for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 755 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (682 journals)
    - POLLUTION (22 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (10 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (682 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sepsis     Hybrid Journal  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SourceOCDE Environnement et developpement durable     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOECD Environment & Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Behavior and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access  
Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access  
Sustainable Environment Research     Open Access  
Sustainable Technologies, Systems & Policies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Theoretical Ecology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trace Metals and other Contaminants in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Trace Metals in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Waterlines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Weather and Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Journal of Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4     

Journal Cover Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
  [SJR: 0.389]   [H-I: 17]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1941-7012
   Published by AIP Homepage  [26 journals]
  • Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for
           voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components
    • Authors: Guru Subramanyam; M. W. Cole, Nian X. Sun, Thottam S. Kalkur, Nick M. Sbrockey, Gary S. Tompa, Xiaomei Guo, Chonglin Chen, S. P. Alpay, G. A. Rossetti Jr., Kaushik Dayal, Long-Qing Chen Darrell G. Schlom
      Abstract: There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.
      PubDate: 2013-11-15T09:58:00Z
  • Electrospun metallic nanowires: Synthesis, characterization, and
    • Authors: Abdullah Khalil; Boor Singh Lalia, Raed Hashaikeh Marwan Khraisheh
      Abstract: Metals are known to have unique thermal, mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties. On the other hand, metallic nanowires are promising materials for variety of applications such as transparent conductive film for photovoltaic devices, electrodes for batteries, as well as nano-reinforcement for composite materials. Whereas varieties of methods have been explored to synthesize metal nanowires with different characteristics, electrospinning has also been found to be successful for that purpose. Even though electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers is a well-established field, there are several challenges that need to be overcome to use the electrospinning technique for the fabrication of metallic nanowires. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-steps fabrication process and its relation to the structure evolution of the nanowires. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article identifies promising avenues for further research in this area with particular emphasis on the applications that nonwoven metal wires confined in a nano-scale can open.
      PubDate: 2013-11-01T09:06:00Z
  • Role of the early stages of Ni-Si interaction on the structural properties
           of the reaction products
    • Authors: Alessandra Alberti; Antonino La Magna
      Abstract: Nickel-silicon compounds, as most of the transition metal silicides, show peculiar thermodynamic and kinetic behaviours. The reason resides in the metastability of a rich variety of different phases, which are frequently favoured by the interaction with the substrate or by the limited amount of atoms available during the reactions (thin films). The large effort devoted to the comprehension of the phenomena governing Ni-Si interaction from the very beginning of the reaction process testifies the widespread interest in the field and it is driven by the need to push as far forward as possible the scaling down of micro/nano-electronics devices. Here, we provide a review on the crucial role of the early stages of the Ni-Si atomic interaction to show how this interaction has a huge impact on the reaction process and on the structural properties of the reaction products. The formation of a Ni-Si mixed layer at the deposition stage, its structure and its role in the further evolution of the reaction couple are discussed on [001] Si and amorphous Si substrates. Controlling the mixed layer properties becomes extremely important in a regime wherein kinetics upsets thermodynamic stability, i.e., in thin films interactions, and during low temperature and/or ultra-rapid thermal processes, as required by the scaling down of the devices. In the review, it is highlighted how the opportunity to control thickness and composition of the mixed (precursor) layer opens the field to tailor new materials possessing intriguing properties, such as the case of transrotational Ni-silicides. Compared to standard poly-Ni silicides, they offer large chemical and structural stability windows as well as a promising electrical behaviour.
      PubDate: 2013-09-21T12:23:00Z
  • Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical
           mechanisms and remedies
    • Authors: Giovanni Verzellesi; Davide Saguatti, Matteo Meneghini, Francesco Bertazzi, Michele Goano, Gaudenzio Meneghesso Enrico Zanoni
      Abstract: Physical mechanisms causing the efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes and remedies proposed for droop mitigation are classified and reviewed. Droop mechanisms taken into consideration are Auger recombination, reduced active volume effects, carrier delocalization, and carrier leakage. The latter can in turn be promoted by polarization charges, inefficient hole injection, asymmetry between electron and hole densities and transport properties, lateral current crowding, quantum-well overfly by ballistic electrons, defect-related tunneling, and saturation of radiative recombination. Reviewed droop remedies include increasing the thickness or number of the quantum wells, improving the lateral current uniformity, engineering the quantum barriers (including multi-layer and graded quantum barriers), using insertion or injection layers, engineering the electron-blocking layer (EBL) (including InAlN, graded, polarization-doped, and superlattice EBL), exploiting reversed polarization (by either inverted epitaxy or N-polar growth), and growing along semi- or non-polar orientations. Numerical device simulations of a reference device are used through the paper as a proof of concept for selected mechanisms and remedies.
