomaterials (NMs) were dispersed in cell culture medium supplemented with either bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum, in order to mimic the body fluids encountered during different routes of exposure in the body. End points investigated included macrophage viability and cytokine production. Silica NMs and particles (50 and 200 nm, respectively) were unmodified (plain) or aminated (NH2). Iron oxide NMs and particles, Fe3O4 45 nm and Fe2O3 280 nm were also used in this study. Silica particles and NMs induced a dose‐dependent increase in cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Serum enhanced silica‐induced interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐10, IL‐1β and MCP‐1 release, whereas albumin partially inhibited MCP‐1 release. Aminated silica, 50 nm was more potent than the 200‐nm particles at inducing monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 (MCP‐1) production when dispersed in medium or LLF, suggesting a size specific effect for these particles and this cytokine. Iron oxide particles were relatively inert compared with the silica particles and NMs; however, serum and albumin did affect cytokine release in some treatments. In conclusion, the data suggests that serum, compared with medium, BSA and LLF is very potent at enhancing macrophage responses to silica and iron oxide particles and NMs. Size was only influential in LLF for a limited number of parameters, whereas surface chemistry was not of consequence in this in vitro macrophage system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-16T05:29:44.649109-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2998
       
  • In vitro exposure of DE‐71, a penta‐PBDE mixture, on immune
           endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and B6C3F1 mice
    • Authors: Jena R. Wirth; Margie M. Peden-Adams, Natasha D. White, Gregory D. Bossart, Patricia A. Fair
      Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an emerging contaminant of concern with low level exposures demonstrating toxicity in laboratory animals and wildlife, although immunotoxicity studies have been limited. Bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant DE‐71 (a penta‐PBDE mixture) concentrations (0–50 µg ml−1) in vitro. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte (B and T cell) proliferation were evaluated using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. This study aimed to substantiate results from field studies with dolphins, assess the sensitivities between the mouse model and dolphins, and to evaluate risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity increased at in vitro doses 0.05, 0.5 and 25 µg DE‐71 ml−1, whereas proliferation was not modulated. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation was not altered after in vitro exposure. In vitro exposure of dolphin PBLs to DE‐71 showed similar results to correlative field studies; NK cell activity in mice was more sensitive to in vitro exposure than dolphins, and the parallelogram approach showed correlation with all three endpoints to predict risk in bottlenose dolphins. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T02:26:12.183666-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3008
       
  • Impact of acute arsenic and cadmium exposure on the expression of two
           haeme oxygenase genes and other antioxidant markers in common carp
           (Cyprinus carpio)
    • Authors: Zsanett Jancsó; Edit Hermesz
      Abstract: The aim was to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) on haeme oxygenases (HOs) and other oxidative stress biomarkers, and their roles in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). HOs play a critical role in the defence system against oxidative damage, producing biliverdin and carbon monoxide with important free radical scavenging properties. However, increased HO activity in haeme degradation may also lead to a pro‐oxidant effect through the liberation of Fe‐modifying Cd and As toxicity. The response of an organism to exposure to toxic metals is in many cases brought about by changes at the level of gene expression. In this study, the genes ho‐1 and ho‐2 of the common carp were identified, and the changes in gene expressions were analysed from the aspect of Cd and As accumulation. Both ho‐1 and ho‐2 are transcriptionally induced by Cd and As, but their inductions differ in time course, dose response and tissue specificity. The expression of ho1 was mostly affected by As, primarily in the liver (45‐fold), whereas it was enhanced with higher efficacy by Cd in the kidney (25‐fold). The cellular redox status and the damage of lipid molecules were monitored via the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07T02:26:09.502028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3000
       
  • Usefulness of optical coherence tomography to detect central serous
           chorioretinopathy in monkeys
    • Authors: Hyun-Kyu Park; Woori Jo, Hyun-Ji Choi, Bongcheol Kim, Gilnam Lee, Jeongbeob Seo, Suk Young Cho, Choung-Soo Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Jung Jin Hwang, Joo Yong Lee, Young Hee Yoon, Woo-Chan Son
      Abstract: Many systemic drugs can induce ocular toxicity and several ocular side‐effects have been identified in clinical studies. However, it is difficult to detect ocular toxicity in preclinical studies because of the lack of appropriate evaluation methods. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful because it can provide real‐time images throughout a study period, whereas histopathology only provides images of sacrificed animals. Using OCT alongside histopathology, attempts were made to find effective approaches for screening of drug‐induced ocular toxicity in monkeys. Such approaches could be used in preclinical studies prior to human trials. Six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were orally administered one of six candidate MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. Central serous chorioretinopathy, a known side‐effect of such inhibitors, was identified in four monkeys by OCT. Artifacts generated during tissue processing meant that histopathology could not detect edematous changes. Thus, OCT is a useful tool to detect ocular toxicity which cannot be detected by histopathology in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-28T03:47:29.247172-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3009
       
