for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1963 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (151 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (149 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1120 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (290 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (45 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)

ENGINEERING (1120 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access  
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
   Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
     Published by IOS Press Homepage  [93 journals]   [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
  • Evaluation of automatic exposure control options in digital mammography
    • Abstract: To quantify the trade-offs of dose and image quality among pre-loaded automatic exposure control (AEC) options in digital mammography, two AEC tables from the Hologic Selenia digital mammography system were compared: the default AEC "table 0" and AEC "table 1". Realistically-shaped phantoms consisting of tissue-equivalent material of various thicknesses (4.5 cm–7 cm) were imaged to obtain a figure of merit (FOM), the squared contrast-to-noise ratio per mean glandular dose. To relate the results to pathological findings and to evaluate the overall performance, the measured contrast-to-noise ratios were applied to simulated lesions on the anthropomorphic breast phantom images, producing various lesion configurations which were blindly scored. It was found that the AEC table 1 improves the low contrast FOM by 11% to 20% for the breast thicknesses of 4.5–6 cm. However, for the 7 cm thick breast, the AEC table 1 decreases the low contrast FOM by 17%. For microcalcifications, the AEC table 1 improves the FOM slightly for the breast thicknesses of 4.5--6 cm and decreases it by 18% at a thickness of 7 cm. The lesion simulation showed enhanced contrast due to the AEC table 1 for the breast thicknesses of 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm, but the enhancement gradually reduces as the thickness increases. The lesion reading showed that the microcalcification detection was scored significantly higher from the AEC table 1 for the thicknesses 5 cm, 6 cm, and 7 cm. The corresponding improvement of mass detection scores was also observed but not consistently significant over the thickness range.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 377-394

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140433

      Authors
      Yifang Zhou, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Alexander Scott II, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Janet Allahverdian, Department of Radiation Safety, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Steve Frankel, Department of Imaging, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:10:04 GMT
       
  • Optimization of X-ray microplanar beam radiation therapy for deep-seated
           tumors by a simulation study
    • Abstract: A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to study the energy dependence on the transverse dose distribution of microplanar beam radiation therapy (MRT) for deep-seated tumors. The distribution was found to be the peak (in-beam) dose and the decay from the edge of the beam down to the valley. The area below the same valley dose level (valley region) was decreased with the increase in the energy of X-rays at the same beam separation. To optimize the MRT, we made the following two assumptions: the therapeutic gain may be attributed to the efficient recovery of normal tissue caused by the beam separation; and a key factor for the efficient recovery of normal tissue depends on the area size of the valley region. Based on these assumptions and the results of the simulated dose distribution, we concluded that the optimum X-ray energy was in the range of 100–300 keV depending on the effective peak dose to the target tumors and/or tolerable surface dose. In addition, we proposed parameters to be studied for the optimization of MRT to deep-seated tumors.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 395-406

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140434

      Authors
      Kunio Shinohara, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Takeshi Kondoh, Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe-shi, Hyogo, Japan
      Nobuteru Nariyama, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
      Hajime Fujita, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Masakazu Washio, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
      Yukimasa Aoki, Medical Corporation YUKOUKAI Clinic, Funabashi-shi, Chiba, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:10:04 GMT
       
  • Combined multi-kernel head computed tomography images optimized for
           depicting both brain parenchyma and bone
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The hybrid convolution kernel technique for computed tomography (CT) is known to enable the depiction of an image set using different window settings. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to decrease the number of artifacts in the hybrid convolution kernel technique for head CT and to determine whether our improved combined multi-kernel head CT images enabled diagnosis as a substitute for both brain (low-pass kernel-reconstructed) and bone (high-pass kernel-reconstructed) images. METHODS: Forty-four patients with nondisplaced skull fractures were included. Our improved multi-kernel images were generated so that pixels of >100 Hounsfield unit in both brain and bone images were composed of CT values of bone images and other pixels were composed of CT values of brain images. Three radiologists compared the improved multi-kernel images with bone images. RESULTS: The improved multi-kernel images and brain images were identically displayed on the brain window settings. All three radiologists agreed that the improved multi-kernel images on the bone window settings were sufficient for diagnosing skull fractures in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This improved multi-kernel technique has a simple algorithm and is practical for clinical use. Thus, simplified head CT examinations and fewer images that need to be stored can be expected.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 369-376

