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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1957 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (150 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (146 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (84 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1124 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (284 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (43 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (53 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (73 journals)

ENGINEERING (1124 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (107 followers)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (6 followers)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (3 followers)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (17 followers)
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (2 followers)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (5 followers)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (22 followers)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (45 followers)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (22 followers)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (13 followers)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology    Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
     Published by IOS Press Homepage  [92 journals]   [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
  • The effect of detector size and energy resolution on image quality in
           multi-projection Compton scatter tomography
    • Abstract: The reconstructed electron density image quality is sensitive to the detector size and energy resolution, which contribute to the blurring and noise in the image. This work evaluates optimal values of the detector parameters for a realistic system through analytical simulations of the transverse slice of the dedicated breast CT system geometry. This study introduces a spectroscopic x-ray tomography technique which uses multiple projections to reconstruct electron density images by backprojecting scattered photons over isogonic curves. The reconstruction can be obtained using a single projection yet its quality degrades as the acquisition conditions i.e. detector size and energy resolution deviate from the ideal. The reconstruction quality becomes inconsistent throughout the image due to the data under sampling caused by the finite resolution of the detector. The extension to the multi-projection mode effectively fills-in the missing data space and improves the ability to reconstruct an object. This work demonstrates the possibility to obtain images in the presence of noise.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 113-128

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130413

      Authors
      Tamar Chighvinadze, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
      Stephen Pistorius, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:26:51 GMT
       
  • Ventricular hemodynamics using cardiac computed tomography and optical
           flow method
    • Abstract: Ventricular hemodynamics plays an important role in assessing cardiac function in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the ventricular hemodynamics based on contrast movement in the left ventricle (LV) between the phases in a cardiac cycle recorded using an electrocardiography (ECG) with cardiac computed tomography (CT) and optical flow method. Cardiac CT data were acquired at 120 kV and 280 mA with a 350 ms gantry rotation, which covered one cardiac cycle, on the 640-slice CT scanner with ECG for a selected patient without heart disease. Ventricular hemodynamics (mm/phase) were calculated using the optical flow method based on contrast changes with ECG phases in anterior-posterior, lateral and superior-inferior directions. Local hemodynamic information of the LV with color coating was presented. The visualization of the functional information made the hemodynamic observation easy.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 129-136

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130414

      Authors
      Yang-Hsien Lin, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Peng Hu Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
      Yung-Hui Huang, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Taiwan
      Kang-Ping Lin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan
      Juhn-Cherng Liu, Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
      Tzung-Chi Huang, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:26:51 GMT
       
  • Coherent soft X-ray high-order harmonics using tight-focusing laser pulses
           in the gas mixture
    • Abstract: We experimentally study the harmonics from a Xe-He gas mixture using tight-focusing femtosecond laser pulses. The spectrum in the mixed gases exhibits an extended cutoff region from the harmonic H21 to H27. The potential explanation is that the harmonics photons from Xe contribute the electrons of He atoms to transmit into the excited-state. Therefore, the harmonics are emitted from He atoms easily. Furthermore, we show that there are the suppressed harmonics H15 and H17 in the mixed gases. The underlying mechanism is the destructive interference between harmonics generated from different atoms. Our results indicate that HHG from Xe-He gas mixture is an efficient method of obtaining the coherent soft X-ray source.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 105-111

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130412

      Authors
      Faming Lu, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Yuanqin Xia, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Sheng Zhang, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Deying Chen, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Yang Zhao, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Bin Liu, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:26:18 GMT
       
  • Optimizing contrast agents with respect to reducing beam hardening in
           nonmedical X-ray computed tomography experiments
    • Abstract: Iodine is commonly used as a contrast agent in nonmedical science and engineering, for example, to visualize Darcy flow in porous geological media using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Undesirable beam hardening artifacts occur when a polychromatic X-ray source is used, which makes the quantitative analysis of CT images difficult. To optimize the chemistry of a contrast agent in terms of the beam hardening reduction, we performed computer simulations and generated synthetic CT images of a homogeneous cylindrical sand-pack (diameter, 28 or 56 mm; porosity, 39 vol.% saturated with aqueous suspensions of heavy elements assuming the use of a polychromatic medical CT scanner. The degree of cupping derived from the beam hardening was assessed using the reconstructed CT images to find the chemistry of the suspension that induced the least cupping. The results showed that (i) the degree of cupping depended on the position of the K absorption edge of the heavy element relative to peak of the polychromatic incident X-ray spectrum, (ii) _{53}I was not an ideal contrast agent because it causes marked cupping, and (iii) a single element much heavier than _{53}I (_{64}Gd to _{79}Au) reduced the cupping artifact significantly, and a four-heavy-element mixture of elements from _{64}Gd to _{79}Au reduced the artifact most significantly.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 91-103

