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  Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 769 journals)
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (695 journals)

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Journal Cover Theoretical Ecology
  [SJR: 1.255]   [H-I: 19]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1874-1746 - ISSN (Online) 1874-1738
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Chaotic attractor in two-prey one-predator system originates from
           interplay of limit cycles
    • Authors: Fanny Groll; Hartmut Arndt; Alexander Altland
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Abstract We investigate the appearance of chaos in a microbial 3-species model motivated by a potentially chaotic real world system (as characterized by positive Lyapunov exponents (Becks et al., Nature 435, 2005). This is the first quantitative model that simulates characteristic population dynamics in the system. A striking feature of the experiment was three consecutive regimes of limit cycles, chaotic dynamics and a fixed point. Our model reproduces this pattern. Numerical simulations of the system reveal the presence of a chaotic attractor in the intermediate parameter window between two regimes of periodic coexistence (stable limit cycles). In particular, this intermediate structure can be explained by competition between the two distinct periodic dynamics. It provides the basis for stable coexistence of all three species: environmental perturbations may result in huge fluctuations in species abundances, however, the system at large tolerates those perturbations in the sense that the population abundances quickly fall back onto the chaotic attractor manifold and the system remains. This mechanism explains how chaos helps the system to persist and stabilize against migration. In discrete populations, fluctuations can push the system towards extinction of one or more species. The chaotic attractor protects the system and extinction times scale exponentially with system size in the same way as with limit cycles or in a stable situation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0317-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Maintaining cooperation in social-ecological systems:
    • Authors: Andrew R. Tilman; James R. Watson; Simon Levin
      Pages: 155 - 165
      Abstract: Abstract Natural resources are vulnerable to over-exploitation in the absence of effective management. However, norms, enforced by social ostracism, can promote cooperation and increase stock biomass in common-pool resource systems. Unfortunately, the long-term sustainable use of a resource is not assured even if cooperation, maintained by ostracism and aimed at optimizing resource use, exists. Here, using the example of fisheries, we show that for a cooperative to be maintained by ostracism over time, it often must act inefficiently, choosing a ‘second-best’ strategy where the resource is over-harvested to some degree. Those cooperatives that aim for maximum sustainable profit, the “first-best” harvest strategy, are more vulnerable to invasion by independent harvesters, leading to larger declines in the fish population. In contrast, second-best strategies emphasize the resistance to invasion by independent harvesters over maximizing yield or profit. Ultimately, this leads to greater long-run payoffs to the resource users as well as higher resource stock levels. This highlights the value of pragmatism in the design of cooperative institutions for managing natural resources.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0318-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Interspecific interactions and range limits: contrasts among interaction
           types
    • Authors: William Godsoe; Nathaniel J. Holland; Chris Cosner; Bruce E. Kendall; Angela Brett; Jill Jankowski; Robert D. Holt
      Pages: 167 - 179
      Abstract: Abstract There is a great deal of interest in the effects of biotic interactions on geographic distributions. Nature contains many different types of biotic interactions (notably mutualism, commensalism, predation, amensalism, and competition), and it is difficult to compare the effects of multiple interaction types on species’ distributions. To resolve this problem, we analyze a general, flexible model of pairwise biotic interactions that can describe all interaction types. In the absence of strong positive feedback, a species’ ability to be present depends on its ability to increase in numbers when it is rare and the species it is interacting with is at equilibrium. This insight leads to counterintuitive conclusions. Notably, we often predict the same range limit when the focal species experiences competition, predation, or amensalism. Similarly, we often predict the same range margin or when the species experiences mutualism, commensalism, or benefits from prey. In the presence of strong positive density-dependent feedback, different species interactions produce different range limits in our model. In all cases, the abiotic environment can indirectly influence the impact of biotic interactions on range limits. We illustrate the implications of this observation by analyzing a stress gradient where biotic interactions are harmful in benign environments but beneficial in stressful environments. Our results emphasize the need to consider the effects of all biotic interactions on species’ range limits and provide a systematic comparison of when biotic interactions affect distributions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0319-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Single species dynamics under climate change
    • Authors: Mauricio Tejo; Sebastián Niklitschek-Soto; Cristin Vásquez; Pablo A. Marquet
      Pages: 181 - 193
      Abstract: Abstract We propose a general mathematical model describing the growth and dispersal of a single species living in a 1-D spatially discrete array of habitat patches affected by a sustained and directional change in climate. Our model accounts for two important characteristics of the climate change phenomenon: (1) Scale dependency: different species may perceive the change in the environment as occurring at different rates because they perceive the environment at different scales, and (2) measure dependency: different species measure the environment differently in the sense that they may be sensible to or cue in on different aspects of it (e.g., maximum temperature, minimum temperature, accumulated temperature) which is associated with their physiological, ecological, and life history attributes, which renders some characteristics of the environment more biologically relevant than others. We show that the deterioration in the quality of habitable patches as a consequence of climate change drives the species to extinction when dispersal is not possible; otherwise, we proof and provide a numerical example that, depending on the velocity of climate change, the scale at which a species measures it, and the particular attribute of the environment that is more biologically relevant to the species under analysis, there is always a migration strategy that allows the persistence of the species such that it tracks its niche conditions through space, thus shifting its geographic range. Our mathematical analysis provides a general framework to analyze species’ responses to climate change as a relational property of a given species in interaction with a change in climate. In particular, we can analyze the persistence of species by taking into account the ways in which they measure and filter the environment. Indeed, one of our main conclusions is that there is not a single climate change but many, as it depends on the interaction between a particular species and climate. Thus, the problem is more complex than assumed by analytically tractable models of species responses to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0321-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effective competition determines the global stability of model ecosystems
    • Authors: Antonio Ferrera; Alberto Pascual-García; Ugo Bastolla
      Pages: 195 - 205
      Abstract: Abstract We investigate the stability of Lotka-Volterra (LV) models constituted by two groups of species such as plants and animals in terms of the intragroup effective competition matrix, which allows separating the equilibrium equations of the two groups. In matrix analysis, the effective competition matrix represents the Schur complement of the species interaction matrix. It has been previously shown that the main eigenvalue of this effective competition matrix strongly influences the structural stability of the model ecosystem. Here, we show that the spectral properties of the effective competition matrix also strongly influence the dynamical stability of the model ecosystem. In particular, a necessary condition for diagonal stability of the full system, which guarantees global stability, is that the effective competition matrix is diagonally stable, which means that intergroup interactions must be weaker than intra-group competition in appropriate units. For mutualistic or competitive interactions, diagonal stability of the effective competition is a sufficient condition for global stability if the inter-group interactions are suitably correlated, in the sense that the biomass that each species provides to (removes from) the other group must be proportional to the biomass that it receives from (is removed by) it. For a non-LV mutualistic system with saturating interactions, we show that the diagonal stability of the corresponding LV system close to the fixed point is a sufficient condition for global stability.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0322-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Dissecting the role of transitivity and intransitivity on coexistence in
