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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 768 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (693 journals)
    - POLLUTION (23 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (41 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (11 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (693 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ring     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Riparian Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
S.A.P.I.EN.S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 204)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Volcanology
  [7 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2191-5040
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [224 journals]
  • Effusive crises at Piton de la Fournaise 2014–2015: a review of a
           multi-national response model

    • Abstract: Many active European volcanoes and volcano observatories are island-based and located far from their administrative “mainland”. Consequently, Governments have developed multisite approaches, in which monitoring is performed by a network of individuals distributed across several national research centers. At a transnational level, multinational networks are also progressively emerging. Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion Island, France) is one such example. Piton de la Fournaise is one of the most active volcanoes of the World, and is located at the greatest distance from its “mainland” than any other vulnerable “overseas” site, the observatory being 9365 km from its governing body in Paris. Effusive risk is high, so that a well-coordinated and rapid response involving near-real time delivery of trusted, validated and operational product for hazard assessment is critical. Here we review how near-real time assessments of lava flow propagation were developed using rapid provision, and update, of key source terms through a dynamic and open integration of near-real time remote sensing, modeling and measurement capabilities on both the national and international level. The multi-national system evolved during the five effusive crises of 2014–2015, and is now mature for Piton de la Fournaise. This review allows us to identify strong and weak points in an extended observatory system, and demonstrates that enhanced multi-national integration can have fundamental implications in scientific hazard assessment and response during an on-going effusive crisis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
       
  • Preservation of thin tephra

    • Abstract: The preservation of thin (<300 mm thick) tephra falls was investigated at four sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Alaska and Washington, USA. Measurements of the variations in the thickness of: (i) Tibito Tephra 150 km downwind from the source, Long Island (PNG) erupted mid-seventeenth century; (ii) St Helens W tephra (erupted 1479–80 A.D.) on the slopes of the adjacent Mt. Rainier in Washington State; (iii) Novarupta (1912) tephra preserved on Kodiak Island (Alaska, USA); and (iv) an experimentally placed tephra at a site near Mt. Hagen (PNG) allow tentative conclusions to be drawn about the relative importance to tephra preservation of slope gradients, vegetation cover and soil faunal activity. Results for the experimental tephra suggest that compaction occurs rapidly post-deposition and that estimates of tephra thickness and bulk density need to indicate how long after deposition thickness measurements were made. These studies show that erosional reworking of thin tephra is not rapid even on steeper slopes in high rainfall environments. In Papua New Guinea a 350-year old tephra is rarely present under forest but is well-preserved under alpine grasslands. On Mt. Rainier 500-year old tephra is readily preserved under forest but absent under grasslands as a result of gopher activity. Despite the poor relationship between tephra thickness and slope steepness the thickness of thin tephras is highly variable. On Kodiak Island thickness variability across a few metres is similar to that observed across the whole northeast of the island. The measured variability reported here indicates large sample sizes are necessary to adequately estimate the mean thickness of these thin tephra. These results have implications for the preparation of isopach maps, estimation of tephra volumes and elaboration of the potential consequences of tephra falls.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
       
  • Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models of lava flow simulation
           for hazard assessment, forecasting, and risk management

    • Abstract: Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, designing flow mitigation measures, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, COMSOL, and MOLASSES. We model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal planes, sloping surfaces, and into topographic obstacles. We compare model results to physical observations made during well-controlled analogue and molten basalt experiments, and to analytical theory when available. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We assess the goodness-of-fit of the simulation results and the computational cost. Our results guide the selection of numerical simulation codes for different applications, including inferring emplacement conditions of past lava flows, modeling the temporal evolution of ongoing flows during eruption, and probabilistic assessment of lava flow hazard prior to eruption. Finally, we outline potential experiments and desired key observational data from future flows that would extend existing benchmarking data sets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
       
  • Probabilistic hazard modelling of rain-triggered lahars

    • Abstract: Probabilistic quantification of lahar hazard is an important component of lahar risk assessment and mitigation. Here we propose a new approach to probabilistic lahar hazard assessment through coupling a lahar susceptibility model with a shallow-layer lahar flow model. Initial lahar volumes and their probabilities are quantified using the lahar susceptibility model which establishes a relationship between the volume of mobilised sediment and exceedance probabilities from rainfall intensity-frequency-duration curves. Rainfall-triggered lahar hazard zones can then be delineated probabilistically by using the mobilised volumes as an input into lahar flow models. While the applicability of this model is limited to rain-triggered lahars, this approach is able to reduce the reliance on historic and empirical estimates of lahar hazard and creates an opportunity for the generation of purely quantitative probabilistic lahar hazard maps. The new approach is demonstrated through the generation of probabilistic hazard maps for lahars originating from the Mangatoetoenui Glacier, Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
       