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140432

      Authors
      Satoshi Takagi, Radiological Center, National Defense Medical College Hospital, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Hiroyuki Nagase, Department of Radiology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
      Tatsuya Hayashi, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
      Tamotsu Kita, Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Katsumi Hayashi, Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Shigeru Sanada, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
      Masayuki Koike, Radiological Center, National Defense Medical College Hospital, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:56 GMT
       
  • Theoretical modeling of mobile target broadening in helical and axial
           computed tomographic imaging
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate variations in mobile target length induced by sinusoidal motion in helical (HCT) and axial CT (ACT) imaging. A mathematical model was derived that predicts the measured broadening of the apparent lengths of mobile targets and its dependence on motion parameters, target size, and imaging couch speed in CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three mobile targets of differing lengths and sizes were constructed of tissue-equivalent gel material and embedded into artificial lung phantom. Respiratory motion was mimicked with a mobile phantom that moves in one-dimension along the superior-inferior direction with sinusoidal motion patterns. A mathematical model was derived to predict quantitatively the variations of apparent lengths for mobile targets and its dependence on phantom and imaging couch motion parameters in HCT and ACT. The model predictions were verified by length measurements of the mobile phantom targets that were imaged with the different motion patterns using CT imaging. RESULTS: The measured lengths of mobile targets enlarged or shrunk depending on the phantom motion parameters that include phantom speed, amplitude, frequency, phase and speed of the imaging couch. The target length variations were significant where some targets doubled lengths or shrunk to less than half of their actual length. The apparent lengths of mobile targets decreased if the target was moving in the same direction as the imaging couch motion and increased if the mobile target was moving opposed to imaging couch in both HCT and ACT. The model predicts well the variations in the mobile target apparent lengths and their dependence on the motion parameters. CONCLUSION: The measured and model variations of apparent lengths of mobile targets are considerable and may affect the accuracy of tumor volumes obtained from HCT and ACT. This mathematical model provides a method to quantitatively assess the length variations of mobile targets and their dependence on motion parameters of the phantom and imaging system which may have potential applications in the fields of diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 351-360

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140430

      Authors
      Imad Ali, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Steven Jackson, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Nesreen Alsbou, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Penn State University, Behrend College, Erie, PA, USA
      Salahuddin Ahmad, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:38 GMT
       
  • Study on image processing of panoramic X-ray using deviation improvement
           software
    • Abstract: Utilization of panoramic X-ray device is getting wider. Panoramic X-ray has low resolution than general X-ray device and it occurs to distortion by deviation of image synthesis. Due to structural problems, it has been used restrictively to identify of tooth structure, not for whole head. Therefore, it designed and produced panoramic X-ray device which is possible to diagnostic coverage can be extended and had to be adjusted interval control between X-ray generator and image processing for whole of Maxillofacia's diagnosis. Produced panoramic X-ray device is composed basically of short image synthesis. In addition, it was confirmed the results by used the device which was applied deviation of the brightness of the image, filter to improve the location of the deviation and interpolation method. In this study, it was used 13 images including the front. It occurs to brightness deviation, position deviation, and geometric correction when synthesis of image, but it had been solved by deviation improvement software and a change of CCD camera's scan line which is used for image acquisition. Therefore, it confirmed expansion possibility of utilization range to commonly used panoramic X-ray device.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 361-368

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140431

      Authors
      Tae-Gon Kim, Department of Electrical and Electronic, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Yang-Sun Lee, Division of Computer Engineering, Mokwon University, Daejeon, Korea
      Young-Pyo Kim, Department of Electrical and Electronic, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Yong-Pil Park, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Min-Woo Cheon, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongshin University, Jeonnam Na-Ju, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:38 GMT
       
