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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2272 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1204 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
  [SJR: 2.322]   [H-I: 158]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-3373
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Scalable one-step production of porous oxygen-doped g-C3N4 nanorods with
           effective electron separation for excellent visible-light photocatalytic
    • Authors: Yunxiong Zeng; Xia Liu; Chengbin Liu; Longlu Wang; Yingchun Xia; Shuqu Zhang; Shenglian Luo; Yong Pei
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Yunxiong Zeng, Xia Liu, Chengbin Liu, Longlu Wang, Yingchun Xia, Shuqu Zhang, Shenglian Luo, Yong Pei
      Photoinduced electron transfer and separation from its home atom to form spatial isolated electron/hole pairs is the most crucial factor in artificial photocatalysis field. The scalable production of nanoscale g-C3N4 with remarkable electron separation efficiency in one-step, green, economic and “bottom-up” approach is of great challenge. Herein, one-dimensional porous architectural g-C3N4 nanorods have been facilely prepared by direct calcination of hydrous melamine nanofibers precipitated from aqueous solution of melamine. Porous morphologies with increased interfacial area enhance light capture capacity and accelerate catalysis reaction. It is noted that oxygen atoms were simultaneously doped into g-C3N4 matrix, which broke the symmetry of pristine g-C3N4, resulting in more effective separation of electron/hole pairs. Thus, the oxygen-doped g-C3N4 nanorods loaded with Pt presented excellent visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in the triethanolamine solution (732μmolg−1 h−1) and in overall water splitting (29.6μmolg−1 h−1), and 2,4-dinitrophenol degradation for O-doped g-C3N4 nanorod (removal efficiency of 100% within 75min). Subsequently, the visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution (96μmolg−1 h−1) with simultaneous 2,4-dinitrophenol degradation were achieved for Pt@g-C3N4 nanorod. The proposed synthesis strategy overcomes long-standing, stubborn and serious stacking/agglomeration for g-C3N4 synthesis, and paves the pathway for industrial scale-up production of high-performance g-C3N4 and application in practical energy and environment area.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.042
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Effective separation and transfer of carriers into the redox sites on
           Ta3N5/Bi photocatalyst for promoting conversion of CO2 into CH4
    • Authors: Shaomang Wang; Yuan Guan; Lei Lu; Zhan Shi; Shicheng Yan; Zhigang Zou
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Shaomang Wang, Yuan Guan, Lei Lu, Zhan Shi, Shicheng Yan, Zhigang Zou
      Improving separation efficiency of carriers and inhibiting the inverse reaction are key challenges for achieving efficient sunlight driven conversion of CO2 by H2O as reducing agent into CH4. Here, we proposed using metal Bi with low work function to modify n-type Ta3N5, thus building an ohmic junction photocatalyst of Ta3N5/Bi. It achieved an about 5 times increase in CH4 yield compared with Ta3N5. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the following two effects: (1) The junction electric field drove the injection of conduction-band electrons of Ta3N5 to Bi, greatly improving separation efficiency of carriers; (2) The oxidation and reduction reaction sites were respectively constructed over Ta3N5 and Bi, effectively separating the oxidation reaction of H2O and the reduction reaction of CO2, which distinctly suppressed the reverse reaction during CH4 generation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.043
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Synergistic effect based NixCo1-x architected Zn0.75Cd0.25S nanocrystals:
           An ultrahigh and stable photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water
    • Authors: Xinzheng Yue; Shasha Yi; Runwei Wang; Zongtao Zhang; Shilun Qiu
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Xinzheng Yue, Shasha Yi, Runwei Wang, Zongtao Zhang, Shilun Qiu
      Construction of functional photocatalysts with ultrahigh photocatalytic hydrogen evolution using solar energy is still a serious challenge for scientific researchers. Here, recently, a facile chemical reduction method is developed to synthesize NixCo1-x/Zn0.75Cd0.25S nanohybrid photocatalysts, a kind of promising smart material with optimizing H2 evolution rate being 0.21molh−1 g−1 under simulated solar light irradiation with an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 13.3% at 365nm, an ultrahigh H2 evolution rate among almost all the semiconductor-based photocatalysts. More importantly, the NixCo1-x/Zn0.75Cd0.25S photocatalyst shows a sufficient stability property for >20h. The pronounced synergistic effect between non-noble-metals of Ni and Co boosts the transfer and separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, and a synergistic catalytic mechanism has been proposed and studied in detail.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Superior photocatalytic disinfection effect of Ag-3D ordered mesoporous
           CeO2 under visible light
    • Authors: Qixing Zhou; Shuanglong Ma; Sihui Zhan
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Qixing Zhou, Shuanglong Ma, Sihui Zhan
      Ordered mesoporous Ag/CeO2 nanocomposites were prepared by combining nanocasting with photo-assisted reduction. The heterogeneous photoreactivity of the prepared samples was tested for inactivating Escherichia coli (E. coli). These mesoporous Ag/CeO2 nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic disinfection efficiency than mesoporous CeO2 and bulk CeO2, respectively. Doping Ag species could extend the absorption range to visible light area and enhance the concentration of Ce3+ ions and oxygen vacancies, which had significant influence on the surface properties of CeO2. Moreover, it is the first time to verify that created midgap states through doping Ag can significantly lower the threshold of incident photon energy and broaden the adsorption spectrum demonstrated by experimental studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The enhanced disinfection mechanism was attributed to the fact that the novel mesoporous structure can promote the mass transfer process and the interfacial interaction between Ag species and CeO2 and lead to reduced recombination of free charges, rapid separation and transportation of photogenerated electrons-holes. This work provides a new method to develop novel mesoporous plasmonic photocatlysts for disinfection using solar radiation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.032
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Boosting visible light photoreactivity of photoactive metal-organic
           framework: Designed plasmonic Z-scheme Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe
    • Authors: Qiuxia Liu; Chunmei Zeng; Lunhong Ai; Zhen Hao; Jing Jiang
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Qiuxia Liu, Chunmei Zeng, Lunhong Ai, Zhen Hao, Jing Jiang
      In this work, we report the efficient integration of plasmonic Ag/AgCl with a typical photoactive metal-organic framework (MOF, MIL-53-Fe) to boost the visible light photoreactivity of MOFs. The Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe photocatalysts are rationally designed and successfully prepared by a facile one-pot solvothermal route, where the Ag/AgCl nanoparticles are firmly anchored on the surface of MIL-53-Fe microrods. The formed structure is in favor of the synergetic transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes in the Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe by a Z-scheme mechanism, ensuring the long lifetime of charge carriers and yielding the enhanced photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic experiments reveal that Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe is highly efficient for organic pollutant degradation and Cr(VI) reduction under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactivity of Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe is about 21.4 times and 10.8 times higher than that of bare MIL-53-Fe for the degradation of RhB and reduction of aqueous Cr(VI), respectively. Our finding on photoredox of Ag/AgCl@MIL-53-Fe would bring new insight into the design and development of highly efficient MOF-based photocatalysts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.029
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Charge-regulated sequential adsorption of anionic catalysts and cationic
           photosensitizers into metal-organic frameworks enhances photocatalytic
           proton reduction
    • Authors: He Li; Shuang Yao; Hong-Li Wu; Jing-Yan Qu; Zhi-Ming Zhang; Tong-Bu Lu; Wenbin Lin; En-Bo Wang
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): He Li, Shuang Yao, Hong-Li Wu, Jing-Yan Qu, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Tong-Bu Lu, Wenbin Lin, En-Bo Wang
      We have developed a simple, general, and efficient method for constructing photocatalytic active metal-organic framework (MOF)-based composite materials for visible light-driven hydrogen production. Here, several transition metal-substituted Wells−Dawson-type polyoxometalates (POMs) were successfully immobilized into a Cr-MOF of the MIL-101 structure, resulting in a series of POM@MOF composite materials [POM=K8HP2W15V3O62·9H2O (P2W15V3), K8P2W17(NiOH2)O61·17H2O (P2W17Ni), K8P2W17(CoOH2)O61·16H2O (P2W17Co)]. We adjust the charge of MIL-101 framework by introducing Wells−Dawson-type POM anions with highly negative charge into the MOF. The MIL-101 framework absorbs the anionic POM, while the charge overcompensation in the POM@MOF composites allow them to efficiently adsorb cationic dyes. These composite materials accommodate and enrich cationic photosensitizer (PS) ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) (Ru(bpy)3 2+) from the solution, allowing the PSs to surround the POM proton reduction catalysts, resulting in a heterogeneous catalytic device POM@PSs@MOF with much higher photocatalytic activity than that of the corresponding homogeneous catalytic system. POM@MIL-101 could also be readily recycled and reused in catalytic reaction. Furthermore, this strategy was extended to sequential adsorption of anionic Mo2S12 2− and cationic PSs to lead to highly active photocatalytic proton reduction system with a H2 evolution rate of up to 25578μmolh−1g−1 (corresponding to Mo2S12 2− catalyst) in 8h under visible light irradiation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.031
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Influence of chemical exfoliation process on the activity of
           NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-graphite intercalation compound towards methanol
    • Authors: T. Rozmanowski; P. Krawczyk
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): T. Rozmanowski, P. Krawczyk