  • Involvement of immune‐ and inflammatory‐related factors in
           flucloxacillin‐induced liver injury in mice
    • Authors: Shohei Takai; Satonori Higuchi, Azusa Yano, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tatsuki Fukami, Miki Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
      Abstract: Drug‐induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious problem in pre‐clinical stages of drug development and clinical pharmacotherapy, but the pathogenesis of DILI has not been elucidated. Flucloxacillin (FLX), which is a β‐lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class that is used widely in Europe and Australia, rarely causes DILI. Clinical features suggest that FLX‐induced liver injury is caused by immune‐ and inflammatory‐related factors, but the mechanism of FLX‐induced liver injury is unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of FLX‐induced liver injury in vivo. Plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total‐bilirubin levels were significantly elevated in FLX‐administered mice [1000 mg kg–1, intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. Toll‐like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands, such as high‐mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and S100A8/A9, were significantly increased in FLX‐administered mice, and inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)‐1β, tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)‐2, CXC chemokine‐ligand‐1 (CXCL1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)‐1, were also significantly elevated. IL‐17‐related transcriptional factors and cytokines were increased, and the administration of recombinant IL‐17 (2 mg per body weight, i.p.) resulted in an exacerbation of the FLX‐induced liver injury. TLR4‐associated‐signal transduction may be involved in FLX‐induced liver injury, and IL‐17 is an exacerbating factor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T06:29:38.953028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3002
       
  • Exposure to parabens at the concentration of maximal proliferative
           response increases migratory and invasive activity of human breast cancer
           cells in vitro
    • Authors: Sugandha Khanna; Philip R. Dash, Philippa D. Darbre
      Abstract: Alkyl esters of p–hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Their oestrogenic activity, their measurement in human breast tissue and their ability to drive proliferation of oestrogen‐responsive human breast cancer cells has opened a debate on their potential to influence breast cancer development. As proliferation is not the only hallmark of cancer cells, we have investigated the effects of exposure to parabens at concentrations of maximal proliferative response on migratory and invasive properties using three oestrogen‐responsive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF‐7, T‐47‐D, ZR‐75‐1). Cells were maintained short‐term (1 week) or long‐term (20 ± 2 weeks) in phenol‐red‐free medium containing 5% charcoal‐stripped serum with no addition, 10–8 M 17β‐oestradiol, 1–5 × 10–4 M methylparaben, 10‐5 M n‐propylparaben or 10–5 M n‐butylparaben. Long‐term exposure (20 ± 2 weeks) of MCF‐7 cells to methylparaben, n‐propylparaben or n‐butylparaben increased migration as measured using a scratch assay, time‐lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology: invasive properties were found to increase in matrix degradation assays and migration through matrigel on xCELLigence. Western immunoblotting showed an associated downregulation of E‐cadherin and β‐catenin in the long‐term paraben‐exposed cells which could be consistent with a mechanism involving epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Increased migratory activity was demonstrated also in long‐term paraben‐exposed T‐47‐D and ZR‐75‐1 cells using a scratch assay and time‐lapse microscopy. This is the first report that in vitro, parabens can influence not only proliferation but also migratory and invasive properties of human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T06:29:33.537385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3003
       
  • Molecular biomarkers of phospholipidosis in rat blood and heart after
           amiodarone treatment
    • Authors: Nicola Bocchini; Mery Giantin, Federica Crivellente, Serena Ferraresso, Ivo Faustinelli, Mauro Dacasto, Patrizia Cristofori
      Abstract: Phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by an intracellular accumulation of phospholipids in lysosomes and concurrent development of concentric lamellar bodies. It is induced in humans and in animals by drugs with a cationic amphiphilic structure. The purpose of the present study was to identify a set of molecular biomarkers of PLD in rat blood and heart, hypothetically applicable in preclinical screens within the drug development process. A toxicological study was set up in rats orally treated up to 11 days with 300 mg kg–1 per day–1 amiodarone (AMD). Light and transmission electron microscopy investigations were performed to confirm the presence of lamellar bodies indicative of phospholipid accumulation. The effects of AMD upon the transcriptome of these tissues were estimated using DNA microarray technology. Microarray data analysis showed that a total of 545 and 8218 genes were modulated by AMD treatment in heart and blood, respectively. Some genes implicated in the phospholipid accumulation in cells, such as phospholipase A2, showed similar alterations of gene expression. After transcriptome criteria of analysis and target selection, including also the involvement in the onset of PLD, 7 genes (Pla2g2a, Pla2g7, Gal, Il1b, Cebpb, Fcgr2b, Acer 2) were selected as candidate biomarkers of PLD in heart and blood tissues, and their potential usefulness as a sensitive screening test was screened and confirmed by quantitative Real‐Time PCR analysis. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of transcriptional profiling in drug discovery and development, and suggest blood as a surrogate tissue for possible phospholipid accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-18T00:25:23.937611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2992
       