  • Edge guided image reconstruction in linear scan CT by weighted alternating
           direction TV minimization
    • Abstract: Linear scan computed tomography (CT) is a promising imaging configuration with high scanning efficiency while the data set is under-sampled and angularly limited for which high quality image reconstruction is challenging. In this work, an edge guided total variation minimization reconstruction (EGTVM) algorithm is developed in dealing with this problem. The proposed method is modeled on the combination of total variation (TV) regularization and iterative edge detection strategy. In the proposed method, the edge weights of intermediate reconstructions are incorporated into the TV objective function. The optimization is efficiently solved by applying alternating direction method of multipliers. A prudential and conservative edge detection strategy proposed in this paper can obtain the true edges while restricting the errors within an acceptable degree. Based on the comparison on both simulation studies and real CT data set reconstructions, EGTVM provides comparable or even better quality compared to the non-edge guided reconstruction and adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets method. With the utilization of weighted alternating direction TV minimization and edge detection, EGTVM achieves fast and robust convergence and reconstructs high quality image when applied in linear scan CT with under-sampled data set.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 335-349

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140429

      Authors
      Ailong Cai, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Linyuan Wang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hanming Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Xiaoqi Xi, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Jianxin Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological R&D Centre, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:09:07 GMT
       
  • Image quality and dose efficiency of high energy phase sensitive x-ray
           imaging: Phantom studies
    • Abstract: The goal of this preliminary study was to perform an image quality comparison of high energy phase sensitive imaging with low energy conventional imaging at similar radiation doses. The comparison was performed with the following phantoms: American College of Radiology (ACR), contrast-detail (CD), acrylic edge and tissue-equivalent. Visual comparison of the phantom images indicated comparable or improved image quality for all phantoms. Quantitative comparisons were performed through ACR and CD observer studies, both of which indicated higher image quality in the high energy phase sensitive images. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of high energy phase sensitive imaging to overcome existing challenges with the clinical implementation of phase contrast imaging and improve the image quality for a similar radiation dose as compared to conventional imaging near typical mammography energies. In addition, the results illustrate the capability of phase sensitive imaging to sustain the image quality improvement at high x-ray energies and for breast simulating phantoms, both of which indicate the potential to benefit fields such as mammography. Future studies will continue to investigate the potential for dose reduction and image quality improvement provided by high energy phase sensitive imaging.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 321-334

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140428

      Authors
      Molly Donovan Wong, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Xizeng Wu, Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
      Hong Liu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • Study of solid-conversion gaseous detector based on GEM for high energy
           X-ray industrial CT
    • Abstract: The general gaseous ionization detectors are not suitable for high energy X-ray industrial computed tomography (HEICT) because of their inherent limitations, especially low detective efficiency and large volume. The goal of this study was to investigate a new type of gaseous detector to solve these problems. The novel detector was made by a metal foil as X-ray convertor to improve the conversion efficiency, and the Gas Electron Multiplier (hereinafter "GEM") was used as electron amplifier to lessen its volume. The detective mechanism and signal formation of the detector was discussed in detail. The conversion efficiency was calculated by using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, and the transport course of photon and secondary electron avalanche in the detector was simulated with the Maxwell and Garfield codes. The result indicated that this detector has higher conversion efficiency as well as less volume. Theoretically this kind of detector could be a perfect candidate for replacing the conventional detector in HEICT.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 299-307

