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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
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ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
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Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
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Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
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Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
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Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
  [SJR: 2.322]   [H-I: 158]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-3373
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3041 journals]
  • Novel fluorinated Bi2MoO6 nanocrystals for efficient photocatalytic
           removal of water organic pollutants under different light source
    • Authors: Changlin Yu; Zhen Wu; Renyue Liu; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; Kai Yang; Chunying Wang; Hong Liu
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Changlin Yu, Zhen Wu, Renyue Liu, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Kai Yang, Chunying Wang, Hong Liu
      Development of efficient technologies to deal with organic pollutants in wastewater is an important issue. Photocatalysis, as a “green chemistry” technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation and efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts with powerful ability to completely oxidize organic pollutants in contaminated source water are highly desirable. Here, a series of fluorinated Bi2MoO6 crystals with different atomic ratio of F to Bi (R F =0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30) were prepared via a solvothermal-calcination process. The effects of F doping on the physicochemical properties of Bi2MoO6 were investigated by physicochemical techniques like XRD, N2 adsorption, SEM, TEM, UV–Vis DRS, FT-IR, XPS, PL and photoelectrochemical measurement. The substitution of F− anions for the host O2− anions induced the lattice shrinkage, a decrease in crystal size and an increase in crystallinity. Moreover, the oxygen vacancies in F-Bi2MoO6 and F− adsorbed over the catalyst surface could withdraw the photoexcited electrons, largely boosting the separation of photoexcited electron–hole pairs. F0.20-Bi2MoO6 displayed significant photocatalytic performance in removal of phenol, bisphenol A, 4-chlorophenol and Rhodamine B dye. ESR and radicals trapping confirmed holes are mainly responsible for the degradation of the target organic pollutants. However, •OH and •O2 2− could be also involve in photocatalytic reactions. Meanwhile, the more positive potential of VB in F-Bi2MoO6 could promote the oxidation power of the h + in organic pollutants removal.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.057
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Probing the synergistic ratio of the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 reduced catalysts for
           the transformation of natural triglycerides into green diesel
    • Authors: Eleana Kordouli; Labrini Sygellou; Christos Kordulis; Kyriakos Bourikas; Alexis Lycourghiotis
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Eleana Kordouli, Labrini Sygellou, Christos Kordulis, Kyriakos Bourikas, Alexis Lycourghiotis
      The synergistic atomic ratio, N i N i + M o , of the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 reduced catalysts was investigated for the transformation of natural triglycerides into green diesel. A series of catalysts with different atomic ratios 0≤ N i N i + M o ≤1 and constant atomic surface density (Mo+Ni)=4 atoms/nm2 was prepared and characterized using adsorption–desorption isotherms, XRD, SEM-EDS, XPS and H2-TPR. The catalysts were evaluated in the selective deoxygenation of sunflower oil performed by hydrotreatment using a semi-batch reactor. For comparison, two additional NiMo/γ-Al2O3 sulphided catalysts were synthesized and tested. The most active reduced catalyst was also tested in the selective deoxygenation of waste cooking oil. MoO3/MoOx (Mo oxidation number between 5 and 4) and Ni0, NiO, NiAl2O4 phases very well dispersed on the support surface and uniformly distributed on the catalysts extrudates have been detected in all cases. The high dispersion of these phases does not practically disturb the texture of the support which exhibits a single peak pore volume distribution centered at about 8–9nm. The Ni, Mo composition of the catalysts somehow affects the relative amounts of these phases of the same element. It was found that the aforementioned N i N i + M o ratio is located at about 0.8. This is very different to that of the sulphided catalysts which is located at about 0.3 for both the hydrodesulphurization of petroleum fractions and the selective deoxygenation of sunflower oil. An impressive increase of the% yield to hydrocarbons in the diesel range by a factor of 4.77 was achieved by a simple change of the N i N i + M o atomic ratio in the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 reduced catalysts from 0.3 to 0.8. A complete transformation of both sunflower oil and waste cooking oil into hydrocarbons in the diesel range was obtained over the most active catalyst at 310°C, hydrogen pressure 40bar, reactant volume to catalyst mass ratio equal to 10ml/g and reaction time equal to 5h.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.045
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Highly active poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanostructures for photocatalysis
           under solar light
    • Authors: Dita Floresyona; Fabrice Goubard; Pierre-Henri Aubert; Isabelle Lampre; Jérémie Mathurin; Alexandre Dazzi; Srabanti Ghosh; Patricia Beaunier; François Brisset; Samy Remita; Laurence Ramos; Hynd Remita
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Dita Floresyona, Fabrice Goubard, Pierre-Henri Aubert, Isabelle Lampre, Jérémie Mathurin, Alexandre Dazzi, Srabanti Ghosh, Patricia Beaunier, François Brisset, Samy Remita, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
      Conjugated polymer nanostructures have recently emerged as a new class of very active photocatalysts under solar light. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is one of the commonly used conjugated polymers for photovoltaics applications. P3HT nanostructures synthesized in soft templates provided by hexagonal mesophases show high photocatalytic activity for degradation of pollutants under both UV and visible light. These photocatalysts are very stable even after repeated cycling. Addition of scavengers and mechanistic studies show that O2 − is the main radical responsible for degradation of phenol taken as a model pollutant. P3HT nanostructures can be easily deposited on flat supports such as quartz for photocatalytic applications avoiding a separation step by centrifugation. Most interestingly, the photocatalytic activity of these P3HT nanostructures is highly enhanced when they are supported on a solid surface opening new perspectives in photocatalytic reactors and self-cleaning surfaces.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.069
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Activity and stability of Co3O4-based catalysts for soot oxidation: The
           enhanced effect of Bi2O3 on activation and transfer of oxygen
    • Authors: Zhou Shang; Min Sun; Sanmao Chang; Xiang Che; Xiaoming Cao; Li Wang; Yun Guo; Wangcheng Zhan; Yanglong Guo; Guanzhong Lu
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Zhou Shang, Min Sun, Sanmao Chang, Xiang Che, Xiaoming Cao, Li Wang, Yun Guo, Wangcheng Zhan, Yanglong Guo, Guanzhong Lu
      Bi2O3-Co3O4 catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and tested for soot oxidation by O2. The composite oxides showed excellent activity under both tight and loose contact when compared with individual Co3O4 or Bi2O3, and the maximum activity was obtained over catalyst with Bi/Co molar ratio of 0.2. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, XPS, FT-IR, C-TPR and O2-TPD. It was found that Bi2O3 with low melting point deposited on Co3O4 surface could not only promote the contact state between soot and catalyst, but also produce more oxygen species with high mobility and reactivity at Bi-Co interface layer. Oxygen activation channel and reaction pathway were discussed based on the results of isothermal anaerobic titrations and 18O-isotopic tests, which confirmed that soot was more likely to react with lattice oxygen species rather than O2, especially at low temperatures. The high mobility of lattice oxygen species was attributed to a combination of the O2− conductivity of Bi2O3 and the accelerative formation of oxygen vacancies at Bi-Co interface. A feasible reaction mechanism over the binary catalysts for soot oxidation was proposed. The stability tests were also studied and the results indicated that Bi-modified Co3O4 showed prominent tolerance against thermal shock, H2O and SO2, thus being a promising active component for practical application.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.074
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Polyoxometalate-based manganese clusters as catalysts for efficient
           photocatalytic and electrochemical water oxidation
    • Authors: Li Yu; Yong Ding; Min Zheng
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Li Yu, Yong Ding, Min Zheng
      A manganese containing polyoxometalate (POM) [Mn3(H2O)3(SbW9O33)2]12− (1) was synthesized and characterized in detail. The photocatalytic activity of 1 is definitely better than other manganese containing POM water oxidation catalysts reported so far according to oxygen yield, whereas the analogues [Mn3(H2O)5(PW9O34)2]9− (2) and [Mn3(H2O)3(AsW9O33)2]12− (3) show no to slight photocatalytic O2 evolution amount. Meanwhile, the electrocatalytic activities of 1-3 were investigated in 80mM pH 9.0 borate buffer, which follows the catalytic activity order of 1 > 2 > 3. Multiple experiments including UV−vis absorption, catalysts aging experiments, tetra-n-heptylammonium nitrate (THpANO3) toluene extraction, electrochemical experiments and capillary electrophoretic measurements results confirm that catalyst 1 is a homogeneous molecular catalyst. No Mn2+ (aq.) or manganese oxide under the reaction conditions of photocatalytic and electrochemical water oxidation was detected.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.061
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Surface defects decorated zinc doped gallium oxynitride nanowires with
           high photocatalytic activity
    • Authors: Jing Cheng; Yuting Wang; Yan Xing; Muhammad Shahid; Wei Pan
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jing Cheng, Yuting Wang, Yan Xing, Muhammad Shahid, Wei Pan
      It is known that surface defect is playing an important role in the photocatalytic performance. Defect engineering has become a common approach in the development of novel photocatalytic materials nowadays. In this paper, zinc doped gallium oxynitride nanowires enriched with surface defects are fabricated via a simple electrospinning and controlled calcination process under ammonia atmosphere. The surface defects are tuned by varying the ammonification temperature carefully, resulting in controlled doping content as well as adjustable crystallinity in the nanowire. The nanowire exhibits high photocatalytic activity and very good stability for the degradation of Rhodamine B organic dye. The apparent quantum efficiency reaches up to 30% under visible light irradiation, which is about 13 and 8 times higher than the nanowires with few surface defects. Structure analysis demonstrates that the surface oxygen vacancy is found to be the key factor for enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency. Hence, the enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the efficient charge transfer on the surface oxygen vacancy. The results in this work may be beneficial to explore the defective structure for the high performance visible-light driven photocatalytic materials for organic pollutant removal.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Striking activity enhancement of gold supported on Al-Ti mixed oxide by
