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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
  [SJR: 2.322]   [H-I: 158]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-3373
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Analysis of photoefficiency in TiO2 aqueous suspensions: Effect of titania
           hydrodynamic particle size and catalyst loading on their optical
    • Authors: J. Carbajo; A. Tolosana-Moranchel; J.A. Casas; M. Faraldos; A. Bahamonde
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): J. Carbajo, A. Tolosana-Moranchel, J.A. Casas, M. Faraldos, A. Bahamonde
      Effect of TiO2 hydrodynamic particle sizes and catalyst loading on the optical properties of three commercial photocatalysts has been analyzed (P25 Aeroxide®, P25/20 VP Aeroperl® and P90 Aeroxide®). These catalysts, characterized by similar structural and electronic properties, but with singular differences in morphology and aggregation particle sizes, have been studied to understand the corresponding crossed effects on their final photo-efficiencies throughout organic matter removal in aqueous suspensions, with a pollutant such as phenol, where photo-oxidation is regularly described as mediated by an indirect photo-mechanism via HO• radicals. Reflectance measurements in the range of visible wavelength, close to TiO2 absorption edge, could be comparable to extinction coefficient in the UV-A range and may well be suitable to optimize catalyst loadings. Phenol photocatalytic efficiency followed P25>P90>P25/20 order, emphasizing that increases in TiO2 hydrodynamic particle sizes are detrimental to phenol photo-efficiency, and highlighting that radiation–photocatalyst interactions are essential but not enough to guarantee an improved photodegradation rate. Finally, the higher values of HO● found in sonicated P25/20 catalyst could corroborates its better performance in phenol photodegradation, as a consequence of lowest hydrodynamic particle sizes in reaction media, which take advantage of light as a result of a significant increase in exposed surface area.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.032
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Oxygen-doped nanoporous carbon nitride via water-based homogeneous
           supramolecular assembly for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    • Authors: Jing-Wen Zhang; Si Gong; Nasir Mahmood; Lun Pan; Xiangwen Zhang; Ji-Jun Zou
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Jing-Wen Zhang, Si Gong, Nasir Mahmood, Lun Pan, Xiangwen Zhang, Ji-Jun Zou
      Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has emerged as a promising photocatalyst, but poor charge separation and low surface area limit its activity. Here, we report a hydrothermal method to generate hydrogen bonded supramolecular complex via water-based homogeneous supramolecular assembly, which is a promising precursor to fabricate porous and oxygen-doped g-C3N4. The hydrothermal treatment provides a homogeneous environment for hydrolysis of melamine to produce cyanuric acid and reaction of cyanuric acid with remained melamine to create the in-plane ordering and hydrogen bonded supramolecular complex. The complex can template uniform nanoporous structure and also provide an opportunity for O-doping in the g-C3N4 network upon calcination in air. The resulted g-C3N4(GCN-4) possesses high surface area, well-defined 3D morphology and oxygen-dopant in the lattice. Subsequently, the visible light absorption, charge separation, and wettability are considerably enhanced. This catalyst exhibits higher hydrogen evolution rate by 11.3 times than the bulk g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation, with apparent quantum efficiency of 10.3% at 420nm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Active photocatalytic water splitting solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion:
           Chalcogenide photocatalyst Ba2ZnSe3 under visible irradiation
    • Authors: A.H. Reshak
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): A.H. Reshak
      The photocatalytic performance of Ba2ZnSe3 is investigated by means of density functional theory. The investigation confirms that Ba2ZnSe3 possesses large birefringence, considerable anisotropy in the optical response, and the absorption edge occurs in the visible region. The estimated optical band gap of Ba2ZnSe3 is about 2.70eV, and the EPc and EPv are about −0.145 V(vs.NHE) and +2.605V (vs.NHE), respectively. Thus, Ba2ZnSe3 possesses a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher CB position, and hence, the location of the CBM and VBM accommodates the redox capacity. Thus, the Ba2ZnSe3 photocatalyst is expected to exhibit superior activity in visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 evolution. The electronic band structure shows high k-dispersion bands around the Fermi level, which implies low effective masses and, hence, the high mobility carriers enhance the charge transfer process. It was found that Ba2ZnSe3 possesses a great effective mass difference between electron (e− ) and hole (h+ ), which can facilitate the e− and h+ migration and separation, and finally improve the photocatalytic performance. The observed large mobility difference in Ba2ZnSe3 is useful to the separation of e− and h+ , reduction of the e− and h+ recombination rate, and improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Thus, Ba2ZnSe3 could be a good photocatalyst due to rapid generation of e− – h+ pairs with photoexcitation, and a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher CB position. The excellent photocatalytic performance of Ba2ZnSe3 is due to hyperpolarizablity formed by ZnO4 tetrahedra and co-parallel BaSe7 polyhedra groups, and the layer structure favors the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance. The presence of the distorted (ZnO4)4− tetrahedral causes to increase the efficiency of the photocatalytic performance almost to double in comparison to other chalcogenide crystals. Based on these results, one can conclude that Ba2ZnSe3 satisfies all requirements to be an efficient photocatalyst. This will greatly improve the search efficiency and greatly help experiments to save resources in the exploration of new photocatalysts with good photocatalytic performance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Metal-free black phosphorus nanosheets-decorated graphitic carbon nitride
           nanosheets with CP bonds for excellent photocatalytic nitrogen fixation
    • Authors: Pengxiang Qiu; Chenmin Xu; Ning Zhou; Huan Chen; Fang Jiang
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Pengxiang Qiu, Chenmin Xu, Ning Zhou, Huan Chen, Fang Jiang
      Visible light photocatalytic nitrogen fixation, as a low-cost and mild technology, needs efforts to explore an economical photocatalyst with high activity and stability. In this study, a metal-free black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets-decorated graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets photocatalyst (BPCNS) has been successfully synthesized. With BP acting as the cocatalyst, BPCNS shows excellent performance in both visible light nitrogen photofixation and pollutant reduction owing to the increased number of excited electrons and enhanced separation efficiency of charge carriers through formation of CP covalent bonds. Besides, the chemical structure of the BPCNS with optimal content of BP remains the same after exposure to air for 30days or after five cycles of photocatalytic nitrogen fixation, since the occupation of the lone pairs on phosphorus atoms largely improves the chemical stability of BP.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Combination of photoelectrocatalysis and adsorption for removal of
           bisphenol A over TiO2-graphene hydrogel with 3D network structure
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Wenquan Cui; Weijia An; Li Liu; Yinghua Liang; Yongfa Zhu
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Yu Zhang, Wenquan Cui, Weijia An, Li Liu, Yinghua Liang, Yongfa Zhu
      We successfully fabricated the three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-graphene using a simple one-pot method and exhibited enriched adsorption-photoelectrocatalytic degradation ability of low-concentration bisphenol A (BPA). Combined with the unique adsorption of graphene hydrogel and the effective photoelectrocatalytic performance of TiO2, we rapidly enriched the organic pollutants and conducted efficient in situ degradation. The low-concentration BPA (20mg/L) was degraded completely by the TiO2-rGH electrode in 5h through the synergistic effect of adsorption-photoelectrocatalytic. The photogenerated charge on the surface of TiO2 is rapidly separated by the action of the applied electric field and the graphene sheet. The high conductivity of the graphene makes the TiO2-graphene hydrogel rapidly conducting the charge and solves the problem of poor conductivity of the semiconductor electrode. On the basis of these advantages, the TiO2-rGH has a cross-porous network structure that favors the anchor of more TiO2 nanocrystals, the specific surface area and reactive sites are greater than the thin film electrode, and the structure is conducive to significantly improving the BPA removal efficiency. By contrast, the BPA degradation of TiO2-rGO thin film electrode was 40% after 4h of ultraviolet irradiation, whereas the removal rate of BPA over the same mass of TiO2-rGH electrode rate was up to 96%. At the same time, the TiO2-rGH electrode without filtering can be achieved quickly separated from the recovery due to its special macro-3D network structure. Its removal ability still maintains above 90% after 10 times cyclic experiments with self-regeneration characteristics. It can be achieved rapid separation and recovery without filtering.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.076
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Toward noble-metal-free visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen
           evolution: Monodisperse sub–15nm Ni2P nanoparticles anchored on porous
           g-C3N4 nanosheets to engineer 0D-2D heterojunction interfaces
    • Authors: Deqian Zeng; Wanjie Xu; Wee-Jun Ong; Juan Xu; He Ren; Yuanzhi Chen; Hongfei Zheng; Dong-Liang Peng
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Deqian Zeng, Wanjie Xu, Wee-Jun Ong, Juan Xu, He Ren, Yuanzhi Chen, Hongfei Zheng, Dong-Liang Peng
      Exploring robust and low-cost noble-metal-free co-catalysts to substitute precious noble-metal is of great importance in both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, we employ a novel solution-phase method to synthesize highly monodisperse zero-dimensional (0D) nickel phosphide (Ni2P) nanoparticles, which were then anchored on two-dimensional (2D) porous g-C3N4 nanosheets via a facile self-assembly route to develop the intimate 0D-2D heterojunction interface. The outstanding feature of the material is that the resultant hybrid nanocomposite exemplified efficient noble-metal-free photocatalytic H2 production under visible light. Under optimal conditions, the Ni2P embedding was found to be 3.5wt%, giving a remarkable H2 production rate of 474.7μmolg−1 h−1 and an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 3.2% at 435nm, surpassing most of the reported noble-metal-free co-catalysts-modified g-C3N4 photocatalysts. The superior photoactivity of the hybrid nanostructure is attributed to the profound role of Ni2P as an excellent reduction co-catalyst to hamper the recombination of charge carriers from g-C3N4 and also provide good electrical conductivity, which could be substantiated by photoelectrochemical (PEC) experiments, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies. Benefitting from the intriguing properties of Ni2P and g-C3N4, this work presents a new platform to uncover the immense potential of noble-metal-free nanomaterials as the next generation photocatalysts in multifunctional application prospects not only in the water splitting reaction, but also in other energy-related fields such as CO2 reduction and solar cells. It is also anticipated that the solution-phase hybridization technique could be extended to synergistically integrate g-C3N4 with a myriad of nanocrystals for multitudinous chemical reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.041