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140426

      Authors
      Rifeng Zhou, ICT Research Center, The Key Lab. for Opto-electronic Technology and Systems of Ministry of Education, University of Chongqing, Chongqing, China
      Yaling Zhou, ICT Research Center, The Key Lab. for Opto-electronic Technology and Systems of Ministry of Education, University of Chongqing, Chongqing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • Impact of physician practice on patient radiation dose during CT guided
           biopsy procedures
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: Patient radiation dose during Computed Tomography (CT) guided biopsy procedures is determined by both acquisition technical parameters and physician practice. The potential effect of the physician practice is of concern. This study is to investigate the effects of those intangibles on patient radiation dose. METHODS: Patient radiation dose from 252 patients who underwent CT guided biopsy from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively studied. Ten physicians who used conventional intermittent shots, low mA dose saving feature, or both were included in the study. The patient dose reports were retrieved and the total dose length products (DLPs) were analyzed. Linear regression analysis performed between various variables and reported dose. Patient detriment index (PDI) was developed, which sets threshold (standard of practice) for comparing physician practice with their peers. Odds ratio was calculated to determine odds of a group of patients receiving dose above threshold when compared to another group. RESULTS: Median DLP among ten physicians was 1194 mGy-cm. There was a significant difference (p< 0.01) between reported DLPs doses when physicians used dose saving feature vs. when feature not used (539.8 ± 169.4 mGy-cm vs. 1269.7 ± 659.0 mGy-cm). In general, physicians who used dose saving feature had lower relative PDIs (< 1) compared to the PDIs (> 1) without the dose feature. Odds ratio estimate of 7.7 at 95% confidence level indicates that the odds of a group receiving a high dose depends on practitioner. CONCLUSION: Adjustments of practice habits, use of dose saving features or both may be needed to improve patient care for CT biopsy.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 309-319

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140427

      Authors
      Victor J. Weir, Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA
      Jie Zhang, Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
      Angela P. Bruner, Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:15 GMT
       
  • A method of extracting structural priors from images of micro-CT for
           fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction
    • Abstract: The dual-modality systems combined fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals simultaneously. Except for anatomic localization, micro-CT should also offer boundary of different organs as reconstruction priors for FMT, which is more challenging than acquisition of structural information. In this paper, we propose a framework to extract structural priors of a living mouse with micro-CT. The iodinated lipid emulsion contrast agent was adopted to enhance the contrast of the soft tissues of the mouse. Then organs in thorax and abdomen were segmented with different approaches depending on the characteristics of the organs. Bone, lung, heart, liver, spleen, and muscles were separately segmented. And the results were compared with that manually segmented. The Tanimoto coefficient and the relative volume difference of segmented slices were measured to be 91.28 ± 5.78 and 0.27 ± 3.15, respectively. In our simulation study of FMT reconstruction, the errors of measured position and concentration of the fluorophore with priors declined by 89.7% and 79.6% in thorax, as well as 80.8% and 78.3% in abdomen, respectively, compared with the results without priors. The proposed scheme will make FMT reconstruction much more reliable and practical in small animal study.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 285-297

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140425

      Authors
      Yuanzheng Meng, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Xiaoquan Yang, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Yong Deng, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Xuanxuan Zhang, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Hui Gong, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 3 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 15:08:14 GMT
       
  • Integration of 3D scale-based pseudo-enhancement correction and partial
           volume image segmentation for improving electronic colon cleansing in CT
           colonograpy
    • Abstract: Orally administered tagging agents are usually used in CT colonography (CTC) to differentiate residual bowel content from native colonic structures. However, the high-density contrast agents tend to introduce pseudo-enhancement (PE) effect on neighboring soft tissues and elevate their observed CT attenuation value toward that of the tagged materials (TMs), which may result in an excessive electronic colon cleansing (ECC) since the pseudo-enhanced soft tissues are incorrectly identified as TMs. To address this issue, we integrated a 3D scale-based PE correction into our previous ECC pipeline based on the maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization partial volume (PV) segmentation. The newly proposed ECC scheme takes into account both the PE and PV effects that commonly appear in CTC images. We evaluated the new scheme on 40 patient CTC scans, both qualitatively through display of segmentation results, and quantitatively through radiologists' blind scoring (human observer) and computer-aided detection (CAD) of colon polyps (computer observer). Performance of the presented algorithm has shown consistent improvements over our previous ECC pipeline, especially for the detection of small polyps submerged in the contrast agents. The CAD results of polyp detection showed that 4 more submerged polyps were detected for our new ECC scheme over the previous one.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 271-283

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140424

      Authors
      Hao Zhang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Lihong Li, Department of Engineering Science and Physics, City University of New York at College of Staten Island, Staten Island, NY, USA
      Hongbin Zhu, Department of Radiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Hao Han, Department of Radiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Bowen Song, Department of Radiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Zhengrong Liang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:43:13 GMT
       