           competing species networks
    • Authors: Julio M. Alcántara; Manuel Pulgar; Pedro J. Rey
      Pages: 207 - 215
      Abstract: Abstract It is well established that intransitively assembled interaction networks can support the coexistence of competing species, while transitively assembled (hierarchical) networks are prone to species loss through competitive exclusion. However, as the number of species grows, the complexity of ecological interaction networks grows disproportionately, and species can get involved simultaneously in transitive and intransitive groups of interactions. In such complex networks, the effects of intransitivity on species persistence are not straightforward. Dissecting networks into intransitive/transitive components can help us to understand the complex role that intransitivity may play in supporting species diversity. We show through simulations that those species participating in the largest group of intransitive interactions (the core of the network) have high probabilities of persisting in the long term. However, participation in a group of intransitive interactions other than the core does not always improve persistence. Likewise, participating in transitive interactions does not always decrease persistence because certain species (the satellites) transitively linked to the core have also a high persistence probability. Therefore, when networks contain transitive and intransitive structures, as it can be expected in real ecological networks, the existence of a large intransitive core of species can have a disproportionate positive effect on species richness.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0323-y
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • An individual-based model of chaparral vegetation response to frequent
           wildfires
    • Authors: Timothy A. Lucas; Reanna A. Doña; Wancen Jiang; Garrett C. Johns; Dayna J. Mann; Cassandra Seubert; Noah B. C. Webster; Charlotte H. Willens; Stephen D. Davis
      Pages: 217 - 233
      Abstract: Abstract The Santa Monica Mountains are home to many species of chaparral shrubs that provide vegetative cover and whose deep roots contribute to the stability of the steep slopes. Recently, native chaparral have been threatened by an unprecedented drought and frequent wildfires in Southern California. Besides the damage from the wildfires themselves, there is the potential for subsequent structural losses due to erosion and landslides. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model that predicts the impact of drought and frequent wildfires on chaparral plant community structure. We begin by classifying chaparral into two life history types based on their response to wildfires. Nonsprouters are completely killed by a fire, but their seeds germinate in response to fire cues. Facultative sprouters survive by resprouting but also rely on seed germination for post-fire recovery. The individual-based model presented here simulates the growth, seed dispersal, and resprouting behavior of individual shrubs across two life history types as they compete for space and resources in a rectangular domain. The model also incorporates varying annual rainfall and fire frequency as well as the competition between plants for scarce resources. The parameters were fit using seedling and resprout survivorship data as well as point quarter sampling data from 1986 to 2014 at a biological preserve within the natural landscape of the Malibu campus of Pepperdine University. The simulations from our model reproduce the change in plant community structure at our study site which includes the local extinction of the nonsprouter Ceanothus megacarpus due to shortened fire return intervals. Our simulations predict that a combination of extreme drought and frequent wildfires will drastically reduce the overall density of chaparral, increasing the likelihood of invasion by highly flammable exotic grasses. The simulations further predict that the majority of surviving shrubs will be facultative sprouting species such as Malosma laurina.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0324-x
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effects of strength and timing of harvest on seasonal population models:
           stability switches and catastrophic shifts
    • Authors: Eduardo Liz
      Pages: 235 - 244
      Abstract: Abstract Population abundance of many species is controlled by a combination of density-dependent processes during different periods of the annual cycle. In the context of population exploitation or conservation programs, sequential density dependence has the potential to dramatically change population responses to harvesting. Looking for a better understanding of the potential effects of harvesting on the dynamics of seasonal populations, we carry out a theoretical analysis of a discrete model for a semelparous population with an annual cycle involving three discrete density-dependent events: breeding, natural mortality, and harvesting. Our study reveals how the interplay between the model parameters determines the importance of harvest timing on stability and population abundance, especially when two nontrivial stable equilibria coexist. We address the possibility for compensatory mortality and report different forms of the hydra effect, including non-smooth ones due to catastrophic shifts. These drastic switches may include hysteresis, which has important implications for conservation goals. Regarding variability, we show that increasing the harvesting effort may either stabilize or destabilize the population, and these effects strongly depend on harvest timing and natural mortality rates. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling populations after every discrete event occurs during one cycle. Indeed, though the dynamics are not affected by census timing, the model shows that changes in population abundance in response to changes in harvesting pressure are substantially different depending on when population is sampled. Thus, a manager would receive different (and sometimes contradictory) messages depending on census time, which could lead to managing mistakes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0325-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Compensation masks trophic cascades in complex food webs
    • Authors: Ashkaan K. Fahimipour; Kurt E. Anderson; Richard J. Williams
      Pages: 245 - 253
      Abstract: Abstract Ecological networks, or food webs, describe the feeding relationships between interacting species within an ecosystem. Understanding how the complexity of these networks influences their response to changing top-down control is a central challenge in ecology. Here, we provide a model-based investigation of trophic cascades — an oft-studied ecological phenomenon that occurs when changes in the biomass of top predators indirectly effect changes in the biomass of primary producers — in complex food webs that are representative of the structure of real ecosystems. Our results reveal that strong cascades occur primarily in low richness and weakly connected food webs, a result in agreement with some prior predictions. The primary mechanism underlying weak or absent cascades was a strong compensatory response; in most webs, predators induced large population level cascades that were masked by changes in the opposite direction by other species in the same trophic guild. Thus, the search for a general theory of trophic cascades in food webs should focus on uncovering features of real ecosystems that promote biomass compensation within functional guilds or trophic levels.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-016-0326-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The impact of species-neutral stage structure on macroecological patterns
    • Authors: Rafael D’Andrea; James P. O’Dwyer
      Abstract: Abstract Despite its radical assumption of ecological equivalence between species, neutral biodiversity theory can often provide good fits to species abundance distributions observed in nature. Major criticisms of neutral theory have focused on interspecific differences, which are in conflict with ecological equivalence. However, neutrality in nature is also broken by differences between conspecific individuals at different life stages, which in many communities may vastly exceed interspecific differences between individuals at similar stages. These within-species asymmetries have not been fully explored in species-neutral models, and it is not known whether demographic stage structure affects macroecological patterns in neutral theory. Here, we present a two-stage neutral model where fecundity and mortality change as an individual transitions from one stage to the other. We explore several qualitatively different scenarios, and compare numerically obtained species abundance distributions to the predictions of unstructured neutral theory. We find that abundance distributions are generally robust to this kind of stage structure, but significant departures from unstructured predictions occur if adults have sufficiently low fecundity and mortality. In addition, we show that the cumulative number of births per species, which is distributed as a power law with a 3/2 exponent, is invariant even when the abundance distribution departs from unstructured model predictions. Our findings potentially explain power law-like abundance distributions in organisms with strong demographic structure, such as eusocial insects and humans, and partially rehabilitate species abundance distributions from past criticisms as to their inability to distinguish between biological mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0340-5
       