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Novel hybrids of graphitic carbon nitride sensitized with free-base
           meso-tetrakis(carboxyphenyl) porphyrins for efficient visible light
           photocatalytic hydrogen production
    • Authors: Eliana S. Da Silva; Nuno M.M. Moura; M. Graça P.M.S. Neves; Ana Coutinho; Manuel Prieto; Cláudia G. Silva; Joaquim L. Faria
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Eliana S. Da Silva, Nuno M.M. Moura, M. Graça P.M.S. Neves, Ana Coutinho, Manuel Prieto, Cláudia G. Silva, Joaquim L. Faria
      Novel hybrid photocatalysts of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4, CN) sensitized with free-base porphyrins were prepared by impregnation through non-covalent interactions. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated towards the generation of hydrogen (H2) from water splitting. For this purpose, and in order to ascertain the influence of the carboxy substituents groups and their position on the porphyrin periphery on H2 production, the porphyrins meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), meso-tetrakis(meta-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (mTCPP) and meso-tetrakis(para-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (pTCPP) were used. All the hybrids (TPP-CN, mTCPP-CN and pTCPP-CN) show higher performance for photocatalytic H2 production than that of pure CN. Among all the hybrids, mTCPP-CN presents the highest amount of H2 evolved, being of 326 and 48.4μmol under 6h of UV–vis and visible light (λ>400nm) irradiation, respectively. This photocatalyst was fully characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, N2 isotherms and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The fluorescence emission of the mTCPP porphyrin was remarkably quenched by CN semiconductor for the various hybrids mTCPP-CN containing different amounts of mTCPP, consistent with electron injection from the porphyrin excited state into the conduction band of the semiconductor. This works demonstrates that the sensitization of CN with dye porphyrins enhances the photocatalytic H2 evolution under UV–vis and visible light irradiation, making it a potential material for solar conversion to produce hydrogen from water.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.079
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Rational design of Si/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts: Transfer matrix
    • Authors: Xiaolong Yao; Lei Chen; Mengyin Liu; Deqiang Feng; Changhong Wang; Feng Lu; Weihua Wang; Xuewei Wang; Yahui Cheng; Hui Liu; Haijun Chen; Weichao Wang
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Xiaolong Yao, Lei Chen, Mengyin Liu, Deqiang Feng, Changhong Wang, Feng Lu, Weihua Wang, Xuewei Wang, Yahui Cheng, Hui Liu, Haijun Chen, Weichao Wang
      The charge transfer in semiconductor heterojunction photocatalyst is one of the key factors determining its catalytic efficiency and durability in an aqueous environment. The widely used interface model with the simplified rectangular potential barrier fails to precisely predict the carrier transfer process since the band bending and its variation caused by solar energy are both not considered. Here, utilizing transfer matrix method, we take the Si/TiO2 heterojunction as a prototype to shed light on the rational design of the semiconductor heterojunction photocatalyst in terms of its intrinsic characteristics, such as TiO2 thickness and the dopant concentration. We find that the minimum incident energy (MIE) for electrons (holes) tunneling through the Si/TiO2 heterojunction decreases (increases) as the thickness of TiO2 layer increases. Within a moderate condition (TiO2 thickness of 3nm and dopant concentration of 1×1018 cm−3 (5×1019 cm−3) in Si (TiO2)), both electrons and holes can transfer through the heterojunction barrier with relatively small incident energy. Furthermore, the photovoltage under illumination is beneficial for reducing MIE for electrons while increasing that for holes. Therefore, our transfer matrix scheme provides insights into rational design of the high efficient photocatalyst.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.087
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Towards enhancing photocatalytic hydrogen generation: Which is more
           important, alloy synergistic effect or plasmonic effect'
    • Authors: Zhenhe Xu; Md Golam Kibria; Bandar AlOtaibi; Paul N. Duchesne; Lucas V. Besteiro; Yu Gao; Qingzhe Zhang; Zetian Mi; Peng Zhang; Alexander O. Govorov; Liqiang Mai; Mohamed Chaker; Dongling Ma
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Zhenhe Xu, Md Golam Kibria, Bandar AlOtaibi, Paul N. Duchesne, Lucas V. Besteiro, Yu Gao, Qingzhe Zhang, Zetian Mi, Peng Zhang, Alexander O. Govorov, Liqiang Mai, Mohamed Chaker, Dongling Ma
      Synergistic effect in alloys and plasmonic effect have both been explored for increasing the efficiency of water splitting. In depth understanding and comparison of their respective contributions in certain promising systems is highly desired for catalyst development, yet rarely investigated so far. We report herein our thorough investigations on a series of highly interesting nanocomposites composed of Pt, Au and C3N4 nanocomponents, which are designed to benefit from both synergistic and plasmonic effects. Detailed analyses led to an important conclusion that the contribution from the synergistic effect was at least 3.5 times that from the plasmonic effect in the best performing sample, Pt50Au50 alloy decorated C3N4. It showed remarkable turnover frequency of >1.6mmolh−1 g−1 at room temperature. Our work provides physical insights for catalyst development by rationally designing samples to compare long-known synergistic effect with recently emerging, attractive plasmonic effect and represents the first case study in the field.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.085
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Enhanced electrocatalytic nitrate reduction by preferentially-oriented
           (100) PtRh and PtIr alloys: the hidden treasures of the ‘miscibility
    • Authors: Matteo Duca; Nicolas Sacré; Andrew Wang; Sébastien Garbarino; Daniel Guay
      Pages: 86 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Matteo Duca, Nicolas Sacré, Andrew Wang, Sébastien Garbarino, Daniel Guay
      Bimetallic alloys of Pt and Rh or Ir were prepared with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on a well-ordered MgO(100) substrate, leading to epitaxial growth along the [001] plane, as confirmed by surface analysis techniques. The out-of-equilibrium conditions of PLD allowed the exploration of a range of compositions for which phase separation would instead be expected. The electrochemistry of a series of PtRh and PtIr (100) alloys was investigated in 0.5M H2SO4, showing a surprisingly intense electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of nitrate for a Pt content of 21–42%. These alloys feature a lower reaction overpotential with respect to Rh and Ir while outperforming the pure metals in terms of reduction current. A detailed analysis of the voltammetric features with respect to alloy composition highlighted a correlation between hydrogen desorption and nitrate reduction activity. In addition, an optimal potential range for nitrate reduction, common to PtRh and PtIr alloys, was observed, corresponding to the potential window in which nitrate adsorption coincides with fast reduction of the key reaction intermediate NOads.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.081
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Hierarchical Z-scheme photocatalyst of g-C3N4@Ag/BiVO4 (040) with enhanced
           visible-light-induced photocatalytic oxidation performance
    • Authors: Man Ou; Shipeng Wan; Qin Zhong; Shule Zhang; Yang Song; Lina Guo; Wei Cai; Yalin Xu
      Pages: 97 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Man Ou, Shipeng Wan, Qin Zhong, Shule Zhang, Yang Song, Lina Guo, Wei Cai, Yalin Xu
      The preferred exposure of (040) crystal facet of BiVO4 is conductive to optimizing its photocatalytic performance. And the great separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs is also a critical factor for semiconductor photocatalyst. Herein we designed a hierarchical g-C3N4@Ag/BiVO4 (040) hybrid photocatalyst, in which Ag was photodeposited on the (040) facets of BiVO4 and subsequently g-C3N4 was covered on the surface of Ag/BiVO4 (040). The physical and chemical properties of the synthetic samples were analyzed by several characterization techniques. SEM spectrum clearly reveals the morphology and structure of g-C3N4@Ag/BiVO4 (040), suggesting the existence of the hierarchical composite photocatalyst. The visible light absorption wavelength of the composite is increased due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal Ag nanoparticles, displayed in UV–vis spectrum. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs are also greatly enhanced through the Z-scheme g-C3N4@Ag/BiVO4 (040) system with the Ag nanoparticles as the electron mediator. The above synergistic effects of the hybrid photocatalyst result in higher photocatalytic oxidation performance not only for water splitting but also for NO oxidation in gas phase compared with pure BiVO4.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Ultrafast activation efficiency of three peroxides by Fe78Si9B13 metallic
           glass under photo-enhanced catalytic oxidation: A comparative study
    • Authors: S.X. Liang; Z. Jia; W.C. Zhang; X.F. Li; W.M. Wang; H.C. Lin; L.C. Zhang
      Pages: 108 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): S.X. Liang, Z. Jia, W.C. Zhang, X.F. Li, W.M. Wang, H.C. Lin, L.C. Zhang
      Metallic glasses with long-range disordered atomic structure have recently been attracted a great deal of research attention in catalytic field. Compared to crystalline materials, the metallic glasses present many advanced catalytic properties, yet the catalytic mechanism is not sufficiently understood. In this work, an Fe78Si9B13 glassy ribbon manufactured by melt-spinning method was applied for the first time to compare its activation behavior on three peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), persulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was shown that Fe78Si9B13 metallic glass had exceptionally high capability for activating these three common peroxides to produce reactive radicals (OH and/or SO4•−). The dominant species of H2O2 in this work was demonstrated as hydroxyl radical (OH) while the PS and PMS activation mainly generated sulfate radical (SO4•−). The order of predominant radical generation rate by Fe78Si9B13 activation under UV−vis irradiation was PS > H2O2 > PMS. The relative contribution of sulfate radical (SO4•−) in PS activation was 78% compared to 61% in PMS. All the peroxides activated by Fe78Si9B13 metallic glass presented a radical generation rate at least ∼2 times higher than other iron-containing materials. Crystal violet (CV) dye was used to investigate the catalytic performance of Fe78Si9B13 metallic glass for peroxides, which showed an ultrafast dye degradation rate with completely color removal within 15min. The radical evolution mechanisms for H2O2, PS and PMS activation were also investigated. The change in surface morphology of ribbon after 5th run reused indicated that the inclusions of Si leading to formation of SiO2 layer played an important role in the surface stability of ribbons.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Degradation of indometacin by simulated sunlight activated CDs-loaded