      In the present work the influence of chemical exfoliation process of quaternary graphite intercalation compound (NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-GIC) on its catalytic activity in the methanol electrooxidation reaction was examined. NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-GIC was synthesized by a molten salts method using purified flaky graphite and anhydrous metal chlorides as reactants. The process of intercalation was carried out at 450°C for 72h. To obtain exfoliated graphite intercalation compound (NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-EGIC), a part of gathered product underwent chemical exfoliation in hydrogen peroxide solution. Crystalline structure of the obtained GIC and product of its exfoliation was characterized by XRD while the their morphology by SEM and TEM techniques. Development of the surface area was calculated by BET method. Electrochemical activity of both materials were examined in the model process of methanol electrooxidation by cyclic (CV) and linear sweep (LSV) voltammetry as well as potentiostatic method. The XRD and SEM analysis have showed that the chemical exfoliation process contributes to the changes in structure and morphology of the examined material. From the electrochemical results it is revealed that prepared NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-GIC exhibits activity towards electrochemical process of methanol oxidation. Furthermore is proved that electroactivity of the examined NiCl2-FeCl3-PdCl2-GIC significantly increases due its chemical exfoliation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Implantation of Iron(III) in porphyrinic metal organic frameworks for
           highly improved photocatalytic performance
    • Authors: Li Shi; Liuqing Yang; Huabin Zhang; Kun Chang; Guixia Zhao; Tetsuya Kako; Jinhua Ye
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Li Shi, Liuqing Yang, Huabin Zhang, Kun Chang, Guixia Zhao, Tetsuya Kako, Jinhua Ye
      Herein a simple approach is proposed to greatly improve the photocatalytic performance of a porphyrinic metal organic framework (PCN-224) by implantation of coordinatively unsaturated Fe(III) sites into the porphyrin unit. Taking the photooxidation of isopropanol (IPA) as a model reaction, the newly developed Fe@PCN-224 exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity, which is equivalent to an 8.9-fold improvement in acetone evolution rate and 9.3-fold enhancements in CO2 generation rate compared with the PCN-224. Mechanism investigation reveals that the presence of Fe(III) sites in the PCN-224 can not only greatly boost the electron–hole separation efficiency, but also effectively convert the in-situ photogenerated inactive H2O2 into reactive oxygen-related radicals via Fenton reactions to participate in the photocatalytic IPA oxidation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity for IPA oxidation is also observed over another Fe(III) implanted porphyrinic metal organic framework (Fe@PCN-222), suggesting the generality of this strategy.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.033
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Core-shell nickel catalysts for the steam reforming of acetic acid
    • Authors: Jianglong Pu; Katsuki Nishikado; Ningning Wang; Thanh Tung Nguyen; Tei Maki; Eika W. Qian
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Jianglong Pu, Katsuki Nishikado, Ningning Wang, Thanh Tung Nguyen, Tei Maki, Eika W. Qian
      To obtain a novel catalyst with high resistances to metal sintering and coke formation in the steam reforming of acetic acid, a series of nickel core-shell catalysts were prepared. The effects of the shell thickness, shell species and core particle size on the catalytic activity in the steam reforming of acetic acid were investigated. The prepared Ni@SiO2, Ni@Al2O3, Ni@CeO2 and Ni@TiO2 catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H2-TPR, DTG and HRTEM. The prepared core-shell catalysts showed high resistances to nickel sintering, owing to the protection of the shells, in comparison with bare nickel particles. Ni@SiO2 with a thin shell showed a higher activity than the corresponding catalyst with a thick shell due to the thin silica shell allowing the facile diffusion of reactants and products. Because of the important role of the support in steam reforming reactions, the shell species greatly affected the catalytic activity in the steam reforming of acetic acid. It was demonstrated that an alumina shell was best suited for the steam reforming of acetic acid among the studied shells owing to its excellent water dissociation ability. The Ni@Al2O3-i catalyst showed excellent activity with an almost complete conversion and a hydrogen yield up to 91.2% at 750°C due to its much smaller nickel particle size. The coke formed on the spent core-shell catalysts after the activity tests was mainly graphic carbon, and the Ni@Al2O3-i catalyst exhibited a superior coke resistance with the smallest amount of formed coke. HRTEM results of Ni@Al2O3-i indicated the alumina shell had a high hydrothermal stability and further confirmed the high sintering resistance in the steam reforming of acetic acid.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.058
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Nickel-doped sodium zirconate catalysts for carbon dioxide storage and
           hydrogen production through dry methane reforming process
    • Authors: J. Arturo Mendoza-Nieto; Samuel Tehuacanero-Cuapa; Jesús Arenas-Alatorre; Heriberto Pfeiffer
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): J. Arturo Mendoza-Nieto, Samuel Tehuacanero-Cuapa, Jesús Arenas-Alatorre, Heriberto Pfeiffer
      NiO-doped sodium zirconate ceramics with different amounts of NiO (between 0 and 10wt%) were synthetized and characterized by powder XRD, SEM-EDS and N2 physisorption. Structural and microstructural characteristics of a Na2ZrO3 based-ceramic were maintained in all NiO-containing samples. These materials were tested for CO2 capture (TGA), desorption processes (TPD) and dry CH4 reforming (DMR, catalytic tests). Initially, samples were dynamically tested for CO2 chemisorption; these tests showed a slight inhibition for CO2 capture due to the presence of NiO, which partially blocked Na2ZrO3 surface sites where CO2 can be chemisorbed. Then, NiO-doped samples were carbonated and exposed to a CH4 flow in order to perform DMR reaction, using carbonate samples as CO2 source. In all cases, NiO addition resulted in greater production of H2 than that of pure Na2ZrO3. Additionally, a drastic reduction in the reaction temperature was observed, especially for NiO-doped Na2ZrO3 containing 10wt% of NiO. Additionally, regeneration and cyclic behavior showed that it is possible to accomplish consecutive cycles of CO2 capture-DMR with considerable Na2ZrO3 regeneration. On the other hand, cyclability was affected due to a partial NiO reduction after DMR steps. However, if a pre-oxidation step was performed, the catalytic activity and H2 production were recovered. Hence, it was established that NiO-doped Na2ZrO3 materials can be used as bifunctional materials as (i) CO2 captors and then as (ii) catalytic materials during DMR reaction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.050
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Deoxygenation of methyl laurate as a model compound on Ni-Zn alloy and
           intermetallic compound catalysts: Geometric and electronic effects of
           oxophilic Zn
    • Authors: Zhengyi Pan; Rijie Wang; Jixiang Chen
      Pages: 88 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Zhengyi Pan, Rijie Wang, Jixiang Chen
      A series of Ni-Zn bimetallic catalysts with different Ni/Zn atomic ratios were prepared from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with an atomic ratio of 3 between divalent (Ni2+ and Zn2+) and trivalent ions (Al3+). After the mixed oxides derived from calcined LDHs were reduced with H2 at 650°C, Ni-rich alloy with a fcc structure was synthesized at Ni/Zn ratios≥2, while an Ni-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) with a tetragonal L10 structure was generated at Ni/Zn atomic ratios of 1 and 1/2, and an Ni-Zn IMC was generated with a cubic structure at Ni/Zn ratio of 1/8. HAADF-STEM-EDS, H2 chemisorption and magnetic measurements showed that Ni and Zn atoms were uniformly distributed in catalysts, and the ensembles of Ni atoms decreased with decreasing Ni/Zn ratios. XPS and CO-TPD characterizations revealed a charge transfer from Ni to Zn. In the deoxygenation of methyl laurate as a model compound to diesel-like hydrocarbons, although the addition of Zn reduced the conversion of methyl laurate, mostly due to the decrease in Ni content, a synergetic effect between Ni and Zn was suggested to enhance turnover frequency (TOF), and higher TOFs were obtained on the catalysts with Ni/Zn ratios of 1/1 and 1/2. Because of the high oxophilicity of Zn, this synergetic effect also promoted the hydrodeoxygenation pathway. With decreasing Ni/Zn ratios, the molar ratio between C11 hydrocarbons and both C12 hydrocarbons and oxygenates decreased. Particularly, it was smaller than 0.2 on Ni-Zn IMC when the reaction temperature was 330°C, and much lower than that of 60.5 on the metallic Ni catalyst. Compared with metallic Ni, Ni-rich alloys and IMCs (especially IMCs) showed lower reactivity for CC bond hydrogenolysis and CO/CO2 methanation, which was more remarkable with decreasing Ni/Zn atomic ratios and increasing reaction temperatures. Particularly, when the conversion of methyl laurate was close to 100% at 400°C, the metallic Ni catalyst dominatingly gave methane, which was derived from CC bond hydrogenolysis as well as complete methanation of CO/CO2, and the total selectivity to C11 and C12 (i.e., SC11+C12 ) was only 1.1%. However, when the Ni/Zn atomic ratio was≤2/1, SC11+C12 reached as high as 96.2%, and the molar ratio between (CO+CO2) and C11 hydrocarbons was still larger than 1.0, i.e., CC bond hydrogenolysis and methanation were remarkably suppressed on Ni-Zn IMC catalysts. We suggest that the role of Zn is ascribed to its geometric and electronic modification of Ni in the alloy and IMC.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.040
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Role of oxygen vacancies in photocatalytic water oxidation on ceria oxide:
           Experiment and DFT studies
    • Authors: Yong-Chao Zhang; Zheng Li; Lei Zhang; Lun Pan; Xiangwen Zhang; Li Wang; Fazal-e-Aleem; Ji-Jun Zou
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Yong-Chao Zhang, Zheng Li, Lei Zhang, Lun Pan, Xiangwen Zhang, Li Wang, Fazal-e-Aleem, Ji-Jun Zou
      Photocatalytic water oxidation suffers from sluggish kinetics and remains the bottleneck for water splitting. Here, using CeO2 nanorods as model photocatalyst we studied the critical role of oxygen vacancies in photocatalytic water oxidation. First CeO2 nanorods with similar morphology but different concentration of oxygen vacancies were fabricated by one-step hydrothermal method with in-situ reducing treatment. The optical absorption, charge transfer efficiency, and photocatalytic activity in oxygen generation were found closely dependent on the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Then density functional theory calculations were conducted to unveil the role of oxygen vacancies and understand the water oxidation mechanism. It was found the presence of oxygen vacancies narrows the bandgap and modulates the electronic structure for accelerating the charge transfer, in good agreement with the experimental observations. The overall oxygen generation pathway was screened and the oxygen vacancies were found to lower the barrier energy for the rate limiting step of OO bond formation and restrain the reverse reaction of O and H, thus the O2 generation kinetics on oxygen-defective CeO2 are improved significantly. This study provides in-depth understanding on the critical role of oxygen vacancies in photocatalytic water oxidation and is helpful for designing highly efficient photocatalyst to overcome the bottleneck of water splitting.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.049
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Transient operando study on the NH3/NH4+ interplay in V-SCR monolithic
    • Authors: Søren B. Rasmussen; Raquel Portela; Philippe Bazin; Pedro Ávila; Miguel A. Bañares; Marco Daturi
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Søren B. Rasmussen, Raquel Portela, Philippe Bazin, Pedro Ávila, Miguel A. Bañares, Marco Daturi