  • Modeling changes in predator functional response to prey across spatial
           scales
    • Authors: Diego F. Rincon; Luis A. Cañas; Casey W. Hoy
      Abstract: Abstract Extrapolation of predator functional responses from laboratory observations to the field is often necessary to predict predation rates and predator-prey dynamics at spatial and temporal scales that are difficult to observe directly. We use a spatially explicit individual-based model to explore mechanisms behind changes in functional responses when the scale of observation is increased. Model parameters were estimated from a predator-prey system consisting of the predator Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato plants. The model explicitly incorporates prey and predator distributions within single plants, the search behavior of predators within plants, and the functional response to prey at the smallest scale of interaction (within leaflets) observed in the laboratory. Validation revealed that the model is useful in scaling up from laboratory observations to predation in whole tomato plants of varying sizes. Comparing predicted predation at the leaflet scale, as observed in laboratory experiments, with predicted predation on whole plants revealed that the predator functional response switches from type II within leaflets to type III within whole plants. We found that the magnitude of predation rates and the type of functional response at the whole plant scale are modulated by (1) the degree of alignment between predator and prey distributions and (2) predator foraging behavior, particularly the effect of area-concentrated search within plants when prey population density is relatively low. The experimental and modeling techniques we present could be applied to other systems in which active predators prey upon sessile or slow-moving species.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0338-z
       