           BiPO4 photocatalyst: Roles of oxidative species
    • Authors: Qianxin Zhang; Ping Chen; Meihui Zhuo; Fengliang Wang; Yuehan Su; Tiansheng Chen; Kun Yao; Zongwei Cai; Wenying Lv; Guoguang Liu
      Pages: 129 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Qianxin Zhang, Ping Chen, Meihui Zhuo, Fengliang Wang, Yuehan Su, Tiansheng Chen, Kun Yao, Zongwei Cai, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu
      In this study, novel carbon dots/BiPO4 (CDBP) photocatalytic complexes were successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal-calcination synthesis strategy. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Fourier infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence26spectra (PL), electrochemical workstation, etc. The activities of the CDBP were evaluated through the photocatalytic degradation of Indometacin(IDM) in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. With increasing concentrations of carbon dots (CDs), the photocatalytic activity of the CDBP initially increased, and then decreased. A CDs content of 3.0wt% shows 12 times higher photocatalytic activity than that of pristine BiPO4. Reactive oxidative species, particularly O2 − and h+, were the two critical reactive oxidative species to mediator immediate the photocatalytic degradation of IDM. A notable sign of 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidone-N-oxyl(DMPOX) was observed through electron spin resonance spectroscopy(EPR) with CDBP as the photocatalyst, which indicated higher oxidability than pristine BiPO4 under simulated sunlight irradiation. This enhanced photocatalytic activity might due to high-efficiency charge separation, unique up-converted PL properties, as well as the bandgap narrowing of the CDs. Moreover, the byproducts of IDM were detected by HPLC–MS/MS and GC–MS, and the probable pathways were deduced. The acute toxicity at three trophic levels initially increased slowly and then decreased rapidly as the IDM dechlorination and total organic carbon(TOC) decreased during photocatalytic degradation.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Anatase photocatalyst with supported low crystalline TiO2: The influence
           of amorphous phase on the activity
    • Authors: M.J. Torralvo; J. Sanz; I. Sobrados; J. Soria; C. Garlisi; G. Palmisano; S. Çetinkaya; S. Yurdakal; V. Augugliaro
      Pages: 140 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): M.J. Torralvo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. Soria, C. Garlisi, G. Palmisano, S. Çetinkaya, S. Yurdakal, V. Augugliaro
      In a previous study on commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (J. Soria et al.) we had shown that the superficial disordered layers influence their textural and reactivity features. In the present work we used well crystallized anatase particles (commercial TiO2, BDH) as support of different amounts of titania powders, prepared by TiCl4 hydrolysis and constituted by nanocrystals diluted into an amorphous matrix. The reactivity of these photocatalysts has been tested for the selective oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to aldehyde in aqueous suspension. The catalyst characteristics have been studied using adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, HRTEM, TGA, PL, DRIFT-IR, and 1H MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The results show that, though amorphous titania species hinder the photocatalyst overall reactivity, the incorporation of a low amount of those species enhances significantly the reactivity towards the partial oxidation. This effect is attributed to the fact that, during the catalyst preparation, associations between chlorine ions and hydrated excess protons structures are produced. These associations act as surfactants, separating the layer of amorphous titania chains from anatase surface so that, under catalyst irradiation, the transport of photogenerated positive charge from anatase bridging oxygens to those of the amorphous layer is favoured.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.089
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Effect of the treatment with H3PO4 on the catalytic activity of Nb2O5
           supported on Zr-doped mesoporous silica catalyst. Case study: Glycerol
    • Authors: C. García-Sancho; J.A. Cecilia; J.M. Mérida-Robles; J. Santamaría González; R. Moreno-Tost; A. Infantes-Molina; P. Maireles-Torres
      Pages: 158 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): C. García-Sancho, J.A. Cecilia, J.M. Mérida-Robles, J. Santamaría González, R. Moreno-Tost, A. Infantes-Molina, P. Maireles-Torres
      We have previously demonstrated the influence of the niobium species over the glycerol dehydration reaction and how the catalyst regeneration by thermal treatment modified the catalytic performance due to the transformation of superficial niobium species. This experimental conclusion encouraged us to find a way to maintain and even improve the catalytic behavior of these Nb-based catalysts. Thus, herein, it is reported the influence of phosphoric acid treatment on 8wt% Nb2O5 supported on a zirconium doped mesoporous silica (Si/Zr=5 molar ratio) catalyst, varying the Nb/P molar ratio between 0.1 and 1. Catalysts were full characterized and tested in the glycerol dehydration at 325°C. This acid treatment modifies the nature of species present on the catalyst surface, as inferred from 31P NMR data, where the presence of zirconium hydrogenphosphate was detected. A comprehensive study of the influence of acid properties on the catalytic activity has been carried out. Thus, the selectivity to acrolein was improved, which was attributed to this hydrogenphosphate phase and the catalyst stability was associated to the existence of acid sites of low and moderate strength. The best catalyst was studied at higher reaction temperatures, showing the highest glycerol conversion and achieving an acrolein selectivity of 74%, at 350°C. This catalyst was also regenerated, maintaining its catalytic activity.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Design and facile one-step synthesis of FeWO4/Fe2O3 di-modified WO3 with
           super high photocatalytic activity toward degradation of
           quasi-phenothiazine dyes
    • Authors: Huixiang Wang; Conghui Wang; Xinmin Cui; Li Qin; Ruimin Ding; Liancheng Wang; Zhong Liu; Zhanfeng Zheng; Baoliang Lv
      Pages: 169 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 221
      Author(s): Huixiang Wang, Conghui Wang, Xinmin Cui, Li Qin, Ruimin Ding, Liancheng Wang, Zhong Liu, Zhanfeng Zheng, Baoliang Lv
      For most of WO3, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst, its barrier in photocatalytic degradation is the low conduction band (CB) potential that can not reduce O2 to O2 − and HO2 radicals and thus results in fast recombination of electron/hole. With this in mind, a new active FeWO4/Fe2O3 di-modified WO3 was designed and prepared via by a straightforward but effective strategy by introducing of FeWO4 and Fe2O3 clusters (or nanoparticles) on WO3. The performance of di-modified WO3 showed super high photocatalytic activity in degrading quasi-phenothiazine dyes of Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), Azure I (AI) and Acridine orange (AO) under visible light irradiation, and the corresponding k values are 5.3, 4.4, 3.8 and 5.8 times larger than that of pure WO3, respectively. This improvement was mainly due to the fact that photoexcited electrons can migrate to the matching CB of firmly and highly dispersed FeWO4 and Fe2O3, then be consumed rapidly by a valence decrease from Fe3+ to Fe2+ and Fenton reaction between Fe2+ and H2O2. And the strong adsorption of Fe species toward N and S (or N) elements in quasi-phenothiazine dyes, also positively promoted the efficiency of degradation.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T02:31:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 221 (2017)
  • Dual-components modified TiO2 with Pt and fluoride as
           deactivation-resistant photocatalyst for the degradation of volatile
           organic compound
    • Authors: Seunghyun Weon; Jungwon Kim; Wonyong Choi
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Seunghyun Weon, Jungwon Kim, Wonyong Choi
      TiO2 nanoparticles modified with surface platinization or/and surface fluorination (Pt/TiO2, F-TiO2, and F-TiO2/Pt) were prepared to test their durability as an air-purifying photocatalyst. Toluene was selected as a target substrate for this test. Although Pt/TiO2 showed higher photocatalytic degradation activity than bare TiO2, Pt/TiO2 underwent rapid deactivation during repeated degradation cycles. F-TiO2 was deactivated to a lesser degree but its initial photocatalytic degradation activity was lower than bare TiO2. On the other hand, F-TiO2/Pt exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity and durability for toluene degradation. The surface fluorination that should replace the hydroxyl groups on TiO2 surface facilitates the formation of mobile OH radicals instead of surface-bound OH radicals. The surface platinization enhances the lifetime of charge carriers and makes more holes efficiently react with adsorbed water molecules. Through the remote photocatalytic oxidation of stearic acid and coumarin coated on a glass plate that was separated from the photocatalyst film with a small air gap (50μm), it was observed that F-TiO2/Pt film generated the largest amount of mobile OH radicals that migrate through the air gap. The photocatalytic oxidation mediated by mobile OH radicals efficiently hindered the deposition of carbonaceous intermediates on the F-TiO2/Pt surface and increased the mineralization efficiency of VOCs, which consequently increased the durability of photocatalyst during VOC degradation.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-02T00:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.036
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • PdIn intermetallic nanoparticles for the Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol
    • Authors: Andrés García-Trenco; Anna Regoutz; Edward R. White; David J. Payne; Milo S.P. Shaffer; Charlotte K. Williams
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Andrés García-Trenco, Anna Regoutz, Edward R. White, David J. Payne, Milo S.P. Shaffer, Charlotte K. Williams
      Direct hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol could offer significant environmental benefits, if efficient catalysts can be developed. Here, bimetallic Pd-In nanoparticles show good performance as catalysts for this reaction. Unsupported nanoparticles are synthesised by the thermal decomposition of Pd(acetate)2 and In(acetate)3 precursors in a high boiling point solvent (squalane), followed by reduction using dilute H2 gas (210°C). Adjusting the ratio of the two metallic precursors allow access to 5–10nm nanoparticles with different phase compositions, including metallic Pd(0), In2O3 and intermetallic PdIn. Liquid phase methanol synthesis experiments (50bar, 210°C, H2:CO2 =3:1) identify the intermetallic PdIn nanoparticles as the most efficient. The catalysts exhibit around 70% higher methanol rates (normalised to the overall molar metal content) compared to the conventional heterogeneous Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (900 and 540μmolmmolPdInorCuZnAl −1 h−1, respectively). In addition, the optimum Pd/In catalyst shows an improved methanol selectivity over the whole temperature range studied (190–270°C), reaching >80% selectivity at 270°C, compared to only 45% for the reference Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Experiments showed an improvement in stability; the methanol production rate declined by 20% after 120h run for the optimum PdIn-based compared with 30% for the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (after 25h). The optimum catalyst consists of ∼8nm nanoparticles comprising a surface In-enriched PdIn intermetallic phase as characterised by XRD, HR-TEM, STEM-EDX and XPS. Post-catalysis analysis of the optimum catalyst shows that the same PdIn bimetallic phase is retained with only a slight increase in the nanoparticle size.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.07.069