      The assessment of an integral catalytic reactor facilitating operando spectroscopic measurements on a monolith has been carried out using NH3-SCR on a vanadia-based catalyst as a probe reaction. The NH3-SCR mechanism is revisited by studying the adsorbed ammonia and ionically bound ammonium ions and their relations to Lewis and Brønsted acid sites during reaction. The simultaneous presence of molecular water and ammonia adsorbed on the surface is intrinsic to low temperature NH3-SCR, and their IR absorption bands overlap in the bending region around 1600cm−1. This has to be tackled in order to genuinely reproduce real reaction conditions and simultaneously extract relevant spectroscopic data of a working industrial monolithic catalyst. This operando study on a V2O5-WO3/TiO2–sepiolite monolith is performed without added water in the gas phase, but water formed upstream is adsorbed further down, and thus detected by FTIR spectroscopy. We observed that Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis of the 1620cm−1 envelope of peaks can successfully resolve the bands of adsorbed H2O and NH3 in the monolith during transients between NH3 and NO+O2 flow. Their evolution along with that of surface ammonium ions indicates that generated water hydrolyzes molecularly dispersed vanadia species of the catalyst creating new Brønsted acid sites, and that adsorbed ammonia is either used for the SCR reaction, or converted into the ammonium ion, which then participates in the SCR reaction.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Effect of mixed anion layer on energy band, charge separation and
           photochemical properties of (BiO)2OHCl
    • Authors: Yifei Zhai; An Zhang; Fei Teng; Yang Yang; Wenhao Gu; Weiyi Hao; Zailun Liu; Zhe Liu; Jinyu Yang; Yiran Teng
      Pages: 116 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Yifei Zhai, An Zhang, Fei Teng, Yang Yang, Wenhao Gu, Weiyi Hao, Zailun Liu, Zhe Liu, Jinyu Yang, Yiran Teng
      It is still a big challenge to reveal the correlation between crystal structure and properties. In this work, bismuth oxychloride ((BiO)2OHCl) is prepared by a simple precipitation method, and the effect of mixed anion layer on the photochemical properties is mainly investigated. The sample is characterized by polycrystalline X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), selection area electron diffusion (SAED), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), photoluminescence fluorescence (PL), etc. It is found that under ultraviolet light irradiation (λ≤400nm), the photoactivity of (BiO)2OHCl is 1.8 times higher than that of BiOCl for the degradation of MO, although (BiO)2OHCl has a much lower BET area (3.4m2 g−1) than BiOCl (15.9m2 g−1). Comparing (BiO)2OHCl with BiOCl, parts of Cl in the anion layer of BiOCl are replaced by hydroxyl. The mixed anion layer has shifted the energy bands down, compared with BiOCl. Because hydroxyl has a higher ability to attract electron than Cl, the insertion of OH− has greatly increased the electron density of the anion layer of (BiO)2OHCl. Thus, the internal electric field (IEF) of (BiO)2OHCl has been strengthened, which is firmly demonstrated by the photocurrent results. The strengthened IEF could favor for the separation and transfer of photogenerated charges, leading to an improved photoactivity. This study provides a new idea to develop the efficient photocatalysts through building mixed anion layer.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.055
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Chemical CO2 recycling via dry and bi reforming of methane using
           Ni-Sn/Al2O3 and Ni-Sn/CeO2-Al2O3 catalysts
    • Authors: T. Stroud; T.J. Smith; E. Le Saché; J.L. Santos; M.A. Centeno; H. Arellano-Garcia; J.A. Odriozola; T.R. Reina
      Pages: 125 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): T. Stroud, T.J. Smith, E. Le Saché, J.L. Santos, M.A. Centeno, H. Arellano-Garcia, J.A. Odriozola, T.R. Reina
      Carbon formation and sintering remain the main culprits regarding catalyst deactivation in the dry and bi-reforming of methane reactions (DRM and BRM, respectively). Nickel based catalysts (10wt.%) supported on alumina (Al2O3) have shown no exception in this study, but can be improved by the addition of tin and ceria. The effect of two different Sn loadings on this base have been examined for the DRM reaction over 20h, before selecting the most appropriate Sn/Ni ratio and promoting the alumina base with 20wt.% of CeO2. This catalyst then underwent activity measurements over a range of temperatures and space velocities, before undergoing experimentation in BRM. It not only showed good levels of conversions for DRM, but exhibited stable conversions towards BRM, reaching an equilibrium H2/CO product ratio in the process. In fact, this work reveals how multicomponent Ni catalysts can be effectively utilised to produce flexible syngas streams from CO2/CH4 mixtures as an efficient route for CO2 utilisation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.047
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Role of CuO in the modification of the photocatalytic water splitting
           behavior of TiO2 nanotube thin films
    • Authors: Juliana Ferreira de Brito; Francesco Tavella; Chiara Genovese; Claudio Ampelli; Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni; Gabriele Centi; Siglinda Perathoner
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Juliana Ferreira de Brito, Francesco Tavella, Chiara Genovese, Claudio Ampelli, Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni, Gabriele Centi, Siglinda Perathoner
      The role of CuO nanoparticles decorating TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) thin film photoanodes in the behavior of photo-electrocatalytic (PEC) cells for water splitting reaction is investigated. CuO is present mainly as small nanoparticles of few nanometer decorating the internal walls of the TiO2 nanotubes. Their presence improves i) the photocurrent behavior, ii) the H2 generation rate by water splitting in a full PEC device (without application of a bias) and iii) the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency. The increase is about 20% with respect to parent TNT photoanodes using open spectrum light from a solar simulator and about 50% increase using AM 1.5G filtered light from a solar simulator. An STH efficiency over 2% in the full PEC cell is observed in the best conditions. IPCE (incident photon to current conversion efficiency) measurements clearly evidence that the presence of CuO nanoparticles induce an enhanced IPCE in the 300–340nm region. The increase in the performances in water splitting is mainly associated to the transient generation of a p–n junction between the CuxO nanoparticles and TNT upon illumination, which enhances photocurrent density by promoting charge separation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.071
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Active and durable alkaline earth metal substituted perovskite catalysts
           for dry reforming of methane
    • Authors: Srikanth Dama; Seema R. Ghodke; Richa Bobade; Hanmant R. Gurav; Satyanarayana Chilukuri
      Pages: 146 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Srikanth Dama, Seema R. Ghodke, Richa Bobade, Hanmant R. Gurav, Satyanarayana Chilukuri
      Dry reforming of methane is an important process for the utilization of CO2 and to get valuable synthesis gas. Alkaline earth metal substituted MZr1-xNixO3-δ perovskites were synthesized by citrate gel method, characterized and evaluated for dry reforming methane. Characterization results show that the type of alkaline earth substituted at the A site of the perovskite oxide plays an important role in terms of structure, basicity, oxygen deficiency and Ni dispersion. Calcium substituted CaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ catalyst shows superior activity in terms of high CH4 and CO2 conversion, while maintaining the activity even after 500h of reaction. Mechanistic investigations were carried out using transient pulse experiments and insitu FTIR-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. These experiments reveal that redox property and basicity play important role in activation and sustaining the reforming reaction. Insitu FTIR measurements show that surface hydroxyl groups of the support are vital for high activity and durability of CaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ catalyst. XRD and TGA analysis of catalysts after reaction show the structures are retained, but peaks pertaining to coke were observed on SrZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ and BaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ catalysts. On the otherhand, CaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ catalyst had only amorphous carbon even after 500h of reaction. HRTEM studies revealed that SrZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ and BaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ catalysts deactivated mostly due to the formation of carbon nanotubes with Ni embedded in them. Raman and XPS analysis helped in identifying types of coke precursors present on the catalysts. The investigation also illustrate that type of carbon formed depends on the basicity of perovskite oxide, metal to support interaction, Ni crystallite size, surface hydroxyl groups and oxygen defects. This study clearly demonstrated that CaZr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ is an excellent catalyst for dry reforming reaction with long life.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.048
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Synthesis of ZnAlTi-LDO supported C60@AgCl nanoparticles and their
           photocatalytic activity for photo-degradation of Bisphenol A
    • Authors: Liting Ju; Pingxiao Wu; Qiliang Yang; Zubair Ahmed; Nengwu Zhu
      Pages: 159 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Liting Ju, Pingxiao Wu, Qiliang Yang, Zubair Ahmed, Nengwu Zhu
      ZnAlTi layered double oxide (ZnAlTi-LDO) supported C60@AgCl nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation-light-induced method and their photocatalytic activity for photo-degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) was analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The morphology, structure and composition of the nanocomposites were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and Specific Surface Area. According to the analysis, ZnAlTi-LDO supported C60@AgCl nanoparticles (C60@AgCl-LDO) was characteristic of mesoporous materials. Pore size distribution plots of all the catalysts were well-distributed, ranging between 10 and 20nm. Because the heterostructure of Ag@AgCl enhanced near-field for light scattering, reflection and absorption. The Ag@AgCl-LDO nanoparticles and C60@AgCl-LDO nanoparticles showed a very intense absorption band in the near-UV region. The C60 was used as support materials to enhance the stability of Ag-based photocatalysts. The C60@AgCl can reduce the recombination of photo-induced electron–hole pairs and therefore increase the efficiency of the photocatalysis. The photo-degradation experiment was conducted by using a series of the nanoparticles to degrade BPA under simulated visible light irradiation. Test results show that, photogenerated holes, superoxide radical species, OHbulk and singlet oxygen are responsible for the photo-degradation, among which the superoxide radical species plays an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction system. The degradation rate of the C60@AgCl-LDO in photocatalytic degradation of BPA under simulated visible light irradiation is for 90%. The C60@AgCl-LDO nanoparticles with remarkable photocatalytic activity can be used for large-scale environmental remediation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.056