           promotion with ceria in the reduction of NO with CO
    • Authors: Xianwei Wang; Xiaoling Wu; Nobutaka Maeda; Alfons Baiker
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Xianwei Wang, Xiaoling Wu, Nobutaka Maeda, Alfons Baiker
      The promotion of an Al-Ti mixed oxide supported gold catalyst (Au/AlTiOx) with ceria is shown to result in an unprecedented enhancement of its activity in the reduction of NO to N2 with CO. The parent Au/AlTiOx catalyst was prepared by depositing 3wt% gold on the mesoporous Al-Ti mixed oxide made by an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method using a triblock copolymer as a soft template. This parent Au/AlTiOx was impregnated with different loadings of CeOx resulting in molar ratios of Au:Ce in the catalysts of 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1. The deposited gold particles showed a relatively broad size distribution with maxima at 8–12nm, as evidenced by TEM. XRD and XPS analyses showed that the Al-Ti oxide support was made up of amorphous Al2O3-TiO2 mixed oxide and that the Ce component was present as a mixture of Ce3+ (Ce2O3) and Ce4+ (CeO2) partially covering the Au particles. The as-prepared catalysts were tested in the catalytic reduction of NO with CO in a continuous tubular microreactor at temperatures up to 300°C. The parent Au/AlTiOx catalyst showed very low activity (8.2% NO conversion at 300°C), whereas the ceria promoted catalyst containing a molar ratio of Au:Ce of 2:1 exhibited a dramatic enhancement of activity affording 100% NO conversion at the same conditions. The stability of this catalyst was tested in repetitive runs over 16h time-on-stream, which showed a slight loss of activity, while 100% selectivity to N2 was maintained. The spent catalyst could be easily regenerated reaching its original performance by heat treatment in flowing 5% O2/He.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.070
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Tuning the reduction power of visible-light photocatalysts of gold
           nanoparticles for selective reduction of nitroaromatics to
           azoxy-compounds—Tailoring the catalyst support
    • Authors: Qi Xiao; Zhe Liu; Fan Wang; Sarina Sarina; Huaiyong Zhu
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Qi Xiao, Zhe Liu, Fan Wang, Sarina Sarina, Huaiyong Zhu
      It is a challenge to attain high selectivity to azoxy-compounds in the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds as azoxy-compounds can be readily reduced to azo- and aniline compounds. We proposed a new solution to this challenge: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on hydrotalcite (HT) support were used to catalyze the reduction under visible light irradiation at ambient temperature; and phosphate (PO4 3−) and metal (such as Ga3+, Fe3+, Zn2+) ions were incorporated into the HT support to moderate the reduction power of the catalyst avoiding the formation of azo- and aniline compounds. Very high azoxy-compound selectivity was achieved under green mild conditions. The photocatalytic activity strongly depends on the incident light wavelength and intensity, and we can further enhance the catalytic efficiency of this photocatalytic process by slight increase in reaction temperature (e.g. 10–20°C). Moreover, high stability and recyclability of the catalyst were also observed under the investigated conditions. A plausible reaction mechanism was proposed based on the experimental results and literatures. The introduction of both phosphate and metal ions into HT support can prevent the further reduction of azoxy-compounds to azo-compounds or anilines and achieve excellent selectivity to azoxy-compounds. This study reveals that we may engineer a product chemoselectivity by tailoring the supporting materials, and may present a new strategy towards the development of versatile heterogeneous photocatalysts.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Effect of high-temperature on the swellable organically-modified silica
           (SOMS) and its application to gas-phase hydrodechlorination of
    • Authors: Hyuntae Sohn; Gokhan Celik; Seval Gunduz; Sreshtha Sinha Majumdar; Stacey L. Dean; Paul L. Edmiston; Umit S. Ozkan
      Pages: 80 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Hyuntae Sohn, Gokhan Celik, Seval Gunduz, Sreshtha Sinha Majumdar, Stacey L. Dean, Paul L. Edmiston, Umit S. Ozkan
      Pd catalysts supported on swellable organically-modified silica (SOMS) and high-temperature-treated swellable organically-modified silica (H-SOMS) were characterized and tested for gas-phase hydrodechlorination (HDC) of trichloroethylene (TCE) conditions. The high-temperature treatment on SOMS resulted in an increase in surface area and pore diameter as well as significant improvement of Pd dispersion on H-SOMS with smaller Pd particle sizes compared to the Pd/SOMS catalyst. Although the high-temperature treatment led to some alteration of the SOMS polysiloxane network, the hydrophobicity and organic vapor adsorption characteristics of SOMS were preserved. The reduction and oxidation characteristics of Pd on SOMS and HSOMS were investigated in situ using XANES technique. It was found that the Pd sites in the pores of SOMS was accessible to small molecules such as H2, facilitating the reduction of PdOx, whereas oxidation of metallic Pd was limited even at higher temperatures when O2 was used. This effect was only observed over Pd/SOMS catalyst. For Pd/H-SOMS, because the pores were more widely open than Pd/SOMS, both reduction and oxidation of Pd were observed. Finally, the catalytic activity of Pd/H-SOMS for gas-phase HDC of TCE was significantly better than Pd/SOMS. When water was added to the reactant stream (TCE+H2O), both Pd/SOMS and Pd/H-SOMS maintained its catalytic performances due to hydrophobic property of the supports.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.056
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • A hierarchical cathode catalyst layer architecture for improving the
           performance of direct methanol fuel cell
    • Authors: Sungjun Kim; Ji Eun Park; Wonchan Hwang; Yong-Hun Cho; Yung-Eun Sung
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Sungjun Kim, Ji Eun Park, Wonchan Hwang, Yong-Hun Cho, Yung-Eun Sung
      We report the fabrication of a hierarchical cathode catalyst layer (CL) for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The hierarchical CL, comprised of Pt black as the inner layer and Pt/C as the outer layer, has appropriate structural properties for DMFC cathode. The inner CL with compact structure decreases the CL thickness and prevent Pt sites from methanol contamination, and the cathode outer CL with porous structure increase the electrochemical active surface area. Consequently, the hierarchical cathode CL is able to offset the adverse effect of methanol crossover on the cathode performance by enhancing the Pt catalyst utilization for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). Therefore, the newly developed membrane electrode assembly (MEA) can maintain the high ORR activity of the cathode catalysts despite the methanol crossover. At a high methanol concentration (3M), it shows high maximum power density (0.156Wcm−2) despite only 1.0mgcm−2 of Pt in the cathode CL.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.039
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Deep desulfurization of liquid fuels with molecular oxygen through
           graphene photocatalytic oxidation
    • Authors: Xingye Zeng; Xinyan Xiao; Yang Li; Jiayi Chen; Hanlu Wang
      Pages: 98 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Xingye Zeng, Xinyan Xiao, Yang Li, Jiayi Chen, Hanlu Wang
      A simple extraction and photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization (EPODS) system for model oil was successfully developed on the basis of as-prepared graphene oxide (GO), air, formic acid (MeA), and acetonitrile (MeCN). Under UV radiation, the main reaction conditions influencing sulfur removal were systematically investigated, including the amount of GO, the volume ratio of MeCN to model oil, the amount of MeA, the initial S-concentration, air/N2 bubbling, different sulfur compounds, and fuel composition. The reactivities of different sulfur compounds decreased in the order of benzothiophene>dibenzothiophene (DBT)>4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, and this was attributed to the influences of the electronic structure of the lowest-lying triplet state of each species and to steric hindrance. The photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization mechanism was investigated using radical scavenger experiments, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy, and density functional theory. DBT was initially extracted into the MeCN phase and then oxidized to the mixed oxidation products including sulfone. This was accomplished by the produced HO2 and HO, which mainly originated from the oxygen-containing functional groups with absorbed O2, ambient H+, and the additional electrons at the zigzag edge and at the defect sites of GO. This work presents a promising approach to the highly-efficient removal of heterocyclic aromatic sulfur compounds from liquid fuels with an ultra-low dosage of carbon catalyst under mild conditions. Additionally, it provides insights into the fundamental knowledge on the origin of GO activity and the nature of the active oxygen functional groups in the photocatalytic process.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.077
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu2-xSe
           core–shell nanowire arrays fabricated by ion-replacement method
    • Authors: Yuanlu Chen; Lijuan Wang; Wenzhong Wang; Maosheng Cao
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Yuanlu Chen, Lijuan Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Maosheng Cao
      The core-shell structures are designed to take advantages of each material to improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Here we report a facile ion-replacement strategy for fabricating ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu2-xSe core–shell nanowire arrays grown on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass under hydrothermal conditions. Under illumination with AM 1.5G, the designed ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu2-xSe core–shell nanowire arrays exhibit superior PEC performance with the highest photocurrent density of 20.57mA/cm2, which is 29.4 times higher than that of the ZnO nanowire arrays at 0V versus Ag/AgCl, and achieve the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 87.6% at 410nm without applying bias potential. The superior PEC performance of the ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu2-xSe core–shell nanowire arrays results from the synergistic effects of each material. Vertical aligned ZnO hexagonal prisms provided large specific surface area and electron access along the axial direction. ZnSe layer further extended specific surface area and the range of light absorption. CdSe layer enhanced the visible light absorption vastly and fully utilized the incident light. P-type Cu2-xSe layer produced p-n junctions, which could not only prevent the recombination, but also promote the separation and transmission of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The synergistic action of each component in ZnO/ZnSe/CdSe/Cu2-xSe core–shell nanowire arrays led an outstanding PEC performance. The synthetic strategy achieved in this work can have promising applications for designing highly efficient electrodes of other materials for water splitting.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-09T13:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.049
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • K2CO3-loaded hydrotalcite: A promising heterogeneous solid base catalyst
           for biolubricant base oil production from waste cooking oils
    • Authors: Guo Sun; Ying Li; Zizhe Cai; Yinglai Teng; Yong Wang; Martin J.T. Reaney
      Pages: 118 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Guo Sun, Ying Li, Zizhe Cai, Yinglai Teng, Yong Wang, Martin J.T. Reaney