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Remarkable enhancement of the selective catalytic reduction of NO at low
           temperature by collaborative effect of ethanol and NH3 over silver
           supported catalyst
    • Authors: M. Barreau; M.-L. Tarot; D. Duprez; X. Courtois; F. Can
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): M. Barreau, M.-L. Tarot, D. Duprez, X. Courtois, F. Can
      The NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is extensively studied as an effective process for air pollutants abatement from lean burn and Diesel vehicles. In the implemented Urea-SCR technology, the NO2/NOx ratio is a key parameter that limits the deNOx efficiency at low temperature (175–250°C). We demonstrate that co-feeding of ammonia and ethanol on a Ag/Al2O3 catalyst enables a drastic enhancement of the NOx conversion at temperatures below 200°C using only NO as NOx (standard SCR condition). Even if NO2 is provided at low temperature by the NO oxidation over Ag/Al2O3 in presence of EtOH, the NOx conversion improvement is not only due to a direct reaction between NH3 and NOx, but mainly attributed to the availability of hydrogen H* species resulting from EtOH oxidation (similar to a H2 assisted NH3-SCR process). Due to the presence of remaining NH3 and NO2 (formed over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst), further deNOx efficiency improvement was obtained at low temperature by addition of a NH3-SCR catalyst (WO3/Ce-Zr). The critical dependence of the SCR process on the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) efficiency at low temperature is thus avoided.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol in continuous system
           without hydrogen addition over Cu-Ni catalysts
    • Authors: Isabelle C. Freitas; Robinson L. Manfro; Mariana M.V.M. Souza
      Pages: 31 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Isabelle C. Freitas, Robinson L. Manfro, Mariana M.V.M. Souza
      A series of Cu, Ni and Cu-Ni catalysts with 20wt% of each metal, supported on Al2O3 and ZSM-5, was prepared by wet impregnation method and tested in glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol) using a WHSV of 2h−1 at 250°C, and pressure of 40bar for 6h. Without external hydrogen, the reaction pathway involves glycerol dehydration to acetol, with simultaneous reforming to H2 and CO2; this hydrogen generated in situ is used for the hydrogenation of acetol to propylene glycol. Under these conditions, the CuNi/Al2O3 and CuNi/ZSM-5 catalysts exhibited the highest glycerol conversion, 80% and 85%, respectively, with propylene glycol yield around 25%. With external hydrogen, all catalysts showed higher glycerol conversion (>90%) and the monometallic Cu catalysts presented higher conversion to liquid and propylene glycol yield than the bimetallic ones; the Cu/Al2O3 showed the highest yield to propylene glycol (70%). The activity of the catalysts was correlated with their metallic dispersion and also the support acidity.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.030
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Effects of concentration and microstructure of active phases on the
           selective hydrodesulfurization performance of sulfided CoMo/Al2O3
    • Authors: Tingting Huang; Jundong Xu; Yu Fan
      Pages: 42 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Tingting Huang, Jundong Xu, Yu Fan
      This investigation offers new understanding regarding the nature of CoMoS and MoS2 active phases coexisting on sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts for the selective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of gasoline. Two series of the CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)/Co molar ratios and the EDTA-containing CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different cobalt contents were prepared, and the properties of their active metal phases were systematically correlated with their HDS selectivities. It was found that a high concentration of CoMoS phases improves the HDS activity of the sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts but that a high concentration of MoS2 phases enhances the olefin hydrogenation (OHYD) activity of these catalysts. From the perspective of microstructure, it was evident that the thiophene HDS reaction occurs primarily at the edge of CoMoS active phases and that the OHYD reaction occurs mainly at the corner of MoS2 active phases. These understandings shed light on the development of highly selective HDS catalysts.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.029
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Fabrication of InVO4/AgVO3 heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic
           antifouling efficiency under visible-light
    • Authors: Xin Zhang; Jie Zhang; Jianqiang Yu; Yan Zhang; Zhaoxia Cui; Yan Sun; Baorong Hou
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Xin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jianqiang Yu, Yan Zhang, Zhaoxia Cui, Yan Sun, Baorong Hou
      With the increasing of bacterial resistance to available antibiotics and water contamination by poisonous organic dyes, it’s necessary to consider how to overcome these concerns. In this paper, novel visible-light-sensitive InVO4/AgVO3 photocatalysts with a p-n junction were synthesized through an ion exchange and in-situ growth process. The obtained photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) respectively. It can be observed that the AgVO3 exhibits a rod-shaped structure, while a plentiful of spherical shaped InVO4 particles are formed on the surface. The rod-shaped structure of AgVO3 wasn’t changed by the addition of InVO4, but its photocatalytic properties were tremendously improved. The best photocatalyst was 0.5InVO4/AgVO3, over which the Rhodamine B (RhB) solution was almost decomposed in 200min under visible light irradiation. Moreover, about 99.9999% of P. aeruginosaudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were killed over 0.5InVO4/AgVO3 at 30min. From these results it can be inferred that 0.5InVO4/AgVO3 heterojunctional photocatalyst has an improved efficiency for the separation of the current carriers to enhance the photocatalytic performances. This result provided a valuable design for the novel InVO4/AgVO3 heterojunction photocatalysts with excellent photocatalytic properties used in marine antifouling.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.07.074
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Methane oxidation over a honeycomb Pd-only three-way catalyst under static
           and periodic operation
    • Authors: Davide Ferri; Martin Elsener; Oliver Kröcher
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Davide Ferri, Martin Elsener, Oliver Kröcher
      Natural gas is receiving increasing awareness as fuel for passenger vehicles due to its very low specific CO2 emissions. However, control of CH4 emissions from natural gas combustion in stoichiometric engines requires a specific three-way catalyst (TWC). The understanding of the TWC chemistry of CH4 under the periodic rich/lean reaction conditions is a key issue for targeted catalyst development. A commercial Pd-only TWC was tested under various reaction conditions to characterize the chemical processes and the mode of operation leading to efficient operation. It was demonstrated that periodic rich/lean operation obtained by variation of the mean O2 concentration fed to the catalyst with various amplitudes is highly beneficial for CH4 oxidation. Especially asymmetric oscillations into rich of stoichiometry produced higher CH4 conversion. Compared to operation with gasoline fuel using propene as the model hydrocarbon, substantial differences were observed in static experiments that reflect the different chemistry at work with the two hydrocarbons. In particular, the stoichiometric point (λ=1) did not coincide with maximum CH4 oxidation, which was obtained rather under rich conditions. The shift of the optimum stoichiometric point was associated with the necessity to consume CO and O2 before CH4 can react. Spectroscopic characterization during reaction aimed at rationalizing the role of NO in isothermic experiments when varying stepwise the oxygen concentration from net oxidizing to net reducing reaction conditions. The overall results should provide recommendations for the design of TWC for natural gas operation and for control strategies to improve CH4 emission levels.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.07.070
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Promotional role of Mn doping on catalytic oxidation of VOCs over
           mesoporous TiO2 under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation
    • Authors: Yajie Shu; Jian Ji; Ying Xu; Jiguang Deng; Haibao Huang; Miao He; Dennis Y.C. Leung; Muyan Wu; Shengwei Liu; Shuilian Liu; Gaoyuan Liu; Ruijie Xie; Qiuyu Feng; Yujie Zhan; Ruimei Fang; Xinguo Ye
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Yajie Shu, Jian Ji, Ying Xu, Jiguang Deng, Haibao Huang, Miao He, Dennis Y.C. Leung, Muyan Wu, Shengwei Liu, Shuilian Liu, Gaoyuan Liu, Ruijie Xie, Qiuyu Feng, Yujie Zhan, Ruimei Fang, Xinguo Ye
      Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the crucial precursors to the formation of fine particulate matter and photochemical smog. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation has attracted increasing interest for VOCs degradation owing to its strong oxidation capability and excellent stability. However, the generation of O3 from VUV irradiation causes secondary pollution and needs to be addressed. In this study, the Mn doped mesoporous TiO2 (Mn/meso-TiO2) was developed and first combined with VUV irradiation to remove O3 as well as enhance benzene degradation via O3-assited catalytic oxidation. Results indicate that the Mn doped TiO2 exhibited a much higher benzene removal efficiency (82%) than undoped one (70%) and commercial TiO2 P25 (48%). The O3 by-product can be completely eliminated by Mn/meso-TiO2 and contributed to benzene removal efficiency of about 34%. The excellent performance was attributed to the formation of highly reactive oxidizing species such as O(1D), O(3P), hydroxyl radicals (OH) via catalytic decomposition of O3 over oxygen vacancy sites of Mn oxides. Mn/meso-TiO2 cooperated well with VUV and such a VUV-PCO process is very promising for VOCs degradation.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Insights into oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution
           reaction (OER) active sites for nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures (CNx)
           in acidic media
    • Authors: Kuldeep Mamtani; Deeksha Jain; Doruk Dogu; Vance Gustin; Seval Gunduz; Anne C. Co; Umit S. Ozkan
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Kuldeep Mamtani, Deeksha Jain, Doruk Dogu, Vance Gustin, Seval Gunduz, Anne C. Co, Umit S. Ozkan
      This study demonstrates promising bifunctionality of nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures (CNx) for ORR and OER in acidic medium. Although CNx catalysts are not as active as Pt/C in ORR and Ir/C in OER, they exhibit significantly lower combined overpotential for ORR and OER relative to those shown by the two commercial catalysts, which are highly active only for one of the two reactions, but not both. The effect of various nitrogen functionalities on the ORR and OER activity of CNx catalysts was also studied. CNx samples with higher pyridinic-N site density exhibited higher ORR and OER activity.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.07.086