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Synergistic Ag/TiO2-N photocatalytic system and its enhanced antibacterial
           activity towards Acinetobacter baumannii
    • Authors: Guoxiang Yang; Haibo Yin; Wenhua Liu; Yuping Yang; Quan Zou; Liulin Luo; Huiping Li; Yuning Huo; Hexing Li
      Pages: 175 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Guoxiang Yang, Haibo Yin, Wenhua Liu, Yuping Yang, Quan Zou, Liulin Luo, Huiping Li, Yuning Huo, Hexing Li
      The hybrid Ag/TiO2-N photocatalyst was prepared via a supercritical solvothermal process in ethanol fluid. The simultaneous achievement of reduction of Ag+ ions and N-doping in silver-ammonia complex solution led to the uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles stably combined with the surface of TiO2-N substrate. As a result, the visible-light photocatalytic inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii was facilitated via the enhanced visible light harvesting and the high separation efficiency of photo-induced charge carriers. By means of the main active species of  O2 − radical, the synergistic effect of Ag nanoparticles and TiO2-N could induce the structure change of bacteria with the leakage of K+ ions as well as the mineralization of cell membrane with the elimination of self-repair function, leading to the final cell death. In comparison, the bactericidal activity of Ag nanoparticles and TiO2-N under UV light irradiation was due to the intrinsic efficiency and the high light harvesting, respectively. The photothermal effect of Ag nanoparticles in the near-IR light region could be possibly remained by TiO2-N substrate to achieve the antibacterial activity. Furthermore, Ag/TiO2-N photocatalyst played great bactericidal effect for kinds of bacteria, implying the applicable future to the medical disinfection.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.052
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Tin phosphate as a heterogeneous catalyst for efficient dehydration of
           glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid
    • Authors: Qidong Hou; Meinan Zhen; Le Liu; Yu Chen; Fang Huang; Shiqiu Zhang; Weizun Li; Meiting Ju
      Pages: 183 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Qidong Hou, Meinan Zhen, Le Liu, Yu Chen, Fang Huang, Shiqiu Zhang, Weizun Li, Meiting Ju
      5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a key versatile building block in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. A series of metal oxides and metal phosphates was investigated as heterogeneous catalyst to convert glucose into HMF in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMIMBr). The heterogeneous conversion of a high-concentration glucose (up to 20wt%) into HMF in ionic liquid has been achieved for the first time. Tin phosphate in the medium could afford a high HMF yield (58.3%) comparable to the best results obtained with the most effective homogeneous catalysts. To elucidate the reaction mechanism, SnO2, sSnPO and SnPO were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TEM, XPS, UV–vis, FIIR, Py-IR and CD3CN-IR. It was found that tetra-coordinated Sn4+ sites from tin phosphate are responsible for the isomerization of glucose into fructose, while the conversion of fructose into HMF is mainly catalyzed by the ionic liquid EMIMBr. The excellent catalytic performance was attributed to the synergistic effect between SnPO and EMIMBr.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.049
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Zirconia-supported tungstophosphoric heteropolyacid as heterogeneous acid
           catalyst for biodiesel production
    • Authors: Juan Alcañiz-Monge; Bouchra El Bakkali; Guido Trautwein; Santiago Reinoso
      Pages: 194 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Juan Alcañiz-Monge, Bouchra El Bakkali, Guido Trautwein, Santiago Reinoso
      A series of materials based on the immobilization of the 12-tungstophosphoric heteropolyacid over zirconia supports have been prepared and applied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in the esterification of palmitic acid with methanol as a model reaction for the preliminary stage of the biodiesel production. The title materials have been obtained through the sol-gel method combined with a subsequent hydrothermal treatment at mild conditions, which affords catalysts with larger porosity and higher thermal and chemical stability under the esterification reaction conditions than other preparative approaches. Generating the zirconia support by hydrolysis of an alkoxyde precursor in the presence of the heteropolyacid leads to materials with homogeneously well-dispersed clusters, as well as to an increasing contribution of the tetragonal ZrO2 crystalline phase, a decreasing size of the nanoparticles and larger microporous volumes as the loading of the Keggin-type species increases. The 12-tungstophosphoric acid retains its catalytic activity in the esterification of palmitic acid with methanol at 60°C upon immobilization over zirconia and conversions even higher than those observed under homogeneous conditions are obtained due to the active contribution of the support. The sample with a 30% mass percentage of heteropolyacid has been identified as the most efficient catalyst because it affords conversions above the 90% and shows the lower loss of activity over successive reaction runs among all of our materials. This loss of activity has been analyzed on the basis of the leaching of the catalyst and the fouling of the materials.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.066
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • A multifunctional graphene-based nanofiltration membrane under
           photo-assistance for enhanced water treatment based on layer-by-layer
    • Authors: Qi Zhang; Shuo Chen; Xinfei Fan; Haiguang Zhang; Hongtao Yu; Xie Quan
      Pages: 204 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Qi Zhang, Shuo Chen, Xinfei Fan, Haiguang Zhang, Hongtao Yu, Xie Quan
      Nanofiltration (NF) provides an effective strategy for rejecting large organic molecules. However, attaining high permeability, antifouling ability and good selectivity simultaneously still remains a crucial task for existing NF technologies. Herein, we built a photo-assisted multifunctional NF membrane assembled with g-C3N4, TiO2, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO), in which CNTs not only expand the interlayer space between neighbored graphene sheets, but also enhance the stability and strength of GO layer. Benefiting from the photo-assistance, our NF membranes show an enhanced water flux (∼16Lm−2 h−1 bar−1), while keep a high dye rejection (∼100% for Methyl Orange). The photo-assisted NF membranes also display good rejection ratio for salt ions (i.e., 67% for Na2SO4) due to the layer-by-layer sieving. Meanwhile, the NF membrane coupled with photocatalysis exhibits a multifunctional characteristic for the efficient removal of ammonia (50%), antibiotic (80%) and bisphenol A (82%) in water. Besides, the performance of integrated system is also tested by treating the real aquaculture wastewater to evaluate its practical application ability. The lost flux of the fouled membrane is effectively recovered by the photochemically assisted process. Hence, this work mitigates the longstanding challenge of GO-based NF membranes in large-scale application by integrating photocatalysis and nanofiltration technologies.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Effects of Ce substitution at the A-site of LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 perovskite on
           the enhanced catalytic activity for dry reforming of methane
    • Authors: Meng Wang; Tingting Zhao; Xiaolei Dong; Ming Li; Haiqian Wang
      Pages: 214 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Meng Wang, Tingting Zhao, Xiaolei Dong, Ming Li, Haiqian Wang
      Effects of Ce substitution at the A-site of LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 perovskite on the enhanced catalytic activity for dry reforming of methane (DRM) were studied. La1-xCexNi0.5Fe0.5O3 mixed-oxide catalyst precursors were synthesized by a sol-gel self-combustion method. The CH4 and CO2 conversions increase for the samples with x=0.4 – 0.6. The used catalysts consist of Ni, CeO2, and (LaCe)(NiFe)O3. The metallic Ni phase provides the primary catalytic activity, while (LaCe)(NiFe)O3 perovskite dominates the enhanced catalytic activity. It is confirmed that the solubility of Ce in the perovskite is high under the DRM conditions. Our results suggest that the Ce3+ cation at the A-site of (LaCe)(NiFe)O3 is active for DRM, and the relevant mechanisms are discussed.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Nitrogen photofixation by ultrathin amine-functionalized graphitic carbon
           nitride nanosheets as a gaseous product from thermal polymerization of
    • Authors: Shihai Cao; Huan Chen; Fang Jiang; Xin Wang
      Pages: 222 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Shihai Cao, Huan Chen, Fang Jiang, Xin Wang
      Amine-functionalized ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets were directly obtained by collection of the gaseous thermal polymerization products of urea. The different thermal polymerization mechanisms of urea in the gaseous and solid phases were clarified in this paper. We found that NH3 was crucial for the formation of g-C3N4 nanosheets in the gaseous phase. The obtained g-C3N4 nanosheets were uniform with a large surface area, high reduction potential, and an enhanced charge-carrier separation rate. Thus, these features might promote the catalytic activity and stability of the material for visible-light photocatalytic nitrogen fixation. Moreover, the one-pot synthesis route to amine-functionalized ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets might also be applicable as a new chemical vapor deposition method for deposition of g-C3N4 nanosheets.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.028
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Noble metal-free metal-organic framework-derived onion slice-type hollow
           cobalt sulfide nanostructures: Enhanced activity of CdS for improving
           photocatalytic hydrogen production
    • Authors: D. Praveen Kumar; Hanbit Park; Eun Hwa Kim; Sangyeob Hong; Madhusudana Gopannagari; D. Amaranatha Reddy; Tae Kyu Kim
      Pages: 230 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): D. Praveen Kumar, Hanbit Park, Eun Hwa Kim, Sangyeob Hong, Madhusudana Gopannagari, D. Amaranatha Reddy, Tae Kyu Kim
      The hollow materials have played a significant role in cutting-edge innovations for energy conversion due to their peculiar properties and their wide range of potential applications. These materials show great promise for the development of cleaner power sources to address growing environmental concerns at a time of increasing global demand for energy. Noble metal-free MOF-derived onion slice-type hollow structured Co4S3 was developed and embedded with CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic hydrogen production. The incorporation of Co4S3 with the CdS particles effectively accelerated charge separation and transfer in photocatalytic reactions due to the low density, hollow interior, and shell permeability of the onion-type composite. The optimized Co4S3/CdS photocatalyst led to an enhanced rate of H2 production of 12,360μmolh−1 g−1 under simulated solar light irradiation; this value is 26-fold greater than that of the pristine CdS nanoparticles. The Co4S3/CdS composite exhibited remarkably stable photocatalytic performance for up to 65h and could be reused in five successive cycles. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the highest H2 production rate achieved with cobalt sulfide-based CdS nanoparticle photocatalysts in the photocatalysis of water under simulated solar light irradiation. Owing to its low cost and high efficiency, this photocatalytic system should hold great potential for the development of highly efficient photocatalytic materials for use in various fields.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.051