  • Optimal sex allocation under pollen limitation
    • Authors: Philip H. Crowley; William Harris; Evelyn Korn
      Abstract: Abstract Most flowering plants are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Within species and even within local populations, sex allocation is usually highly plastic. Here, we link pollen sufficiency to the size of pollen-exchanging groups (i.e., pollen neighborhoods) and to pollen transfer efficiency, using an individual-based game-theoretic framework to determine the stable distribution of sex allocation that does not require the unrealistic assumption of infinitely large, panmictic populations. In the absence of selfing, we obtain the novel result that pollen limitation destabilizes hermaphroditism and favors separate sexes, whereas hermaphroditism remains stable without pollen limitation. With mixed mating, hermaphroditism is stable except when the fitness value of selfed offspring is less than half that of outcrossed offspring (i.e., strong inbreeding depression). In that case, the size of pollen neighborhoods, pollen transfer efficiencies, and the relative fitness of selfed offspring determine whether separate sexes or hermaphroditism is the stable outcome. The model thus predicts that separate sexes can derive from either of two ancestral states: obligate outcrossing under pollen limitation, or mixed mating (competing self-fertilization) under severe inbreeding depression. It also predicts conditions under which variance in sex-allocation among hermaphrodites within pollen exchanging groups along a gradient of pollen limitation can range from high (dioecy) to near zero (equal proportions of male and female investment).
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0339-y
       