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130411

      Authors
      Yoshito Nakashima, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
      Tsukasa Nakano, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:25:58 GMT
       
  • Adaptive zooming in X-ray computed tomography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: In computed tomography (CT), the source-detector system commonly rotates around the object in a circular trajectory. Such a trajectory does not allow to exploit a detector fully when scanning elongated objects. OBJECTIVE: Increase the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image by optimal zooming during scanning. METHODS: A new approach is proposed, in which the full width of the detector is exploited for every projection angle. This approach is based on the use of prior information about the object's convex hull to move the source as close as possible to the object, while avoiding truncation of the projections. RESULTS: Experiments show that the proposed approach can significantly improve reconstruction quality, producing reconstructions with smaller errors and revealing more details in the object. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed approach can lead to more accurate reconstructions and increased spatial resolution in the object compared to the conventional circular trajectory.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 77-89

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130410

      Authors
      Andrei Dabravolski, iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
      Kees Joost Batenburg, iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
      Jan Sijbers, iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:25:46 GMT
       
  • X-ray strain tensor imaging: FEM simulation and experiments with a
           micro-CT
    • Abstract: In tissue elasticity imaging, measuring the strain tensor components is necessary to solve the inverse problem. However, it is impractical to measure all the tensor components in ultrasound or MRI elastography because of their anisotropic spatial resolution. The objective of this study is to compute 3D strain tensor maps from the 3D CT images of a tissue-mimicking phantom. We took 3D micro-CT images of the phantom twice with applying two different mechanical compressions to it. Applying the 3D image correlation technique to the CT images under different compression, we computed 3D displacement vectors and strain tensors at every pixel. To evaluate the accuracy of the strain tensor maps, we made a 3D FEM model of the phantom, and we computed strain tensor maps through FEM simulation. Experimentally obtained strain tensor maps showed similar patterns to the FEM-simulated ones in visual inspection. The correlation between the strain tensor maps obtained from the experiment and the FEM simulation ranges from 0.03 to 0.93. Even though the strain tensor maps suffer from high level noise, we expect the x-ray strain tensor imaging may find some biomedical applications such as malignant tissue characterization and stress analysis inside the tissues.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 63-75

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130409

      Authors
      Jae G. Kim, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Korea
      So E. Park, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Korea
      Soo Y. Lee, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:25:36 GMT
       
  • EDART, a discrete algebraic reconstructing technique for experimental data
           obtained with high resolution computed tomography
    • Abstract: A novel reconstruction method is presented to improve the image quality of three dimensional (3D) datasets for samples consisting of only one material and surrounding air, obtained with high resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (μCT). It combines discrete tomography with iterative reconstruction algorithms, it is applicable for routine μCT applications and is referred to as the Experimental Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (EDART). A fast and intuitive method to estimate the attenuation coefficient and segmentation threshold, in case these are unknown, is included. Experimental results illustrate that EDART allows the improvement of the reconstruction quality as compared to standard iterative reconstruction when few projections are available, without significantly increasing the reconstruction time.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 47-61

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130408

      Authors
      L. Brabant, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
      M. Dierick, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
      E. Pauwels, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
      M.N. Boone, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
      L. Van Hoorebeke, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:25:26 GMT
       
  • Interior reconstruction method based on rotation-translation scanning
           model
    • Abstract: In various applications of computed tomography (CT), it is common that the reconstructed object is over the field of view (FOV) or we may intend to sue a FOV which only covers the region of interest (ROI) for the sake of reducing radiation dose. These kinds of imaging situations often lead to interior reconstruction problems which are difficult cases in the reconstruction field of CT, due to the truncated projection data at every view angle. In this paper, an interior reconstruction method is developed based on a rotation-translation (RT) scanning model. The method is implemented by first scanning the reconstructed region, and then scanning a small region outside the support of the reconstructed object after translating the rotation centre. The differentiated backprojection (DBP) images of the reconstruction region and the small region outside the object can be respectively obtained from the two-time scanning data without data rebinning process. At last, the projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm is applied to reconstruct the interior region. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the proposed reconstruction method.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 37-45

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130407

      Authors
      Xianchao Wang, Air Force Early Warning Academy, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Ziyue Tang, Air Force Early Warning Academy, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Shanglian Bao, The Beijing City Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:24:56 GMT
       