  • Report on potential sampling biases in the LaMEVE database of global
           volcanism

    • Abstract: We investigate whether the disproportionate contribution of individual volcanoes in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruption database (LaMEVE) potentially compromises the treatment of LaMEVE as a globally representative database of volcanic activity. We find that 41% of volcanoes which contribute at least one eruption to LaMEVE only contribute one eruption (10% of all eruptions), and the six most prolific volcanoes contribute 11% of eruptions. However, there is no systematic bias with respect to the eruption magnitude or date for volcanoes contributing one eruption. Also, no bias can be discerned for when the smallest or largest eruption at a volcano occurs in its eruptive record. Half of the volcanoes contributing one or more eruptions to the LaMEVE database had their first eruption prior to 36.4 ka. We find LaMEVE is representative – while there are well-known issues of eruption under-reporting, LaMEVE is not overly biased by the activity of a few volcanoes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
       
  • Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of
           Fogo, Cape Verde

    • Abstract: Fast-moving lava flows during the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo volcano in Cape Verde engulfed 75% (n = 260) of buildings within three villages in the Chã das Caldeiras area, as well as 25% of cultivable agricultural land, water storage facilities and the only road into the area. The eruption had a catastrophic impact for the close-knit communities of Chã, destroying much of their property, land and livelihoods. Volcanic risk assessment typically assumes that any object - be it a building, infrastructure or agriculture - in the path of a lava flow will be completely destroyed. Vulnerability or fragility functions for areas impacted by lava flows are thus binary: no damage in the absence of lava and complete destruction in the presence of lava. A pre-eruption field assessment of the vulnerability of buildings, infrastructure and agriculture on Fogo to the range of volcanic hazards was carried out in 2010. Many of the areas assessed were subsequently impacted by the 2014–2015 eruption and, shortly after the eruption ended, we carried out a post-eruption field assessment of the damage caused by the lava flows. In this paper, we present our findings from the damage assessment in the context of building and infrastructural vulnerability to lava flows. We found that a binary vulnerability function for lava flow impact was appropriate for most combinations of lava flow hazard and asset characteristics but that building and infrastructure type, and the flow thickness, affected the level of impact. Drawing on these observations, we have considered potential strategies for reducing physical vulnerability to lava flow impact, with a focus on buildings housing critical infrastructure. Damage assessments for lava flows are rare, and the findings and analysis presented here are important for understanding future hazard and reconstruction on Fogo and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
       
  • Forecasting volcanic ash deposition using HYSPLIT

    • Abstract: A major source of error in forecasting where airborne volcanic ash will travel and land is the wind pattern above and around the volcano. GNS Science, in conjunction with MetService, is seeking to move its routine ash forecasts from using the ASHFALL program, which cannot allow for horizontal variations in the wind pattern, to HYSPLIT, which uses a full 4-D atmospheric model. This has required some extensions to the standard version of the HYSPLIT program, both to get appropriate source terms and to handle the fall velocities of ash particles larger than 100 microns. Application of the modified HYSPLIT to ash from the Te Maari eruption of 6 August 2012 from Tongariro volcano gives results similar to the observed ash distribution. However, it was also apparent that the high precision of these results could be misleading in actual forecasting situations, and there needs to be ways in which the likely errors in atmospheric model winds can be incorporated into ash models, to show all the areas in which there is a significant likelihood of deposited ash with each particular volcanic eruption model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04
       
  • Phreatic eruptions at crater lakes: occurrence statistics and
           probabilistic hazard forecast