      PubDate: 2013-09-08T02:01:00Z
  • Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to
           electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials
    • Authors: Martin L. Green; Ichiro Takeuchi Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers
      Abstract: High throughput (combinatorial) materials science methodology is a relatively new research paradigm that offers the promise of rapid and efficient materials screening, optimization, and discovery. The paradigm started in the pharmaceutical industry but was rapidly adopted to accelerate materials research in a wide variety of areas. High throughput experiments are characterized by synthesis of a “library” sample that contains the materials variation of interest (typically composition), and rapid and localized measurement schemes that result in massive data sets. Because the data are collected at the same time on the same “library” sample, they can be highly uniform with respect to fixed processing parameters. This article critically reviews the literature pertaining to applications of combinatorial materials science for electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials. It is expected that high throughput methodologies will facilitate commercialization of novel materials for these critically important applications. Despite the overwhelming evidence presented in this paper that high throughput studies can effectively inform commercial practice, in our perception, it remains an underutilized research and development tool. Part of this perception may be due to the inaccessibility of proprietary industrial research and development practices, but clearly the initial cost and availability of high throughput laboratory equipment plays a role. Combinatorial materials science has traditionally been focused on materials discovery, screening, and optimization to combat the extremely high cost and long development times for new materials and their introduction into commerce. Going forward, combinatorial materials science will also be driven by other needs such as materials substitution and experimental verification of materials properties predicted by modeling and simulation, which have recently received much attention with the advent of the Materials Genome Initiative. Thus, the challenge for combinatorial methodology will be the effective coupling of synthesis, characterization and theory, and the ability to rapidly manage large amounts of data in a variety of formats.
      PubDate: 2013-08-04T18:45:53Z
  • Raman spectroscopy of piezoelectrics
    • Authors: Giuseppe Pezzotti
      Abstract: Raman spectroscopy represents an insightful characterization tool in electronics, which comprehensively suits the technological needs for locally and quantitatively assessing crystal structures, domain textures, crystallographic misalignments, and residual stresses in piezoelectric materials and related devices. Recent improvements in data processing and instrumental screening of large sampling areas have provided Raman spectroscopic evaluations with rejuvenating effectiveness and presently give spin to increasingly wider and more sophisticated experimental explorations. However, the physics underlying the Raman effect represents an issue of deep complexity and its applicative development to non-cubic crystallographic structures can yet be considered in its infancy. This review paper revisits some applicative aspects of the physics governing Raman emission from crystalline matter, exploring the possibility of disentangling the convoluted dependences of the Raman spectrum on crystal orientation and mechanical stress. Attention is paid to the technologically important class of piezoelectric materials, for which working algorithms are explicitly worked out in order to quantitatively extract both structural and mechanical information from polarized Raman spectra. Systematic characterizations of piezoelectric materials and devices are successively presented as applications of the developed equations. The Raman response of complex crystal structures, described here according to a unified formalism, is interpreted as a means for assessing both crystallographic textures and stress-related issues in the three-dimensional space (thus preserving their vectorial and tensorial nature, respectively). Statistical descriptions of domain textures based on orientation distribution functions are also developed in order to provide a link between intrinsic single-crystal data and data collected on polycrystalline (partly textured) structures. This paper aims at providing rigorous spectroscopic foundations to Raman approaches dealing with the analyses of functional behavior and structural reliability of piezoelectric devices.