      Hydrotalcite (HT) loaded with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was originally applied as a promising heterogeneous solid base catalyst for the production of trimethylolpropane fatty acid triester (TFATE) as the biolubricant base oil through transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking oils and trimethylolpropane (TMP), in which FAME to TMP ratio (3:1), catalyst dosage (2% w/w), pressure (300Pa), temperature (160°C) and time (2h) were optimized in order to obtain the best TFATE yield (80.6%). Based on the above, K2CO3 dosage (30% w/w) and calcination temperature (500°C) in the preparation of HT/K2CO3 catalyst were optimized to improve the TFATE yield to 93.9% along with 97.7% of conversion rate of FAME (CRF). The catalyst recycling was also investigated to determine the suitable reactivated method. Besides, HT/K2CO3 catalysts in various states were characterized for better comprehension of their functional mechanisms and appropriate potential applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.078
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Effect of Ni/Al molar ratio on the performance of substoichiometric
           NiAl2O4 spinel-based catalysts for partial oxidation of methane
    • Authors: Miryam Gil-Calvo; Cristina Jiménez-González; Beatriz de Rivas; Jose Ignacio Gutiérrez-Ortiz; Rubén López-Fonseca
      Pages: 128 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Miryam Gil-Calvo, Cristina Jiménez-González, Beatriz de Rivas, Jose Ignacio Gutiérrez-Ortiz, Rubén López-Fonseca
      The viability of a series of nickel aluminate-based spinel catalysts with varying Ni deficiency (corresponding to a Ni/Al molar ratio in the 0.13–0.50 range) was explored for the partial oxidation of methane under different operation conditions in terms of temperature, volume hourly space velocity, O/C molar ratio and time on stream. Thus spinel-type catalysts with a Ni loading between 11 and 31wt.% were prepared by coprecipitation. A wide number of techniques including WDXRF, XRD, N2 physisorption, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, UV–vis-NIR DRS, H2-TPR, TEM and TGA-MS were used to characterise the calcined, reduced and post-run samples. With respect to the reference stoichiometric sample (Ni/Al=0.50) alumina excess in the precursor oxide provoked notable changes in the surface area, structural properties connected with the relative cation distribution between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination and reducibility of the resultant spinel phase. It was found that the catalytic performance of these non-stoichiometric samples could be optimised for a Ni/Al molar ratio of 0.25, which corresponded to a metal loading of 19wt.%Ni. The oxidation activity was associated with the remarkable intrinsic activity of nickel particles derived from Ni2+ cations with a preferential occupancy of octahedral sites in the lattice of the oxide. The promising catalytic behaviour of this sample was further proven by the notable activity and stability shown under severe reaction conditions with a reduced loss of yield of hydrogen with time on stream.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.063
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Efficient catalytic systems for the carboxylation of diamines to cyclic
           ureas using ethylene urea as a promoter
    • Authors: So-Jeong Jin; Yeasin Khan; Jee Hyun Maeng; Young Jin Kim; Junhyeok Hwang; Minserk Cheong; Je Seung Lee; Hoon Sik Kim
      Pages: 139 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): So-Jeong Jin, Yeasin Khan, Jee Hyun Maeng, Young Jin Kim, Junhyeok Hwang, Minserk Cheong, Je Seung Lee, Hoon Sik Kim
      The carboxylation of diamines to cyclic ureas by CO2 in the presence of an alkali metal carbonate or alkali metal bicarbonate exhibits a typical autocatalysis behavior, in which the rates of corresponding cyclic urea formations increase with time as in a S-shaped curves. The activity of the alkali metal carbonate was greatly enhanced when ethylene urea was co-present. Computational calculation results on the carboxylation of ethylenediamine in the co-presence of KHCO3 and ethylene urea suggest that ethylene urea of keto form could tautomerize into enol form with the aid of KHCO3 at least to a certain extent, thereby playing a role as a proton donor. With such transformation and the consequent favorable hydrogen bonding interaction with KHCO3, the proton accepting and donating abilities of KHCO3 can be enhanced and, as a result, the carboxylation is accelerated.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.079
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Visible-light-enhanced photothermocatalytic activity of ABO3-type
           perovskites for the decontamination of gaseous styrene
    • Authors: Jiangyao Chen; Zhigui He; Guiying Li; Taicheng An; Huixian Shi; Yuanzhi Li
      Pages: 146 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jiangyao Chen, Zhigui He, Guiying Li, Taicheng An, Huixian Shi, Yuanzhi Li
      ABO3-type perovskites (A=La, Ce, Sm; B=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) were systematically fabricated via a facile soft-templated sol-gel with post-calcination method through a complexation-carbonation-oxidation process, which were successfully applied in the visible-light-driven photothermocatalytic degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the first time. Preliminary characterization results revealed the lower impact to the oxidative performance and visible-light-absorption properties of ANiO3 than LaBO3, while the latter ones should present more attractive promotion of catalytic performance toward VOC degradation. Subsequently catalytic degradation of VOCs using gaseous styrene as model compound confirmed that all LaBO3-type perovskites possessed both high visible-light-driven photocatalytic and temperature-induced thermocatalytic activities. Meanwhile, synergetic effect between photocatalysis and thermocatalysis activities of different position B substituted LaBO3 resulted in different enhancement of their photothermocatalytic activities, where the highest synergistic factor (3.53) was obtained for LaMnO3 at 140°C. Besides, the synergetic effect could also effectively preserve the activity of the perovskite catalysts (eg. LaMnO3) that almost the same removal efficiency (ca. 96.6% within 40min) was obtained to styrene (initial concentration of 40ppmv) after five continuous cycling tests. The highly and stably photothermocatalytic activity of these perovskites were attributed to the coefficient effect of the small crystal size and narrower bandgap as well as high visible light absorption and reducibility. This work could provide an efficient and practical way to utilize the total energy of sun for the remediation of atmospheric environment pollutions.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.066
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Sulfurated [NiFe]-based layered double hydroxides nanoparticles as
           efficient co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution using
           CdTe/CdS quantum dots
    • Authors: Dongting Yue; Xufang Qian; Miao Kan; Meng Ren; Yao Zhu; Lele Jiang; Yixin Zhao
      Pages: 155 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Dongting Yue, Xufang Qian, Miao Kan, Meng Ren, Yao Zhu, Lele Jiang, Yixin Zhao
      Binary transition metals layered double hydroxides (LDH) such as [NiFe] have been developed as the promising low cost and high performance electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution. However their applications as co-catalysts in photocatalysis like CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) for hydrogen evolution are limited by their ineffective contact with QDs nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis of the sulfurated [NiFe]-LDH (FeNiS) nanoparticles via the sulfurizing treatment of [NiFe]-based LDH. The sulfurizing treatment can successfully break the 2D [NiFe]-LDH into FeNiS nanoparticles by replacing the OH group via the S group. FeNiS nanoparticles provide more bonding sites for CdTe/CdS QDs due to the sulfur species formed on the FeNiS nanoparticles. The junction between sulfur species and Cd2+ of CdTe/CdS QDs could facilitate electrons transfer between CdTe/CdS QDs and FeNiS nanoparticles and then significantly enhance their photocatalytic hydrogen production. The photocatalytic activity of FeNiS-CdTe/CdS is much better than [NiFe]-CdTe/CdS QDs and Pt-CdTe/CdS QDs. In all, this novel FeNiS nanoparticles would be a promising low cost co-catalyst for energy and environmental photocatalysis.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.075
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Photocatalysts fabricated by depositing plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on
           carbon quantum dots/graphitic carbon nitride for broad spectrum
           photocatalytic hydrogen generation
    • Authors: Jiayi Qin; Heping Zeng
      Pages: 161 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jiayi Qin, Heping Zeng
      To make the best and highest use of broad spectrum solar energy remains a tremendous challenge and the main target in the photocatalytic area. A novel promising photocatalyst supported on surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and upconversion photoluminescence property from carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is reported to improve broad spectrum absorption and photoinduced charge transfer of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) in the photo-driven H2 production for the first time. Here the new-styled nanocomposites not only have more prominent UV–vis photocatalytic ability, also can harness near-infrared light to trigger hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution. Meanwhile, Ag NPs and CQDs serve as electron-reservoirs, which stimulate the separation of photo-generated electron-holes, enhancing quantum efficiency of g-C3N4. Remarkably, the most notable photocatalytic hydrogen generation as high as 626.93μmolg−1 h−1 under visible light, which is about 6.7 and 2.8 times higher than pure g-C3N4 and the best CQDs/g-C3N4 composite respectively, was achieved upon 6mL CQDs/g-C3N4 (6CCN) loaded with 3wt% Ag. Moreover, a facile method is designed to prepare Ag/CQDs/g-C3N4 photocatalysts, and their chemical composition, morphologies, optical properties and stability were characterized methodically.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Removal kinetics of stearic acid discrete deposits on photocatalytic
           self-cleaning surfaces: Effect of deposit initial size distribution
    • Authors: David Ollis
      Pages: 174 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): David Ollis
      Earlier reports by Sawunyama et al. (1997, 1999) and Ghazzal et al. (2011) used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy to characterize the structure of stearic acid (SA) deposits on polycrystalline TiO2 films and Ti [110] crystal surfaces. Their preparation methods and catalysts yielded island-like SA deposits, rather than continuous films, for stearic acid submonolayers and multi-layers. Ghazzal observed that individual islands showed disappearance kinetics to be zero order with respect to island area, but apparently first order with respect to total SA remaining. We develop here kinetic models which are consistent with these “island” findings and establish the guidelines for apparent kinetic order of reaction, n: 1. Island deposits of a single size will exhibit apparent zero order kinetics., n=0. 2. Island deposits with a narrow distribution of island sizes will exhibit an apparent half order behavior, n=0.5. 3. Island deposits with a broad size distribution will exhibit an apparent reaction order of unity, n=1. Our conclusion is that meaningful kinetic analysis of SA island photocatalyzed disappearance, and thus that of any oxidizable, carbonaceous pollutant which deposits in island form, rather than as a continuous film, requires knowledge of the initial island size distribution. The SA deposits may also undergo significant rearrangement as the titania surface is illuminated, quickly transforming the latter from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Thus it is the reactant film and/or island distribution after initiation of illumination which is most relevant to kinetic modeling attempts.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Light assisted CO2 reduction with methane over group VIII metals:
