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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1955 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (148 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1111 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (290 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)

ENGINEERING (1111 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Complex Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of NanoScience, NanoEngineering & Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
     Published by IOS Press Homepage  [92 journals]   [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
  • Detection of uric acid depositing in tophaceous gout using a new dual
           energy spectral CT technology
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of detecting uric acid depositing among patients with tophaceous gout using a dual energy CT based Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) technology for qualitative analysis of uric acid.METHODS: Thirty one patients with clinically detectable tophaceous gout and 10 healthy volunteers underwent Discovery CT 750 HD scan with GSI mode. We selected four case groups of tophi, muscles, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. Each has a region of interest (ROI) of 10 mm diameter. We then analyzed and compared the difference of CT imaging spectroscopy quantitative parameters including concentration of uric acid, calcium, and water levels. The univariate analysis of variance and independent samples t-test were applied in data analyses. RESULTS: In case group of tophi base substance, the concentration levels were 1268.8 ± 32.2 mg/cm^3 for uric acid (Ca), 19.4 ± 9.5 mg/cm^3 for calcium (uric acid), 10.8 ± 9.5 mg/cm^3 for calcium (water), and 1171.0 ± 26.8 mg/cm^3 for water (calcium), respectively. In cortical bone case group, the four base substance concentration levels changed to 1333.6 ± 83.8 mg/cm^3, 271.1 ± 85.0 mg/cm^3, 262.6 ± 85.4 mg/cm^3, and 1230.8 ± 77.0 mg/cm^3. In muscles case group, the four base substance concentration levels were 1143.5 ± 15.7 mg/cm^3, 12.3 ± 5.0 mg/cm^3, 4.4 ± 1.9 mg/cm^3, and 1054.1 ± 14.6 mg/cm^3. Finally, in cancellous bone case group, the corresponding base substance concentration became 1070.9 ± 26.4 mg/cm^3, 85.1 ± 46.9 mg/cm^3, 77.4 ± 46.7 mg/cm^3, and 988.0 ± 23.4 mg/cm^3. Except tophi and muscle differences between Calcium (uric acid) concentration and differences in Calcium (water) concentration, which were not significantly different (p> 0.29), the remaining group pairwise comparisons of the parameters were significantly different (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dual-energy spectral CT can detect gout tophi within the peripheral joints of the patients. The quantitative measurement of the tophi concentration provides a new imaging method for quantitatively monitoring clinical outcomes of tophi.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 541-549

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140444

      Authors
      Xiaohu Li, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xu Wang, Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
      Yonqqiang Yu, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Bin Liu, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Jing Cai, Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li Xia, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li Luo, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wanqin Wang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Qianyun Ding, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Chao Zhang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Jie Wang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:37:06 GMT
       
  • Quantitative evaluation of the administrated dose affecting image quality
           in myocardial perfusion SPECT
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can provide the valuable cardiac functions.Image quality in nuclear medicine tomography is critically dependent on the activity administered into patients. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the optimum injected dose of 99mTc-MIBI for quantitative assessment of image quality as compared with standard injected dose used for that purpose. METHODS: The image quality parameters (Contrast, relative noise and contrast to noise ratio) were determined in 32 patients (21 male, 11 female, age 45–60 y) with weight 60 ± 15 kg. Patients were classified into four groups; each one consisted of 8 patients. The first group received 370 MBq, the second one received 555 MBq, the third group received 740 MBq and the last group received 925 MBq.RESULTS: Qualitative assessments of the images revealed equivalent scintigraphic patterns in all patients. There was a significant difference in the image contrast. The image contrast in the 370 MBq group was greater than other groups. The image noise between the four groups was significantly different. It increased with injected dose reduction. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was significantly different between 370 MBq and other groups.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that results from the first group which received 370 MBq are sufficiently similar to those of the fourth group (standard group) which received 925 MBq. Consequently,accurate estimations of differential cardiac functions are possible with the 370 MBq dose.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 529-537

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140443

      Authors
      Reem H. El-Gebaly, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
      Islam K. Maamoun, Nuclear Cardiology Department, Intensive Care Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
      Noha G. Madian, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:36:20 GMT
       