  • A navigational guide to variable fitness: common methods of analysis,
           where they break down, and what you can do instead
    • Authors: Robin E. Snyder
      Abstract: Abstract Our methods for analyzing stochastic fitness are mostly approximations, and the assumptions behind these approximations are not always well understood. Furthermore, many of these approximations break down when fitness variance is high. This review covers geometric mean growth, diffusion approximations, and Markov processes. It discusses where each is appropriate, the conditions under which they break down, and their advantages and disadvantages, with special attention to the case of high fitness variance. A model of sessile and site-attached coastal species is used as a running example, and fully worked calculations and code are provided. Summary: The logarithm of geometric mean growth is usually only appropriate when (a) an invader growth rate is needed and (b) fitness variability is driven by environmental fluctuations. The usual approximation breaks down when fitness variance is high. Diffusion approximations can provide a reasonable guide to the expected change in frequency over a time step if expected fitnesses and fitness variances are appropriately scaled by the average expected fitness. Diffusion approximations can perform less well for fixation probabilities, especially since further approximations may be required. Fixation probabilities can be calculated exactly using a Markov process, regardless of how large fitness variance is, although an analytic expression is frequently not possible. If an analytic expression is desired, it may be worth using a diffusion approximation and checking it with a Markov process calculation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0337-0
       
  • A theoretical basis for the study of predatory syrphid fly ecology
    • Authors: Paul Glaum
      Abstract: Abstract Predacious syrphid fly species, also known as flower flies or hover flies, are cosmopolitan diptera that play two important ecological roles: predator and pollinator. In decades past, syrphid flies were studied by agricultural researchers due to their larvae’s ability to function as a biological control agent. In recent years, the global decline in both honey bees and various important wild bee species has led ecological researchers to investigate the role of syrphid fly pollination in both natural systems and agriculture. While these two roles have often been considered separately, they are rarely considered together in single studies. Syrphid fly population fluctuations in natural and agricultural systems are understudied, prompting calls for further study into the fundamental drivers of population dynamics of syrphid communities. In order to develop a deeper understanding of the fundamental dynamics of syrphid ecology, the present study offers a community model where both syrphid predation and pollination are incorporated into a single dynamic model. Using populations of predacious syrphid flies, herbivorous insects, and a shared resource flowering plant, the model is used to investigate community dynamics and persistence across different levels of plant reproductive dependence on syrphid pollination. Results indicate distinct levels of community viability across different pollination relationships as well as a tendency toward chaotic dynamics inherent to the trophic interactions of the community.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0336-1
       
  • Lifetime reproductive output: individual stochasticity, variance, and
           sensitivity analysis
    • Authors: Silke F. van Daalen; Hal Caswell
      Abstract: Abstract Lifetime reproductive output (LRO) determines per-generation growth rates, establishes criteria for population growth or decline, and is an important component of fitness. Empirical measurements of LRO reveal high variance among individuals. This variance may result from genuine heterogeneity in individual properties, or from individual stochasticity, the outcome of probabilistic demographic events during the life cycle. To evaluate the extent of individual stochasticity requires the calculation of the statistics of LRO from a demographic model. Mean LRO is routinely calculated (as the net reproductive rate), but the calculation of variances has only recently received attention. Here, we present a complete, exact, analytical, closed-form solution for all the moments of LRO, for age- and stage-classified populations. Previous studies have relied on simulation, iterative solutions, or closed-form analytical solutions that capture only part of the sources of variance. We also present the sensitivity and elasticity of all of the statistics of LRO to parameters defining survival, stage transitions, and (st)age-specific fertility. Selection can operate on variance in LRO only if the variance results from genetic heterogeneity. The potential opportunity for selection is quantified by Crow’s index \(\mathcal {I}\) , the ratio of the variance to the square of the mean. But variance due to individual stochasticity is only an apparent opportunity for selection. In a comparison of a range of age-classified models for human populations, we find that proportional increases in mortality have very small effects on the mean and variance of LRO, but large positive effects on \(\mathcal {I}\) . Proportional increases in fertility increase both the mean and variance of LRO, but reduce \(\mathcal {I}\) . For a size-classified tree population, the elasticity of both mean and variance of LRO to stage-specific mortality are negative; the elasticities to stage-specific fertility are positive.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0335-2
       