  • Preliminary safety evaluation of a taurocholate-conjugated
           low-molecular-weight heparin derivative (LHT7): a potent angiogenesis
           inhibitor
    • Authors: Farzana Alam; Seung Woo Chung, Seung Rim Hwang, Ji-young Kim, Jooho Park, Hyun Tae Moon, Youngro Byun
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In our previous studies, taurocholic acid (TA)-conjugated low-molecular-weight heparin derivative (LHT7) has been proven to be a potent anti-angiogenic agent by demonstrated successful blockage capability of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). Preliminary safety evaluations were conducted based on its mechanism of action and chemical behavior. For this purpose, acute toxicity study, and hematological and serological evaluations were carried out. Additionally, in order to evaluate mechanism-related side effects, both blood pressure and the occurrence of proteinuria were measured using a treatment regime of multiple high doses of LHT7 in a biodistribution study. LD50 values for LHT7 in female and male mice were 56.9 and 64.7 mg kg–1 doses, respectively. There were no vital fluctuations in the serological and hematological parameters, except for the elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at 100 and 200 mg kg–1 doses of LHT7, representing vital changes in the liver function. Moreover, the results of mechanism-related studies showed that blood pressure at 50 mg kg–1 did not change but showed elevated levels of protein in urine. In the biodistribution study, a slight accumulation of LHT7 in the kidney and the liver were observed at the 50 mg kg–1 repeated dose owing to the presence of bile acid. No fatal damage was observed in this study; most observations were related to the chemical composition or the mechanism of action of the material. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-16T21:58:07.934802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2995
       
  • Nitroaromatic compounds: Environmental toxicity, carcinogenicity,
           mutagenicity, therapy and mechanism
    • Authors: Peter Kovacic; Ratnasamy Somanathan
      Pages: 810 - 824
      Abstract: Vehicle pollution is an increasing problem in the industrial world. Aromatic nitro compounds comprise a significant portion of the threat. In this review, the class includes nitro derivatives of benzene, biphenyls, naphthalenes, benzanthrone and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plus nitroheteroaromatic compounds. The numerous toxic manifestations are discussed. An appreciable number of drugs incorporate the nitroaromatic structure. The mechanistic aspects of both toxicity and therapy are addressed in the context of a unifying mechanism involving electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-02-16T22:23:29.607563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2980
       
  • Toxicity of imine–iminium dyes and pigments: electron transfer,
           radicals, oxidative stress and other physiological effects
    • Authors: Peter Kovacic; Ratnasamy Somanathan
      First page: 825
      Abstract: Although conjugation is well known as an important contributor to color, there is scant recognition concerning involvement of imine and iminium functions in the physiological effects of this class of dyes and pigments. The group includes the dyes methylene blue, rhodamine, malachite green, fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine and cyanins, in addition to the pigments consisting of pyocyanine, phthalocyanine and pheophytin. The physiological effects consist of both toxicity and beneficial aspects. The unifying theme of electron transfer–reactive oxygen species–oxidative stress is used as the rationale in both cases. Toxicity is frequently prevented or alleviated by antioxidants. The apparent dichotomy of methylene blue action as both oxidant and antioxidant is rationalized based on similar previous cases. This mechanistic approach may have practical benefit. This review is important in conveying, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for toxicity based on electron transfer–reactive oxygen species–oxidative stress arising from imine–iminium. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2014-05-22T16:22:54.672557-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.3005
       