  • Removing streak artifacts from ECG-gated reconstructions using
           deconvolution
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: 4D cardiac computed tomography aims at reconstructing the beating heart from a series of 2D projections and the simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram. Each cardiac phase is reconstructed by exploiting the subset of projections acquired during this particular cardiac phase only. In these conditions, the Feldkamp, Davis and Kress method (FDK) generates large streak artifacts in the reconstructed volumes, hampering the medical interpretation. These artifacts can be substantially reduced by deconvolution methods.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compare two 4D cardiac CT reconstruction methods based on deconvolution, and to evaluate their practical benefits on two applications: cardiac micro CT and human cardiac C-arm CT.METHODS: The first evaluated method builds upon inverse filtering. It has been proposed recently and demonstrated on 4D cardiac micro CT. The second one is an iterative deconvolution method, and turns out equivalent to an ECG-gated Iterative Filtered Back Projection (ECG-gated IFBP).RESULTS: Results are presented on simulated data in 2D parallel beam, 2D fan beam and 3D cone beam geometries.CONCLUSIONS: Both methods are efficient on the cardiac micro CT simulations, but insufficient to handle 4D human cardiac C-Arm CT simulations. Overall, ECG-gated IFPB largely outperforms the inverse filtering method.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 253-270

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140423

      Authors
      Cyril Mory, Université de Lyon, CREATIS, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex, France
      Vincent Auvray, Philips Research Medisys, Suresnes, France
      Bo Zhang, Philips Research Medisys, Suresnes, France
      Michael Grass, Philips Research, Röntgenstrasse, Hamburg, Germany
      Dirk Schäfer, Philips Research, Röntgenstrasse, Hamburg, Germany
      Simon Rit, Université de Lyon, CREATIS, Lyon, France
      Françoise Peyrin, Université de Lyon, CREATIS, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex, France
      Philippe Douek, Université de Lyon, CREATIS, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
      Loïc Boussel, Université de Lyon, CREATIS, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:42:39 GMT
       
  • Multi-energy image sequence fusion based on variable energy X-ray imaging
    • Abstract: For complicated structural components characterized by wide X-ray attenuation ranges, the conventional fixed-energy imaging mode cannot obtain all structural information using a single tube voltage. This limitation results in information shortage, because the effective thickness of components along the orientation of the X-ray penetration exceeds the limit of the dynamic range of the X-ray imaging system. To solve this problem, multi-energy image sequence fusion technology has been advanced. In this new method, the tube voltage is adjusted several times by matching the voltage and the effective thickness to obtain all the effective local information on an object. Then, the subset sequences in the multi-energy image sequence are extracted based on the recursive template, and that are fused to reconstruct the full projection information based on linear weighting. An accompanying experiment demonstrates that the new technology can extend the dynamic range of X-ray imaging and provide a complete representation of the internal structure of complicated structural components.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 241-251

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140422

      Authors
      Bin Liu, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shannxi, China
      Yan Han, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shannxi, China
      Jinxiao Pan, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shannxi, China
      Ping Chen, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shannxi, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:41:46 GMT
       
  • Iterative CT reconstruction via minimizing adaptively reweighted total
           variation
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Iterative reconstruction via total variation (TV) minimization has demonstrated great successes in accurate CT imaging from under-sampled projections. When projections are further reduced, over-smoothing artifacts appear in the current reconstruction especially around the structure boundaries.OBJECTIVE: We propose a practical algorithm to improve TV-minimization based CT reconstruction on very few projection data.METHOD: Based on the theory of compressed sensing, the L-0 norm approach is more desirable to further reduce the projection views. To overcome the computational difficulty of the non-convex optimization of the L-0 norm, we implement an adaptive weighting scheme to approximate the solution via a series of TV minimizations for practical use in CT reconstruction. The weight on TV is initialized as uniform ones, and is automatically changed based on the gradient of the reconstructed image from the previous iteration. The iteration stops when a small difference between the weighted TV values is observed on two consecutive reconstructed images.RESULTS: We evaluate the proposed algorithm on both a digital phantom and a physical phantom. Using 20 equiangular projections, our method reduces reconstruction errors in the conventional TV minimization by a factor of more than 5, with improved spatial resolution.CONCLUSIONS: By adaptively reweighting TV in iterative CT reconstruction, we successfully further reduce the projection number for the same or better image quality.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 227-240