    • Abstract: Phreatic eruptions, although posing a serious threat to people in crater proximity, are often underestimated and have been comparatively understudied. The detailed eruption catalogue for Ruapehu Volcano (New Zealand) provides an exceptional opportunity to study the statistics of recurring phreatic explosions at a crater lake volcano. We performed a statistical analysis on this phreatic eruption database, which suggests that phreatic events at Ruapehu do not follow a Poisson process. Instead they tend to cluster, which is possibly linked to an increased heat flow during periods of a more shallow-seated magma column. Larger explosions are more likely to follow shortly after smaller events, as opposed to longer periods of quiescence. The absolute probability for a phreatic explosion to occur at Ruapehu within the next month is about 10%, when averaging over the last 70 years of recording. However, the frequency of phreatic explosions is significantly higher than the background level in years prior to magmatic episodes. Combining clast ejection simulations with a Bayesian event tree tool (PyBetVH) we perform a probabilistic assessment of the hazard due to ballistic ejecta in the summit area of Ruapehu, which is frequently visited by hikers. Resulting hazard maps show that the absolute probability for the summit to be affected by ballistics within the next month is up to 6%. The hazard is especially high on the northern lakeshore, where there is a mountain refuge. Our results contribute to the local hazard assessment as well as the general perception of hazards due to steam-driven explosions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
       
  • Household preparedness motivation in lahar hazard zones: assessing the
           adoption of preparedness behaviors among laypeople and response
           professionals in communities downstream from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak
           (USA) volcanoes

    • Abstract: As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest grows, more detailed studies of household preparedness in at-risk communities are needed to develop effective mitigation, response, and recovery plans. This study examines two aspects of preparedness behavior motivation in the Skagit Valley (WA), which is at risk from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak lahars. First, we examine the influence of perceived response-efficacy, protective response costs, self-efficacy, and ascription of responsibility on preparedness. Results indicate few respondents believe high perceived protective response costs, low perceived response-efficacy, or low perceived protection responsibility prevent them from adopting frequently recommended preparedness behaviors. Correlations with preparedness suggest perceived self-efficacy and ascription of responsibility play a more dominant role in determining preparedness behaviors, albeit a less readily recognized role. Second, we investigate how participation in hazard management at a professional level (e.g., working as a first responder or leader within the local city government, hospitals, school districts, Red Cross, or utilities, transportation, or water companies) influences knowledge, risk perception, and household preparedness. Results show that professional participation minimally influences household preparedness, but successfully improves perceived self-efficacy, confidence in officials, and information seeking behavior. Given these results, we argue (1) for inclusion of ascription of responsibility variables in studies of preparedness behavior motivation and (2) that specific types of participation in response-related activities (e.g., public, professional, specific training programs) may affect household preparedness differently, whereas self-efficacy and confidence in officials may improve regardless of participation type because of increased interaction with emergency officials.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
       
  • Estimating building vulnerability to volcanic ash fall for insurance and
           other purposes

    • Abstract: Volcanic ash falls are one of the most widespread and frequent volcanic hazards, and are produced by all explosive volcanic eruptions. Ash falls are arguably the most disruptive volcanic hazard because of their ability to affect large areas and to impact a wide range of assets, even at relatively small thicknesses. From an insurance perspective, the most valuable insured assets are buildings. Ash fall vulnerability curves or functions, which relate the magnitude of ash fall to likely damage, are the most developed for buildings, although there have been important recent advances for agriculture and infrastructure. In this paper, we focus on existing vulnerability functions developed for volcanic ash fall impact on buildings, and apply them to a hypothetical building portfolio impacted by a modern-day Tambora 1815 eruption scenario. We compare and contrast the different developed functions and discuss some of the issues surrounding estimation of potential building damage following a volcanic eruption. We found substantial variability in the different vulnerability estimates, which contribute to large uncertainties when estimating potential building damage and loss. Given the lack of detailed and published studies of building damage resulting from ash fall this is not surprising, although it also appears to be the case for other natural hazards for which there are far more empirical damage data. Notwithstanding the potential limitations of some empirical data in constraining vulnerability functions, efforts are required to improve our estimates of building damage under ash fall loading through the collection of damage data, experimental testing and perhaps theoretical failure analysis. For insurance purposes, the current building typologies provided for use with vulnerability functions are too detailed to map to the relatively limited information on building types that is typically available to insurers. Thus, efforts to provide vulnerability functions that can be used where only limited information is available regarding building types would also be valuable, both for insurers and for at-risk areas that have not been subject to detailed building vulnerability surveys.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
       