  • Voltage-Thickness-Gray imaging physical model in X-ray energy
           auto-modulation
    • Abstract: Energy auto-modulation is an important tool in X-ray imaging, as it can improve the quality and longevity of an x-ray imaging system. Because of the complex nature of imaged objects, X-ray energy auto-modulation may be difficult. If there is a physical model about imaging mechanism, one can forecast the best imaging parameters using a pre-scan that can be fed into this model. This paper offers a physical model, which is called the Voltage-Thickness-Gray (VTG) model. Based on equivalent single-energy, this paper uses the empirical formula of X-ray attenuation and X-ray photon intensity to build this VTG model. Then use linear regression to estimate the model's parameters, by multi-voltage imaging about the steel wedge block. At last, by the experiment of the steel step block, verify this model and forecast the imaging tube voltage. The result shows this model can better reflect X-ray attenuation imaging properties, and can be used to forecast the imaging voltage. Also the forecast precision can achieve 90% or so.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 519-527

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140442

      Authors
      Ping Chen, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Yan Han, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Jinxiao Pan, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:36:20 GMT
       
  • Combination of CT imaging and endoscopy in diagnosis of appendicovesical
           fistula caused by appendiceal adenocarcinoma
    • Abstract: The appendiceal diseases, particularly appendicitis, are the most common disorders in the digestive system localized at the right lower quadrant area. However, appendiceal carcinoma with vesico-appendiceal fistula is a rare clinical phenomenon. Lacking specific symptoms, appendiceal carcinomas with fistula formations are often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis cases. The purpose of this study is to increase awareness of appendiceal neoplasms and appendicovesical fistulas. We reported our experiences in three complex cases related to digestive and urological systems, and reviewed the literature on diagnosis with various X-ray imaging techniques for this lesion. In this report, the first case failed to be diagnosed. The other two patients with appendicovesical fistulas secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinomas were successfully detected with computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopy. The patients recovered after right hemicolectomies and en bloc partial cystectomies and survived without tumor metastasis up to 7-year follow-up. In conclusion, a combined use of CT imaging and endoscopy techniques provides an accurate diagnostic alternative for appendicovesical fistula secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinoma.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 493-501

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140440

      Authors
      Wenying Wang, Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Li Wang, Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Jianfeng Xu, Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Shufang Shi, Department of Pathology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Ye Tian, Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Yuanyuan Zhang, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • The effects of Labisia pumila on postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model:
           Dose and time-dependent micro-CT analysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is best treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause breast cancer, uterine cancer and cardiovascular problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb with phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects has potential as an ERT alternative. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate micro-CT analysis on the effects of LP supplementation on the trabecular microarchitecture of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Micro-CT is an effective tool in detecting changes in trabecular bone structure and providing a three dimensional information which may replace other conventional bone analysis methods. METHODS: Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats (4 to 5 months old) were randomly divided into six groups of baseline group (BL) Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC), ovariectomised with 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT), ovariectomised with 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20) and ovariectomised with 100 mg/kg of LP at (LP100). The vehicle (deionized water), Premarin and LP were given via daily oral gavages for three, six and nine weeks of treatment periods. Rats in BL group were euthanized before the start of the study, while other rats were euthanized after completion of their treatments. Femora were dissected out and trabecular bone microarchitecture analysed with micro-CT.RESULTS: Micro-CT analysis of OVXC rats revealed significant osteoporotic changes in connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation and trabecular number. Both ERT and LP were able to reverse all the OVX-induced bone changes with the best results seen with 100 mg/kg of LP for nine weeks duration of treatment. CONCLUSION: Micro-CT provides accurate and reliable information on trabecular bone parameters which aid in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. LP supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective than ERT in reversing ovariectomy-induced bone changes. Further studies are required to explore the potential of LP as ERT alternative in the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 503-518