           Universality of metal localized surface plasmon resonance in reactant
    • Authors: Huimin Liu; Thang Duy Dao; Lequan Liu; Xianguang Meng; Tadaaki Nagao; Jinhua Ye
      Pages: 183 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Huimin Liu, Thang Duy Dao, Lequan Liu, Xianguang Meng, Tadaaki Nagao, Jinhua Ye
      Photo-catalytically reducing the greenhouse gas CO2 into valuable compounds is beneficial for environmental protection. In this study, a recently developed novel CO2 photoreduction approach, light assisted thermal-driven CO2 reforming with CH4 into syngas (DRM), is adopted as the target reaction, with group VIII metals, especially Ni/Al2O3, as the probe catalysts. With light introduction, the activities of Ni/Al2O3 nearly linearly increased and the increments were in highly correspondence to the intensity of the electromagnetic field induced by two adjacent Ni particles, together with the wavelength-dependent performances over 10Ni/Al2O3, it indicated it was Ni localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that improved the performances. The LSPR enhanced catalytic performance could also be observed over other group VIII metals, such as Rh- and Fe- based catalysts, and the universality of reactant activation by metal LSPR could be expected. This study firstly revealed that not merely limited to IB metals, group VIII metals could also be adopted as plasmonic promoters and enhance the activity of a catalyst with light irradiation.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.080
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Ce promoted V2O5 catalyst in oxidation of SO2 reaction
    • Authors: Mohammad Mazidi; Reza Mosayebi Behbahani; Ali Fazeli
      Pages: 190 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Mohammad Mazidi, Reza Mosayebi Behbahani, Ali Fazeli
      Harmful environmental effects of SO2 on the start-up of the sulfuric acid plant process motivated studying ceria as a promoter for V2O5 catalyst that is employed in SO2 oxidation. Effects of SO2(%), ceria percentage, temperature and O2/SO2 were investigated to optimize ceria loading on V2O5 catalyst. To determine the main and interaction effects, a full factorial design of experiments including 315 experiments was used. The results showed that the catalyst with 7wt.% ceria (VaCe7) possessed the highest catalytic performance. To study the effect of more parameters on this catalyst, other 135 post-experiments with full factorial designs were performed after the optimization of Ce contents. The results revealed that mean SO2 conversion increased with increasing SO2 (%) and O2/SO2 ratio, and decreasing GHSV. Also, the maximum mean conversion was found at the reaction temperature of 450°C by the trade-off of kinetic and thermodynamic factors of the reversible exothermic reaction. VaCe7 was found to have more catalyst activities than that the without-ceria (VaCe0) case. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XPS, BET, FTIR, SEM, XRD and ICP. The SEM mapping revealed that the cerium oxide had better distribution on VaCe7 than VaCe9&11. FTIR, XRD and XPS showed the presence of CeVO4 in the Ce-promoted catalyst and confirmed that ceria promotes V2O5 by the formation of CeVO4 network, reduces the activation energy of reduction-oxidation and increases the rate of SO2 oxidation reaction. The stability tests demonstrated good catalytic performance stability of the synthesized catalyst up to 50h in the reaction. Results at the initial times of the stability tests showed that the catalyst with ceria promoter (VaCe7) had higher activity than VaCe0 at the start-up time. Also, VaCe7 had higher activity at the start-up than the its normal conditions, which could be related to the good oxygen storage capacity of ceria because the catalyst at the start up is faced to the oxygen of air. This high startup activity caused to use it in starting up of sulfuric acid plants that decreases SO2 emission to the environment.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 nanotube composites for formic acid
    • Authors: M. Hamandi; G. Berhault; C. Guillard; H. Kochkar
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): M. Hamandi, G. Berhault, C. Guillard, H. Kochkar
      The influence on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanotubes (NT) resulting from the addition of graphene oxide (GO) was studied. TiO2 nanotubes (NT) were prepared using alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 P25 followed by calcination at 400°C under air. GO-NT composites were then obtained by wet impregnation of the as-prepared TiO2 nanotubes onto graphene oxide before reduction under H2 at 200°C. In a first step, the influence of the reduction treatment was evaluated on GO alone to determine its role towards the nature of the oxygen-containing functional groups present. GO-NT composites were also characterized considering both the effect of the reduction treatment and of the GO weight loading on textural, structural, electronic, and optical properties of TiO2 nanotubes. The resulting GO-NT composites were finally evaluated for the photocatalytic degradation of formic acid and compared to TiO2 nanotubes alone and to P25. Results emphasize a strong increase of the electron affinity and conductivity of the GO-NT composites if graphene oxide is reduced at 200°C. These enhanced properties lead to an easier separation of photogenerated charges and to a limitation of the recombination of electron-hole pairs. A dramatic gain in photocatalytic response is observed. Maximum in photocatalytic efficiency is reached at a GO loading of 1.0wt% while further increase of GO weight loading blocks light penetration and depletes the photocatalytic response.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.062
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Cu@LaNiO3 based nanocomposites in TWC applications
    • Authors: G. Perin; J. Fabro; M. Guiotto; Q. Xin; M.M. Natile; P. Cool; P. Canu; A. Glisenti
      Pages: 214 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): G. Perin, J. Fabro, M. Guiotto, Q. Xin, M.M. Natile, P. Cool, P. Canu, A. Glisenti
      Several nanocomposites of the type CuO/LaNiO3 (Cu@LaNiO3) have been developed for application as noble metal free catalysts in TWC. The nanocomposites have been obtained by depositing copper oxide on lanthanum nickelate. The supporting perovskite has been prepared by means of the citrate route; copper, in contrast, was deposited by means of an innovative procedure: ammonia driven deposition precipitation method (ADP) optimized for deposition on perovskites. The nanocomposites have been developed based on the catalytic activity of LaNiO3 in oxidation and reforming reactions and of copper in reduction reactions. Nanocomposition is thus used to deposit a highly dispersed active specie (CuO) on an active support (LaNiO3) with the aim of building catalytic functionality. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by means of XRD, XPS, SEM, TPR, BET, EDX, and ICP and the obtained results are correlated to the amount of copper deposited and to the reactivity. The reactivity was studied first in two model reactions, CO oxidation and CO assisted NO reduction, in order to investigate the role played by the different species. Moreover, the reactivity under real conditions, i.e. with a complex mixture reflecting the actual automotive exhaust composition, was considered to evaluate the real applicability. Finally, high-temperature deactivation was investigated. XPS reveals that the deposition of copper oxide affects the surface composition of the nanocomposites; the XRD, SEM, and TPR results confirm that CuO is deposited on the LaNiO3 surface and no diffusion below surface is observed. CuO species are deposited both as highly dispersed phase and as bigger particles; the relative amount of these phases depends on the total amount of copper deposited. The reactivity in the CO oxidation reaction is not significantly affected by the copper deposition. In contrast the reactivity in NO reduction is strongly enhanced by the presence of highly dispersed copper species. Activity tests with mixture reflecting actual automotive exhaust, reveal an enhancement in CO oxidation, but no NO decomposition at stoichiometric conditions. Complete NO reduction is achieved at rich conditions; also, hydrocarbons reforming reactions typically occurring at substoichiometric O2, with CO and H2 production, are less supported, preserving the activity in NO reduction. Finally, the high-temperature aging test confirmed an interesting stability of catalytic activity.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.064
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • AuPd/3DOM-TiO2 catalysts for photocatalytic reduction of CO2: High
           efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers
    • Authors: Jinqing Jiao; Yuechang Wei; Yilong Zhao; Zhen Zhao; Aijun Duan; Jian Liu; Youyong Pang; Jianmei Li; Guiyuan Jiang; Yajun Wang
      Pages: 228 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jinqing Jiao, Yuechang Wei, Yilong Zhao, Zhen Zhao, Aijun Duan, Jian Liu, Youyong Pang, Jianmei Li, Guiyuan Jiang, Yajun Wang
      The photocatalytic conversion of CO2 and H2O into value-added chemicals using sunlight is significant to solve energy crisis and environmental problems. In this work, a series of novel bifunctional catalysts of core-shell structured AuPd nanoparticles decorated 3DOM TiO2 (AuPd/3DOM-TiO2) w were successfully fabricated via a facile one-pot method of gas bubbling-assisted membrane reduction (GBMR). AuPd/3DOM-TiO2 catalysts show uniform 3D ordered macroporous structure, and the slow photon effect of 3DOM-TiO2 as a photonic crystal can enhance light-harvesting efficiency. AuPd nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the surface of 3DOM-TiO2 carrier. Since bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles with the relatively low Fermi level have good capacity of trapping electron, they can efficiently promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in TiO2. The AuPd/3DOM-TiO2 catalysts exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction with H2O to CH4 under light irradiation. Among the studied catalysts, Au3Pd1/3DOM-TiO2 catalyst exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity and selectivity for CO2 reduction, e.g., its formation rate of CH4 is 18.5μmolg−1 h−1 and its selectivity to CH4 production by CO2 reduction is 93.9%. The possible mechanism of AuPd/3DOM-TiO2 catalysts for photocatalytic CO2 reduction is also proposed, and it would guide further design and synthesis of high efficient photocatalysts for CO2 reduction with H2O.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.076
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Selective hydrogenation of CO2 into CO on a highly dispersed nickel
           catalyst obtained by magnetron sputtering deposition: A step towards
           liquid fuels
    • Authors: Renato V. Gonçalves; Lucas L.R. Vono; Robert Wojcieszak; Carlos S.B. Dias; Heberton Wender; Erico Teixeira-Neto; Liane M. Rossi
      Pages: 240 - 246
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Renato V. Gonçalves, Lucas L.R. Vono, Robert Wojcieszak, Carlos S.B. Dias, Heberton Wender, Erico Teixeira-Neto, Liane M. Rossi
      The transformation of CO2 into CO through the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction is very sensitive to the metal particle size and metal-support interactions. Indeed, large metallic particles or aggregates tend to produce more methane than CO. In this context, magnetron sputtering deposition was explored here for the preparation of highly dispersed nickel catalyst supported on silica. The Ni catalyst prepared for 30min of sputtering time contains 2.4wt% of Ni, small metal particles size (2.3nm) and controlled composition (77% Ni, 23% Ni oxides). In-situ XANES under RWGS reaction conditions indicates reduction of nickel in the temperature range from 250 to 500°C. The conversion of CO2 into CO through the RWGS reaction was close to the thermodynamic equilibrium values for 1:1 and 1:4 (CO2:H2) gas composition at temperature as high as 800°C. CO was produced continuously for 40h at 660°C without significant drop of activity. The overall catalytic performance was superior to that of a classical catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, as evidenced by the higher activity at T>600°C and stability for a long time on stream.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.081