      PubDate: 2013-08-04T18:37:37Z
  • Spin injection from Heusler alloys into semiconductors: A materials
    • Authors: R. Farshchi; M. Ramsteiner
      Abstract: The notion of using electron spins as bits for highly efficient computation coupled with non-volatile data storage has driven an intense international research effort over the past decade. Such an approach, known as spin-based electronics or spintronics, is considered to be a promising alternative to charge-based electronics in future integrated circuit technologies. Many proposed spin-based devices, such as the well-known spin-transistor, require injection of spin polarized currents from ferromagnetic layers into semiconductor channels, where the degree of injected spin polarization is crucial to the overall device performance. Several ferromagnetic Heusler alloys are predicted to be half-metallic, meaning 100% spin-polarized at the Fermi level, and hence considered to be excellent candidates for electrical spin injection. Furthermore, they exhibit high Curie temperatures and close lattice matching to III-V semiconductors. Despite their promise, Heusler alloy/semiconductor heterostructures investigated in the past decade have failed to fulfill the expectation of near perfect spin injection and in certain cases have even demonstrated inferior behavior compared to their elemental ferromagnetic counterparts. To address this problem, a slew of theoretical and experimental work has emerged studying Heusler alloy/semiconductor interface properties. Here, we review the dominant prohibitive materials challenges that have been identified, namely atomic disorder in the Heusler alloy and in-diffusion of magnetic impurities into the semiconductor, and their ensuing detrimental effects on spin injection. To mitigate these effects, we propose the incorporation of half-metallic Heusler alloys grown at high temperatures (>200 °C) along with insertion of a MgO tunnel barrier at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface to minimize magnetic impurity in-diffusion and potentially act as a spin-filter. By considering evidence from a variety of structural, optical, and electrical studies, we hope to paint a realistic picture of the materials environment encountered by spins upon injection from Heusler alloys into semiconductors. Finally, we review several emerging device paradigms that utilize Heusler alloys as sources of spin polarized electrons.
      PubDate: 2013-08-04T18:35:04Z
  • Plasma processing of low-k dielectrics
    • Authors: Mikhail R. Baklanov; Jean-Francois de Marneffe, Denis Shamiryan, Adam M. Urbanowicz, Hualiang Shi, Tatyana V. Rakhimova, Huai Huang Paul S. Ho
      Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth overview of the present status and novel developments in the field of plasma processing of low dielectric constant (low-k) materials developed for advanced interconnects in ULSI technology. The paper summarizes the major achievements accomplished during the last 10 years. It includes analysis of advanced experimental techniques that have been used, which are most appropriate for low-k patterning and resist strip, selection of chemistries, patterning strategies, masking materials, analytical techniques, and challenges appearing during the integration. Detailed discussions are devoted to the etch mechanisms of low-k materials and their degradation during the plasma processing. The problem of k-value degradation (plasma damage) is a key issue for the integration, and it is becoming more difficult and challenging as the dielectric constant of low-k materials scales down. Results obtained with new experimental methods, like the small gap technique and multi-beams systems with separated sources of ions, vacuum ultraviolet light, and radicals, are discussed in detail. The methods allowing reduction of plasma damage and restoration of dielectric properties of damaged low-k materials are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T05:28:19Z
  • Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and
    • Authors: Adrian Bejan; Sylvie Lorente
      Abstract: This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow systems (animate and inanimate) to change into configurations that offer progressively greater flow access over time. The progress made with the Constructal law covers the broadest range of science, from heat and fluid flow and geophysics, to animal design, technology evolution, and social organization (economics, government). This review presents the state of this fast growing field, and draws attention to newly opened directions for original research. The Constructal law places the concepts of life, design, and evolution in physics.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T04:39:52Z
  • Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition:
           Overview and general trends
    • Authors: Ville Miikkulainen; Markku Leskelä, Mikko Ritala Riikka L. Puurunen
      Abstract: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is gaining attention as a thin film deposition method, uniquely suitable for depositing uniform and conformal films on complex three-dimensional topographies. The deposition of a film of a given material by ALD relies on the successive, separated, and self-terminating gas–solid reactions of typically two gaseous reactants. Hundreds of ALD chemistries have been found for depositing a variety of materials during the past decades, mostly for inorganic materials but lately also for organic and inorganic–organic hybrid compounds. One factor that often dictates the properties of ALD films in actual applications is the crystallinity of the grown film: Is the material amorphous or, if it is crystalline, which phase(s) is (are) present. In this thematic review, we first describe the basics of ALD, summarize the two-reactant ALD processes to grow inorganic materials developed to-date, updating the information of an earlier review on ALD [R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005)], and give an overview of the status of processing ternary compounds by ALD. We then proceed to analyze the published experimental data for information on the crystallinity and phase of inorganic materials deposited by ALD from different reactants at different temperatures. The data are collected for films in their as-deposited state and tabulated for easy reference. Case studies are presented to illustrate the effect of different process parameters on crystallinity for representative materials: aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, zinc oxide, titanium nitride, zinc zulfide, and ruthenium. Finally, we discuss the general trends in the development of film crystallinity as function of ALD process parameters. The authors hope that this review will help newcomers to ALD to familiarize themselves with the complex world of crystalline ALD films and, at the same time, serve for the expert as a handbook-type reference source on ALD processes and film crystallinity.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T04:38:33Z
  • Oxidation of Al-bearing III-V materials: A review of key progress
    • Authors: J. M. Dallesasse; N. Holonyak Jr.