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140441

      Authors
      Nadia Mohd Effendy, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Mohd Fadhli Khamis, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
      Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Concentration homeostasis and elements in hair and dried serum observed by
           X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation
    • Abstract: Elemental concentrations in hair and dried serum have been evaluated by X-ray fluorescence analysis using relative concentration independent of specimen thickness. Dried serum samples from 5 male and 5 female subjects given two-week Ca supplementation showed the same concentration for Ca, and for each of the other elements Cl, K, S and P under renal control by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hair concentrations of these elements have been evaluated for 50 randomly-selected females aged between 30 and 80. It was found that each element has two distinct levels in hair. The content of an element in growing hair must be equal to the inflow of that element into the hair-making cells from serum. Using this principle, the two levels can be attributed to the gating and closing of the ion channels in cell membranes and given as functions of the dried serum standard concentrations. Especially, the difference between [Ca] and [Sr] in hair shows whether Ca channels are gating or closing. The lower level of hair [Ca]_H is normal and is equal to 1/2 of the dried serum [Ca]; only the Ca on serum protein is to be incorporated into the hair in steady-state growth. Store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to maintain the normal [Ca]_H. The higher level is seen in cases of calcium deficiency, and implicated in other disease states. Prolonged Ca deficiency causes a higher hair [Ca]_H with Ca channel closing. PTH-operated Ca channel gating induces the Ca^{2+} inflow into the cells to form the hair [Ca]_H upper level and to deteriorate cell functions such as excretion of excess metals by hepatocytes. Hair analysis provides a new diagnostic tool based on cell ion channels.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 471-491

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140439

      Authors
      Jun-ichi Chikawa, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Yoshitaka Mouri, Himeji Health Centre, Sakata, Himeji, Japan
      Hiroki Shima, Shima Institute for Quantum Medicine, Kitaku, Osaka, Japan
      Kousaku Yamada, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Hitoshi Yamamoto, Osaka Breast Clinic, Fukushima, Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Shingo Yamamoto, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Low-mAs X-ray CT image reconstruction by adaptive-weighted TV-constrained
           penalized re-weighted least-squares
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The negative effects of X-ray exposure, such as inducing genetic and cancerous diseases, has arisen more attentions. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate a penalized re-weighted least-square (PRWLS) strategy for low-mAs X-ray computed tomography image reconstruction by incorporating an adaptive weighted total variation (AwTV) penalty term and a noise variance model of projection data. METHODS: An AwTV penalty is introduced in the objective function by considering both piecewise constant property and local nearby intensity similarity of the desired image. Furthermore, the weight of data fidelity term in the objective function is determined by our recent study on modeling variance estimation of projection data in the presence of electronic background noise. RESULTS: The presented AwTV-PRWLS algorithm can achieve the highest full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) measurement, for data conditions of (1) full-view 10 mA acquisition and (2) sparse-view 80 mA acquisition. In comparison between the AwTV/TV-PRWLS strategies and the previous reported AwTV/TV-projection onto convex sets (AwTV/TV-POCS) approaches, the former can gain in terms of FWHM for data condition (1), but cannot gain for the data condition (2).CONCLUSIONS: In the case of full-view 10 mA projection data, the presented AwTV-PRWLS shows potential improvement. However, in the case of sparse-view 80 mA projection data, the AwTV/TV-POCS shows advantage over the PRWLS strategies.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 437-457

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140437

      Authors
      Yan Liu, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Jianhua Ma, School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Hao Zhang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Jing Wang, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Zhengrong Liang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Impact of rare earth element added filters on the X-ray beam spectra: A
           Monte Carlo approach
    • Abstract: The effectiveness of added filters including conventional and rare earth materials for dental radiography tasks was investigated using a simulation approach. Current study focuses on the combination of a range of various filters to investigate the reduction of radiation absorbed dose and improving the quality of a radiography image. To simulate the X-ray beam spectrum, a MCNP5 code was applied. Relative intensity, beam quality, and mean energy were investigated for a typical dental radiography machine. The impact of different rare-earth materials with different thicknesses and tube voltages on the X-ray spectrum was investigated. For Aluminum as a conventional filter, the modeled X-ray spectra and HVL values were in a good agreement with those reported by IPEM. The results showed that for a 70 kVp voltage, with an increase of the thickness and atomic number of a given added filters, an increase of HVL values were observed. However, with the increase of the attenuator thickness, X-ray beam intensity decreases. For mean energy, different results were observed. It was also found that rare earth made filters reduce high energy X-ray radiation due to k-edge absorption. This leads to an ideal beam for intra-oral radiography tasks. However, as a disadvantage of rare earth added filters, the reduction of the tube output levels should also be considered.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 459-470