  • Inhibition of cytochrome P450s enhances (+)-usnic acid cytotoxicity in
           primary cultured rat hepatocytes
    • Authors: Qiang Shi; James Greenhaw, William F. Salminen
      Pages: 835 - 840
      Abstract: (+)-Usnic acid (UA) is consumed as a dietary supplement to promote weight loss; however, dietary supplements containing UA have been associated with clinical cases of severe liver injury. UA has been shown to be hepatotoxic in rats and is extensively metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs); therefore, we examined if UA metabolism results in the formation of cytotoxic metabolites or if metabolism is a detoxification process in primary rat hepatocytes. When CYP activity was suppressed by the non-isoenzyme-selective inhibitor SKF-525A (20 μM), or the CYP1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (10 μM), or the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (25 μM), the cytotoxicity of UA at 3 ~ 6 μM after 3 ~ 20 h of exposure was significantly increased as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. At 2 h after UA exposure, an earlier time point prior to LDH release, these CYP inhibitors potentiated UA-induced inhibition of cellular respiration as determined by the Clark type oxygen electrode. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion by UA was also exacerbated by these CYP inhibitors. The CYP2B/2C inhibitor, ticlopidine at 20 μM, showed no effects in parallel experiments. These data demonstrate that UA is bio-transformed to less toxic metabolites in rat primary hepatocytes, probably mainly by CYP1A and 3A, but not 2B/2C. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2013-05-20T05:34:49.380555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2892
       
  • N-hexane inhalation during pregnancy alters DNA promoter methylation in
           the ovarian granulosa cells of rat offspring
    • Authors: Hong Li; Jin Liu, Yan Sun, Wenxiang Wang, Shaozheng Weng, Shihua Xiao, Huiling Huang, Wenchang Zhang
      Pages: 841 - 856
      Abstract: The N-hexane-induced impact on the reproductive system of the offspring of animals exposed to n-hexane has caused great concern. Pregnant Wistar rats inhaled 500, 2 500 or 12 500 ppm n-hexane during gestational days 1–20. Clinical characteristics and developmental indices were observed. Ovarian granulosa cells were extracted from F1 rats, the number of follicles was determined in ovarian slices and promoter methylation was assessed using MeDIP-Chip. Several methods were used to analyze the scanned genes, including the Gene Ontology Consortium tools, the DAVID Functional Annotation Clustering Tool, hierarchical clustering and KEGG pathway analysis. The results indicated that the live pups/litter ratio was significantly lowest in the 12 500 ppm group. A significant decrease in secondary follicles and an increase in atresic follicles were observed in the 12 500 ppm group. The number of shared demethylated genes was higher than that of the methylated genes, and the differentially methylated genes were enriched in cell death and apoptosis, cell growth and hormone regulation. The methylation profiles of the offspring from the 500 ppm and control groups were different from those of the 2500 and 12 500 ppm groups. Furthermore, the methylation status of genes in the PI3K-Akt and NF-kappa B signaling pathways was changed after n-hexane exposure. The Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1a1 and Srd5a1 promoters were hypermethylated in the n-hexane-exposed groups. These results indicate that the developmental toxicity of n-hexane in F1 ovaries is accompanied by the altered methylation of promoters of genes associated with apoptotic processes and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-06-06T05:49:26.916836-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2893
       
  • Dermal irritation of petrolatum in rabbits but not in mice, rats or
           minipigs
    • Authors: S. A. Chandra; R. A. Peterson, D. Melich, C. M. Merrill, D. Bailey, K. Mellon-Kusibab, R. Adler
      Pages: 857 - 861
      Abstract: Petrolatum is widely used in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and also as a vehicle in dermal toxicity studies. New Zealand white rabbits treated with white petrolatum (vehicle control) in a 2-week dermal irritation study exhibited moderate to severe erythema starting on Day 7 that subsided towards the end of the study. Histological examination of abraded and non-abraded petrolatum-treated skin obtained at termination (Day 15) revealed mild acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dermal edema with mixed inflammatory cells in the dermis. Macroscopic and microscopic features noted in rabbits were consistent with dermal irritation to petrolatum. Wistar-Han rats, CD1 mice, C57/Bl/6J mice and Göttingen minipigs treated topically with white petrolatum did not exhibit clinical or histologic evidence of dermal irritation. Therapeutic agents developed for topical application are generally tested in rabbits during some point in development. Interpretation of skin irritation data from a single species can impact risk assessment for humans and on product labeling. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-05-30T07:16:54.557287-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2895
       