  • Practical geometric calibration for helical cone-beam industrial computed
           tomography
    • Abstract: In helical cone-beam industrial computed tomography (ICT), the reconstructed images may be interfered by geometry artifacts due to the presence of mechanical misalignments. To obtain artifact-free reconstruction images, a practical geometric calibration method for helical scan is investigated based on Noo's analytic geometric calibration method for circular scan. The presented method is implemented by first dividing the whole ascending path of helical scan into several pieces, then acquiring the projections of a dedicated calibration phantom in circular scan at each section point, of which geometry parameters are calculated using Noo's analytic method. At last, the geometry parameters of each projection in a piece can be calculated by those of the two end points of the piece. We performed numerical simulations and real data experiments to study the performance of the presented method. The experimental results indicated that the method can obtain high-precision geometry parameters of helical scan and give satisfactory reconstruction images.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 19-35

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130406

      Authors
      Feng Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Xiaoqi Xi, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hua Jiang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:24:55 GMT
       
  • An improved distance-driven method for projection and backprojection
    • Abstract: Fast and accurate image reconstruction is the ultimate goal of iterative methods for limited-angle, few-view, interior problems, etc. Recently, a finite-detector-based projection model was proposed for iterative CT reconstructions, which was called area integral model (AIM) and has shown a high spatial resolution but with a high computational complexity. On the other hand, the distance-driven model (DDM) is the state-of-the-art technology to model forward projection and backprojection, which has shown a low computational complexity but relative low spatial resolution than AIM-based method. Inspired by the DDM, here we propose an improved distance-driven model (IDDM), which has a similar computational complexity with the DDM-based method and comparative spatial resolution with the AIM-based method. In an ordered-subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) framework, the AIM, IDDM and DDM are implemented and evaluated using a sinogram from a phantom experiment on a Discovery CT750 HD scanner. The results show that the computational cost of DDM- and IDDM-based methods is similar, which is 6 to 13~times faster than the AIM-based method assuming the same number of iterations. The spatial resolution of AIM- and IDDM-based method is comparable, which is better than DDM-based method in terms of full-width-of-half-maximum (FWHM).
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 1-18

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130405

      Authors
      Chuang Miao, Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Baodong Liu, Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Qiong Xu, Institute of Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
      Hengyong Yu, Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2014 17:24:53 GMT
       
  • Author Index Volume 21 (2013)
    • Abstract:
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 591-599
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:16:21 GMT
       
  • The application of automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) on image
           quality and radiation dose at abdominal computed tomography (CT): A
           phantom study
    • Abstract: Multi-phase spiral Computed tomography (CT) of abdomen has been widely used as an effective imaging modality to diagnose variety of diseases. As a result, the accumulated radiation exposure on the abdomen is substantially higher than other human organ regions. According to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, how to control radiation dose without compromising imaging quality becomes a research topic of high interest. However, how to achieve dose optimization of the abdomen CT examinations in Chinese patients have not been fully investigated in previous studies. In this study, we develop an abdomen-equivalent tissue model made by well-known CTP579 auxiliary testing model and the real CT data acquired from 68 Chinese male subjects. Combining with catphan600, we simulated the visibility of low and high contrast objects at adult abdomen under variety of x-ray dose levels. Using the automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) technique, we reduced the total radiation dose and identified a proper noise index (NI) for Chinese patients to maintain low or high contrast detectability of abdominal CT image. Our numerical experiments showed that in the phantom study for Chinese patients, when a NI was set at 10, the radiation dose reduced by 34.3% with low contrast objects detectable, while setting NI at 14 the dose level decreased by 65.1% without change the detectability of high contrast targets. The subjective ratings from three radiologists also yielded high consistence with Kappa > 0.75. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing the CT dose optimization studies through a unique phantom with the ATCM method.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 453-464

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130403

      Authors
      Qian Wang, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Xinming Zhao, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Junfeng Song, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Ning Guo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Ying Zhu, Department of Radiology, Peking University of First Hospital, Beijing, China
      Jianxin Liu, Department of Radiology, Peking University of First Hospital, Beijing, China
      Weiwei Qi, Department of Radiology, Peking University of People's Hospital, Beijing, China
      Jing Wu, Department of Radiology, Peking University of People's Hospital, Beijing, China
      Yuan Liang, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Shichao Feng, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Mancang Hu, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Chunwu Zhou, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
      Xiaoying Wang, Department of Radiology, Peking University of First Hospital, Beijing, China
      Nan Hong, Department of Radiology, Peking University of People's Hospital, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:16:13 GMT
       