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Solid oxide fuel cells fed with dry ethanol: The effect of a perovskite
           protective anodic layer containing dispersed Ni-alloy @ FeOx core-shell
    • Authors: M. Lo Faro; R.M. Reis; G.G.A. Saglietti; V.L. Oliveira; S.C. Zignani; S. Trocino; S. Maisano; E.A. Ticianelli; N. Hodnik; F. Ruiz-Zepeda; A.S. Aricò
      Pages: 98 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): M. Lo Faro, R.M. Reis, G.G.A. Saglietti, V.L. Oliveira, S.C. Zignani, S. Trocino, S. Maisano, E.A. Ticianelli, N. Hodnik, F. Ruiz-Zepeda, A.S. Aricò
      Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on conventional nickel-yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anodes can not be fed directly with organic fuels because of the associated formation of carbon deposits. This work explores a simple approach to solve such relevant limiting factor that affects the direct utilization of conventional dry hydrocarbons in SOFCs. The approach consists in depositing a composite multifunctional electrocatalyst layer on the SOFC anode to work as an internal integrated fuel processor. This study investigates the direct oxidation of dry ethanol in the modified SOFC and provides an evaluation of cell performance. A protective layer based on a composite made of Ni-modified perovskite and gadolinia-doped ceria is coated on a conventional SOFC anode based on Ni-YSZ. Besides the oxygen storage properties of ceria, the composite electrocatalyst is characterized by the presence of dispersed Ni-alloy @ FeOx core-shell nanoparticles in the outer layers and surface basicity properties. Efficient dehydrogenation of ethanol, carbon deposition-free cracking reactions and internal reforming assisted by a H2/H2O “shuttle mechanism” appear as the key steps involved in the direct oxidation of the organic fuel at the modified SOFC anode. The best performance achieved for the dry ethanol-fed SOFC is about 0.65Wcm−2 at 0.6V and 800°C. No carbon deposition is observed both on the Ni-YSZ supporting layer and protective Ni-doped perovskite layer after a durability test of more than 100h.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Surface plasmon resonance-enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic performance
           from Ag nanoparticle-decorated self-floating porous black TiO2 foams
    • Authors: Haoze Li; Liyan Shen; Kaifu Zhang; Bojing Sun; Liping Ren; Panzhe Qiao; Kai Pan; Lei Wang; Wei Zhou
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Haoze Li, Liyan Shen, Kaifu Zhang, Bojing Sun, Liping Ren, Panzhe Qiao, Kai Pan, Lei Wang, Wei Zhou
      Ag nanoparticle-decorated self-floating porous black TiO2 foams (Ag-FBTFs) are fabricated by facile wet-impregnation and high-temperature surface hydrogenation strategy, utilizing self-floating porous black TiO2 foams (FBTFs) with 3D macro-mesoporous architectures as hosts. The composites are evidently investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, N2 adsorption, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and photoluminescence (PL). The results show that the small Ag nanoparticles with diameter of 3–4nm are decorated on the surface of FBTFs uniformly, which extend the photoresponse to visible-light region and show obvious surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The Ag-FBTFs exhibit excellent solar-driven photocatalytic performance for complete mineralization of some high-toxic organic contaminants. The enhancement can be attributed to the 3D macro-mesoporous networks facilitating the diffusion of reactants and products, the floating feature and small Ag nanoparticle-decoration favoring light-harvesting and spatial separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs due to SPR effect. This novel SPR-enhanced solar-driven floating photocatalyst will have potential application in fields of natural environment.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • AgBr-wrapped Ag chelated on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for
           water purification under visible light
    • Authors: Lili Zhang; Yilun Shi; Liang Wang; Chun Hu
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Lili Zhang, Yilun Shi, Liang Wang, Chun Hu
      A visible-light-driven photocatalyst AgBr@Ag/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (AgBr@Ag/N-RGO) was prepared by a hydrothermal-in situ oxidation method, and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AgBr@Ag/N-RGO exhibited high photoactivity and photostability to degrade and mineralize various organic pollutants, as demonstrated with 2-chlorophenol, phenol, bisphenol A and diphenhydramine in water under visible light. Its photoactivity was 20, 5.3, and 2.9 times higher than that of Ag/N-RGO, TiO2-x N x , and AgBr@Ag, respectively for the photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol. The characterized results verified that Ag nanoparticles (NPs) was first chelated by N-groups of N-RGO and then enwrapped by AgBr by in-situ oxidation, which was contributed to the enhancement of interfacial electron transfer in AgBr@Ag/N-RGO. Furthermore, the two charge transfer processes were elucidated that the plasmon-induced electrons on Ag NPs core transferred to AgBr shell, and could be further transferred away together with the photoexcited electrons on AgBr by N-RGO to interact with O2 to form O2 −, while the electrons of pollutants were accerelated to transfer to the plasmon-induced Ag NPs by the Ag-N complex along the π-π graphitic carbon network of N-RGO, which was responsible for the photoactivity and stability of AgBr@Ag/N-RGO.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.038
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Insights into the effects of surface/bulk defects on photocatalytic
           hydrogen evolution over TiO2 with exposed {001} facets
    • Authors: Hao Zhang; Jinmeng Cai; Yating Wang; Moqing Wu; Ming Meng; Ye Tian; Xingang Li; Jing Zhang; Lirong Zheng; Zheng Jiang; Jinlong Gong
      Pages: 126 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Hao Zhang, Jinmeng Cai, Yating Wang, Moqing Wu, Ming Meng, Ye Tian, Xingang Li, Jing Zhang, Lirong Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Jinlong Gong
      This paper describes the effects of defect distribution on energy band structure and the subsequent photocatalytic activity over TiO2 with exposed {001} facets as the model catalyst. Our results show that only surface oxygen vacancies (Vo’s) and Ti3+ centers in TiO2 can be induced by hydrogenation treatment, whereas the generation of bulk Vo’s and Ti3+ species depends on the thermal treatment in nitrogen. Both the surface and bulk defects in TiO2 can promote the separation of electron-hole pairs, enhance the light absorption, and increase the donor density. The presence of surface and bulk defects in TiO2 can not change the valence band maximum, but determine the conduction band minimum. Surface defects in TiO2 induce a tail of conduction band located above the H+/H2 redox potential, which benefits the photocatalytic performance. However, bulk defects in TiO2 generate a band tail below the H+/H2 potential, which inhibits hydrogen production. Thus, the change of band gap structure by defects is the major factor to determine the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for hydrogen evolution. It is a new insight into the rational design and controllable synthesis of defect-engineered materials for various catalytic processes.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.046
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Synergetic effect of carbon sphere derived from yeast with magnetism and
           cobalt oxide nanochains towards improving photodegradation activity for
           various pollutants
    • Authors: Xiaoxu Zhao; Ziyang Lu; Maobin Wei; Menghan Zhang; Hongjun Dong; Chengwu Yi; Rong Ji; Yongsheng Yan
      Pages: 137 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Xiaoxu Zhao, Ziyang Lu, Maobin Wei, Menghan Zhang, Hongjun Dong, Chengwu Yi, Rong Ji, Yongsheng Yan
      Developing high-efficiency and low-cost semiconductor photocatalysts with carbon layer modification has been proved to possess the potential advantage for dramatically improved photocatalytic performance in recent years. Here, a novel magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@C modified with Co3O4 nanochains photocatalyst (Fe3O4@C/Co3O4) is first constructed via a facile synthetic strategy using inexpensive and ordinary yeast as carbon source. The obtained composite structure is conducive to the transfer and separation of charge carriers due to the synergetic effect of carbon layer and Co3O4 nanochains. In consequence, the photodegradation activity of various pollutants is significantly enhanced relative to that of pure Co3O4 under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the introduction of magnetic materials makes this photocatalyst recycled easily by an external magnetic field and reused effectively without obvious activity loss. This work may provide a feasibility analysis and exemplificative strategy for using simple raw materials as carbon source to observably improve universal photocatalytic activity of composite semiconductor photocatalyst.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.037
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • A flexible bio-inspired H2-production photocatalyst
    • Authors: Junwei Fu; Bicheng Zhu; Wei You; Mietek Jaroniec; Jiaguo Yu
      Pages: 148 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Junwei Fu, Bicheng Zhu, Wei You, Mietek Jaroniec, Jiaguo Yu
      Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water splitting offers a viable potential solution for utilizing solar energy. Here we report a feasible synthesis of flexible bio-inspired Zn0.5Cd0.5S@PAN (polyacrylonitrile) mat-shaped photocatalyst with leaf-like structure, which shows high photocatalytic H2-production activity with a rate of 475μmolh−1 per 50mg of the photocatalyst and an apparent quantum efficiency of 27.4% at 420nm. The hierarchically porous structure of the mat-shaped Zn0.5Cd0.5S@PAN greatly enhances the molecular diffusion/transfer kinetics, and enlarges the utilization efficiency of light through the multiple reflections and scattering effect. Moreover, a good dispersion of Zn0.5Cd0.5S nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of PAN nanofibers prevents their aggregation. These features account for high H2-production activity of Zn0.5Cd0.5S@PAN. Remarkably, the integrity and flexibility of Zn0.5Cd0.5S@PAN mat-shaped photocatalyst facilitate their separation and re-use after photocatalytic reaction. Hierarchically porous leaf-like mat-shaped photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activity and stability should also find potential applications in solar cells, catalysis, separation and purification processes.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.034
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • New insight into Cu/SAPO-34 preparation procedure: Impact of NH4-SAPO-34
           on the structure and Cu distribution in Cu-SAPO-34 NH3-SCR catalysts
    • Authors: Minhong Xu; Jun Wang; Tie Yu; Jianqiang Wang; Meiqing Shen
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Minhong Xu, Jun Wang, Tie Yu, Jianqiang Wang, Meiqing Shen