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Water-soluble inorganic photocatalyst for overall water splitting
    • Authors: Yu Hang Li; Yun Wang; Li Rong Zheng; Hui Jun Zhao; Hua Gui Yang; Chunzhong Li
      Pages: 247 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Yu Hang Li, Yun Wang, Li Rong Zheng, Hui Jun Zhao, Hua Gui Yang, Chunzhong Li
      In the past 45 years, the search for semiconductors as active photocatalysts for overall water splitting has focused on insoluble materials and their hybrids. An important question is whether soluble semiconductors have the capacity for photocatalysis or similar applications. The dissolved semiconductors will lose the energy band structures for light absorption; however, the undissolved part in saturated solution can still generate electrons and holes under illumination. Unfortunately, this possibility has never been realized. Here we clearly demonstrate the use of a water-soluble sodium molybdate salt as an effective photocatalyst. The material can photocatalyze simultaneously the oxidation and reduction of water under band-gap irradiation. We anticipate that, as a large and traditional class of chemical compounds, the soluble semiconductors may have great potential to be applied in numerous important applications such as catalysis, photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and artificial photosynthesis.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Carbon nanodots/WO3 nanorods Z-scheme composites: Remarkably enhanced
           photocatalytic performance under broad spectrum
    • Authors: Jun Zhang; Yue Ma; Yilin Du; Huizhong Jiang; Dandan Zhou; Shuangshi Dong
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jun Zhang, Yue Ma, Yilin Du, Huizhong Jiang, Dandan Zhou, Shuangshi Dong
      The search for low-cost, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly photocatalysts that can efficiently function over the entire UV–vis–NIR spectrum remains one of the most pressing challenges in the photocatalytic elimination of pollutants from water. Herein, we accurately designed and fabricated a direct Z-scheme carbon nanodots/WO3 nanorods composite (CDots/WO3) with highly enhanced photo-response and broad-spectrum photocatalytic activity. Under ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared (UV, Vis, NIR) irradiation, respectively, the removal efficiencies of rhodamine B (RhB) always decreased in the order CDots/WO3 (97.1, 99.1, 61.2%)>prepared WO3 nanorods (66.6, 69.1, 22.4%)>commercial WO3 nanoparticles (22.1, 11.6, ∼0%). Additionally, reaction rate constants of 0.4030 and 0.2889h−1 were achieved by the CDots/WO3 nanocomposites when photo-oxidizing tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and phenol, respectively, both of which were ∼2.9 times higher than those for WO3 nanorods. This excellent photocatalytic performance was ascribed to synergistic effects, including the highly dispersed carbon nanodots on the surface of the WO3 nanorods and efficient charge separation induced by the heterostructure formed between carbon nanodots and WO3 nanorods. Accordingly, a mechanism was proposed to account for the photocatalytic reaction process. The prepared catalyst showed no obvious change in its photocatalytic performance or other chemical properties after 5 cycles of use. Therefore, the carbon nanodots/WO3 nanocomposites may represent a new strategy for the full-spectrum utilization of solar light, providing an invaluable methodology for the remediation of current water-pollution issues.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Reactivity of lignin model compounds through hydrogen transfer catalysis
           in ethanol/water mixtures
    • Authors: Xavier Besse; Yves Schuurman; Nolven Guilhaume
      Pages: 265 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Xavier Besse, Yves Schuurman, Nolven Guilhaume
      The conversion of lignin into useful bio-based chemicals and fuels requires a fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanisms involved in the cleavage of the specific chemical bonds that constitute its polymeric structure. The catalytic conversion of eight lignin model compounds emulating various CO and CC bond of lignin was explored in a batch reactor with a Pt/C catalyst in ethanol/water mixtures, using ethanol as both H-donor and solvent. The order of reactivity for hydrogenolysis of CO model bonds was found: βO4>αO4>>4O5, the 4O5 bond exhibiting a very low reactivity. Phenolic hydroxyl and methoxyl groups were unreactive, whereas aliphatic hydroxyl groups could be eliminated by dehydration, leading to an overall partial deoxygenation. α-1 model CC bonds were also cleaved by hydrogenolysis, but β-1 model CC bonds were not. The cleavage of CO and CC bonds obtained by H-transfer catalysis in water-ethanol mixtures was very selective, intermediate products were sometimes detected before full reaction completion but no decomposition or degradation products.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Electron trapping energy states of TiO2–WO3 composites and their
           influence on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A
    • Authors: Gregor Žerjav; Muhammad Shahid Arshad; Petar Djinović; Janez Zavašnik; Albin Pintar
      Pages: 273 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Gregor Žerjav, Muhammad Shahid Arshad, Petar Djinović, Janez Zavašnik, Albin Pintar
      Impregnation method was used to synthesize TiO2–WO3 composites with two different TiO2 morphologies (nanorods (R-TiO2–WO3) and polyhedral nanoparticles (P-TiO2–WO3)). Their structural, morphological, surface properties and electron trapping states were analyzed and correlated to performance in photocatalytic bisphenol A oxidation. TiO2 nanorods were prepared with alkaline hydrothermal digestion of commercially available high surface TiO2 nanopowder (DT-51), which was used as a reference for TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM analysis showed that in R-TiO2–WO3 composites WO3 is dispersed over the surface of TiO2 nanorods in amorphous form and with increasing amount of WO3 the TiO2 crystal structure deteriorates. However, in the case of P-TiO2–WO3 composite, multiphase system with monoclinic WO3 intermixed with anatase TiO2 was observed. Moreover, P-TiO2–WO3 composite showed strong surface acidic sites, which were absent in R-TiO2–WO3 composites; this information is significant to understand the depth of the electron trapping states. UV light-induced electron–hole pair excitations and decay dynamics in both TiO2–WO3 composites were studied by infrared spectroscopy measurements and information about the conduction band (CB) electrons and surface trapping states of the composites were collected. In the case of composites with high density of shallow trapping states, enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed. On the contrary, lower photocatalytic activity of solids was observed in cases where deep trapping (TiO2 nanoparticles) or fast recombination (R-TiO2–WO3 composite) prevailed.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.059
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Atomic scale g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 2D/2D heterojunction with enhanced
           photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen under visible light irradiation
    • Authors: Jiajia Wang; Lin Tang; Guangming Zeng; Yaocheng Deng; Yani Liu; Longlu Wang; Yaoyu Zhou; Zhi Guo; Jingjing Wang; Chen Zhang
      Pages: 285 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jiajia Wang, Lin Tang, Guangming Zeng, Yaocheng Deng, Yani Liu, Longlu Wang, Yaoyu Zhou, Zhi Guo, Jingjing Wang, Chen Zhang
      Although photocatalytic degradation is an ideal strategy for cleaning environmental pollution, it remains challenging to construct a highly efficient photocatalytic system by steering the charge flow in a precise manner. In this study, a novel atomic scale g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 heterojunction (UTCB) constructed by ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets (ug-CN) and monolayer Bi2WO6 nanosheets (m-BWO) was successfully prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The UTCB heterojunctions were characterized by various techniques including XRD, TEM, AFM, BET measurements, UV–vis spectrometry, and XPS. The results indicated that UTCB heterojunctions were assembly of m-BWO on ug-CN and presented high separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum molar ratio of ug-CN/m-BWO (1:4, UTCB-25) reached almost 96.1% removal efficiency of IBF within 1h, which was about 2.7 times as that of pure m-BWO. The photocatalytic mechanisms of UTCB-25 were revealed, suggesting that the synergistic effect of UTCB-25 heterojunction with strong interfacial interaction promoted the photoinduced charge separation. According to the LC–MS/MS, five photodegradation pathways of IBF under visible light irradiation were proposed. This study could open new opportunities for the rational design and a better understanding of atomic scale two dimensions/two dimensions (2D/2D) heterojunctions in environmental or other applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Ceria-supported small Pt and Pt3Sn nanoparticles for NOx-assisted soot
    • Authors: Tahrizi Andana; Marco Piumetti; Samir Bensaid; Laurent Veyre; Chloé Thieuleux; Nunzio Russo; Debora Fino; Elsje Alessandra Quadrelli; Raffaele Pirone
      Pages: 295 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Tahrizi Andana, Marco Piumetti, Samir Bensaid, Laurent Veyre, Chloé Thieuleux, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino, Elsje Alessandra Quadrelli, Raffaele Pirone
      Introduced herein are small Pt and Pt3Sn nanoparticles, stabilized with organosilane or organostannane and impregnated on ceria support, as active sites for NOx-assisted soot oxidation reaction. The catalysts have been tested with four reactions: CO oxidation, NO oxidation, NOx-free soot oxidation and finally NOx-assisted soot oxidation. Our Pt nanoparticles reportedly possess remarkable catalytic activities in CO oxidation, as they actively convert CO at 50°C, while the alloy Pt3Sn nanoparticles are active at higher temperature. The Pt nanoparticles also mediate more actively NO oxidation than their alloy counterpart, leading to more NO2 production beneficial for soot oxidation. The influence of Pt and Pt3Sn active sites on the catalytic activity during NOx-free soot oxidation becomes less prominent than the morphology, due to the high dependency of the reaction on catalyst structure. The presence of Sn, nevertheless, induces lower oxidation reaction temperature. Finally, in the presence of NOx, the metal active sites undoubtedly boost the catalytic activity of soot oxidation. Pt/CeO2-NC (NC stands for “nanocubes”), reported herein as our most achieving catalyst, demonstrates a remarkable activity, lowering the oxidation temperature at about 80°C, thanks to the synergy of the active metal nanoparticles and reactive ceria nanocubes. Surprisingly, the catalytic activity of the alloy counterpart (Pt3Sn/CeO2-NC) is close to Pt/CeO2-NC, indicating the potential of the catalyst as an alternative to reducing the employment of precious metal in automotive catalysis. The thermally aged Pt catalysts have demonstrated good resistance to sintering, thanks to the outer protection by silica patches. However, the catalytic activities of the aged Pt3Sn catalysts rely heavily on support morphology.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • In situ synthesis of carbon-doped TiO2 single-crystal nanorods with a
           remarkably photocatalytic efficiency
    • Authors: Jian Shao; Weichen Sheng; Mingsong Wang; Songjun Li; Juanrong Chen; Ying Zhang; Shunsheng Cao
      Pages: 311 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jian Shao, Weichen Sheng, Mingsong Wang, Songjun Li, Juanrong Chen, Ying Zhang, Shunsheng Cao