  • Role of methotrexate exposure in apoptosis and proliferation during early
           neurulation
    • Authors: Xiuwei Wang; Jianhua Wang, Tao Guan, Qian Xiang, Mingsheng Wang, Zhen Guan, Guannan Li, Zhiqiang Zhu, Qiu Xie, Ting Zhang, Bo Niu
      Pages: 862 - 869
      Abstract: Apoptosis and proliferation play important roles in embryonic development and are required for neural tube closure. The antifolate drug methotrexate (MTX) induces folate dysmetabolism by inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and causes abnormal apoptosis and proliferation. In this study, we established an animal model of neural tube defects (NTDs) using MTX to investigate the role of apoptosis and proliferation in NTDs caused by folate deficiency. Differential gene expressions were studied by microarray and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in the NTD animal model. Results showed that 30.8% of NTDs were caused by using MTX in treatment regimens. Microarray indicated that 166 genes were significantly different between the control and NTD mice, including four apoptosis-related genes (Endog, Trp53, Casp3, Bax) and three proliferation-related genes (Ptch1, Pla2g4a, Foxg1). Levels of Endog, Trp53, Casp3, Bax (fold change > 1.5) were upregulated but Ptch1, Pla2g4a, Foxg1 (fold change 
      PubDate: 2013-07-09T02:17:27.110799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2901
       
  • Cytotoxic effects of the quinolone levofloxacin on rabbit meniscus cells
    • Authors: Linlong Wang; Yunpeng Wu, Yang Tan, Xi Fei, Yu Deng, Hong Cao, Biao Chen, Hui Wang, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen
      Pages: 870 - 877
      Abstract: Quinolones have been reported to induce adverse effects on articular cartilage, tendons and ligaments. However, the effects of quinolones on menisci have not been revealed. The present study was to test the effects of levofloxacin on meniscus cells in vitro. Rabbit meniscus cells were administrated with different concentrations of levofloxacin (0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 224 µm) for 24 or 48 h, and cell viability and apoptosis were measured. The mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-3, Col1a1, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Active caspase-3 was detected by immunocytochemical assay, while protein expression levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were measured by Western blotting assay. After treatment with levofloxacin for 48 h, cell viability was decreased from dose of 28 to 224 µm in a concentration-dependent manner. An increase of apoptotic cells was observed by flow cytometry. Active caspase-3 protein expression level was also increased. The mRNA level of Bcl-2 was decreased and levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 in experimental groups were higher than those of controls. The protein levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were increased. Moreover, the mRNA levels of TIMP-3 and col1a1 were decreased. A dose-dependent increase of inducible nitric oxide mRNA expression level was also observed. Our results suggested the cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on meniscus cells through induction of apoptosis and unbalanced MMPs/TIMPs expression. These side effects might result in meniscus extracellular matrix degradation and meniscal lesion. Thus, quinolones should be used cautiously on patients who perform athletic activities or undergo surgical meniscus repair. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-07-01T04:23:22.929971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2903
       
  • Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active
           component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii
    • Authors: Fuying Du; Zhaohua Liu, Xinxiu Li, Jie Xing
      Pages: 878 - 884
      Abstract: Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-07-09T01:59:47.600008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2906
       
  • DNA fragmentation induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal
           analogue EA-4 in C2C12 mouse and HL-60 human leukemic cells in vitro
    • Authors: Raghda S. Alakhras; Georgia Stephanou, Nikos A. Demopoulos, Konstantinos Grintzalis, Christos D. Georgiou, Sotirios S. Nikolaropoulos
      Pages: 885 - 892
      Abstract: We have recently shown that retinoic acid induces micronucleation mainly via chromosome breakage (Alakhras et al. Cancer Lett 2011; 306: 15–26). To further study retinoic acid clastogenicity and evaluate DNA damaging potential we investigated the ability of (a) all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal analogue EA-4 to induce DNA fragmentation by using Comet assay under alkaline unwinding and neutral condition electrophoresis, and (b) the retinoids under study to induce small (0–1 kb) DNA fragments. Two cell lines, C2C12 mouse cells and HL-60 human leukemic cells were used in this study. We found that all-trans retinoic acid and its steroidal analogue EA-4 (a) provoke DNA migration due to DNA fragmentation as it is shown by the increased values of Comet parameters, and (b) induce significantly small-size fragmented genomic DNA as indicated by the quantification of necrotic/apoptotic small DNA segments in both cell systems. A different response between the two cell lines was observed in relation to retinoid ability to increase the percentage of DNA in the tail as well as break DNA in to small fragments. Our findings confirm the ability of retinoic acid to provoke micronucleation by disrupting DNA into fragments, among which small pieces of double-stranded DNA up to 1 kb are identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-08-02T01:23:16.668915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2908
       