      Cu/SAPO-34 is a promising NH3-SCR catalyst and its precise preparations involving ammonia exchange, copper loading and copper distribution are still the challenges in exchange procedure of SAPO-34 support. In the present work, a new series of x-NH4-SAPO samples prepared by controlling NH3 adsorption temperature (x standed for NH3 adsorption temperature) were used to examine their impacts on the following Cu exchange compared with NH4-SAPO-34 by traditional liquid exchange. The TPD and DRIFTS experiments revealed that the NH4 + amounts on x-NH4-SAPO samples increased with the NH3 adsorption temperature decreasing. And 200-NH4-SAPO prepared by gas NH3 adsorption (GA) under 200°C contained the similar NH4 + loading with L-NH4-SAPO prepared by the liquid ion exchange (LIE) method, but they presented different coordinations between NH4 + species and Si(OH)Al. After copper exchange, the H2-TPR and EPR results unveiled monodentate NH4 + on Si(OH)Al structure would facilitate isolated Cu2+ generation in Cu/SAPO-34, while the polydentate NH4 + would promote CuO formation via liquid Cu ion exchange. Therefore, it was found that the isolated Cu2+ content in 200-Cu-SAPO was lower than L-Cu-SAPO even under the same copper exchange condition for different NH4 + coordinations. In addition, the ex-situ IR and NMR results demonstrated that the SiOAl bonds without NH4 + protections unveiled bond breakage during the liquid Cu exchange. Finally, our study proposed NH4 + exchange mechanism on Brønsted acid sites in NH4-SAPO-34 and indicated their influences on the copper distribution and the support integrity for x-Cu-SAPO catalysts.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.031
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Photocatalytic degradation of metoprolol by TiO2 nanotube arrays and
           UV-LED: Effects of catalyst properties, operational parameters, commonly
           present water constituents, and photo-induced reactive species
    • Authors: Y. Ye; Y. Feng; H. Bruning; D. Yntema; H.H.M. Rijnaarts
      Pages: 171 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Y. Ye, Y. Feng, H. Bruning, D. Yntema, H.H.M. Rijnaarts
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) as immobilized catalyst and UV-LED as light source (UV-LED/TNAs) for photocatalytic degradation of the β-blocker metoprolol (MTP) from aqueous solution. Firstly we employed electrochemical anodization to synthesize self-organized TNAs, and the effect of anodization potential and annealing temperature was examined. Characterization by SEM demonstrated a linear relation between the diameter of TiO2 nanotubes produced and the anodization potential, while Raman measurement revealed the vital role of annealing on crystallographic composition of the anodic produced TiO2 nanotubes. Regarding their performance in photocatalytic MTP degradation, surface morphology and crystallographic composition of the TNAs were found to impose crucial influence: only TNAs with diameter not smaller than 53nm enabled rapid MTP degradation, and highest MTP degradation was obtained when a mixture of anatase and rutile were present in the TNAs. Secondly, the effect of operational parameters, i.e initial MTP concentration, pH, was investigated. Initial MTP concentration at low level had no detrimental effect on the process performance. Rapid MTP degradation and high total removal were achieved in a wide pH range (3–11). To evaluate the applicability of TNAs for water treatment, experiments were first carried out in the presence of three different commonly present water constituents, i.e bicarbonate ions, phosphate ions, and natural organic matters (NOMs). The results show that bicarbonate and phosphate ions have no inhibitory effect at concentration levels up to 200mg/L, and NOMs exhibit detrimental effect when their concentration exceeds 5mg/L. The total removal MTP degradation reduced from 87.09±0.09% to 62.05±0.08% when tap water samples were applied, demonstrating reasonable efficacy for practical applications. Regarding the degradation mechanism, formic acid and tert-butanol were added as scavenger for photo-generated holes (h+) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH), respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that primary degradation process occurred in liquid phase with participation of hydroxyl radicals in the liquid phase (·OH liquid), while smaller portion of MTP were degraded on the catalysis surface via reaction with h+ and hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the catalyst surface (·OH surface). Other reactive species, e.g photo generated electrons and superoxide radical anions, did also play a minor role in MTP degradation. The mechanistic aspect was further confirmed by identification of degradation products by LC–MS/MS. The TNAs exhibited good stability after repeated use under varied operation conditions.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.040
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Graphene “bridge” in transferring hot electrons from plasmonic Ag
           nanocubes to TiO2 nanosheets for enhanced visible light photocatalytic
           hydrogen evolution
    • Authors: Qingqing Lang; Yaohan Chen; Tianlong Huang; Lining Yang; Shuxian Zhong; Lanju Wu; Jianrong Chen; Song Bai
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Qingqing Lang, Yaohan Chen, Tianlong Huang, Lining Yang, Shuxian Zhong, Lanju Wu, Jianrong Chen, Song Bai
      The integration of plasmonic metal with wide-bandgap semiconductor is a promising approach to utilize the visible light without compromise of the redox ability of photogenerated charge carriers. However, a larger work function of metal than that of semiconductor is indispensable to enable the injection of hot electrons from plasmonic metal to semiconductor. In this paper, we demonstrated that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets as conductive “bridge” can breakthrough the restriction and transfer hot electrons from Ag of smaller work function to TiO2 of larger work function. In the design, both of the Ag nanocubes and TiO2 nanosheets are co-deposited on the surface of rGO nanosheets to form Ag-rGO-TiO2 structure, which was characterized by XRD, TEM, Raman and XPS spectra. On one hand, the Ag-rGO interface facilitates the transfer of hot electrons from Ag to rGO through conductor–conductor contact. On the other hand, the new formed Schottky junction on the rGO-TiO2 interface further pumps the transferred electrons to the surface of TiO2 for photocatalytic reduction reaction resulted from the larger work function of rGO than that of TiO2. Enabled by this unique design, the hydrogen production activity achieved under visible light irradiation is dramatically enhanced in comparison with that of Ag-TiO2 counterpart with the direct contact between the same Ag nanocubes and TiO2 nanosheets. This work represents a step toward the rational interfacial design of plasmonic metal-semiconductor hybrid structures for broad-spectrum photocatalysis.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.045
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Gd/HZSM-5 catalyst for conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons: Effects of
           amounts of the Gd loading and catalyst preparation method
    • Authors: Sungtak Kim; Gyungah Park; Seok Ki Kim; Yong Tae Kim; Ki-Won Jun; Geunjae Kwak
      Pages: 191 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Sungtak Kim, Gyungah Park, Seok Ki Kim, Yong Tae Kim, Ki-Won Jun, Geunjae Kwak
      In this work, the effect of the gadolinium (Gd) content and preparation method on the characteristics of Gd-modified HZSM-5 catalysts and their reactivity in a methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction has been studied in detail. Gd/HZSM-5 catalysts with Gd contents of 1wt% (1GdHZ), 5wt% (5GdHZ), and 10wt% (10GdHZ) were prepared by an incipient wet impregnation method, and another Gd-modified HZSM-5 catalyst (GdHZ_IE) was prepared by an ion exchange method. It was found that increasing the Gd content in the catalysts prepared via the impregnation method with uniformly distributed nano-sized particles and thin films of Gd2O3 directly influenced the crystallinity, surface area, pore volume, acid-base properties, and reactivity of the catalysts. In particular, the amount of Lewis acid sites (LAS) on the catalyst determine the selectivity of light olefins and aromatics during the MTH reaction. In contrast, the GdHZ_IE catalyst possess a larger number of strong LAS and show higher aromatic selectivities compared with the bare HZSM-5 catalyst. Regardless of the preparation method, the catalyst modification by Gd inhibited the formation of polycondensed aromatic species on the catalyst surface and reduced the amount of carbon deposition by more than 50%. As the increasing amounts of Gd reduced the amount of carbon deposition, the lifetimes of the Gd/HZSM-5 catalysts were also prolonged.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.056
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Highly porous carbon nitride by supramolecular preassembly of monomers for
           photocatalytic removal of sulfamethazine under visible light driven
    • Authors: Chengyun Zhou; Cui Lai; Danlian Huang; Guangming Zeng; Chen Zhang; Min Cheng; Liang Hu; Jia Wan; Weiping Xiong; Ming Wen; Xiaofeng Wen; Lei Qin
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Chengyun Zhou, Cui Lai, Danlian Huang, Guangming Zeng, Chen Zhang, Min Cheng, Liang Hu, Jia Wan, Weiping Xiong, Ming Wen, Xiaofeng Wen, Lei Qin
      Many organic and inorganic compounds have been developed as visible light driven photocatalysts for environment and energy application. In this work, a metal-free carbon doping–carbon nitride (BCM-C3N4) nanocomposite was synthesized by introducing barbituric acid and cyanuric acid during the polymerization of melamine. The BCM-C3N4 was characterized by structure, porosity, optical performance, and photoelectrochemical properties. Results demonstrated that BCM-C3N4 sample exhibited higher surface area, lower fluorescence intensity, better photocurrent signals and more efficient charge transfer in comparison to pure C3N4. The BCM-C3N4 exhibits excellent photocatalytic degradation ability of sulfamethazine (SMZ) under visible light irradiation. Much superior photocatalytic activity and high pollutant mineralization rate was achieved by BCM-C3N4, where it was 5 times than that of pristine C3N4. The effect of initial SMZ concentrations on photocatalyst was also investigated. Additionally, the trapping experiments and electron spin resonance tests demonstrated that the main active species, such as O2 − and h+, could be produced under light irradiation. This work might provide an effective approach to the design of low-cost and highly efficient photocatalysis degradation systems for water treatment.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.055
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Post treatment of composting leachate using ZnO nanoparticles immobilized
           on moving media
    • Authors: Alireza Ranjbari; Nader Mokhtarani
      Pages: 211 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Alireza Ranjbari, Nader Mokhtarani
      The capability of UV-ZnO photocatalytic process as a post treatment method for composting leachate was examined. ZnO nanoparticles immobilized on moving media were used for the first time in order to overcome the defects of photocatalytic processes such as the separation of nanoparticles in slurry systems as well as the need for more retention time in the conventional immobilized systems. The effect of factors such as pH, UVC light intensity, concentration of immobilized nanoparticles, coated area and retention time was investigated. Based on the results of experiments, the maximum simultaneous COD and color removal of 61% and 71% were achieved respectively after 240min of radiation with 32W UVC lamps in pH 11, in presence of 60gr/m2 immobilized ZnO and 400cm2 coated area. These values indicate 20% and 23% increase in COD and color removal compared with the maximum coatable surface on the reactor respectively. SPE-GC–MS analysis also revealed that the composting leachate contained various groups of organic compounds; most of which could be degraded into lower molecular weights, using photocatalytic process. In this research, the biodegradability of the leachate was also improved from 0.15 to 0.55 and the toxicity reduced by more than 79%.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.042