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Cu2O nanocrystals/TiO2 microspheres film on a rotating disk containing
           long-afterglow phosphor for enhanced round-the-clock photocatalysis
    • Authors: Ying Lu; Xu Zhang; Yicong Chu; Hongbin Yu; Mingxin Huo; Jiao Qu; John C. Crittenden; Hongliang Huo; Xing Yuan
      Pages: 239 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Ying Lu, Xu Zhang, Yicong Chu, Hongbin Yu, Mingxin Huo, Jiao Qu, John C. Crittenden, Hongliang Huo, Xing Yuan
      A Cu2O nanocrystals/TiO2 microspheres (Cu2O NCs/M-TiO2) rotating disk reactor assisted by long-afterglow phosphor was successfully designed and fabricated in order to achieve enhanced round-the-clock photocatalysis. The Cu2O NCs/M-TiO2 composite exhibited good photocatalytic activity owing to enlarged light absorption and efficient quantum yield by integrating Cu2O NCs with core-shell M-TiO2. Through rotating the catalyst disk, a thin aqueous film was formed on its upper part as well as continuously refreshed. Compared with bulk reaction, the photon propagation distance within this film was greatly shortened, and the possibility of light absorption by solution was correspondingly reduced, increasing the light utilization yield of photocatalytic system. Additionally, the continuous update of pollutants and their intermediates on catalyst was beneficial to photocatalysis. The long-afterglow phosphor in reactor could absorb excessive light energy and give out persistent fluorescence, exciting Cu2O NCs/M-TiO2 composite and realizing round-the-clock photocatalysis. As a result, the Cu2O NCs/M-TiO2 rotating disk reactor containing long-afterglow phosphor presented high reactivity in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B and bisphenol A. The recycle experiments confirmed the stability and reliability of prepared reactor.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.054
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • New insights on the adsorption, thermal decomposition and reduction of NOx
           over Pt- and Ba-based catalysts
    • Authors: L. Castoldi; R. Matarrese; S. Morandi; L. Righini; L. Lietti
      Pages: 249 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): L. Castoldi, R. Matarrese, S. Morandi, L. Righini, L. Lietti
      In this study mechanistic aspects related to the adsorption of NOx over alumina-supported Pt, Ba and PtBa catalysts are deepened, that are of interest for NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalysts and other applications involving the adsorption of NOx (e.g. Passive NOx Adsorbers, PNAs). NOx adsorption is investigated at low and high temperatures (150°C and 350°C, respectively); the thermal decomposition and the reactivity with H2 of the adsorbed species is also addressed. By coupling FT-IR spectroscopy and microreactor studies, new insights on the adsorption, decomposition and reactivity of the stored NOx are derived. In particular it is found that at 150°C nitrites are formed on all surfaces when starting from NO/O2; different species are formed onto the different storage sites (Ba vs. Al) that can be distinguished spectroscopically. Different routes for the storage of nitrites are highlighted, i.e. direct oxidative NO uptake and nitrite formation involving NO2 produced by oxidation of NO. Clear and novel evidence is herein provided that the direct NO oxidative uptake is much faster than the route involving the NO to NO2 oxidation. Both routes are catalyzed by Pt, although Ba is also able to store nitrites; the role of the interaction between Pt and the storage sites is discussed. When the NOx storage is carried out at higher temperatures (350°C), both routes are greatly favored although nitrites can hardly be observed being readily transformed into nitrates. Besides NO2 is also formed in significant amounts that may participate to the formation of nitrites/nitrates adspecies following a NO2 disproportion pathway for which clear and new spectroscopic evidences are herein provided. The adsorbed species (nitrites or nitrates) start to decompose above the adsorption temperature, i.e. 150°C and 350°C, respectively. In the presence of Pt, the decomposition of the stored nitrites leads to the formation of nitrates and NO due to the occurrence of a nitrite disproportion reaction. The formed nitrates show high thermal stability and decompose only at high temperatures, thus making these systems unappropriated for PNA applications. In the presence of a reductant, Pt catalyzes the reduction of the stored NOx at much lower temperatures than the adsorption; the role of the interaction between Pt and the storage sites on this step is herein discussed.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Novel V2O5-CeO2-TiO2-SO42− nanostructured aerogel catalyst for the low
           temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 in excess O2
    • Authors: Jihene Arfaoui; Abdelhamid Ghorbel; Carolina Petitto; Gerard Delahay
      Pages: 264 - 275
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Jihene Arfaoui, Abdelhamid Ghorbel, Carolina Petitto, Gerard Delahay
      New ceria and sulfate co-modified V2O5-TiO2 aerogel catalysts were developed, using the one-step sol gel method associated with the supercritical drying process, for Diesel DeNOx technology. N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, Raman and DRUV-Vis spectroscopy were employed to probe the physico-chemical properties of TiO2, V2O5-TiO2, V2O5-CeO2-TiO2 and V2O5-CeO2-TiO2-SO4 2− aerogel materials. XPS was used to obtain further information about the oxidation states of the active sites on the surface of the novel V2O5-CeO2-TiO2-SO4 2− aerogel catalyst. The characterization results showed the successful synthesis of a new generation of well nanostructured aerogel catalysts with high surface area, large porosity and good thermal stability. V, Ce and SO4 2− actives species were found highly dispersed on TiO2 surface and their presence strongly influenced the surface acidity and the redox properties of the aerogel catalysts. Sulfate anions created strong acid sites and most probably contributed to the stabilization of V and Ce surface species at their 4+and 3+oxidation state, respectively. In the SCR-NO by NH3 under oxygen rich conditions, V2O5-TiO2 aerogel catalyst exhibited low NO conversions in 150–500°C temperature range. The addition of cerium significantly increased the NO conversion at low temperature (220–400°C). However, the simultaneous incorporation of cerium and sulfate has led to a novel V2O5-CeO2-TiO2-SO4 2− nanostructured aerogel catalyst with superior catalytic performances, at high temperature (450–500°C), with respect to V2O5-WO3/TiO2 commercial one (EUROCAT).
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.059
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Egg-shell membrane reactors for nitrite hydrogenation: Manipulating
           kinetics and selectivity
    • Authors: Roger Brunet Espinosa; Damon Rafieian; Rolf Sybren Postma; Rob G.H. Lammertink; Leon Lefferts
      Pages: 276 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Roger Brunet Espinosa, Damon Rafieian, Rolf Sybren Postma, Rob G.H. Lammertink, Leon Lefferts
      A method to fabricate catalytic membrane contactor reactors with a Pd-egg-shell distribution has been developed on α-alumina tubes, allowing excellent control over the distribution of the active phase through the wall of the alumina tube. The performance of these catalytic membrane reactors has been assessed for nitrite hydrogenation. We have shown that manipulation of the thickness of the zone containing active phase induces different diffusion lengths for nitrite and hydrogen, strongly influencing activity and selectivity. Thick active layers have proved to be more selective to nitrogen, the desired product for purification of drinking water. Surprisingly, a thick layer with active phase also induced a negative apparent order in hydrogen, which is tentatively assigned to the fact that the ratio of concentrations of reactants, hydrogen and nitrite, varies extremely in the active zone.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.058
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • The promoted effect of a metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-8) on Au/TiO2 for
           CO oxidation at room temperature both in dark and under visible light
    • Authors: Yujuan Zhang; Qiuzhong Li; Chunxia Liu; Xinggang Shan; Xun Chen; Wenxin Dai; Xianzhi Fu
      Pages: 283 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Yujuan Zhang, Qiuzhong Li, Chunxia Liu, Xinggang Shan, Xun Chen, Wenxin Dai, Xianzhi Fu
      A gold nanoparticle catalyst supported on the ZIF-8 (a metal-organic frameworks) modified TiO2 (Au/ZIF-8-TiO2) was prepared by self-assembly together with solvothermal and deposition-precipitation methods, which its performance of catalytic oxidizing CO was evaluated and compared with that of Au/TiO2 and Au/ZIF-8, respectively. It was found that the incorporation of ZIF-8 into Au/TiO2 could remarkably enhance the catalytic activity of Au/TiO2 both in dark and under visible light irradiation. The characterization result of Au/ZIF-8-TiO2 showed that the sheet of ZIF-8 was distributed on the surface of TiO2 microspheres to enhance the surface roughness of TiO2, which could effectively limit the migration and aggregation of Au nanoparticles (i.e., enhancing the dispersion of Au nanoparticles at support) due to its large surface area and porousness. Moreover, Au/ZIF-8-TiO2 owned a higher surface electron density of both Au nanoparticles and TiO2 as compared to Au/TiO2. It is proposed that ZIF-8 with abundant delocalized electrons of π bond could act as an electron donor for TiO2 and Au in the structure of Au/ZIF-8-TiO2, but it act as an electron transfer mediator to promote the electron transfer between Au and TiO2 induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. These behaviors would promote the adsorption and activation of CO and O2 at Au or TiO2 sites, resulting in the enhanced CO oxidation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • A study on the deactivation and reactivation of a Ni/Al2O3 aldehyde
           hydrogenation catalyst: Effects of regeneration on the activity and
           properties of the catalyst
    • Authors: Sinqobile V.L. Mahlaba; Jignesh Valand; Abdul S. Mahomed; Holger B. Friedrich
      Pages: 295 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Sinqobile V.L. Mahlaba, Jignesh Valand, Abdul S. Mahomed, Holger B. Friedrich
      The effectiveness of different experiments for the regeneration of a phosphorus poisoned 15wt.% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was investigated during the time on stream hydrogenation of octanal to octanol. The catalyst was deactivated after being exposed to feed contaminated with 500ppm of triphenylphosphine. Regeneration of the catalyst was attempted by either treating the poisoned catalyst with hydrogen, washing the catalyst with octanol or conducting a combined octanol wash-hydrogen treatment experiment, all at elevated temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. The combined regeneration experiment was the most effective, since the conversion and octanol selectivity were recovered to a significant extent. Characterisation of the regenerated catalysts by ICP-OES, XRD, magnetic measurements and TEM showed that sintering also contributed to the deactivation of the catalysts, and that regeneration did not remove phosphorus from the catalyst, due to phosphorus having reacted with nickel. It was also established that some phosphorus was incorporated into the alumina support to generate strongly acidic sites.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.064