  • A model to assess tephra clean-up requirements in urban environments

    • Abstract: Tephra falls can cause a range of impacts to communities by disrupting, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructure systems, as well as posing a potential health hazard. Coordinated clean-up operations minimise the impacts of tephra on social and economic activities. However, global experience suggests clean-up operations are one of the most challenging aspects of responding to and recovering from tephra falls in urban environments. Here, we present a method for modelling coordinated municipal-led (town/district level authorities) tephra clean-up operations to support pre-event response and recovery planning. The model estimates the volume of tephra to be removed, clean-up duration, and direct costs. The underpinning component of the model is a scalable clean-up response framework, which identifies and progressively includes more urban surfaces (e.g., roofs, and roads) requiring clean-up with increasing tephra thickness. To demonstrate model applicability, we present four clean-up scenarios for the city of Auckland, New Zealand: 1 mm and 10 mm distal tephra fall across the city, along with two local ‘wet’ eruption scenarios (low and high volume tephra deposition) from within the Auckland Volcanic Field. Depending on the modelled scenario, outputs suggest that coordinated clean-up operations in Auckland could require the removal of tens of thousands to millions of cubic metres of tephra. The cost of these operations are estimated to be NZ$0.6–1.1 million (US$0.4–0.7 million) for the 1 mm distal tephra scenario and NZ$13.4–25.6 million (US$9–17 million) for the 10 mm distal tephra scenario. Estimated clean-up costs of local eruptions range from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. All eruption scenarios indicate clean-up operations lasting weeks to months, but clean-up in some areas impacted by local eruptions could last for years. The model outputs are consistent with documented historic tephra clean-up operations. Although we use Auckland as a proof-of-concept example, the method may be adapted for any city exposed to a tephra hazard.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
       
  • Global recording rates for large eruptions

    • Abstract: A non-parametric statistical approach is used to assess the global recording rate for large (M4+) stratovolcano eruptions in a modern database, LaMEVE (v3.1). This approach imposes minimal structure on the shape of the recording rate through time. We find that recording rates have declined rapidly, going backwards in time. Prior to the year 1600 they are below 50 %, and prior to 1100 they are below 20 %. Even in the recent past, e.g. the 1800s, they are likely to be less than 100 %. The assessment for very large (M5+) eruptions is more uncertain, due to the scarcity of events.
      PubDate: 2016-10-10
       
  • TephraProb: a Matlab package for probabilistic hazard assessments of
           tephra fallout

    • Abstract: TephraProb is a toolbox of Matlab functions designed to produce scenario–based probabilistic hazard assessments for ground tephra accumulation based on the Tephra2 model. The toolbox includes a series of graphical user interfaces that collect, analyze and pre–process input data, create distributions of eruption source parameters based on a wide range of probabilistic eruption scenarios, run Tephra2 using the generated input scenarios and provide results as exceedence probability maps, probabilistic isomass maps and hazard curves. We illustrate the functionality of TephraProb using the 2011 eruption of Cordón Caulle volcano (Chile) and selected eruptions of La Fossa volcano (Vulcano Island, Italy). The range of eruption styles captured by these two events highlights the potential of TephraProb as an operative tool when rapid hazard assessments are required during volcanic crises.
      PubDate: 2016-08-24
       
  • Application of tephra volume models to ejecta volumes from subsurface
           explosion experiments

    • Abstract: Deposit volume is a critical factor for reconstructing an explosive eruption. Volume estimate models typically used for large Plinian deposits have been adapted and improved repeatedly over the last few decades. Less work has been done to refine a method for estimating the volume from smaller deposits produced by discrete phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions. The characterization of the volume and distribution of deposits is required to quantify the physical hazards presented by different explosion types and develop appropriate models of future eruptions. Six classic tephra volume models were assessed using a dataset from subsurface explosion experiments. The models typically did a poor job modelling the volume of proximal deposits as a component of total deposit volume of discrete explosion deposits. Models reproduced medial and distal deposit volumes with greater success, particularly the Exponential model and a more recent Linear Regression model. It is therefore recommended, when possible, to use digital elevation models produced from GPS or laser-based methods to characterize proximal deposits separately and to use tephra volume estimates for medial and distal deposits. Additionally, this dataset enabled the comparison of ejecta volumes with crater diameters and highlighted that this relationship only holds for simple crater scenarios without any lateral vent migration, collapse or erosion of the crater under study. The assessment and improvement of these methods are required to ensure accurate deposit volumes as they serve as one of the most important inputs to hazard assessments and numerical models.
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
       