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140438

      Authors
      Amir Eskandarlou, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Amir Abbas Jafari, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Mohammad Mohammadi, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Mehdi Zehtabian, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
      Reza Faghihi, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
      Abbas Shokri, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Jalal Pourolajal, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized fourier slice theorem
    • Abstract: For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 415-436

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140436

      Authors
      Shuangren Zhao, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Kang Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Kevin Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:34:46 GMT
       
  • Micro X-ray computed tomography of pits and fissures
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Most tooth cavities start to develop inside pits and fissures where brushing, saliva, fluoride toothpaste or mouthwashes have no access. Therefore, 3D morphology of pits and fissures is an important subject to be studied in relation to maintaining proper oral hygiene. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present high resolution images of pits and fissures in human teeth using a laboratory-based micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mXCT) and also to present the basic structure evaluation that could be obtained. METHODS: Three human wisdom teeth were examined. Two different set-ups were used in this study achieving resolution of 14.59 μm (Field of View of 14.9 mm) and resolution of 4.43 μm (FOV of 4.5 mm) respectively. Automated segmentation was performed for further evaluation to distinguish between empty space (pits and fissures) and the filled space (enamel). RESULTS: The 3D tomography results demonstrate detailed morphology with accurate dimensions and the locations of the pits and fissures, which is important to investigate the relationship with tooth decay that mostly starts deep inside pits and fissures. CONCLUSIONS: Segmentation from the mXCT imaging of pits and fissures provides obvious visual evidence to help in promotion of oral health and to improve personal tooth care in preventive treatment protocols.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 407-414

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140435

      Authors
      Benedicta D. Arhatari, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Physics Department, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia
      Kathy Andrewartha, Research Development, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia
      Maurice White, Supertooth NDK, Victoria, Australia
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:34:46 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of automatic exposure control options in digital mammography
    • Abstract: To quantify the trade-offs of dose and image quality among pre-loaded automatic exposure control (AEC) options in digital mammography, two AEC tables from the Hologic Selenia digital mammography system were compared: the default AEC "table 0" and AEC "table 1". Realistically-shaped phantoms consisting of tissue-equivalent material of various thicknesses (4.5 cm–7 cm) were imaged to obtain a figure of merit (FOM), the squared contrast-to-noise ratio per mean glandular dose. To relate the results to pathological findings and to evaluate the overall performance, the measured contrast-to-noise ratios were applied to simulated lesions on the anthropomorphic breast phantom images, producing various lesion configurations which were blindly scored. It was found that the AEC table 1 improves the low contrast FOM by 11% to 20% for the breast thicknesses of 4.5–6 cm. However, for the 7 cm thick breast, the AEC table 1 decreases the low contrast FOM by 17%. For microcalcifications, the AEC table 1 improves the FOM slightly for the breast thicknesses of 4.5--6 cm and decreases it by 18% at a thickness of 7 cm. The lesion simulation showed enhanced contrast due to the AEC table 1 for the breast thicknesses of 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm, but the enhancement gradually reduces as the thickness increases. The lesion reading showed that the microcalcification detection was scored significantly higher from the AEC table 1 for the thicknesses 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm. The corresponding improvement of mass detection scores was also observed but not consistently significant over the thickness range.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 377-394

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140433

      Authors
      Yifang Zhou, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Alexander Scott II, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Janet Allahverdian, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Steve Frankel, Department of Imaging, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:10:04 GMT
       