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140421

      Authors
      Lei Zhu, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
      Tianye Niu, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
      Michael Petrongolo, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:41:46 GMT
       
  • Simulation analysis of airflow alteration in the trachea following the
           vascular ring surgery based on CT images using the computational fluid
           dynamics method
    • Abstract: This study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the three-dimensional airflow in the trachea before and after the vascular ring surgery (VRS). The simulation was based on CT-scan images of the patients with the vascular ring diseases. The surface geometry of the tracheal airway was reconstructed using triangular mesh by the Amira software package. The unstructured tetrahedral volume meshes were generated by the ANSYS ICEM CFD software package. The airflow in the tracheal airway was solved by the ESI CFD-ACE+ software package. Numerical simulation shows that the pressure drops across the tracheal stenosis before and after the surgery were 0.1789 and 0.0967 Pa, respectively, with the inspiratory inlet velocity 0.1 m/s. Meanwhile, the improvement percentage by the surgery was 45.95%. In the expiratory phase, by contrast, the improvement percentage was 40.65%. When the inspiratory velocity reached 1 m/s, the pressure drop became 4.988~Pa and the improvement percentage was 43.32%. Simulation results further show that after treatment the pressure drop in the tracheal airway was significantly decreased, especially for low inspiratory and expiratory velocities. The CFD method can be applied to quantify the airway pressure alteration and to evaluate the treatment outcome of the vascular ring surgery under different respiratory velocities.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 213-225

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140420

      Authors
      Fong-Lin Chen, Institute of Medicine, Chung Shang Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
      Tzyy-Leng Horng, Department of Applied Mathematics, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
      Tzu-Ching Shih, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:41:09 GMT
       
  • The convergence of block cyclic projection with underrelaxation parameters
           for compressed sensing based tomography
    • Abstract: The block cyclic projection method in the compressed sensing framework (BCPCS) was introduced for image reconstruction in computed tomography and its convergence had been proven in the case of unity relaxation (λ=1). In this paper, we prove its convergence with underrelaxation parameters λ∈(0,1). As a result, the convergence of compressed sensing based block component averaging algorithm (BCAVCS) and block diagonally-relaxed orthogonal projection algorithm (BDROPCS) with underrelaxation parameters under a certain condition are derived. Experiments are given to illustrate the convergence behavior of these algorithms with selected parameters.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 197-211

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140419

      Authors
      Fangjun Arroyo, Department of Mathematics, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA
      Edward Arroyo, School of Science Technology, American Public University System, Manassas, VA, USA
      Xiezhang Li, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA
      Jiehua Zhu, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:40:59 GMT
       
  • Flexible methods for segmentation evaluation: Results from CT-based
           luggage screening
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Imaging systems used in aviation security include segmentation algorithms in an automatic threat recognition pipeline. The segmentation algorithms evolve in response to emerging threats and changing performance requirements. Analysis of segmentation algorithms' behavior, including the nature of errors and feature recovery, facilitates their development. However, evaluation methods from the literature provide limited characterization of the segmentation algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To develop segmentation evaluation methods that measure systematic errors such as oversegmentation and undersegmentation, outliers, and overall errors. The methods must measure feature recovery and allow us to prioritize segments. METHODS: We developed two complementary evaluation methods using statistical techniques and information theory. We also created a semi-automatic method to define ground truth from 3D images. We applied our methods to evaluate five segmentation algorithms developed for CT luggage screening. We validated our methods with synthetic problems and an observer evaluation.RESULTS: Both methods selected the same best segmentation algorithm. Human evaluation confirmed the findings. The measurement of systematic errors and prioritization helped in understanding the behavior of each segmentation algorithm.CONCLUSIONS: Our evaluation methods allow us to measure and explain the accuracy of segmentation algorithms.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 175-195

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140418

      Authors
      Seemeen Karimi, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
      Xiaoqian Jiang, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
      Pamela Cosman, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
      Harry Martz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:40:59 GMT
       