  • Special Issue in Clinical Radiology
    • Abstract:
      Content Type Journal Article
      Category Guest-Editorial
      Pages 451-451

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130404
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:16:13 GMT
       
  • Extra projection data identification method for fast-continuous-rotation
           industrial cone-beam CT
    • Abstract: Fast-continuous-rotation is an effective measure to improve the scanning speed and decrease the radiation dose for cone-beam CT. However, because of acceleration and deceleration of the motor, as well as the response lag of the scanning control terminals to the host PC, uneven-distributed and redundant projections are inevitably created, which seriously decrease the quality of the reconstruction images. In this paper, we first analyzed the aspects of the theoretical sequence chart of the fast-continuous-rotation mode. Then, an optimized sequence chart was proposed by extending the rotation angle span to ensure the effective 2π-span projections were situated in the stable rotation stage. In order to match the rotation angle with the projection image accurately, structure similarity (SSIM) index was used as a control parameter for extraction of the effective projection sequence which was exactly the complete projection data for image reconstruction. The experimental results showed that SSIM based method had a high accuracy of projection view locating and was easy to realize.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 467-479

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130402

      Authors
      Min Yang, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China
      Shengling Duan, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China
      Jinghui Duan, China Information Security Certification Center, Beijing, China
      Xiaolong Wang, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China
      Xingdong Li, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, China
      Fanyong Meng, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
      Jianhai Zhang, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:15:14 GMT
       
  • Relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and bony anatomical
           landmarks of the calf and foot as measured on radiographs obtained with a
           new laser-calibrated position
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and bony landmarks of the calf and foot by developing a new laser-calibrated position for radiography of the lower limb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. All subjects were marked with skin projection of the hypothetical axis of the calf on the frontal and sagittal planes. Radiographs of weight-bearing full-length lower-limb were obtained by the laser-calibrated positioning in the experimental group, and by the use of conventional technique in the control group. To consider the rotation of the calf, radiological features of the knee and ankle were investigated. The relationship between the tibial mechanical axis and the bony landmarks of the calf and foot were also measured. RESULTS: Anteroposterior view depicted a tangential projection on the superior/inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis and between lateral malleolus and talus in ankle mortise in the experimental group. Bony overlap on the superior/inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis and between lateral malleolus and talus was seen in control group. On the tangential projection, it also presented a clear wheel-like contour of the medial femoral condyle, but a partial overlap between medial femoral condyle and tibial plateau. The femoral joint angle between the connecting line at the lowest point of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the tibial mechanical axis was 83.6° ± 2.49° in the experimental group and 85.3° ± 2.18° in the control group (P < 0.001). The tibial tubercle-axis distance from the center of the medial and middle one-third of the tibial tubercle to the tibial mechanical axis was 1.5 mm in the experimental group and 3.7 mm in the control group (P < 0.05). The malleoli-axis distance from the midpoint of the bimalleolar line joining the tips of the medial and lateral malleoli to the tibial mechanical axis was 1.9 mm in the experimental group and 6.9 mm in the control group (P < 0.001). Lateral view showed no difference between the tibial mechanical axis and the fibular reference line within two groups. CONCLUSION: In the new radiographic position, our data indicate that the hypothetical tibial mechanical axis and fibular reference line, obtained by marking the specified anatomic landmarks of the calf and foot, are located more closely to the tibial mechanical axis by correcting the rotation of the calf and foot during the radiography. On anteroposterior view, the tibial mechanical axis was approximately 2 mm medial to the center of the ankle. This indicates that the hypothetical tibial mechanical axis marked on the skin could be referred to guide the tibial osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 497-506

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130400

      Authors
      Peiheng He, Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Qi Zhu, Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zhaohui Zhang, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Xuenong Zou, Orthopaedic Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Dongliang Xu, Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:14:59 GMT
       
  • Directional sinogram interpolation for sparse angular acquisition in
           cone-beam computed tomography
    • Abstract: Cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is widely used in the field of medical imaging for guidance. Inspired by Betram's directional interpolation (BDI) methods, directional sinogram interpolation (DSI) was implemented to generate more CB projections by optimized (iterative) double-orientation estimation in sinogram space and directional interpolation. A new CBCT was subsequently reconstructed with the Feldkamp algorithm using both the original and interpolated CB projections. The proposed method was evaluated on both phantom and clinical data, and image quality was assessed by correlation ratio (CR) between the interpolated image and a gold standard obtained from full measured projections. Additionally, streak artifact reduction and image blur were assessed. In a CBCT reconstructed by 40 acquired projections over an arc of 360 degree, streak artifacts dropped 20.7% and 6.7% in a thorax phantom, when our method was compared to linear interpolation (LI) and BDI methods. Meanwhile, image blur was assessed by a head-and-neck phantom, where image blur of DSI was 20.1% and 24.3% less than LI and BDI. When our method was compared to LI and DI methods, CR increased by 4.4% and 3.1%. Streak artifacts of sparsely acquired CBCT were decreased by our method and image blur induced by interpolation was constrained to below other interpolation methods.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 481-496