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Operando SERS self-monitoring photocatalytic oxidation of aminophenol on
           TiO2 semiconductor
    • Authors: Xuefeng Yan; Yin Xu; Baozhu Tian; Juying Lei; Jinlong Zhang; Lingzhi Wang
      Pages: 305 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Xuefeng Yan, Yin Xu, Baozhu Tian, Juying Lei, Jinlong Zhang, Lingzhi Wang
      The utilization of the fingerprint spectrum for the operando monitoring of a photocatalytic process is extremely desired to accurately understand the reaction mechanism but long remains challenging. Here, ordered macroporous TiO2 that is concomitantly photocatalytically active and high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitive was unprecedentedly employed to self-track the photocatalytic reaction using the oxidation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) as the model. The photocatalytic degradation under 532nm laser irradiation initiated from the formation of the azo compound was explicitly revealed by finely resolved SERS spectra. More importantly, the decomposition rates of different bonds including NN, CS and CC were respectively determined, following a first-order kinetics process with the rates in the range of 2.1–2.7×10−3 s−1. Meanwhile, this self-monitoring strategy also provides an opportunity for gaining an insight into the effect of photothermal catalysis on selective formation of the azo compound.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Hydroxyapatite supported bimetallic cobalt and nickel catalysts for syngas
           production from dry reforming of methane
    • Authors: Thanh Son Phan; Abdoul Razac Sane; Bruna Rêgo de Vasconcelos; Ange Nzihou; Patrick Sharrock; Didier Grouset; Doan Pham Minh
      Pages: 310 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Thanh Son Phan, Abdoul Razac Sane, Bruna Rêgo de Vasconcelos, Ange Nzihou, Patrick Sharrock, Didier Grouset, Doan Pham Minh
      Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has all the criteria of a catalyst support, in particular its high thermal stability. However it is still less studied in the heterogeneous catalysis. For the first time, hydroxyapatite supported bimetallic Co-Ni catalysts were prepared and evaluated in the dry reforming of methane (DRM) process. Nanoparticles containing both nickel and cobalt were well formed on the surface of HAP by conventional impregnation methods. No modification of HAP structure was observed after metals deposition. DRM reaction was carried out at 700–750°C and around 1.6bar, using a fixed-bed reactor which was fed with a mixture of 20%vol CH4, 20%vol CO2 and 60%vol N2. CH4 and CO2 conversion reached up to 60 and 68% at 700°C, respectively, and 73 and 79% at 750°C, respectively during long reaction times of 50–160h. Water as a by-product could be quantified along the catalytic reaction indicating the implication of reverse water-gas-shift reaction. TEM-EDX analysis of the used catalysts recovered after catalytic tests showed that coke deposition was limited and there was slight modification of metals particle size. The results obtained were very promising for the design of an efficient catalytic system for DRM process.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.063
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Photocatalytic hydrogen production over plasmonic AuCu/CaIn2S4 composites
           with different AuCu atomic arrangements
    • Authors: Jianjun Ding; Xiangyang Li; Lin Chen; Xian Zhang; Xingyou Tian
      Pages: 322 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Jianjun Ding, Xiangyang Li, Lin Chen, Xian Zhang, Xingyou Tian
      Plasmonic AuCu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on monoclinic CaIn2S4 have been synthesized through the photoreduction method, by which AuCu bimetallic nanoparticles with different atomic arrangements were site-selectively photo-deposited at the edges of CaIn2S4 surface nanosteps. The obtained plasmonic composites were characterized by XRD, TEM, photoelectrochemical analysis, XPS, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The results showed that AuCu bimetallic nanoparticles with alloy structure showed better performance for light absorption, charge separation and photocatalytic activity compared to AuCu core-shell structure. Especially, alloyed Au0.4Cu0.1/CaIn2S4 composite exhibited the highest visible activity for hydrogen production from Na2S/Na2SO3 solution with a rate of 452.8μmol/h, over 2.2, 10.0, 63.8 and 76.7 times higher than that of core-shell Cu0.1/Au0.4/CaIn2S4, Au0.5/CaIn2S4, Cu0.5/CaIn2S4 and CaIn2S4, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of AuCu/CaIn2S4 composites could be mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect in AuCu bimetallic nanoparticles and the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.045
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Preparation of hydrodesulfurization catalysts using MoS3 nanoparticles as
           a precursor
    • Authors: Yang Gao; Wei Han; Xiangyun Long; Hong Nie; Dadong Li
      Pages: 330 - 340
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Yang Gao, Wei Han, Xiangyun Long, Hong Nie, Dadong Li
      γ-Alumina-supported MoS3 nanoparticles (NPS) denoted as MoS3/Al2O3 were firstly synthesized by chemical deposition method, and then used as the “second support” for promoter Ni atoms to prepare a pre-sulfided bimetallic HDS catalyst denoted as CAT-MoS3 by the conventional impregnation method. Meanwhile, for comparison purpose, two bimetallic catalysts denoted as CAT-MoS2 and CAT-MoO3 with the same metal loadings were prepared using MoS2/Al2O3 and MoO3/Al2O3 as the starting material, respectively. Characterization and activity assessment show that, using MoS3 as the precursor not only promotes the resulting bimetallic catalyst with a much higher sulfidation degree of Mo species, but also realizes a better decoration of Ni atoms onto the edges of MoS2 nanoslabs. The dual effect guarantees the plentiful formation of Type II Ni-Mo-S active sites and thus remarkably enhances the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity. Compared with CAT-MoS2, CAT-MoS3 possesses very similar physical properties, microstructure and sulfidation degree of Mo species, however, due to its much higher decoration degree of Ni atoms, it holds a significantly enhanced HDS activity. Moreover, in comparison with CAT-MoS2, CAT-MoO3 exhibits a worse microstructure (more MoS2 nanoslabs with larger length and lower stacking) and a much lower sulfidation degree of Mo species, but it still holds much higher HDS activity, further implying that the decoration degree (i.e. promoting effect) imposes the most important impact on the HDS activity. It is rational and effective to modify the starting state of Mo species to enhance the promoting effect and thereof improve the catalytic performance.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.046
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Influence of tunable pore size on photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical
           performances of hierarchical porous TiO2/C nanocomposites synthesized via
    • Authors: He Wang; Huan Liu; Shulan Wang; Li Li; Xuan Liu
      Pages: 341 - 349
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): He Wang, Huan Liu, Shulan Wang, Li Li, Xuan Liu
      TiO2/C nanocomposites with hierarchical porous framework were synthesized by the dual-templation method with ice and silica as the hard template. Silica of different dimensions was used as the knob to modify the TiO2/C pore structure and to control anatase-rutile transformation. The prepared TiO2/C nanocomposites with pores at three different scales with micro-, meso- and macro-pores not only prohibited aggregation of nanoparticles but also shortened the transportation distance of charge carriers. TiO2/C fabricated with 22nm colloid silica as the template showed superior photocatalytic performances of 4.0 and 10.7 times of the commercial benchmark P25 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. The TiO2/C composites also showed excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances with the photocurrent density of 6.3mA/cm2 that is 11.2 times of the control sample. The results demonstrated that the silica dimension serves a significant role for optimization of the TiO2/C microstructure including particle size, phase composition, surface area and thus improvement in photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.039
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Co–Pd/BiVO4: High-performance photocatalysts for the degradation of
           phenol under visible light irradiation
    • Authors: Kunfeng Zhang; Yuxi Liu; Jiguang Deng; Shaohua Xie; Xingtian Zhao; Jun Yang; Zhuo Han; Hongxing Dai
      Pages: 350 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Kunfeng Zhang, Yuxi Liu, Jiguang Deng, Shaohua Xie, Xingtian Zhao, Jun Yang, Zhuo Han, Hongxing Dai
      Leaf-like monoclinic BiVO4 and yCo x Pd/BiVO4 (Co x Pd loading (y)=0.060−0.092wt%; Co/Pd molar ratio (x)=0.26−1.70) photocatalysts were prepared using the hydrothermal and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. The Co−Pd nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of 4–6nm were well dispersed on the surface of leaf-like BiVO4. The bimetallic Co−Pd-loaded BiVO4 samples performed much better than the monometallic Co- or Pd-loaded counterpart, with the 0.062Co1.70Pd/BiVO4 sample showing the best photocatalytic performance (the time for 90% phenol removal was 3h under visible light irradiation) and good photocatalytic stability. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants (0.4753−0.8367h−1) obtained over yCo x Pd/BiVO4 were much higher than those (0.0619−0.3788h−1) obtained over BiVO4, 0.058Co/BiVO4, and 0.083Pd/BiVO4, with the 0.062Co1.70Pd/BiVO4 sample possessing the highest rate constant. In-depth investigations of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that high dispersion of bimetallic Co–Pd NPs increased the surface Pd0 and superoxide anion radical concentrations and suppressed the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes (hence enhancing the photocatalytic activity of yCo x Pd/BiVO4). The partial deactivation of the 0.062Co1.70Pd/BiVO4 sample after 15h of three recycle tests was mainly due to the decrease in adsorbed oxygen species concentration. In addition, the possible photocatalytic phenol degradation mechanism over the 0.062Co1.70Pd/BiVO4 sample was also proposed. We believe that the BiVO4-supported Co–Pd NPs have promising applications for the photocatalytic elimination of organic pollutants in wastewater.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.044
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Sub-2nm Pt-decorated Zn0.5Cd0.5S nanocrystals with twin-induced
           homojunctions for efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2
    • Authors: Boon-Junn Ng; Lutfi Kurnianditia Putri; Xin Ying Kong; Katrina Pui Yee Shak; Pooria Pasbakhsh; Siang-Piao Chai; Abdul Rahman Mohamed
      Pages: 360 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Boon-Junn Ng, Lutfi Kurnianditia Putri, Xin Ying Kong, Katrina Pui Yee Shak, Pooria Pasbakhsh, Siang-Piao Chai, Abdul Rahman Mohamed