  • Optimization of X-ray microplanar beam radiation therapy for deep-seated
           tumors by a simulation study
    • Abstract: A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to study the energy dependence on the transverse dose distribution of microplanar beam radiation therapy (MRT) for deep-seated tumors. The distribution was found to be the peak (in-beam) dose and the decay from the edge of the beam down to the valley. The area below the same valley dose level (valley region) was decreased with the increase in the energy of X-rays at the same beam separation. To optimize the MRT, we made the following two assumptions: the therapeutic gain may be attributed to the efficient recovery of normal tissue caused by the beam separation; and a key factor for the efficient recovery of normal tissue depends on the area size of the valley region. Based on these assumptions and the results of the simulated dose distribution, we concluded that the optimum X-ray energy was in the range of 100–300 keV depending on the effective peak dose to the target tumors and/or tolerable surface dose. In addition, we proposed parameters to be studied for the optimization of MRT to deep-seated tumors.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 395-406

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140434

      Authors
      Kunio Shinohara, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Takeshi Kondoh, Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe-shi, Hyogo, Japan
      Nobuteru Nariyama, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
      Hajime Fujita, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Masakazu Washio, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Yukimasa Aoki, Medical Corporation YUKOUKAI Clinic, Funabashi-shi, Chiba, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:10:04 GMT
       
  • Combined multi-kernel head computed tomography images optimized for
           depicting both brain parenchyma and bone
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The hybrid convolution kernel technique for computed tomography (CT) is known to enable the depiction of an image set using different window settings. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to decrease the number of artifacts in the hybrid convolution kernel technique for head CT and to determine whether our improved combined multi-kernel head CT images enabled diagnosis as a substitute for both brain (low-pass kernel-reconstructed) and bone (high-pass kernel-reconstructed) images. METHODS: Forty-four patients with nondisplaced skull fractures were included. Our improved multi-kernel images were generated so that pixels of >100 Hounsfield unit in both brain and bone images were composed of CT values of bone images and other pixels were composed of CT values of brain images. Three radiologists compared the improved multi-kernel images with bone images. RESULTS: The improved multi-kernel images and brain images were identically displayed on the brain window settings. All three radiologists agreed that the improved multi-kernel images on the bone window settings were sufficient for diagnosing skull fractures in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This improved multi-kernel technique has a simple algorithm and is practical for clinical use. Thus, simplified head CT examinations and fewer images that need to be stored can be expected.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 369-376

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140432

      Authors
      Satoshi Takagi, Radiological Center, National Defense Medical College Hospital, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Hiroyuki Nagase, Department of Radiology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
      Tatsuya Hayashi, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
      Tamotsu Kita, Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Katsumi Hayashi, Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Shigeru Sanada, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
      Masayuki Koike, Radiological Center, National Defense Medical College Hospital, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:56 GMT
       
  • Theoretical modeling of mobile target broadening in helical and axial
           computed tomographic imaging
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate variations in mobile target length induced by sinusoidal motion in helical (HCT) and axial CT (ACT) imaging. A mathematical model was derived that predicts the measured broadening of the apparent lengths of mobile targets and its dependence on motion parameters, target size, and imaging couch speed in CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three mobile targets of differing lengths and sizes were constructed of tissue-equivalent gel material and embedded into artificial lung phantom. Respiratory motion was mimicked with a mobile phantom that moves in one-dimension along the superior-inferior direction with sinusoidal motion patterns. A mathematical model was derived to predict quantitatively the variations of apparent lengths for mobile targets and its dependence on phantom and imaging couch motion parameters in HCT and ACT. The model predictions were verified by length measurements of the mobile phantom targets that were imaged with the different motion patterns using CT imaging. RESULTS: The measured lengths of mobile targets enlarged or shrunk depending on the phantom motion parameters that include phantom speed, amplitude, frequency, phase and speed of the imaging couch. The target length variations were significant where some targets doubled lengths or shrunk to less than half of their actual length. The apparent lengths of mobile targets decreased if the target was moving in the same direction as the imaging couch motion and increased if the mobile target was moving opposed to imaging couch in both HCT and ACT. The model predicts well the variations in the mobile target apparent lengths and their dependence on the motion parameters. CONCLUSION: The measured and model variations of apparent lengths of mobile targets are considerable and may affect the accuracy of tumor volumes obtained from HCT and ACT. This mathematical model provides a method to quantitatively assess the length variations of mobile targets and their dependence on motion parameters of the phantom and imaging system which may have potential applications in the fields of diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 351-360