  • Mapping and measuring lava volumes from 2002 to 2009 at El Reventador
           Volcano, Ecuador, from field measurements and satellite remote sensing

    • Abstract: Estimates of lava volume, and thus effusion rate, are critical for assessing volcanic hazard and are a priority for volcano observatories with responsibility for monitoring. The choice of specific methods used to approximate lava volume depends on both volcanological and practical considerations; in particular, whether field measurements are possible and how often they can be repeated. Volcán El Reventador (Ecuador) is inaccessible, and field measurements can only be made infrequently at a few locations in its caldera. We present both planimetric field and topographic satellite radar-based measurements of lava flow thicknesses and volumes for activity at El Reventador between 2002 and 2009. Lava volumes estimates range from 75 ± 24 × 106 m3 (based on field measurements of flow thickness) to 90 ± 37 × 106 m3 (from satellite radar retrieval of flow thickness), corresponding to time-averaged effusion rates of 9 ± 4 m3/s and 7 ± 2 m3/s, respectively. Detailed flow mapping from aerial imagery demonstrate that lava effusion rate was at its peak at the start of each eruption phase and decreased over time. Measurements of lava thickness made from a small set of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferograms allowed the retrieval of the shape of the compound lava flow field and show that in 2009 it was subsiding by up to 6 cm/year. Satellite radar measurements thus have the potential to be a valuable supplement to ground-based monitoring at El Reventador and other inaccessible volcanoes.
      PubDate: 2016-04-04
       
  • Impacts to agriculture and critical infrastructure in Argentina after
           ashfall from the 2011 eruption of the Cordón Caulle volcanic complex: an
           assessment of published damage and function thresholds

    • Abstract: The 2011 Cordón Caulle (Chile) was a large silicic eruption that dispersed ashfall over 75,000 km2 of land in Central Argentina, affecting large parts of the Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut provinces, including the urban areas of Villa la Angostura, Bariloche and Jacobacci. These regions all received damage and disruption to critical infrastructure and agriculture due to the ashfall. We describe these impacts and classify them according to published damage/disruption states (DDS). DDS for infrastructure and agriculture were also assigned to each area using the tephra thickness thresholds suggested by previous studies reported in the volcanological literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the impacts were as expected based on the DDS suggested thresholds, and to determine whether other factors, apart from ashfall thickness, played a part. DDS thresholds based on tephra thickness were a good predictor of the impacts that occurred in the semi-arid steppe area around Jacobacci. This was unexpected as the more severe impacts were related to the challenging environmental conditions (low precipitation levels, high levels of wind erosion) and the daily wind remobilisation of ash that occurred, rather than the ashfall thicknesses received. The temperate region, including Villa la Angostura and Bariloche, performed better than the DDS assigned by ashfall thickness suggested. Despite deposits as thick as 300 mm, full recovery occurred within months of the ashfall event. The DDS scales need to incorporate a wider range of system characteristics, and environmental and vulnerability factors, as we propose here.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24
       
  • Automated tracking of lava lake level using thermal images at Kīlauea
           Volcano, Hawai’i

    • Abstract: Tracking the level of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, is an essential part of monitoring the ongoing eruption and forecasting potentially hazardous changes in activity. We describe a simple automated image processing routine that analyzes continuously-acquired thermal images of the lava lake and measures lava level. The method uses three image segmentation approaches, based on edge detection, short-term change analysis, and composite temperature thresholding, to identify and track the lake margin in the images. These relative measurements from the images are periodically calibrated with laser rangefinder measurements to produce real-time estimates of lake elevation. Continuous, automated tracking of the lava level has been an important tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 2012 in real-time operational monitoring of the volcano and its hazard potential.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16
       
  • Effects of eruption source parameter variation and meteorological dataset
           on tephra fallout hazard assessment: example from Vesuvius (Italy)