      Pseudobinary ZnxCd1-xS semiconductor with zinc blende/wurtzite (ZB/WZ) twin-induced crystal structure has been regarded as one of the best pristine sulfide photocatalysts for H2 evolution via water splitting. While the synthesis of this nano-twin photocatalyst is at the forefront of research, the incorporation of co-catalyst to improve photocatalytic activities through synergistic properties has rarely been reported. Loading well-dispersed ultrasmall platinum (Pt) with controlled sizes is the pivotal element in maximizing atom-utilization efficiencies by downsizing the noble metal clusters. In this contribution, we report the fabrication of highly dispersed sub-2nm Pt decorated twinned Zn0.5Cd0.5S nanocrystals and their excellent photocatalytic H2 evolution in both acidic and alkaline sacrificial reagents. The high visible-light-driven H2 evolution rates of the most active sample (denoted as 8Pt-Zn0.5Cd0.5S) in 0.1M Na2S/0.1M Na2SO3 (pH=12.94) and 0.15M ascorbic acid (pH=2.24) are measured to be 114.3μmolh−1 (AQY:7.15%) and 164.9μmolh−1 (AQY:8.56%), respectively, which render ca. 4.9- and 27.9-fold enhancement over pristine twinned Zn0.5Cd0.5S. The presence of homojunctions (within ZB and WZ segments) and heterojunctions (between Pt and twinned Zn0.5Cd0.5S) impart an efficient spatial charge separation and provide more active sites for highly efficient photocatalytic H2 production.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Hydrogenation of sodium hydrogen carbonate in aqueous phase using
           metal/activated carbon catalysts
    • Authors: Edelmira González; Cristian Marchant; Catherine Sepúlveda; Rafael García; I.Tyrone Ghampson; Nestor Escalona; Jose Luis García-Fierro
      Pages: 368 - 375
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Edelmira González, Cristian Marchant, Catherine Sepúlveda, Rafael García, I.Tyrone Ghampson, Nestor Escalona, Jose Luis García-Fierro
      The catalytic hydrogenation of sodium hydrogen carbonate in aqueous phase (NaHCO3) to produce sodium formate (or formic acid) on activated carbon-supported metal (Pd, Ru, Ni, Co and Re) species at 25°C and 1bar of hydrogen was studied. The reaction was performed in a semi-continuous flow reactor, and the formate (or formic acid) production was quantified by HPLC, while the gas feed and possible products were quantified by gas chromatography. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and carbon monoxide chemisorption. All the catalysts displayed activity in the hydrogenation of sodium hydrogen carbonate and the selectivity to sodium formate was 100%. The Pd/C catalyst presented the highest activity, attributed to stabilized adsorption of reactant which favors the hydrogenation process. The highest intrinsic hydrogenation performance of this metal is related to stability of reduced phases of Pd species observed by XPS and TPR results, favoring the formation of formic acid.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.038
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Enhancement of photocatalytic decarboxylation on TiO2 by water-induced
           change in adsorption-mode
    • Authors: Hongna Zhang; Peng Zhou; Hongwei Ji; Wanhong Ma; Chuncheng Chen; Jincai Zhao
      Pages: 376 - 382
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Hongna Zhang, Peng Zhou, Hongwei Ji, Wanhong Ma, Chuncheng Chen, Jincai Zhao
      Decarboxylation is an important process in the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this study, the adsorption and photocatalytic decarboxylation of acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were investigated by in-situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS), which can distinguish carboxylate groups with different adsorption modes. We found that water molecules promote photocatalytic decarboxylation reaction and the promotional effect of water is attributed to the changed adsorption mode of the carboxylate group by the co-adsorbed water molecules. The IR study shows that degradation of the monodentate-coordinated acetic acids is much faster than that of the bidentate-coordinated one. The kinetic isotope effect studies and analysis of the intermediate products indicates that the degradation of acetic acids originates from the direct oxidation by holes even in the presence of water, rather than from the reaction of OH radicals as generally believed. DFT-based molecular dynamics calculations revealed that the formation of the monodentate-coordinated carboxylate group in the presence of water is attributed to competition between the O atom of the carboxylate group and water for the surface Ti sites. Because of its higher electron density, the monodentate carboxylate group is easier to be directly oxidized by holes than the bidentate group.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Highly-efficient photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli under
    • Authors: Baogang Zhang; Shiqiang Zou; Ruquan Cai; Min Li; Zhen He
      Pages: 383 - 393
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Baogang Zhang, Shiqiang Zou, Ruquan Cai, Min Li, Zhen He
      Reliable and effective water disinfectants are of paramount importance to address mounting health concerns in drinking water. Herein, Vanadium Tetrasulfide (VS4) nanocomposites supported by different carbon materials, including VS4/CP (carbon powder), VS4/rGO (reduced graphene oxides), VS4/CF (carbon fiber), and VS4/CNT (carbon nanotube), were synthesized, comprehensively characterized, and investigated as photocatalytic disinfectants. Among them, the cost-effective and lattice-structure VS4/CP exhibited the best disinfection performance for removing E. coli (Gram-negative) under both simulated visible light and sunlight, with a maximum inactivation rate of 9.7 log at 0.1gL−1 in 30min. However, it was not very effective to eliminate S. aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) with a disinfection rate of 1.7 log inactivation in 30min. Consistent disinfection performance was confirmed with four successive stability tests and over a wide range of E. coli density (6 log to 9 log CFUml−1). The potential disinfection mechanism was studied on a subcellular level, indicating that membrane damage (via mineralization, lipid peroxidation and collapsed membrane potential) and penetration-induced intracellular damage including DNA degradation and decreased ATP level could be the main inactivation principles. Further photochemical investigation suggested that O2 −, h+ and e− were crucial active species, and an acidic/neutral environment would favor the photocatalytic disinfection. These results have demonstrated effectiveness and potential applications of the developed VS4/CP nanocomposites in water disinfection.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.065
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Highly selective oxidation of furfuryl alcohol over monolayer titanate
           nanosheet under visible light irradiation
    • Authors: Hao Wang; Yujie Song; Jinhua Xiong; Jinhong Bi; Liuyi Li; Yan Yu; Shijing Liang; Ling Wu
      Pages: 394 - 403
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Hao Wang, Yujie Song, Jinhua Xiong, Jinhong Bi, Liuyi Li, Yan Yu, Shijing Liang, Ling Wu
      Monolayer H1.4Ti1.65O4·H2O nanosheet (denoted as NST) has been prepared as a photocatalyst for the oxidation of furfuryl alcohol (denoted as FA) to furaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of NST is over 10 times higher than that of its layered counterpart. This enhanced activity may be attributed to the high percentage of exposed Lewis acid sites in NST. The in-situ FTIR result suggests that FA are efficiently chemosorbed on the exposed Lewis acid sites forming the surface coordination species via CO groups, resulting in the activation of FA. The surface coordination species would respond to visible light absorption. Furthermore, The XAFS result shows that the signals for TiO and Ti–Ti in NST are weaker dramatically and the signals positions are shifted by 0.03Å in the higher R direction as compared with those in layered counterpart, suggesting the more exposed Ti and O defects in NST. The oxygen molecules absorbed on these surface defects are activated forming O2 − by photo-electrons under visible light irradiation. Finally, a possible mechanism has been proposed at a molecular level.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.069
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Visible light photocatalysis of dye-sensitized TiO2: The selective aerobic
           oxidation of amines to imines
    • Authors: Zhan Wang; Xianjun Lang
      Pages: 404 - 409
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Zhan Wang, Xianjun Lang
      Herein, we report an efficient protocol for the selective oxidation of amines with the sole involvement of conduction band electrons (ecb −) of TiO2 for both the activation of O2 and the ensuing oxidation reaction. Visible light was harvested by dye molecules on the surface of TiO2, which injects electrons into its conduction band, generating dye radical cations. Charge transfers from dye radical cations to amines are relayed by the catalytic cycle of (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO) to TEMPO+, which is an oxidant that can conduct the direct two-electron oxidation of amines to imines. TEMPO was regenerated by the oxidation of TEMPOH with superoxide generated by the interaction of ecb − and O2. This work suggests that one can exploit the strategy of cooperative photocatalysis with each component performing in its optimal role: TiO2 for O2 activation, dye for visible light harvesting, and TEMPO for oxidative transformations.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Solar photoelectro-Fenton treatment of a mixture of parabens spiked into
           secondary treated wastewater effluent at low input current
    • Authors: Juliana R. Steter; Enric Brillas; Ignasi Sirés
      Pages: 410 - 418
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Juliana R. Steter, Enric Brillas, Ignasi Sirés
      Aqueous mixtures of methyl, ethyl and propyl paraben (MeP, EtP and PrP) prepared in real urban wastewater with low conductivity were treated by solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) process at low input current (j =10mAcm−2) using a pre-pilot plant with an electrochemical reactor equipped with an air-diffusion cathode to electrogenerate H2O2 and a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or RuO2-based anode. Comparative trials in simulated water matrices with or without Cl− in the absence of natural organic matter (NOM) always led to a slower decay of parabens concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). This was mainly due to the superior regeneration of Fe2+ from photoreduction of Fe(III) complexes formed with NOM in real wastewater compared to that from Fe(OH)2+. In all matrices, a catalyst concentration as low as 0.20mM Fe2+ was enough to ensure the production of OH in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction. SPEF with BDD yielded a complete removal of parabens in 180min and 66% mineralization at 240min. This gave rise to the greatest mineralization current efficiencies reported so far, up to 1000%, with a low energy consumption of 84kWh (kg TOC)−1. The synergy between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, which allowed the efficient dosage of OH and M(OH) at low j, with simultaneous action of high UV power from sunlight justified such a good performance. Analogous apparent rate constants were determined for MeP, EtP and PrP. Slower decays were found with RuO2-based anode due to its lower oxidation power. As a result, the MCE was 425% as maximum, but a lower energy consumption of 52kWh (kg TOC)−1 was needed. Since the role of active chlorine was of minor importance, the formation of toxic, refractory chloroderivatives was minimized. All by-products were transformed into malic, formic and oxalic acids prior to total mineralization.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.060
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Comment on “Designed oxygen carriers from macroporous LaFeO3 supported
           CeO2 for chemical-looping reforming of methane”, by Zheng et al. [Appl.