  • The dynamical implications of human behaviour on a social-ecological
           harvesting model
    • Authors: Carling Bieg; Kevin S. McCann; John M. Fryxell
      Abstract: Abstract The dynamic aspects of human harvesting behaviour are often overlooked in resource management, such that models often neglect the complexities of dynamic human effort. Some researchers have recognized this, and a recent push has been made to understand how human behaviour and ecological systems interact through dynamic social-ecological systems. Here, we use a recent example of a social-ecological dynamical systems model to investigate the relationship between harvesting behaviour and the dynamics and stability of a harvested resource, and search for general rules in how relatively simple human behaviours can either stabilize or destabilize resource dynamics and yield. Our results suggest that weak to moderate behavioural and effort responses tend to stabilize dynamics by decreasing return times to equilibria or reducing the magnitude of cycles; however, relatively strong human impacts can readily lead to human-driven cycles, chaos, long transients and alternate states. Importantly, we further show that human-driven cycles are characteristically different from typical resource-driven cycles and, therefore, may be differentiated in real ecosystems. Given the potentially dramatic implications of harvesting on resource dynamics, it becomes critical to better understand how human behaviour determines harvesting effort through dynamic social-ecological systems.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0334-3
       
  • Neutral hybridization can overcome a strong Allee effect by improving
           pollination quality
    • Authors: Juliette Bouhours; Mohsen B. Mesgaran; Roger D. Cousens; Mark A. Lewis
      Abstract: Abstract Small populations of plant species can be susceptible to demographic Allee effects mainly due to pollen limitation. Although sympatry with a common, co-flowering species may somewhat alleviate the problem of pollinator visitation (pollination quantity), the interspecific pollen transfer, IPT, (pollination quality) may remain a barrier to reproduction in small populations such as new introductions. However, if the two species are crosscompatible, our hypothesis is that neutral hybridization can help the small founding population overcome the Allee effect by improving the quality of pollination. We tested this hypothesis by using a novel modelling approach based on the theory of kinetic reactions wherein pollinators act as enzymes to catalyse the reaction between the two substrates: pollen and unselfed ovule. Using a single locus, two-allele genetic model, we developed a generic model that allows for hybridization between the invading and the native genotypes. Analysing the stability properties of the trivial equilibria in hybridization model as compared with the single genotype invasion model, we found that hybridization can either remove or reduce the Allee effect by making an otherwise stable trivial equilibrium unstable. Our study suggests that hybridization can be neutral but still be the key driver of a successful invasion by mediating pollen limitation. Conservation programmes should therefore account for this cryptic role that hybridization could play in plant invasions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0333-4
       
  • Erratum to: The content and availability of information affects the
           evolution of social-information gathering strategies
    • Authors: Eleanor Redstart Brush; Naomi Ehrich Leonard; Simon A. Levin
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0330-7
       
  • Erratum to: A slow-fast dynamic decomposition links neutral and
           non-neutral coexistence in interacting multi-strain pathogens
    • Authors: Erida Gjini; Sten Madec
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0331-6
       
  • Positive and negative density-dependence and boom-bust dynamics in
           enemy-victim populations: a mountain pine beetle case study
    • Authors: D. W. Goodsman; B. J. Cooke; M. A. Lewis
      Abstract: Abstract Negative density-dependent population regulation in exploitative species is well studied. Positive density-dependence can arise if exploiters must cooperate to obtain access to well-defended resources. Most studies, however, focus on the first type of density-dependence at the expense of the other. Using a parasitoid-host model, we explored how positive density-dependence driven by host defenses in combination with negative density-dependence due to competition for resources impact transient population dynamics. Inspired by interactions between the mountain pine beetle and its pine hosts, we formulated a model of enemy-victim interactions in discrete-time in which the victim is capable of deadly self-defense against exploitation. We fitted the model to data and then analyzed its non-equilibrium dynamics to determine what conditions promote boom-bust dynamics. When present together, strong Allee effects and overcompensating competition for resources among exploiters can cause their populations to irrupt and then crash even though many exploitable resources remain. Accelerating population irruptions followed by precipitous collapse occur for realistic parameter values of our model of mountain pine beetle dynamics. Insect dynamics are often dominated by sudden irruptions and collapses on short time scales. Population crashes in exploitative species often happen enigmatically even when exploitable resources are not depleted. Herein, we argue that strong Allee effects in combination with overcompensation provide a plausible explanation for these boom-bust dynamics in some species.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12080-017-0327-2
       
 
 
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