      Abstract: Since the discovery of III-V oxidation by Dallesasse and Holonyak in 1989, significant progress has been made both technically and commercially in the use of oxides in compound semiconductor devices. Devices ranging from lasers to transistors have been fabricated that capitalize on the process-induced modification of refractive index and conductivity, allowing control of the two carriers of information in opto-electronic systems—the photon and the electron. Of particular note has been the use of oxidation for the fabrication of high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, which have extensive use in optical data links found in enterprise networks, data centers, and supercomputing applications. The discovery of III-V oxidation and key technical milestones in the fabrication of photonic and electronic devices that use oxidation are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T04:20:48Z
  • Mechanisms of boron diffusion in silicon and germanium
    • Authors: S. Mirabella; D. De Salvador, E. Napolitani, E. Bruno F. Priolo
      Abstract: B migration in Si and Ge matrices raised a vast attention because of its influence on the production of confined, highly p- doped regions, as required by the miniaturization trend. In this scenario, the diffusion of B atoms can take place under severe conditions, often concomitant, such as very large concentration gradients, non-equilibrium point defect density, amorphous-crystalline transition, extrinsic doping level, co-doping, B clusters formation and dissolution, ultra-short high-temperature annealing. In this paper, we review a large amount of experimental work and present our current understanding of the B diffusion mechanism, disentangling concomitant effects and describing the underlying physics. Whatever the matrix, B migration in amorphous (α-) or crystalline (c-) Si, or c-Ge is revealed to be an indirect process, activated by point defects of the hosting medium. In α-Si in the 450-650 °C range, B diffusivity is 5 orders of magnitude higher than in c-Si, with a transient longer than the typical amorphous relaxation time. A quick B precipitation is also evidenced for concentrations larger than 2 × 1020 B/cm3. B migration in α-Si occurs with the creation of a metastable mobile B, jumping between adjacent sites, stimulated by dangling bonds of α-Si whose density is enhanced by B itself (larger B density causes higher B diffusivity). Similar activation energies for migration of B atoms (3.0 eV) and of dangling bonds (2.6 eV) have been extracted. In c-Si, B diffusion is largely affected by the Fermi level position, occurring through the interaction between the negatively charged substitutional B and a self-interstitial (I) in the neutral or doubly positively charged state, if under intrinsic or extrinsic (p-type doping) conditions, respectively. After charge exchanges, the migrating, uncharged BI pair is formed. Under high n-type doping conditions, B diffusion occurs also through the negatively charged BI pair, even if the migration is depressed by Coulomb pairing with n-type dopants. The interplay between B clustering and migration is also modeled, since B diffusion is greatly affected by precipitation. Small (below 1 nm) and relatively large (5-10 nm in size) BI clusters have been identified with different energy barriers for thermal dissolution (3.6 or 4.8 eV, respectively). In c-Ge, B motion is by far less evident than in c-Si, even if the migration mechanism is revealed to be similarly assisted by Is. If Is density is increased well above the equilibrium (as during ion irradiation), B diffusion occurs up to quite large extents and also at relatively low temperatures, disclosing the underlying mechanism. The lower B diffusivity and the larger activation barrier (4.65 eV, rather than 3.45 eV in c-Si) can be explained by the intrinsic shortage of Is in Ge and by their large formation energy. B diffusion can be strongly enhanced with a proper point defect engineering, as achieved with embedded GeO2 nanoclusters, causing at 650 °C a large Is supersaturation. These aspects of B diffusion are presented and discussed, modeling the key role of point defects in the two different matrices.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T03:58:23Z
  • Small particles, big impacts: A review of the diverse applications of
    • Authors: Robert Taylor; Sylvain Coulombe, Todd Otanicar, Patrick Phelan, Andrey Gunawan, Wei Lv, Gary Rosengarten, Ravi Prasher Himanshu Tyagi