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Selective photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic alcohols in water by using
           P-doped g-C3N4
    • Authors: Marianna Bellardita; Elisa I. García-López; Giuseppe Marcì; Igor Krivtsov; José R. García; Leonardo Palmisano
      Pages: 222 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Marianna Bellardita, Elisa I. García-López, Giuseppe Marcì, Igor Krivtsov, José R. García, Leonardo Palmisano
      A set of bare and P-doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalysts has been prepared by thermal condensation of melamine, urea or thiourea. For the sake of comparison, a g-C3N4 sample obtained in the presence of cyanuric acid and thermally exfoliated C3N4 powders were also studied. The materials were physicochemically characterized and their photocatalytic activity was studied for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA), 4-methoxy benzyl alcohol (4-MBA) and piperonyl alcohol (PA) in water suspension both under UV and visible light irradiation. The influence of the type and position of the substituents on conversion and selectivity to aldehyde was remarkable. The presence of P in the C3N4 material improved the selectivity of the reaction towards the aldehyde.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.033
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Promotional synergistic effect of Cu and Nb doping on a novel Cu/Ti-Nb
           ternary oxide catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with
    • Authors: Xiaoxiang Wang; Yun Shi; Sujing Li; Wei Li
      Pages: 234 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Xiaoxiang Wang, Yun Shi, Sujing Li, Wei Li
      A series of Ti-Nb binary oxide were synthesized by co-precipitation as supports to prepare Cu/Ti-Nb mixed oxide catalysts through wetness impregnation. The novel catalyst 0.8%Cu/Ti2NbOx exhibited an excellent catalytic activity and N2 selectivity with a broad operation temperature (250–425°C) under a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 177,000h−1 for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. A series of analytical techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N2-physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Laser Raman spectra (LRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS) were used to investigate the correlations among catalyst structure, surface properties and catalytic performance. For the support Ti2NbOx, the specific surface area was larger than that of TiO2, promoting the high dispersion of the active component. Also, the surface acid sites were increased by addition of niobium oxide species and the redox capability of the support was enhanced by doping copper species. Moreover, the introduction of copper species effectively enhanced the catalytic performance within 225–400°C. The copper species mainly existed as isolated Cu2+ and non-isolated Cu+ and the isolated Cu2+ ions played a significant role in the high NH3-SCR performance over 0.8%Cu/Ti2NbOx catalyst. Hydrothermal aging treatment experiment demonstrated that 0.8%Cu/Ti2NbOx catalyst had an excellent hydrothermal stability. In addition, water vapor or/and SO2 had a slightly reversible inhibition influence on the catalytic performance over 0.8%Cu/Ti2NbOx, indicating that it was a promising candidate for NH3-SCR catalyst in the future practical application. The reaction pathway over 0.8%Cu/Ti2NbOx catalyst followed both Eley-Rideal mechanism and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism at 225°C.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Efficient bimetallic NiCu-SiO2 catalysts for selective hydrogenolysis of
           xylitol to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol
    • Authors: Hailong Liu; Zhiwei Huang; Haixiao Kang; Xuemei Li; Chungu Xia; Jing Chen; Haichao Liu
      Pages: 251 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Hailong Liu, Zhiwei Huang, Haixiao Kang, Xuemei Li, Chungu Xia, Jing Chen, Haichao Liu
      The selective hydrogenolysis of biomass-derived xylitol to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was carried out over non-noble Ni-decorated Cu-SiO2 nanocatalysts with a wide range of Cu/Ni mass ratios and metal loadings in the presence of Ca(OH)2. The NiCu-SiO2 bimetallic catalysts showed much superior activities and selectivities to the target glycols relative to the monometallic Cu-SiO2 and Ni-SiO2 catalysts. Among them, 10Ni80Cu-SiO2 catalyst (10/80 refers to the mass ratio of NiO and CuO) prepared by co-precipitation-gel method presented the highest activity and target glycols selectivity, and up to 81.0% combined glycol yield was attained at 473K and 8MPa H2. Moreover, this catalyst exhibited greatly enhanced stability in repeated runs. Characterization of these catalysts by XRD, XPS, BET, N2O-chemisorption, H2-TPR and TEM showed that the decoration of suitable amount of Ni into Cu-SiO2 catalysts had favorable effects on Cu dispersion, catalyst reducibility and the formation of highly active Ni surface-enriched Cu-Ni alloy sites. The notably enhanced performances of the NiCu-SiO2 bimetallic catalysts could be ascribed to their significantly promoted C–OH dehydrogenation and C=O hydrogenation activities and high resistance to sintering of the active sites, imposed by the structural and electronic effects of Ni. Clearly, these findings provide useful guidance for the design of more efficient and stable non-noble bimetallic nanocatalysts for upgrading biomass-derived platform compounds particularly via hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Photo-triggered catalytic reforming of methanol over gold-Promoted,
           copper-Zinc catalyst at low ignition temperature
    • Authors: Yi-Chun Liao; Hsiao-Yu Huang; Yuh-Jeen Huang
      Pages: 264 - 271
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Yi-Chun Liao, Hsiao-Yu Huang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
      Lowering the ignition temperature in partial oxidation of methanol (POM), an exothermic reaction, is important for further application in hydrogen fuel cell development. This study has clearly revealed that photo-triggered catalytic partial oxidation of methanol (photo-POM) over gold-promoted copper-zinc catalyst decreased ignition temperature in response to 2–10% increments of gold content. In particular, A10CZ (Au/Cu/ZnO catalyst with 10% Au, 30% Cu, 60% Zn) effectively reduced the ignition temperature (Ti) to room temperature and maintained 95% SH2 (hydrogen selectivity) methanol–oxygen mixtures (volume 2:1) under 200W UV light with a wavelength of 377nm. During the ignition period, methoxy groups (–OCH3) were adsorbed onto the A4CZ surface, and then transferred to the intermediate formate state. The photo-generated electrons from ZnO were easily trapped by electronic acceptors, such as copper and gold, which was confirmed by in-situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra during photo-POM reaction. Gold also promotes the absorption of near UV light and significantly enhances the charge separation by extracting electrons from photo-excited ZnO, which consequently improves the photocatalytic activity at lower ignition temperature.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.050
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Highly efficient g-C3N4/TiO2/kaolinite composite with novel
           three-dimensional structure and enhanced visible light responding ability
           towards ciprofloxacin and S. aureus
    • Authors: Chunquan Li; Zhiming Sun; Wanzhong Zhang; Caihong Yu; Shuilin Zheng
      Pages: 272 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Chunquan Li, Zhiming Sun, Wanzhong Zhang, Caihong Yu, Shuilin Zheng
      A novel 3D heterogeneous g-C3N4/TiO2/kaolinite composite with enhanced visible light activity was fabricated via a mild sol-gel method associated with chemical stripping and self-assembly. Compared with bare photocatalysts, the g-C3N4/TiO2/kaolinite 3D structure exhibits enhanced adsorption-photocatalytic degradation ability for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) under visible-light irradiation, and also facilitate the recyclability of the photocatalyst as demonstrated from the reusability test. The apparent rate constant of the composite is up to around 5.35 times, 6.35 times and 4.49 times that of bare TiO2, g-C3N4 and P25, respectively, and a possible degradation pathway was also proposed. On the other hand, the as-received composite also exhibited enriched disinfection ability towards S. aureus. It is indicated that the superoxide radical (O2 −) is the main active species in the degradation process, and the superior photocatalytic performance of composite should be mainly attributed to both the improvement of light harvesting as well as the enhanced separation and transfer efficiency. It is expected that this novel ternary visible-light responding composite would be a promising candidate material for the organic pollutants degradation and bacteria inactivation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.044
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Cogeneration of ethylene and energy in protonic fuel cell with an
           efficient and stable anode anchored with in-situ exsolved functional metal
    • Authors: Subiao Liu; Qingxia Liu; Xian-Zhu Fu; Jing-Li Luo
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Subiao Liu, Qingxia Liu, Xian-Zhu Fu, Jing-Li Luo
      In situ exsolution of Co nanoparticles on perovskite framework has been successfully synthesized by firing the porous precursor SrMo0.8Co0.1Fe0.1O3-δ (SMCFO) in reducing flow at 850°C. A structure transformation (from mixed to pure cubic phase) and the growth of Co nanoparticles are observed in H2 atmosphere. This leads to an increase in the oxygen vacancy content, which is beneficial to the electrical conduction and catalytic activity towards the oxidations of H2 and C2H6. Moreover, this material exhibits good redox reversibility under the condition of multiple reduction and re-oxidation cycles, as confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. A protonic fuel cell (PFC) built with this newly developed material shows a comparable electrocatalytic activity in both C2H6 and H2 atmospheres while a considerably high power density of 377mWcm−2 is achieved in H2 and 268mWcm−2 in C2H6 at 750°C. In addition, C2H4 yield in the cell with Co-SMCFO as anode is considerably improved (11.9%–37.8% at 650–750°C) with respect to the widely used chromium oxide. The good electrochemical performance, the improved C2H6 partial dehydrogenation ability and the negligible carbon formation in the Co-SMCFO anode are the strong indications that the SMCFO is a promising catalyst for the cogeneration of C2H4 and electricity, and can also be potentially utilized in the PFC directly fueled with hydrocarbon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.051
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Oxygen vacancy-rich 2D/2D BiOCl-g-C3N4 ultrathin heterostructure
           nanosheets for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity in
           environmental remediation
    • Authors: Qiao Wang; Wei Wang; Lingling Zhong; Dongmei Liu; Xingzhong Cao; Fuyi Cui
      Pages: 290 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Qiao Wang, Wei Wang, Lingling Zhong, Dongmei Liu, Xingzhong Cao, Fuyi Cui