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140430

      Authors
      Imad Ali, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Steven Jackson, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Nesreen Alsbou, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Penn State University, Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA
      Salahuddin Ahmad, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:38 GMT
       
  • Study on image processing of panoramic X-ray using deviation improvement
           software
    • Abstract: Utilization of panoramic X-ray device is getting wider. Panoramic X-ray has low resolution than general X-ray device and it occurs to distortion by deviation of image synthesis. Due to structural problems, it has been used restrictively to identify of tooth structure, not for whole head. Therefore, it designed and produced panoramic X-ray device which is possible to diagnostic coverage can be extended and had to be adjusted interval control between X-ray generator and image processing for whole of Maxillofacia's diagnosis. Produced panoramic X-ray device is composed basically of short image synthesis. In addition, it was confirmed the results by used the device which was applied deviation of the brightness of the image, filter to improve the location of the deviation and interpolation method. In this study, it was used 13 images including the front. It occurs to brightness deviation, position deviation, and geometric correction when synthesis of image, but it had been solved by deviation improvement software and a change of CCD camera's scan line which is used for image acquisition. Therefore, it confirmed expansion possibility of utilization range to commonly used panoramic X-ray device.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 361-368

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140431

      Authors
      Tae-Gon Kim, Department of Electrical and Electronic, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Yang-Sun Lee, Division of Computer Engineering, Mokwon University, Daejeon, Korea
      Young-Pyo Kim, Department of Electrical and Electronic, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Yong-Pil Park, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Min-Woo Cheon, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:38 GMT
       
  • Edge guided image reconstruction in linear scan CT by weighted alternating
           direction TV minimization
    • Abstract: Linear scan computed tomography (CT) is a promising imaging configuration with high scanning efficiency while the data set is under-sampled and angularly limited for which high quality image reconstruction is challenging. In this work, an edge guided total variation minimization reconstruction (EGTVM) algorithm is developed in dealing with this problem. The proposed method is modeled on the combination of total variation (TV) regularization and iterative edge detection strategy. In the proposed method, the edge weights of intermediate reconstructions are incorporated into the TV objective function. The optimization is efficiently solved by applying alternating direction method of multipliers. A prudential and conservative edge detection strategy proposed in this paper can obtain the true edges while restricting the errors within an acceptable degree. Based on the comparison on both simulation studies and real CT data set reconstructions, EGTVM provides comparable or even better quality compared to the non-edge guided reconstruction and adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets method. With the utilization of weighted alternating direction TV minimization and edge detection, EGTVM achieves fast and robust convergence and reconstructs high quality image when applied in linear scan CT with under-sampled data set.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 335-349

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140429

      Authors
      Ailong Cai, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Linyuan Wang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hanming Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Xiaoqi Xi, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Jianxin Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:07 GMT
       
  • Image quality and dose efficiency of high energy phase sensitive x-ray
           imaging: Phantom studies
    • Abstract: The goal of this preliminary study was to perform an image quality comparison of high energy phase sensitive imaging with low energy conventional imaging at similar radiation doses. The comparison was performed with the following phantoms: American College of Radiology (ACR), contrast-detail (CD), acrylic edge and tissue-equivalent. Visual comparison of the phantom images indicated comparable or improved image quality for all phantoms. Quantitative comparisons were performed through ACR and CD observer studies, both of which indicated higher image quality in the high energy phase sensitive images. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of high energy phase sensitive imaging to overcome existing challenges with the clinical implementation of phase contrast imaging and improve the image quality for a similar radiation dose as compared to conventional imaging near typical mammography energies. In addition, the results illustrate the capability of phase sensitive imaging to sustain the image quality improvement at high x-ray energies and for breast simulating phantoms, both of which indicate the potential to benefit fields such as mammography. Future studies will continue to investigate the potential for dose reduction and image quality improvement provided by high energy phase sensitive imaging.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 321-334