      Abstract: Nanofluids—a simple product of the emerging world of nanotechnology—are suspensions of nanoparticles (nominally 1–100 nm in size) in conventional base fluids such as water, oils, or glycols. Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995. In the year 2011 alone, there were nearly 700 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2006 (175) and 2001 (10). The first decade of nanofluid research was primarily focused on measuring and modeling fundamental thermophysical properties of nanofluids (thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient). Recent research, however, explores the performance of nanofluids in a wide variety of other applications. Analyzing the available body of research to date, this article presents recent trends and future possibilities for nanofluids research and suggests which applications will see the most significant improvement from employing nanofluids.
      PubDate: 2013-06-22T03:31:04Z
  • Thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles: Fifty years after Brown
    • Authors: William T. Coffey; Yuri P. Kalmykov
      Abstract: The reversal time, superparamagnetic relaxation time, of the magnetization of fine single domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles owing to thermal fluctuations plays a fundamental role in information storage, paleomagnetism, biotechnology, etc. Here a comprehensive tutorial-style review of the achievements of fifty years of development and generalizations of the seminal work of Brown [Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] on thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. Analytical as well as numerical approaches to the estimation of the damping and temperature dependence of the reversal time based on Brown's Fokker-Planck equation for the evolution of the magnetic moment orientations on the surface of the unit sphere are critically discussed while the most promising directions for future research are emphasized.
      PubDate: 2013-04-20T13:18:06Z
  • Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities
    • Authors: Kunigunde Cherenack; Liesbeth van Pieterson
      Abstract: Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T15:54:30Z
  • Nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells
    • Authors: S. Mokkapati; K. R. Catchpole
      Abstract: Nanophotonic light trapping for solar cells is an exciting field that has seen exponential growth in the last few years. There has been a growing appreciation for solar energy as a major solution to the world’s energy problems, and the need to reduce materials costs by the use of thinner solar cells. At the same time, we have the newly developed ability to fabricate controlled structures on the nanoscale quickly and cheaply, and the computational power to optimize the structures and extract physical insights. In this paper, we review the theory of nanophotonic light trapping, with experimental examples given where possible. We focus particularly on periodic structures, since this is where physical understanding is most developed, and where theory and experiment can be most directly compared. We also provide a discussion on the parasitic losses and electrical effects that need to be considered when designing nanophotonic solar cells.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T15:53:59Z
  • Multi-functional dielectric elastomer artificial muscles for soft and
           smart machines
    • Authors: Iain A. Anderson; Todd A. Gisby, Thomas G. McKay, Benjamin M. O’Brien Emilio P. Calius
      Abstract: Dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators are popularly referred to as artificial muscles because their impressive actuation strain and speed, low density, compliant nature, and silent operation capture many of the desirable physical properties of muscle. Unlike conventional robots and machines, whose mechanisms and drive systems rapidly become very complex as the number of degrees of freedom increases, groups of DE artificial muscles have the potential to generate rich motions combining many translational and rotational degrees of freedom. These artificial muscle systems can mimic the agonist-antagonist approach found in nature, so that active expansion of one artificial muscle is taken up by passive contraction in the other. They can also vary their stiffness. In addition, they have the ability to produce electricity from movement. But departing from the high stiffness paradigm of electromagnetic motors and gearboxes leads to new control challenges, and for soft machines to be truly dexterous like their biological analogues, they need precise control. Humans control their limbs using sensory feedback from strain sensitive cells embedded in muscle. In DE actuators, deformation is inextricably linked to changes in electrical parameters that include capacitance and resistance, so the state of strain can be inferred by sensing these changes, enabling the closed loop control that is critical for a soft machine. But the