      Incorporating dopants into the TiO2 single crystals lattice is a big challenge because single crystal has a high crystallinity and the nucleation and growth of TiO2 single crystals is readily subjected to the interference of the dose of dopant precursors. Here, we propose an in situ synthetic strategy for the construct of carbon-doped TiO2 single crystal nanorods using CPS/TiO2 as the precursors of TiO2 nanorods and carbon source via a facile hydrothermal route. This technique involves the preparation of cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of TiO2 precursor, hydrothermal reaction, and the pyrolysis of CPS in a N2 atmosphere at 450°C. The morphology and structure of as-prepared C-TiO2 single crystal nanorods were characterized by TEM, SEM, STEM Mapping, XRD, UV–vis spectroscopy, and XPS. All results confirm the carbon doping in the as-prepared TiO2 single crystal nanorods. As a result of unique microstructure, the resulting TiO2 exhibits remarkably visible-light photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of organic pollutants including methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB) and p-nitrophenol (PNP). Therefore, the current study provides a new insight for incorporating dopants into the TiO2 single crystals lattice.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Photogenerated electron modulation to dominantly induce efficient
           2,4-dichlorophenol degradation on BiOBr nanoplates with different
           phosphate modification
    • Authors: Shuangying Chen; Rui Yan; Xuliang Zhang; Kang Hu; Zhijun Li; Muhammad Humayun; Yang Qu; Liqiang Jing
      Pages: 320 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Shuangying Chen, Rui Yan, Xuliang Zhang, Kang Hu, Zhijun Li, Muhammad Humayun, Yang Qu, Liqiang Jing
      It is highly desired to modulate the photogenerated electrons for efficient photocatalysis on BiOBr to degrade pollutants. Herein, BiOBr nanoplates have been successfully modified respectively by the molecular hydrogen phosphate groups and the bismuth phosphate nanoparticles. It is clearly demonstrated mainly based on the steady-state- and transient-state- surface photovoltage responses that the two modified phosphates with proper amounts could greatly increase the separation and the lifetime of photogenerated charges, especially for the bismuth phosphate one, leading to the obviously improved photocatalytic activities for degrading pollutants, like 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Interestingly, it is confirmed that the enhanced charge separation is attributed to the photogenerated electron modulation, respectively by the modified hydrogen phosphate to enhance the adsorption of O2 so as to promote the electrons captured and by the modified bismuth phosphate to collect the excited high-energy-level electrons. Moreover, it is expectedly demonstrated by means of the radical-trapping experiments that the formed O2 − species as the electron-modulated direct products could dominate the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP. Furthermore, the possible degradation mechanism related to O2 − attack is proposed through the detected main intermediates, like parachlorophenol superoxide radical, and mineralized chloride.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • In situ self-assembled synthesis of Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41 with excellent
           activities of adsorption-photocatalysis
    • Authors: Yuan Guan; Shaomang Wang; Xin Wang; Cheng Sun; Yan Huang; Cheng Liu; Hongyun Zhao
      Pages: 329 - 338
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Yuan Guan, Shaomang Wang, Xin Wang, Cheng Sun, Yan Huang, Cheng Liu, Hongyun Zhao
      A novel material of Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41 with dual functions of adsorption-photocatalysis was synthesized by installing Ag-AgBr on the Al-MCM-41 from natural palygorskite using in situ self-assembled method. The activities of adsorption-photocatalysis of 50% Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41 were significantly higher than those of Ag-AgBr, 50% Ag-AgBr/Pal and 50% Ag-AgBr/MCM-41. After adsorption for 30min and light irradiation for 210min, the removal rate of 100mL of 50mgL−1 basic fuchsin (crystal violet, aniline) over 50% Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41 (50mg) was about 98% (99%, 90%). The Al-MCM-41 from natural palygorskite not only provided large specific surface area, but also uniformly anchored Ag-AgBr due to the in situ self-assembled approach. This greatly enhanced performances of adsorption-photocatalysis of 50% Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41. In addition, SPR effect of Ag broadened light absorption range of 50% Ag-AgBr/Al-MCM-41 and favored separation of carriers, which drastically improved its photocatalytic activity.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.01.082
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • A hybrid catalyst for decontamination of organic pollutants based on a
           bifunctional dicopper(II) complex anchored over niobium oxyhydroxide
    • Authors: Tamyris T. da Cunha; Talita E. de Souza; Walace D. do Pim; Leandro D. de Almeida; Gustavo M. do Nascimento; Enrique García-España; Mario Inclán; Miguel Julve; Humberto O. Stumpf; Luiz C.A. Oliveira; Cynthia L.M. Pereira
      Pages: 339 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Tamyris T. da Cunha, Talita E. de Souza, Walace D. do Pim, Leandro D. de Almeida, Gustavo M. do Nascimento, Enrique García-España, Mario Inclán, Miguel Julve, Humberto O. Stumpf, Luiz C.A. Oliveira, Cynthia L.M. Pereira
      This article describes the preparation and characterization of a hybrid oxidation catalyst for decontamination of organic pollutants which involves a bifunctional dicopper(II) complex and the niobium(V) oxyhydroxide as the active species, the later one being also a solid support. The pH range for the existence of the active species was determined by potentiometric and UV–vis spectroscopy at 25°C and 0.15M NaCl in a H2O/EtOH (70:30 v/v) solvent mixture containing copper(II) and the ligand N,Ń-2,2′-ethylenediphenylenebis(oxamic acid) (H4L). As far as the hybrid material is concerned, FTIR, FT-Raman, TEM and SEM images, surface area and TG/DTA analyses showed the occurrence of a chemical interaction between the dicopper(II) complex and the surface hydroxo groups of the niobium oxyhydroxide whereas ESI–MS and UV–vis spectroscopy evidence a total disappearance of the signals due to the organic dye which is used as model molecule. This hybrid material seems to combine the different properties of the components increasing its catalytic activity for oxidizing organic pollutants at different pH values.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.01.086
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Catalytic steam reforming of the aqueous fraction of bio-oil using
           Ni-Ce/Mg-Al catalysts
    • Authors: F. Bimbela; J. Ábrego; R. Puerta; L. García; J. Arauzo
      Pages: 346 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): F. Bimbela, J. Ábrego, R. Puerta, L. García, J. Arauzo
      The performance of different Ni/Mg-Al catalysts modified with Ce was evaluated in the catalytic steam reforming of aqueous fractions of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis. The effects of several preparation methods for incorporating Ce as a modifier (co-precipitation, impregnation and direct thermal decomposition of the salt precursors), the Ce content (0–5wt.%) and the feed streams (three different aqueous fractions from bio-oil) on the catalyst performance were examined, and it was found that the stability and activity of the catalysts were significantly influenced by all these factors. In general, the addition of Ce to a reference Ni/Mg-Al catalyst improved the overall carbon conversion to gas and the yield to H2 as well as enhancing the catalyst stability in the steam reforming of aqueous fractions of bio-oils. The best preparation method was impregnation and the optimal Ce content was found to be 0.5wt.%. Much higher initial carbon conversion to gas and initial H2 yields was obtained using bio-oils derived from pine than those derived from poplar. A very low coke formation, 103mgC/(g of catalyst·g of organics in the aqueous fraction reacted), was achieved using the optimized catalyst, 0.5wt.% Ce prepared by impregnation.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Homogeneous photo-Fenton processes at near neutral pH: A review
    • Authors: L. Clarizia; D. Russo; I. Di Somma; R. Marotta; R. Andreozzi
      Pages: 358 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): L. Clarizia, D. Russo, I. Di Somma, R. Marotta, R. Andreozzi
      The occurrence of new emerging contaminants in surface waters has recently grabbed increased attention of the scientific community. The adoption of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) represents an efficient strategy to remove recalcitrant compounds from aqueous streams and achieve high mineralization levels. Amongst AOPs, the photo-Fenton process has been widely investigated due to the possibility of using a renewable energy source (i.e., solar energy) and low concentration of catalyst. On the other hand, the use of photo-Fenton process is restricted to acidic pH values, with associate high operating costs for industrial scale applications. To overcome these drawbacks, photo-Fenton processes modified by adding selected chelating agents can be successfully performed at neutral pH. The present review aims at examining and comparing the most relevant papers dealing with photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH that appeared in the literature so far. Such papers were classified by chelating species adopted. In particular, for each iron(III)-ligand complex, the mechanism of photolysis, the speciation diagram, the light absorption properties, the quantum yields, biodegradation and toxicity, and some example of applications are reported. As a conclusion, suitable criteria for choosing chelating agent and operating conditions in photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH are proposed.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Solar STEP coal conversion: Fully solar-driven thermo- and electrochemical
           process for efficient transformation of coal to light fuel plus hydrogen
    • Authors: Lingyue Zhu; Yanji Zhu; Di Gu; Hongjun Wu; Baohui Wang
      Pages: 372 - 382
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Lingyue Zhu, Yanji Zhu, Di Gu, Hongjun Wu, Baohui Wang
      In this paper, the Solar Thermal Electrochemical Process (STEP) for coal conversion has been successfully introduced and developed for theoretical and experimental demonstration of efficient coal conversion to light fuel with perfectly coupling the solar thermo- and electrochemistry to lift the efficiency of solar utilization and lower endothermic reaction electrolysis potential. By adjusting two chemical processes powered by the solar thermal and electrical fields, the coal was efficiently and selectively converted to light fuel synergistically plus the hydrogen with the sole input of the solar energy and low emission of CO2. Just because the electricity is integrated into the thermolysis, it has found one way to combine the electrochemistry to the existing coal thermolysis technology so they work more efficiently with the easy selectivity of hydrocarbon fuel and O-containing compounds. The process, characterized with interaction of balancing and controlling the thermal and electrochemical components, provides lower potential and higher efficiency compared with the conventional coal thermolysis. The results show that the yields of the coal gasification and liquefaction were greatly improved with the coupling of thermolysis and electrolysis by reaching 38.5% and 48.8% at 360°C. The analytical data reveal that the products consist of abundant hydrogen, dominant hydrocarbons and rare O-containing compounds. The yield and selectivity were easily controlled by tuning the temperature and electrolysis current. Based on the results of the experimental analysis, the pathway and mechanism are proposed and explained for the STEP coal conversion process. Due to the combination of the solar thermo- and electrochemical process, this mechanism is shifted from the one reaction of the conventional thermolysis to the dual reaction involving electro-assisted thermolysis and thermo-assisted electrolysis. This study has important implications for the demonstrations of a novel approach of the efficient and energy-saving conversion of coal to light fuel driven by solar energy. The process has realized a transformation of low grade energy to high grade one by the proper utilization of solar energy and rational distribution of the heat and electricity to specific chemical reactions.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.067