           Catal. B: Environ., 202 (2017) 51–63. doi: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.08.024]
    • Authors: Ernesto Paparazzo
      Pages: 419 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Ernesto Paparazzo

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.035
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Rational utilization of highly conductive, commercial Elicarb graphene to
           advance the graphene-semiconductor composite photocatalysis
    • Authors: Kang-Qiang Lu; Yan Chen; Xin Xin; Yi-Jun Xu
      Pages: 424 - 432
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Kang-Qiang Lu, Yan Chen, Xin Xin, Yi-Jun Xu
      Graphene oxide (GO) has widely been used as the precursor of graphene to construct graphene-semiconductor composite photocatalysts for various redox reactions. However, the electrical conductivity and charge carrier mobility of reduced GO (RGO) are remarkably decreased due to considerable disruption of the 2D π-conjugation of the electronic structure in the domain of RGO sheets, which results that the net improvement efficiency of photoactivity is often limited. Herein, we report a simple yet efficient strategy of rational utilization of highly conductive, commercial Elicarb graphene (EGR), which is manufactured on a large scale via a high-shear exfoliation process in liquid phase, to synthesize EGR-semiconductor CdS composite photocatalysts with distinctly enhanced activity as compared to RGO-CdS counterparts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light illumination. To resolve the low solution processability deficiency of EGR, we select the surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene acid (SDBS), to functionalize the surface of EGR with additional hydrophilic functional groups, thereby making SDBS-modified EGR well dispersed in aqueous phase and negatively charged. In addition, the hybridization of CdS with graphene via the electrostatic self-assembly strategy guarantees the intimate interfacial contact. This conceptual study would spur further interest in virtuous interactive loop between fundamental research and commercialization of graphene materials to advance graphene-semiconductor composite photocatalysis.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • A novel open–framework spheniscidite photocatalyst with excellent
           visible light photocatalytic activity: Silver sensitization effect and DFT
    • Authors: Dandan Tang; Jun Li; Gaoke Zhang
      Pages: 433 - 441
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Dandan Tang, Jun Li, Gaoke Zhang
      We report a novel silver modified spheniscidite (SPH–Ag) visible light responsive photocatalyst with open–framework structure. The SPH–Ag photocatalyst was firstly synthesized by one step hydrothermal method. Meanwhile, the contribution of silver sensitization to the visible light photocatalytic property of SPH–Ag was confirmed by characterization results and DFT calculation. Ag+ is demonstrated to enter into the spheniscidite cavities and replace one NH4 + per unit cell without destroying the structure. Noteworthy, compared to SPH, the pure phase SPH–Ag catalyst equipped with larger specific surface area, broader visible light response region, stronger oxidizing ability and lower recombination rate of electrons and holes. Meanwhile, the valence electrons are rearranged and the unoccupied Ag 5s orbital hybridizes with Fe 3d and O 2p orbitals at valance band, which greatly improves the SPH–Ag’s ability of gaining electrons and the separation of photo generated charge carriers. As expected, the SPH–Ag catalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for ARG degradation under visible light irradiation, which is mainly attributed to the generation of h+ and O2 − species. Furthermore, its photocatalytic property was highly maintained as well as its structure and surface chemical properties after five recycles. This work may provide insight into the design of new–type Ag–based photocatalysts and their photocatalytic mechanism.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.070
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Tuning Ni-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation selectivity via Ni-ceria support
           interactions and Ni-Fe bimetallic formation
    • Authors: Lea R. Winter; Elaine Gomez; Binhang Yan; Siyu Yao; Jingguang G. Chen
      Pages: 442 - 450
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Lea R. Winter, Elaine Gomez, Binhang Yan, Siyu Yao, Jingguang G. Chen
      CO2 hydrogenation over Fe-modified Ni/CeO2 catalysts was investigated in a batch reactor using time-resolved in situ FTIR spectroscopy. Low loading of Ni/CeO2 was associated with high selectivity to CO over CH4, while higher Ni loading improved CO2 hydrogenation activity with a reduced CO selectivity. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed Ni to be metallic for all catalysts including the CO-selective low loading 0.5% Ni catalyst, suggesting that the selectivity trend is due to structural rather than oxidation state effects. The loading amount of 1.5% Ni was selected for co-impregnation with Fe, based on the significant shift in product selectivity towards CH4 for that loading amount, in order to shift the selectivity towards CO while maintaining high activity. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results indicated bimetallic interactions between Ni and Fe, and XANES analysis showed that about 70% of Fe in the bimetallic catalysts was oxidized. The Ni-Fe catalysts demonstrated improved selectivity towards CO without significantly compromising activity, coupling the high activity of Ni catalysts and the high CO selectivity of Fe. The general trends in Ni loading and bimetallic modification should guide efforts to develop non-precious metal catalysts for the selective production of CO by CO2 hydrogenation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.036
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Rare earth ions doped K2Ta2O6 photocatalysts with enhanced UV–vis
           light activity
    • Authors: Anna Krukowska; Michal Jerzy Winiarski; Judyta Strychalska-Nowak; Tomasz Klimczuk; Wojciech Lisowski; Alicja Mikolajczyk; Henry P. Pinto; Tomasz Puzyn; Tomasz Grzyb; Adriana Zaleska-Medynska
      Pages: 451 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Anna Krukowska, Michal Jerzy Winiarski, Judyta Strychalska-Nowak, Tomasz Klimczuk, Wojciech Lisowski, Alicja Mikolajczyk, Henry P. Pinto, Tomasz Puzyn, Tomasz Grzyb, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska
      Novel rare earth-doped K2Ta2O6 (RE-K2Ta2O6) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. The effect of dopant type (RE=Y, Yb, Ho, Pr, Er) and amount of rare earth precursor (2, 4, 8 and 10mol%) on the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of RE-K2Ta2O6 have been investigated. All as-prepared materials were subsequently characterized by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, mass magnetic susceptometry and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity under UV–vis light irradiation was estimated in phenol degradation in aqueous phase, toluene removal in gas phase and H2 generation from formic acid solution. The experimental results show that, novel RE-K2Ta2O6 exhibits greatly improved degradation efficiency under UV–vis light irradiation compared with pristine K2Ta2O6. The Er-K2Ta2O6 and Pr-K2Ta2O6, obtained by introducing of 2mol% of RE ions during synthesis, reveal the highest photocatalytic activity among prepared samples in aqueous phase (33% of phenol decomposition after 90min of irradiation) and gas phase (45% of toluene removal after 60min of irradiation), respectively. Moreover, both photocatalysts present good stability after subsequent three cycles. The active species trapping test shows that OH and O2 − radicals are significantly involved in phenol oxidation under UV–vis light irradiation. The amount of H2 evolution increases with increasing addition of Er dopant into K2Ta2O6 lattice. The highest H2 production is obtained for 10mol% Er-K2Ta2O6 after 240min of UV–vis light irradiation (15.40μmol/min). Enhanced photoactivity performance can be attributed to incorporation of RE ions at K+ lattice site in RE-K2Ta2O6, probably leading to formation of new RE 4f states below the conduction band of K2Ta2O6 structure. To investigate the localization of RE ions in K2Ta2O6 structure, the band structure and partial density of the states (PDOS) have been investigated. Computer simulations were performed using plane-wave based Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). Moreover, inclusion of RE ions in K2Ta2O6 causes predominance pyrochlore phase formation over perovskite in regular cubic structure. Summarized, RE-doped K2Ta2O6 is promising material in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and H2 generation processes. Our work may provide valuable information for rare earth doping semiconductor with improved photocatalytic performance.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.061
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
  • Low temperature reforming of biogas over K-, Mg- and Ce-promoted Ni/Al2O3
           catalysts for the production of hydrogen rich syngas: Understanding the
           plasma-catalytic synergy
    • Authors: Y.X. Zeng; L. Wang; C.F. Wu; J.Q. Wang; B.X. Shen; X. Tu
      Pages: 469 - 478
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 224
      Author(s): Y.X. Zeng, L. Wang, C.F. Wu, J.Q. Wang, B.X. Shen, X. Tu
      Plasma-catalytic biogas reforming over Ni-X/Al2O3 catalyst (X=K, Mg and Ce) has been carried out in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor at 160°C. Three different process modes: plasma-alone, catalysis-alone and plasma-catalysis have been investigated to get new insights into the synergistic effect resulted from the interaction of the plasma with the promoted Ni catalysts. Compared to the biogas reforming using either plasma-alone or catalysis-alone mode at the same temperature (160°C), the combination of the plasma with the Ni-based catalysts exhibited a low temperature synergistic effect, as evidenced from the much higher reforming performance of the plasma-catalytic process compared to that of the sum of the individual processes (plasma-alone and catalysis-alone). The addition of promoters (K, Mg and Ce) into the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst enhanced the conversion of CH4, the yield of H2 and the energy efficiency of the plasma process. In this study, the behaviour of K, Mg and Ce promoters in the low temperature plasma-catalytic biogas reforming was clearly different from that in high temperature thermal catalytic process in terms of the conversion of CH4 and carbon deposition, which could be ascribed to the temperature-dependent character of the promotors. In the plasma-catalytic biogas reforming, the Ni-K/Al2O3 catalyst showed the best performance, enhancing the conversion of both CO2 and CH4, the yield of H2, CO and C2–C4 alkanes and the energy efficiency of the plasma process. The highest conversion of CO2 (22.8%) and CH4 (31.6%) was achieved by placing the K-promoted catalyst in the plasma reforming process. The Mg-promoted catalyst remarkably increased the H2/CO molar ratio in the gas products (up to 2.2) due to the decreased CO2 conversion. In addition, compared to the un-promoted Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, although the use of the promoted catalysts increased the carbon deposition on the surface of the spent catalysts by 22%–26%, the total amount of deposited carbon was still less than that reported in high temperature catalytic dry reforming processes. More than 80% of the increased carbonaceous species was in the form of reactive carbon species, which can be easily oxidized by CO2 and O atoms and maintain the stability of the catalysts during the reforming reaction.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 224 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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