    • Abstract: In this study, using the tephra dispersal model HAZMAP, we investigate the effect of using different meteorological datasets and eruption source parameters on tephra fallout hazard assessment for a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius, which is considered as a reference case for hazard assessment analysis. We analyze the effect of using different meteorological data, from: i) radio-sounding carried out at the meteorological station of Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012, and at Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1995 and 2013; ii) meteorological models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Furthermore, we consider the effects of perturbing reference eruptive source parameters. In particular, we vary the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the column height, and the effective atmospheric diffusion coefficient to evaluate how these parameters affect the hazard probability maps. Moreover, the effect of the seasonal variation of the wind field and the effect of the rain on the deposit loading are considered. Results show that the parameter that mostly affects hazard maps is, as expected, the total erupted mass; furthermore, keeping constant the erupted mass, the most important control on hazard is due to the particle terminal settling velocity distribution which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Within the considered range variations, the hazard depends less on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and effective diffusion coefficient.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08
       
  • Probabilistic Volcanic Ash Hazard Analysis (PVAHA) II: assessment of the
           Asia-Pacific region using VAPAH

    • Abstract: Volcanic ash is an increasingly common, long-range hazard, impacting on our globalised society. The Asia-Pacific region is rapidly developing as a major contributor to the global population and economy and is home to one-quarter of the world’s active volcanoes. Here we present a regional-scale volcanic ash hazard assessment for the Asia-Pacific using a newly developed framework for Probabilistic Volcanic Ash Hazard Analysis (PVAHA). This PVAHA was undertaken using the Volcanic Ash Probabilistic Assessment of Hazard (VAPAH) algorithm. The VAPAH algorithm considered a magnitude-frequency distribution of eruptions and associated volcanic ash load attenuation relationships for the Asia-Pacific, and integrated across all possible events to arrive at an annual exceedance probability for sites of interest. The Asia-Pacific region was divided into six sub-regions (e.g. Indonesia, Philippines and Southeast Asia, Melanesia/Australia, Japan/Taiwan, New Zealand/Samoa/Tonga/Fiji and Russia/China/Mongolia/Korea) characterised by 276 source volcanoes each with individual magnitude-frequency relationships. Sites for analysis within the Asia-Pacific region were limited to land-based locations at 1-km grid spacing, within 500 km of a volcanic source. The Indonesian sub-region exhibited the greatest volcanic ash hazard in the region at the 100-year timeframe, with additional sources (in Japan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Kamchatka - Russia and New Zealand) along plate boundaries manifesting a high degree of hazard at the 10,000-year timeframe. Disaggregation of the volcanic ash hazard for individual sites of interest provided insight into the primary causal factors for volcanic ash hazard at capital cities in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Japan. This PVAHA indicated that volcanic ash hazard for Port Moresby was relatively low at all timeframes. In contrast to this, Jakarta, Manila and Tokyo are characterised by high degrees hazard at all timeframes. The greatest hazard was associated with Tokyo and the PVAHA was able to quantify that the large number of sources impacting on this location was the causal factor contributing to the hazard. This evidence-based approach provides important insights for decision makers responsible for strategic planning and can assist with prioritising regions of interest for more detailed volcanic ash hazard modelling and local scale planning.
      PubDate: 2016-02-18
       
  • Probabilistic Volcanic Ash Hazard Analysis (PVAHA) I: development of the
           VAPAH tool for emulating multi-scale volcanic ash fall analysis

    • Abstract: Significant advances have been made in recent years in probabilistic analysis of geological hazards. Analyses of this kind are concerned with producing estimates of the probability of occurrence of a hazard at a site given the location, magnitude, and frequency of hazardous events around that site; in particular Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). PSHA is a method for assessing and expressing the probability of earthquake hazard for a site of interest, at multiple spatial scales, in terms of probability of exceeding certain ground motion intensities. Probabilistic methods for multi-scale volcanic ash hazard assessment are less developed. The modelling framework presented here, Probabilistic Volcanic Ash Hazard Analysis (PVAHA), adapts the seismologically based PSHA technique for volcanic ash. PVAHA considers a magnitude-frequency distribution of eruptions and associated volcanic ash load attenuation relationships and integrates across all possible events to arrive at an annual exceedance probability for each site across a region of interest. The development and implementation of the Volcanic Ash Probabilistic Assessment tool for Hazard (VAPAH), as a mechanism for facilitating multi-scale PVAHA, is also introduced. VAPAH outputs are aggregated to generate maps that visualise the expected volcanic ash hazard for sites across a region at timeframes of interest and disaggregated to determine the causal factors which dominate volcanic ash hazard at individual sites. VAPAH can be used to identify priority areas for more detailed PVAHA or local scale ash dispersal modelling that can be used to inform disaster risk reduction efforts.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
       
 
 
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