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Bi2MoO6 co-modified by reduced graphene oxide and palladium (Pd2+ and Pd0)
           with enhanced photocatalytic decomposition of phenol
    • Authors: Xiangchao Meng; Zisheng Zhang
      Pages: 383 - 393
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Xiangchao Meng, Zisheng Zhang
      A ternary Bi2MoO6 photocatalyst composite was hybridized for the first time, with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles decorated on the surface. As-prepared composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the degradation of organic pollutants (phenol) in wastewater under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance when rGO and Pd nanoparticles combined with Bi2MoO6 may be attributed to the reduction of the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons/holes. Specifically, the rGO layer may serve as the electron accepter, which means photogenerated electrons can rapidly transfer to its surface instead of jumping back to the valence band and combining with positive holes. Additionally, the black-body property of graphite-like material contribute the increased harvesting capacity of visible-light photons. Furthermore, palladium nanoparticles distributed on the surface can also be stimulated by visible light photons due to the surface plasmon resonance effect, which further increased the utilization efficiency of visible light irradiation. This work opens a new possibility for efficient removal of phenolic compounds in wastewater via visible light-driven photocatalysis in the presence of a Pd-rGO- Bi2MoO6 ternary composite.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • P25@CoAl layered double hydroxide heterojunction nanocomposites for CO2
           photocatalytic reduction
    • Authors: Santosh Kumar; Mark A. Isaacs; Rima Trofimovaite; Lee Durndell; Christopher M.A. Parlett; Richard E. Douthwaite; Ben Coulson; Martin C.R. Cockett; Karen Wilson; Adam F. Lee
      Pages: 394 - 404
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Santosh Kumar, Mark A. Isaacs, Rima Trofimovaite, Lee Durndell, Christopher M.A. Parlett, Richard E. Douthwaite, Ben Coulson, Martin C.R. Cockett, Karen Wilson, Adam F. Lee
      Artificial photosynthesis driven by inorganic photocatalysts offers a promising route to renewable solar fuels, however efficient CO2 photoreduction remains a challenge. A family of hierarchical nanocomposites, comprising P25 nanoparticles encapsulated within microporous CoAl-layered double hydroxides (CoAl-LDHs) were prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. Heterojunction formation between the visible light absorbing CoAl-LDH and UV light absorbing P25 semiconductors extends utilisation of the solar spectrum, while the solid basicity of the CoAl-LDH increases CO2 availability at photocatalytic surfaces. Matching of the semiconductor band structures and strong donor–acceptor coupling improves photoinduced charge carrier separation and transfer via the heterojunction. Hierarchical P25@CoAl-LDH nanocomposites exhibit good activity and selectivity (>90%) for aqueous CO2 photoreduction to CO, without a sacrificial hole acceptor. This represents a facile and cost-effective strategy for the design and development of LDH-based nanomaterials for efficient photocatalysis for renewable solar fuel production from particularly CO2 and water.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Controlling the stability of a Fe–Ni reforming catalyst: Structural
           organization of the active components
    • Authors: Stavros Alexandros Theofanidis; Vladimir V. Galvita; Maarten Sabbe; Hilde Poelman; Christophe Detavernier; Guy B. Marin
      Pages: 405 - 416
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Stavros Alexandros Theofanidis, Vladimir V. Galvita, Maarten Sabbe, Hilde Poelman, Christophe Detavernier, Guy B. Marin
      Fe–Ni catalysts present high activity in dry reforming of methane, with high carbon resistance, but suffer from deactivation via sintering and Fe segregation. Enhanced control of the stability and activity of Fe–Ni/MgAl2O4 was achieved by means of Pd addition. The evolution of the catalyst structure during H2 Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) and CO2 Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) was investigated using time-resolved in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). During reduction of Fe–Ni–Pd supported on MgAl2O4, a core shell alloy forms at the surface, where Fe–Ni is in the core and Fe–Ni–Pd in the shell. A 0.2wt% Pd loading or Ni:Pd molar ratio as high as 75:1 showed the best performance in terms of both activity and stability of the catalyst at 1023K and total pressure of 101.3kPa. Experimental results and DFT calculations showed that Pd addition to bimetallic Fe–Ni reduces the tendency of Fe to segregate to the surface of the alloy particles under methane dry reforming (DRM) conditions, due to the formation of a thin Fe–Ni–Pd surface layer. The latter acts as a barrier for Fe segregation from the core. Segregation of Fe from the trimetallic shell still occurs, but to a lesser extent as the Fe concentration is lower. This Ni:Pd molar ratio is capable of controlling the carbon formation and hence ensure high catalyst activity of 24.8mmols−1 gmetals −1 after 21h time-on-stream.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • High photocatalytic hydrogen production on Cu(II) pre-grafted Pt/TiO2
    • Authors: Maria Vittoria Dozzi; Gian Luca Chiarello; Matteo Pedroni; Stefano Livraghi; Elio Giamello; Elena Selli
      Pages: 417 - 428
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Maria Vittoria Dozzi, Gian Luca Chiarello, Matteo Pedroni, Stefano Livraghi, Elio Giamello, Elena Selli
      A series of Pt/Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts, showing very high performance in photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol/water vapour mixtures, were prepared under mild conditions by Cu(II) grafting on commercial P25 TiO2, with nominal Cu/TiO2 ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.5wt.%, followed by 0.5wt.% Pt nanoparticles deposition by the deposition-precipitation method in the presence of urea. The structural features of the so obtained materials were fully characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which provided information on the oxidation state of the two metals and on the metal–metal and metal-TiO2 interactions, and by EPR analysis, which evidenced electron transfer phenomena involving copper under irradiation. The photocatalysts showed a volcano-shaped photoactivity trend in hydrogen production with increasing nominal Cu content, the maximum rate of H2 evolution (27.2mmolh−1 gcat −1) being attained with the photocatalyst containing 0.1wt.% of copper. In this sample CuO nanoclusters appear to be intimately coordinated with surface Ti atoms in a surface structure that partially stabilizes pre-grafted copper in metallic form, possibly acting as an electron-transfer bridge at the interface between CuO nanoclusters and TiO2. Synergistic effects in H2 photocatalytic production are clearly induced by the co-presence of grafted Cu nanoclusters and Pt nanoparticles on the TiO2 surface, with the copper oxidation state switching under UV–vis irradiation, facilitating electron transfer to adsorbed protons.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • The influence of wall temperature on NO2 removal and HONO levels released
           by indoor photocatalytic paints
    • Authors: Adrien Gandolfo; Louis Rouyer; Henri Wortham; Sasho Gligorovski
      Pages: 429 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Adrien Gandolfo, Louis Rouyer, Henri Wortham, Sasho Gligorovski
      Photocatalytic paints represent a promising remediation technology that has potential to be applied in mechanically ventilated buildings to improve indoor air quality. The photocatalytic paints are typically used to eliminate the gas-phase pollutants, like nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we demonstrate that indoor photocatalytic paints which contain TiO2 nanoparticles can substantially reduce the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at higher surface temperature of the indoor walls. We show that the efficiency of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) removal increases linearly with the temperature in the range 290–305K. The geometric uptake coefficients increase from 5.1×10−6 at 290K to 1.5×10−5 at 305K. In the temperature range between 305 and 313K the removal efficiency of NO2 remains the same with an average NO2 uptake coefficient of 1.4×10−5. On the other hand, during the reactions of NO2 with all the paints (0, 3.5, 5.25 and 7% of TiO2) a harmful indoor air pollutant, nitrous acid (HONO) is formed, in temperature range between 303K and 315K. A maximum HONO value of 6×1010 molecules cm−2 s−1 is released by a photocatalytic paint with 7% of TiO2 (temperature of the walls is 313K). A dynamic mass balance model applied to typical indoor environment predicts a steady state mixing ratio between 0 and 4.1ppb at 296K and between 2.6 and 10.3ppb at 305 released upon surface reaction of adsorbed NO2 with a photocatalytic paint (0, 3.5, 5.25 and 7% of TiO2) and considering the photolysis process as the most important loss of HONO. The temperature of the indoor walls is of crucial importance with respect to NO2 remediation, but at the same time has a strong impact on the formation of harmful intermediates like HONO, which is also a precursor of the OH radicals upon its photolysis. The photocatalytic paint (7% TiO2) may contribute up to 57% to the total OH production rate in indoor air, via photolysis of HONO that is released by the paint upon the irradiation, at wall temperature of 305K.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • The Synergistic Effect of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Reactions Exemplified
           by Concurrent Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) Degradation and Hydrogen
           Generation over Carbon and Nitrogen codoped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays
           (C-N-TNTAs) photoelectrode
    • Authors: Yen-Ping Peng; Hanlin Chen; C.P. Huang
      Pages: 437 - 446
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Yen-Ping Peng, Hanlin Chen, C.P. Huang
      We studied the synergistic effect of photoelectrochemical reactions exemplified by concurrent oxidization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and hydrogen generation over carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays (C-N-TNTAs) photoanode. The synthesized C-N-TNTAs were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and results confirmed the successful doping of carbon and nitrogen into the TNTAs framework without altering its crystalline structure. Mott–Schottky analysis yielded a donor density of 3.547×1018/cm3 and 1.159×1018/cm3 for TNTA and C-N-TNTA, respectively. The photogenerated electrons had a lifetime (τel) of 2.52, 4.01, and 6.34ms under biased potential of 0, 0.5, and 1.0V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively, indicating the increase in lifetime of phtogenerated electrons in photoelectrochemical (PEC) process. The synergetic effect was further quantified in terms of current/time profile at bias potential of 0V at 1.1mA and 1V at 3.1mA, individually. Results showed an increase in synergetic efficiency of 56 and 65% at a biased potential of 0.5 and 1.0V, respectively. PEC effectively separated the photogenerated electron–hole pairs and enhanced the oxidation and reduction capability of the system. PFOA removal reached 56.1% in 180min (initial concentration=40mg/L) over the C-N-TNTA photoanode in PEC mode. Results showed that perfluorooctanate, C7F15COO−, was first adsorbed on the C-N-TNTA anode surface followed by formation of C6F13COO− after losing CF2 units. Results of electron spin resonance (ESR) further confirmed that reactive species such as OH and CH3 were responsible for the decomposition of PFOA during PEC reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.02.084