increased information processing required for a soft machine can impose a substantial burden on a central controller. The natural solution is to distribute control within the mechanism itself. The octopus arm is an example of a soft actuator with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOF). The arm utilizes neural ganglia to process sensory data at the local “arm” level and perform complex tasks. Recent advances in soft electronics such as the piezoresistive dielectric elastomer switch (DES) have the potential to be fully integrated with actuators and sensors. With the DE switch, we can produce logic gates, oscillators, and a memory element, the building blocks for a soft computer, thus bringing us closer to emulating smart living structures like the octopus arm. The goal of future research is to develop fully soft machines that exploit smart actuation networks to gain capabilities formerly reserved to nature, and open new vistas in mechanical engineering.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T15:38:11Z
  • Ultrafast time resolved x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine
           structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure
    • Authors: Ali Oguz Er; Jie Chen Peter M. Rentzepis
      Abstract: Ultrafast time resolved x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction have made it possible to measure, in real time, transient phenomena structures and processes induced by optical femtosecond pulses. To illustrate the power of these experimental methods, we present several representative examples from the literature. (I) Time resolved measurements of photon/electron coupling, electron/phonon interaction, pressure wave formation, melting and recrystallization by means of time resolved x-ray diffraction. (II) Ultrafast x-ray absorption, EXAFS, for the direct measurement of the structures and their kinetics, evolved during electron transfer within molecules in liquid phase. (III) XANES experiments that measure directly pathway for the population of high spin states and the study of the operating mechanism of dye activated TiO2 solar cell devices. The construction and use of novel polycapillary x-ray lenses that focus and collimate hard x-rays efficiently are described.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T09:24:52Z
  • Ferrite film growth on semiconductor substrates towards microwave and
           millimeter wave integrated circuits
    • Authors: Z. Chen; V. G. Harris
      Abstract: It is widely recognized that as electronic systems’ operating frequency shifts to microwave and millimeter wave bands, the integration of ferrite passive devices with semiconductor solid state active devices holds significant advantages in improved miniaturization, bandwidth, speed, power and production costs, among others. Traditionally, ferrites have been employed in discrete bulk form, despite attempts to integrate ferrite as films within microwave integrated circuits. Technical barriers remain centric to the incompatibility between ferrite and semiconductor materials and their processing protocols. In this review, we present past and present efforts at ferrite integration with semiconductor platforms with the aim to identify the most promising paths to realizing the complete integration of on-chip ferrite and semiconductor devices, assemblies and systems.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T04:46:00Z
  • Electrical conduction in chalcogenide glasses of phase change memory
    • Authors: M. Nardone; M. Simon, I. V. Karpov V. G. Karpov
      Abstract: Amorphous chalcogenides have been extensively studied over the last half century due to their application in rewritable optical data storage and in non-volatile phase change memory devices. Yet, the nature of the observed non-ohmic conduction in these glasses is still under debate. In this review, we consolidate and expand the current state of knowledge related to dc conduction in these materials. An overview of the pertinent experimental data is followed by a review of the physics of localized states that are peculiar to chalcogenide glasses. We then describe and evaluate twelve relevant transport mechanisms with conductivities that depend exponentially on the electric field. The discussed mechanisms include various forms of Poole-Frenkel ionization, Schottky emission, hopping conduction, field-induced delocalization of tail states, space-charge-limited current, field emission, percolation band conduction, and transport through crystalline inclusions. Most of the candidates provide more or less satisfactory fits of the observed non-linear IV data. Our analysis calls upon additional studies that would enable one to discriminate between the various alternative models.