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140428

      Authors
      Molly Donovan Wong, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Xizeng Wu, Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
      Hong Liu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • Study of solid-conversion gaseous detector based on GEM for high energy
           X-ray industrial CT
    • Abstract: The general gaseous ionization detectors are not suitable for high energy X-ray industrial computed tomography (HEICT) because of their inherent limitations, especially low detective efficiency and large volume. The goal of this study was to investigate a new type of gaseous detector to solve these problems. The novel detector was made by a metal foil as X-ray convertor to improve the conversion efficiency, and the Gas Electron Multiplier (hereinafter "GEM") was used as electron amplifier to lessen its volume. The detective mechanism and signal formation of the detector was discussed in detail. The conversion efficiency was calculated by using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, and the transport course of photon and secondary electron avalanche in the detector was simulated with the Maxwell and Garfield codes. The result indicated that this detector has higher conversion efficiency as well as less volume. Theoretically this kind of detector could be a perfect candidate for replacing the conventional detector in HEICT.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 299-307

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140426

      Authors
      Rifeng Zhou, ICT Research Center, The Key Lab. for Opto-electronic Technology and Systems of Ministry of Education, University of Chongqing, Chongqing, China
      Yaling Zhou, ICT Research Center, The Key Lab. for Opto-electronic Technology and Systems of Ministry of Education, University of Chongqing, Chongqing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • Impact of physician practice on patient radiation dose during CT guided
           biopsy procedures
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: Patient radiation dose during Computed Tomography (CT) guided biopsy procedures is determined by both acquisition technical parameters and physician practice. The potential effect of the physician practice is of concern. This study is to investigate the effects of those intangibles on patient radiation dose. METHODS: Patient radiation dose from 252 patients who underwent CT guided biopsy from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively studied. Ten physicians who used conventional intermittent shots, low mA dose saving feature, or both were included in the study. The patient dose reports were retrieved and the total dose length products (DLPs) were analyzed. Linear regression analysis performed between various variables and reported dose. Patient detriment index (PDI) was developed, which sets threshold (standard of practice) for comparing physician practice with their peers. Odds ratio was calculated to determine odds of a group of patients receiving dose above threshold when compared to another group. RESULTS: Median DLP among ten physicians was 1194 mGy-cm. There was a significant difference (p< 0.01) between reported DLPs doses when physicians used dose saving feature vs. when feature not used (539.8 ± 169.4 mGy-cm vs. 1269.7 ± 659.0 mGy-cm). In general, physicians who used dose saving feature had lower relative PDIs (< 1) compared to the PDIs (> 1) without the dose feature. Odds ratio estimate of 7.7 at 95% confidence level indicates that the odds of a group receiving a high dose depends on practitioner. CONCLUSION: Adjustments of practice habits, use of dose saving features or both may be needed to improve patient care for CT biopsy.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 309-319

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140427

      Authors
      Victor J. Weir, Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA
      Jie Zhang, Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
      Angela P. Bruner, Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • A method of extracting structural priors from images of micro-CT for
           fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction
    • Abstract: The dual-modality systems combined fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals simultaneously. Except for anatomic localization, micro-CT should also offer boundary of different organs as reconstruction priors for FMT, which is more challenging than acquisition of structural information. In this paper, we propose a framework to extract structural priors of a living mouse with micro-CT. The iodinated lipid emulsion contrast agent was adopted to enhance the contrast of the soft tissues of the mouse. Then organs in thorax and abdomen were segmented with different approaches depending on the characteristics of the organs. Bone, lung, heart, liver, spleen, and muscles were separately segmented. And the results were compared with that manually segmented. The Tanimoto coefficient and the relative volume difference of segmented slices were measured to be 91.28 ± 5.78 and 0.27 ± 3.15, respectively. In our simulation study of FMT reconstruction, the errors of measured position and concentration of the fluorophore with priors declined by 89.7% and 79.6% in thorax, as well as 80.8% and 78.3% in abdomen, respectively, compared with the results without priors. The proposed scheme will make FMT reconstruction much more reliable and practical in small animal study.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 285-297

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140425

      Authors
      Yuanzheng Meng, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Xiaoquan Yang, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Yong Deng, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Xuanxuan Zhang, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Hui Gong, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:14 GMT
       
 
 
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