      Photocatalytic degradation has been unearthed as a promising strategy for environmental remediation, and the calling is endless for more efficient photocatalytic system. In this study, a novel oxygen vacancy-rich two-dimensional/two-dimensional (2D/2D) BiOCl-g-C3N4 ultrathin heterostructure nanosheet (CN-BC) is successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal method for degradation of non-dye organic contaminants. HRTEM observes the formation of heterojunction, while ESR and XPS unveil the distinct oxygen vacancy concentrations. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of oxygen vacancies (OVs) brings a new defect level, resulting in the increased photoabsorption. Under visible light irradiation, the OVs-rich optimum ratio of CN-BC (50CN-50BC) Exhibits 95% removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol within 2h, which is about 12.5, 5.3 and 3.4 times as that of pure BiOCl, g-C3N4 and OVs-poor heterostructure, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of OVs-rich 50CN-50BC is also revealed, suggesting that the synergistic effect between 2D/2D heterojunction and oxygen vacancies greatly promotes visible-light photoabsorption and photoinduced carrier separation efficiency with a prolonged lifetime, which is confirmed by multiple optical and electrochemical analyses, including DRS, steady-state photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photocurrent response and time-resolved fluorescence spectra. This study could bring new opportunities for the rational design of highly efficient photocatalysts by combining 2D/2D heterojunctions with oxygen vacancies in environmental remediation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.049
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Sub 1nm aggregation-free AuPd nanocatalysts confined inside
           amino-functionalized organosilica nanotubes for visible-light-driven
           hydrogen evolution from formaldehyde
    • Authors: Shengbo Zhang; Hua Wang; Lei Tang; Mei Li; Jianhang Tian; Yue Cui; Jinyu Han; Xinli Zhu; Xiao Liu
      Pages: 303 - 313
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Shengbo Zhang, Hua Wang, Lei Tang, Mei Li, Jianhang Tian, Yue Cui, Jinyu Han, Xinli Zhu, Xiao Liu
      Novel amino-functionalized organosilica nanotubes (AM-NT) were facilely synthesized by the hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) with 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) using a simple micelle-templating approach. Through adjusting the ratios of organosilane precursors, the very short AM-NT with ∼60nm in length and ∼6nm in pore diameter could be controllably obtained. By using the unique AM-NT as the supports, a series of AuPd alloy nanoparticles with the average size of sub 1nm could be synthesized after the liquid phase reduction of HAuCl4 and H2PdCl4 in water, which were mostly confined inside the short organosilica nanotubes and further applied for the hydrogen evolution from formaldehyde aqueous solution. These bimetallic AuPd nanocatalysts in the organic-modified nanotubes exhibited remarkably improved catalytic activity under visible light irradiation and the highest initial TOF value of 241.7h−1 could be achieved at the room temperature. Furthermore, these ultrasmall nanocatalysts exhibited high reaction stability and no aggregation of metal nanoparticles was observed even after 5 recycles. The superior catalytic activity was mainly attributed to the uniform and ultrafine AuPd nanostructure, benefiting from the synergetic stabilizing effects of amino and benzene groups in the nanotube frameworks. The fast electron transfer from much smaller Au with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to active Pd sites could efficiently occur, resulting in the excellent photocatalytic activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.043
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Lignosulfonate-based macro/mesoporous solid protonic acids for
           acetalization of glycerol to bio-additives
    • Authors: Lakhya Jyoti Konwar; Ajaikumar Samikannu; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dan Boström; Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
      Pages: 314 - 323
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Lakhya Jyoti Konwar, Ajaikumar Samikannu, Päivi Mäki-Arvela, Dan Boström, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
      The enclosed paper introduces a novel, scalable and environmentally benign process for making strongly acidic solid meso/macroporous carbon catalysts from Na-lignosulfonate (LS), a byproduct from sulfite pulping. Ice-templated LS was converted to strongly acidic macro/mesoporous solid protonic acids via mild pyrolysis (350–450°C) and ion/H+ exchanging technique. The synthesized materials were extensively characterized by FT-IR, Raman, XRD, XPS, TGA, FE-SEM, TEM and N2-physisorption methods. These LS derived materials exhibited a macro/mesoporous and highly functionalized heteroatom doped (O, S) carbon structure with large amounts of surface OH, COOH and SO3H groups similar to the sulfonated carbon materials. Further, these carbon materials showed excellent potential as solid acid catalysts upon acetalization of glycerol with various bio-based aldehydes and ketones (acetone, methyl levulinate and furfural), easily outperforming the commercial acid exchange resins (Amberlite® IR120 and Amberlyst® 70). Most importantly, the optimum LS catalyst exhibiting a large specific surface area demonstrated exceptional potential for continuous solketal production (liquid phase atmospheric pressure operation) maintaining its activity (glycerol conversion≥91%) and structural features even after 90h time on stream.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.061
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • One-pot construction of 1D/2D Zn1-xCdxS/D-ZnS(en)0.5 composites with
           perfect heterojunctions and their superior visible-light-driven
           photocatalytic H2 evolution
    • Authors: Wenhui Feng; Yaozhu Wang; Xueyan Huang; Kaiqiang Wang; Fan Gao; Yan Zhao; Bo Wang; Lulu Zhang; Ping Liu
      Pages: 324 - 336
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Wenhui Feng, Yaozhu Wang, Xueyan Huang, Kaiqiang Wang, Fan Gao, Yan Zhao, Bo Wang, Lulu Zhang, Ping Liu
      A series of well-defined 1D/2D Zn1-x Cd x S/D-ZnS(en)0.5 hybrids are fabricated via an one-pot synthesis method. The resulting composites exhibit enhanced visible-light-driven photoactivities for H2 production from water in the presence of sacrificial reagents. The optimized Zn0.41Cd0.59S/D-ZnS(en)0.5 hybrid shows the extremely high H2 evolution rate of 463.6μmolH−1 per 30mg under visible light irradiation (λ>420nm), without any cocatalysts. The highest H2 production rate presents 826-fold and 24-fold enhancement compared to pristine D-ZnS(en)0.5 and CdS, respectively. The corresponding apparent quantum yield (AQY) at 440nm reaches up to 49.95%. The dramatically improved photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the effective interfacial and interior carriers separation. The former is based on the perfect Zn0.41Cd0.59S/D-ZnS(en)0.5 heterojunctions with well-matched lattice and band structure, which is obtained by collaborative optimization of composition regulation and defect mediation. While the latter is achieved by low dimension control on the basis of the unique electronic behavior in low-dimensional materials. Besides, the stability of Zn0.41Cd0.59S/D-ZnS(en)0.5 heterostructure is also investigated. Several possible causes of slight deactivation are proposed, which mainly includes the weakened interfacial contact, partial ethylenediamine (en) ligands dissociation or substitution by H2O, OH− and S2−, repair of S vacancies and partial oxidation of Cd-S bonds. It may provide theoretic guidance for further designing high-stability photocatalysts. In addition, the optimized hybrid can be used at ambient pressure and under natural sunlight illumination, and the synthesis method is facile, economic and short-period. Thus our proposed system is highly attractive for large scale energy applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Photocatalytic activity enhancement of core-shell structure g-C3N4@TiO2
           via controlled ultrathin g-C3N4 layer
    • Authors: Yingying Wang; Wenjuan Yang; Xianjie Chen; Jun Wang; Yongfa Zhu
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Yingying Wang, Wenjuan Yang, Xianjie Chen, Jun Wang, Yongfa Zhu
      The g-C3N4@TiO2 core-shell structure photocatalysts with controlled ultrathin g-C3N4 layer (0nm, 1.0nm, 1.5nm, 3.0nm) were prepared by a new method of the sol-gel approaches in situ coating re-assembled. The g-C3N4@TiO2 sample with 1.0nm thickness of shell layers has the highest visible light photocatalytic degradation phenol activity which is almost 7.2 times as high as that of bulk g-C3N4. The highest photocurrent response intensity is increased by ten times higher than that of g-C3N4 and five orders of magnitude compare to TiO2. The removal rate of phenol using g-C3N4@TiO2 core-shell catalyst is 30% and the degree of mineralization by the same catalyst is 19.8%, which dramatically increase compared with that of g-C3N4 and TiO2. The enhanced performance of the degradation phenol and the mineralization is owing to effective charge separation revealed by the photoluminescence (PL), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and density functional theory calculations (DFT), superoxide radicals as the main oxidative species proved by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). And the core-shell structure could effectively promote the electron transfer from g-C3N4 to TiO2 during the catalytic process. The results of repetitive experiment and cycle experiment show that the g-C3N4@TiO2 has a strong binding force between the core and shell, which is stable, without secondary pollution and convenient for recovery. What's more, the results revealed the law between the different g-C3N4 shell layers (0nm, 1.0nm, 1.5nm, 3.0nm) over the g-C3N4@TiO2 samples and the corresponding catalytic activity, which successfully established the structure-activity relationship. A new catalytic concept namely layer-dependent effect was found, that is number of layers over g-C3N4 of the core-shell structure determines photocatalytic activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
  • Microkinetic modeling of H2SO4 formation on Pt based diesel oxidation
    • Authors: Hom N. Sharma; Yunwei Sun; Elizabeth A. Glascoe
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 220
      Author(s): Hom N. Sharma, Yunwei Sun, Elizabeth A. Glascoe
      The presence of water vapor and sulfur oxides in diesel engine exhaust leads to the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which severely impacts the performance of Pt/Pd based emissions aftertreatment catalysts. In this study, a microkinetic model is developed to investigate the reaction pathways of H2SO4 formation on Pt based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs). The microkinetic model consists of 14 elementary step reactions (7 reversible pairs) and yields prediction in excellent agreement with data obtained from experiments at practically relevant sulfur oxides environment in engine exhaust. The model simulation utilizing a steady-state plug flow reactor demonstrates that it matches experimental data in both kinetically and thermodynamically controlled regions. Results clearly show the negative impact of SO3 on the SO2 oxidation light-off temperature, consistent with experimental observations. A reaction pathway analysis shows that the primary pathway of sulfuric acid formation on Pt surface involves SO2 * oxidation to form SO3 * with the subsequent interaction of SO3 * with H2O* to form H2SO4 *.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T09:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 220 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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