      PubDate: 2013-04-17T03:52:00Z
  • Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical amplifiers
    • Authors: L. H. Slooff; A. van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt J. W. Hofstraat
      Abstract: Optical waveguideamplifiers based on polymermaterials offer a low-cost alternative for inorganic waveguideamplifiers. Due to the fact that their refractive index is similar to that of standard optical fibers, they can be easily coupled to existing fibers with low coupling losses. Doping the polymer with rare-earth ions that yield optical gain is not straightforward, as the rare-earth salts are poorly soluble in the polymer matrix. This review article focuses on two different approaches to dope a polymer waveguide with rare-earth ions. The first approach is based on organic cage-like complexes that encapsulate the rare-earth ion and are designed to provide coordination sites to bind the rare-earth ion and to shield it from the surrounding matrix. These complexes also offer the possibility of attaching a highly absorbing antenna group, which increases the pump efficiency significantly. The second approach to fabricate rare-earth dopedpolymer waveguides is obtained by combining the excellent properties of SiO 2 as a host for rare-earth ions with the easy processing of polymers. This is done by dopingpolymers with Er-doped silica colloidal spheres.
      PubDate: 2013-04-06T23:41:44Z
  • Electrical detection of biomaterials using AlGaN/GaN high electron
           mobility transistors
    • Authors: B. S. Kang; H. T. Wang, F. Ren S. J. Pearton
      Abstract: Chemical sensors can be used to analyze a wide variety of environmental and biological gases and liquids and may need to be able to selectively detect a target analyte. Different methods, including gas chromatography, chemiluminescence, selected ion flow tube, and mass spectroscopy, have been used to measure biomarkers. These methods show variable results in terms of sensitivity for some applications and may not meet the requirements for a handheld biosensor. A promising sensing technology utilizes AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors(HEMTs).HEMT structures have been developed for use in microwave power amplifiers due to their high two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility and saturation velocity. The conducting 2DEG channel of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is very close to the surface and extremely sensitive to adsorption of analytes. HEMTsensors can be used for detecting gases, ions, p H values, proteins, and DNA. In this paper we review recent progress on functionalizing the surface of HEMTs for specific detection of glucose, kidney marker injury molecules, prostate cancer, and other common substances of interest in the biomedical field.
      PubDate: 2013-03-15T01:52:51Z
  • A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition
    • Authors: W. F. van Dorp; C. W. Hagen
      Abstract: An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition.Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally, there is a limited understanding of the mechanism of electron induced precursor dissociation. In many cases, the deposit composition is not directly dependent on the stoichiometric composition of the precursor and the electron induced decomposition paths can be very different from those expected from calculations or thermal decomposition. The dissociation mechanism is one of the key factors determining the purity of the deposits and a better understanding of this process will help develop electron beam induced deposition into a viable nanofabrication technique.
      PubDate: 2013-03-15T01:44:21Z
  • Lasers and photodetectors for mid-infrared 2–3 μm
    • Authors: Wen Lei; Chennupati Jagadish
      Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in III–V semiconductor lasers and detectors operating in the 2 – 3   μ m wavelength range, which are highly desirable for various important applications, such as military, communications, molecular spectroscopy, biomedical surgery, and environmental protection. The lasers and detectors with different structure designs are discussed and compared. Advantages and disadvantages of each design are also discussed. Promising materials and structures to obtain high performance lasers and detectors operating in the 2 – 3   μ m region are also suggested.
      PubDate: 2013-03-14T23:50:30Z
  • Biosensors and tools for surface functionalization from the macro- to the
           nanoscale: The way forward
    • Authors: Liviu Nicu; Thierry Leïchlé
      Abstract: Most of review articles or even books dedicated to biosensing issues are organized by the generally admitted scheme of a biosensor. Subsequently, biological receptors, modified surfaces (and ways to specifically modify those surfaces using established biological and/or chemical recipes), and transduction techniques are thoroughly addressed in this precise order. In this review, we deliberately decided to break the conventional way of providing biosensing review by uniquely addressing biomolecules’ immobilization methods onto a solid surface and biosensing-related transduction techniques. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed. The main guiding line of the review is the downscaling (from the macro- to the nanoscale) of biosensors and their respective most known applications. To conclude, a brief overview of the most popularized nanodevices applied to biology is given before attempting to comment on biosensors’ comparison criteria in terms of targeted applications.
      PubDate: 2013-03-14T23:37:25Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016