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • 2D nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon: Key role of low
           dimensional structure in favoring electrocatalysis and mass transfer for
           oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Kai Wan; Ai-dong Tan; Zhi-peng Yu; Zhen-xing Liang; Jin-hua Piao; Panagiotis Tsiakaras
      Pages: 447 - 454
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Kai Wan, Ai-dong Tan, Zhi-peng Yu, Zhen-xing Liang, Jin-hua Piao, Panagiotis Tsiakaras
      An ultrathin (thickness 1.0nm) 2D nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon (2DNHPC) film is developed by the nanocasting method; for comparison, a 3D nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (3DNOMC) is also synthesized. Characterizations reveal that 2DNHPC is featured by an extremely high aspect ratio (several hundred) and a bimodal pore distribution. Such a 2D hierarchically porous structure is found to facilitate both the mass transfer of the reactive species and the utilization of active site in the electrode. First, 2DNHPC yields a larger limiting current than does 3DNOMC for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), revealing the key role of the low dimensional structure to facilitate the mass transfer. Second, at the loading of 500μgcm−2, 2DNHPC shows the same kinetic current with 3DNOMC, indicating that the two catalysts have the same active site and turnover frequency. In comparison, at a lower loading of 250μgcm−2, the kinetic current of 2DNHPC remains unchanged, which however seriously deteriorates for 3DNOMC. This result strongly highlights the effect of the carbon dimension on the utilization efficiency of the active site. Finally, it is noted that 2DNHPC yields a comparable ORR electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability with commercial Pt catalyst in both alkaline and acid media.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Innovative functionalization of Vulcan XC-72 with Ru organometallic
           complex: Significant enhancement in catalytic activity of Pt/C
           electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR)
    • Authors: A.A. Siller-Ceniceros; M.E. Sánchez-Castro; D. Morales-Acosta; J.R. Torres-Lubian; E. Martínez G.; F.J. Rodríguez-Varela
      Pages: 455 - 467
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): A.A. Siller-Ceniceros, M.E. Sánchez-Castro, D. Morales-Acosta, J.R. Torres-Lubian, E. Martínez G., F.J. Rodríguez-Varela
      In this work, a novel procedure to enhance the catalytic activity of Pt/C for the MOR by promoting surface Pt–Ru metal interactions is proposed. Vulcan is functionalized with home-prepared ruthenium (II) arene compound [(η6-C6H5OCH2CH2OH)RuCl2]2 (Ru-dim) and labeled CRu-dim. Then, Pt/CRu-dim is synthesized by the polyol method. Also, Vulcan functionalized with RuCl3·XH2O (Ru-com) and non-functionalized Vulcan are used to prepare Pt/CRu-com and Pt/C, respectively. The results show that functionalization with Ru-dim maintains the electronic sp2 hybridization of the graphitic segment of Vulcan. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the formation of Pt–Ru alloyed phases at Pt/CRu-dim: XRD shows about 50% Ru alloyed, while XPS indicates a shift of 0.32eV toward higher BE of Pt0. Such Pt–Ru interactions enhance the performance of Pt/CRu-dim for the MOR in acid media by reaching a current density of 45.0mAcm−2, two-fold increase compared to Pt/C. Moreover, the on-set potential of 0.25V determined for Pt/CRu-dim is 0.14V more negative relative to Pt/C. In summary, Pt/CRu-dim shows enhanced catalytic properties for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Photocatalytic performances of ZnO nanoparticle film and vertically
           aligned nanorods in chamber-based microfluidic reactors: Reaction kinetics
           and flow effects
    • Authors: Pei Zhao; Ning Qin; John Z. Wen; Carolyn L. Ren
      Pages: 468 - 475
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Pei Zhao, Ning Qin, John Z. Wen, Carolyn L. Ren
      The nanoparticle seed layer (a film) and vertically aligned nanorods of zinc oxide (ZnO) with different lengths were fabricated within a novel chamber-based microfluidic (microchamber) reactor with a varying height of 0.127–5mm and characterized with their microstructures, photocatalytic performances as well as qualitative reaction kinetics. The ZnO seed layer was produced by a sol–gel procedure and the nanorods were hydrothermally grown on seed layer coated glass substrates. These ZnO samples were integrated into the microchamber reactor through a seven-layer sandwiched configuration. The aqueous methyl orange (MO) solution was chosen as a model polluted water. By comparing the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorbance of the original MO solution and the post-treatment sample, the reaction constants were calculated, representing the efficiencies of the reactors. The ZnO samples, usually possessing a large amount of defects, with a higher crystal quality showed an enhanced activity. The reaction constant was featured of a plateau with accelerating flow rates, exhibited an exponentially decreasing function of the chamber height, and declined with increasing the initial concentration of the MO solution. The efficiency of the microchamber reactor was found to be one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of a batch reactor. The rate determining step was suggested to be the mass transport related adsorption of MO on ZnO. The measured reaction properties and the reactor design should be of considerable significance to the scaling-up and optimization of microchamber catalytic reactors dedicated to water purification and other applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Visible-light reduction CO2 with dodecahedral zeolitic imidazolate
           framework ZIF-67 as an efficient co-catalyst
    • Authors: Jiani Qin; Sibo Wang; Xinchen Wang
      Pages: 476 - 482
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Jiani Qin, Sibo Wang, Xinchen Wang
      The nanomorphology of ZIFs strongly influences or even improves chemical properties of the metal-organic materials. Nanosized rhombic dodecahedral ZIF-67 crystals were successfully synthesized through a simple co-precipitation method at room temperature, and fully characterized by XRD, FT-IR, DRS, XPS, TEM, SEM, TGA and N2/CO2 sorption measurements. The as-prepared ZIF-67 material was applied to be an efficient heterogeneous co-catalyst for the photocatalytic CO2 reduction by cooperating with a ruthenium-based dye as a photosensitizer under mild reaction conditions. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the photocatalytic CO2 reduction system achieved a superior catalytic performance with a CO generation rate of 37.4μmol/30min, which was much higher than that of other types of MOFs. The carbon source of the evaluated CO was confirmed by 13CO2 isotopic experiment. The stability and reusability of the ZIF-67 co-catalyst in the reaction system were also examined. The present work provides new insights in the developments of nanoscale ZIFs materials for photocatalytic application.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T12:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Photocatalytic valorization of glycerol to hydrogen: Optimization of
           operating parameters by artificial neural network
    • Authors: M.R. Karimi Estahbanati; Mehrzad Feilizadeh; Maria C. Iliuta
      Pages: 483 - 492
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): M.R. Karimi Estahbanati, Mehrzad Feilizadeh, Maria C. Iliuta
      Glycerol is a considerable by-product of biodiesel production from biomass. Photocatalytic glycerol valorization to hydrogen is an attractive approach from the sustainable development point of view. This study investigates the individual and interaction effects of main operating parameters of the photocatalytic hydrogen production process from glycerol using Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Four key operating parameters (i.e. glycerol%, catalyst loading, Pt% and pH) were selected as independent variables, and the amount of produced hydrogen was considered as the dependent variable (response). Experiments were conducted based on the Box-Behnken design. Response surface methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed based on the experimental design approach to predict hydrogen production. The predictive capacity of the two models was compared based on R2 , R2 adj , RMS, MAE and AAD. The ANN model was found more accurate and reliable, and it was therefore employed for the optimization of H2 production and parametric investigation. Analysis of the results showed that the operating parameters can also influence each other’s optimum value. Increasing glycerol% shifts the optimum values of catalyst loading, Pt%, and pH to higher values; however, Pt% has a negligible effect on the optimum values of the other parameters. Moreover, the catalyst loading and pH have no effect on the optimum value of glycerol%, but the increase of each of these two parameters reduces the optimum value of glycerol% and Pt%. The Genetic Algorithm along with the ANN model was also utilized for the optimization and it was found that the overall optimum of the system was 50% glycerol (v/v), 3.9g/L catalyst loading, 3.1% Pt, and pH 4.5. Finally, Garson’s method was employed to obtain the relative importance of each variable in the system. This analysis revealed that the variation of glycerol% and catalyst loading had, respectively, the least and the most effect on the amount of produced hydrogen.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T12:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
  • Graphene oxide and carbon nitride nanosheets co-modified silver chromate
           nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photoactivity and
           anti-photocorrosion properties towards multiple refractory pollutants
    • Authors: Fei Chen; Qi Yang; Shana Wang; Fubing Yao; Jian Sun; Yali Wang; Chen Zhang; Xiaoming Li; Chenggang Niu; Dongbo Wang; Guangming Zeng
      Pages: 493 - 505
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 209
      Author(s): Fei Chen, Qi Yang, Shana Wang, Fubing Yao, Jian Sun, Yali Wang, Chen Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Chenggang Niu, Dongbo Wang, Guangming Zeng
      In this work, a ternary composite photocatalyst consisted of graphitic carbon (g-C3N4), graphene oxide (GO) and Ag2CrO4 was successfully synthesized through one-step chemical precipitation route. The GO/Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 (GO/ACR/CN) nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance towards dyes (rhodamine (RhB) and methylene blue (MB)) and two other refractory pollutants (phenol and oxytetracycline) degradation under visible light irradiation. The efficient photo-induced electron-hole pairs separation, multi-step charge transfer and enhanced visible light absorption should be concluded as the synergistic effects among three components, resulting in the improved photoactivity. The decreased degradation efficiency of RhB (MB) over bare ACR was about 25.74% (43.22%) after four times cycles, while insignificant loss was perceived over GO/ACR/CN. The corresponding anti-photocorrosion property was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For in-depth insight into practical applications, the effects of initial concentration and different water sources were also taken into discussions. This work demonstrated that rational and design of ternary nanocomposites could provide a new approach for the development of more efficient visible-light photocatalysts for wastewater treatment and environmental remediation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T12:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 209 (2017)
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