  • The alkylphenols 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-tert-butylphenol
           aggravate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice
    • Authors: Kaori Sadakane; Takamichi Ichinose, Hirohisa Takano, Rie Yanagisawa, Eiko Koike, Ken-ichiro Inoue
      Pages: 893 - 902
      Abstract: Phthalate esters in plastics act as adjuvants for immunoglobulin production, which aggravates allergic disease. However, the effects of alkylphenols (used as plasticizers and surfactants) on atopic dermatitis have not been studied in detail. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of the alkylphenols 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-tert-butylphenol (BP) in a murine model of atopic dermatitis. NC/Nga mice were intraperitoneally administered NP, OP or BP and were subcutaneously injected with mite allergen in one ear to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions (ADSLs). The condition of the skin was observed, and the levels of immunoglobulin in serum and inflammatory cytokines in lesions were determined. NP exacerbated mite allergen-induced ADSLs according to dose. OP and BP also significantly exacerbated skin lesions but not as a function of dose. Alkylphenols tended to increase the levels of IgE and antigen-specific IgG1 in serum. Further, the treatment of the alkylphenols increased the expression in lesions of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels increased according to ADSL severity. In contrast, the levels of the T-helper 1 cytokines (interleukin-18 and interferon-gamma) decreased. NP, OP or BP may enhance T-helper 2-type immune responses in NC/Nga mice, which aggravates mite allergen-induced ADSLs. Therefore, the uptake of very low levels of alkylphenols may contribute to the increase in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-08-23T22:56:22.034266-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2911
       
  • In vitro protection by pyruvate against cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in
           hippocampal HT-22 cells
    • Authors: Ethan Poteet; Ali Winters, Luokun Xie, Myoung-Gwi Ryou, Ran Liu, Shao-Hua Yang
      Pages: 903 - 913
      Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal with no biological function in higher-order mammals. Humans are exposed to cadmium environmental contamination and the mechanism underlying the cadmium's cytotoxicity is unclear. To better understand this mechanism, we employed murine hippocampal HT-22 cells to test the in vitro effects of cadmium toxicity. Our study indicated that cadmium inhibits both mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. In turn, this causes depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of superoxide production and decrease of ATP generation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the detrimental action of cadmium in bioenergetics could be mitigated by pyruvate, an intermediate metabolic product. Pyruvate decreased superoxide production, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, restored glycolysis, mitigated the decrease in cellular ATP and attenuated cadmium cytotoxicity. Our study provides the first evidence that pyruvate might offer promising therapy for cadmium poisoning. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-08-30T03:18:22.64168-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2913
       
  • Increased methylmercury toxicity related to obesity in diabetic KK-Ay mice
    • Authors: Megumi Yamamoto; Rie Yanagisawa, Eriko Motomura, Masaaki Nakamura, Mineshi Sakamoto, Motohiro Takeya, Komyo Eto
      Pages: 914 - 923
      Abstract: We examined the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) in KK-Ay type 2 diabetic mice to clarify how metabolic changes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus affect MeHg toxicity. MeHg (5 mg Hg kg –1day–1 p.o.) was given to 4-week-old male KK-Ay and C57BL/6J (BL/6) mice three times per week for 6 weeks. Average body weights (BW) of vehicle-treated BL/6 and KK-Ay mice were 16.3 and 16.4 g respectively on the first day, and 24.8 and 42.3 g respectively on the last day of the experiment. MeHg-treated KK-Ay mice began to lose weight about 5 weeks after MeHg administration. Six of seven MeHg-treated KK-Ay mice showed hind-limb clasping in the final stage of the experiment. The mean blood mercury level of MeHg-treated KK-Ay mice reached a maximum of 9.8 µg ml–1, whereas that of the MeHg-treated BL/6 mice was 2.8 µg ml–1 after 10 days of treatment. The average total mercury concentrations in the cerebrum and epididymal fat pad were 7.4 and 0.57 µg g–1, respectively, for BL/6 mice and 27 and 1.6 µg g–1, respectively, for KK-Ay mice. In MeHg-treated KK-Ay mice with neurological symptoms, CD204-positive macrophages were observed in the brain, kidney and spleen, indicating CD204 could be a marker for injured tissues. BW loss and significant pathological changes were not observed in other groups of mice. These results indicate that body fat gain in type 2 diabetes mellitus and low mercury accumulation in adipose tissue increased MeHg concentrations in organs and enhanced toxicity in KK-Ay mice at the same dose of MeHg per BW. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      PubDate: 2013-11-15T03:22:53.03781-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jat.2954
       
 
 
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