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130401

      Authors
      Hua Zhang, Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
      Jan-Jakob Sonke, Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:14:59 GMT
       
  • Laplace operator based reconstruction algorithm for truncated spiral cone
           beam computed tomography
    • Abstract: To reconstruct images from truncated projections collected along a spiral trajectory, the most common approach is to smoothly extrapolate each projection to suppress truncation artifacts. Based on the work of Dennerlein, a local reconstruction algorithm is developed for spiral cone beam computed tomography (CT), which does not need explicit projection extrapolation. This algorithm is a filtered-backprojection (FBP) format and contains three major steps: cosine weight, filtration, and backprojection. While the cosine weight and backprojection steps are the same as the classical Feldkamp – Davis – Kress (FDK) scheme, the filtering step contains two steps: Laplace filtering and Radon transform-based filtering. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance than FDK algorithm for region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction of spiral cone-beam CT.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 515-526

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130398

      Authors
      Xiaobing Zou, Department of Mathematics and Information Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing, China
      Hengyong Yu, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Li Zeng, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:14:59 GMT
       
  • Range verification of proton radiotherapy with prompt gamma rays
    • Abstract: In-vivo range verification systems for incident protons recently utilize positron emission tomography (PET) based on the phenomenon of positron-emitting nuclei (PEN). However, recent investigations are suggesting that the range can be verified also from the prompt gamma (PG) photon emissions generated from proton interactions. In this work we investigate using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit the clinical viability of a theoretical sequential detector system to verify the range of protons in proton radiotherapy by the PG method for simple geometries and beam configurations. The results show a correlation between selected emitted PG rays and the incident protons range and suggest that our detector system is capable of in-vivo range monitoring for energies typical of radiation oncology applications. Future work will include implementing more realistic scenarios and optimizing current detector parameters.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 507-514

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130399

      Authors
      Andy Lau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Yong Chen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Salahuddin Ahmad, Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:14:59 GMT
       
  • An endoscopic diffuse optical tomographic method based on the effective
           detection range
    • Abstract: Endoscopic diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a new medical imaging modality with the potential applications in functional imaging of the internal organs. To cut down the measurement time and the computation burden of image reconstruction, in this paper, we developed the image reconstruction algorithm with the partial measurement in the effective detection range (EDR) of a tubular tissue and the corresponding endoscopic imaging system with a novel endoscopic probe for flexibly selecting the detection sites. For a typical inner size and optical properties of the cervix, it is found that EDR is less than half of the inner circumference. Comparing to the traditional method, the adoption of EDR results in a reduction of more than a factor of two in the time cost for a measurement cycle and for the total iteration reconstruction. Images reconstructed from the simulation data demonstrate that the proposed method achieves equivalent image quality to that obtained from the complete data set. The images reconstructed from the EDR measurements on cervix-like solid phantoms show that both the location and size of the targets are reconstructed correctly. The proposed method will be useful to the development of endoscopic DOT technologies for cancer detection in tubular organs including cervix.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 527-543

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130397

      Authors
      Zhuanping Qin, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Shanshan Cui, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Huijuan Zhao, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Xiaoqing Zhou, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Mengyu Jia, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Yanshuang Yang, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Ying Fan, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Feng Gao, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:14:59 GMT
       
  • 3D defect segmentation on CT volume data using morphology and resample
           techniques
    • Abstract: Segmentation of CT volume data is important and useful in non-destructive testing and evaluating. To eliminate the artifacts influence, we propose a new approach of 3D defect segmentation using two steps. First of all, an initial segmentation using 3D morphological method is performed. The initial segmentation results include false defects. Secondly, resample in polar coordinates method is performed. The experimental results prove that our method is effective to correctly segment 3D defects and eliminate false segmentation. Some experiments on CT volume data with noise are made, the results show that our method is also useful.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 545-556

      DOI 10.3233/XST-130396

      Authors
      Yongning Zou, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education, Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Jue Wang, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education, Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Jianwei Li, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 21
      Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / 2013
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 16:13:41 GMT
       
 
 
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