  • Modulation of β-adrenergic receptor in rat lung after gamma
           irradiation
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of γ irradiation on β-adrenergic receptors of the lung.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an animal model. Cell membrane proteins of lung tissue were harvested after the whole lung received 20 Gy of ^{60}Co γ irradiation. ^{125}I-labeled iodopindolol (^{125}I-IPIN) was used as a ligand of β-adrenergic receptors. The numbers of the β-adrenergic receptors were determined by radioligand-receptor binding assay (RBA). Data were compared with irreversible blockage using antagonist bromoacetylalprenololmenthan (BAAM).RESULTS: The post-radiation RBA assay showed that the number of β-adrenergic receptors in lung tissue decreased at a steady rate. It decreased to 48% of the normal level at the 15th day after irradiation. At 40 days after radiation the level of β-adrenergic receptors started to increase at a steady rate and reached to the normal level around 70 days after radiation. There were significant differences in receptor synthesis, degradation and regeneration rates between irradiation group and BAMM group. CONCLUSIONS: The whole lung irradiation could severely affect the levels of β-adrenergic receptors. The potential clinical implications of radiation-induced changes of β-adrenergic receptors warrant further investigation.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 165-173

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140417

      Authors
      Yong-Gang Qiang, Department of Experimental Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Yong-Hua Liao, Department of Experimental Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Xiu-Ping Zhang, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Jian Li, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zheng Huang, School of Photonics and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:40:22 GMT
       
  • A tensor PRISM algorithm for multi-energy CT reconstruction and
           comparative studies
    • Abstract: Different from the single-energy CT (SECT), multi-energy CT (MECT) acquires projection data at different energy spectra, which makes that the MECT has more sparsity among the data of separate energy and over energy. In order to maximize utilization of all these sparse characteristics, this paper proposed a new tensor PRISM model to consistently treat a priori knowledge of the low rank, intensity and sparsity with the higher-dimensional tensor technique. The priori knowledge of low rank corresponds to the stationary background and similarity over the energy, and the intensity and sparsity represents the rest of image features at single energy. Then, the regularization and convex minimization problem was solved by tensor unfolding and an extended tensor-based split-Bregman algorithm. Different from the previous PRISM algorithm, the new algorithm mixed and treated different constraints consistently. Numerical experiments have shown that our tensor PRISM approach performs much better than the popular l_{1} regularization algorithm in terms of image quality for MECT.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 147-163

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140416

      Authors
      Liang Li, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Zhiqiang Chen, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Ge Wang, Biomedical Imaging Cluster, CBIS/BME, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, NY, USA
      Jiyang Chu, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Hao Gao, Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:40:22 GMT
       
  • A new algorithm for calculating optimal viewing angles in coronary
           angiography based on 4-D cardiac computed tomography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Coronary stenosis is the main cause of the coronary heart disease (CHD). However, coronary arteriography (CAG), which is considered as the 'gold standard' of determining the location and severity of CHD, hardly acquires a satisfactory image for some lesions by traditional viewing angles.OBJECTIVE: We proposed a new approach to calculate the optimal viewing angles of CAG system to observe vessel segment of interest.METHODS: Firstly, the 4-D coronary arteries are segmented to obtain a dynamic vessel model. Then, a "rendering" method in computer graphics is used to calculate the optimal viewing angles of the vessel segment in the entire cardiac cycle. At last, an intersection of these angles can be regarded as the optimal ones in the whole cardiac cycle.RESULTS: Within the constraint of 2% foreshortening, the single phase data show 1% foreshortening without overlapping at the optimal angles proposed by our method, compared with 1.8% foreshortening at working angles set by clinical experts. And the multi-phase experiments also have good results.CONCLUSIONS: The new approach can provide doctors optimal viewing angles of interested vessel segment in the whole cardiac cycle.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 137-145

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140415

      Authors
      Xiaodong Chen, College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Junwei Li, College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Zhaoxia Zhang, College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Yi Wang, College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Zhongwei Jia, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, People's Liberation Army 254 Hospital, Tianjin, China
      Kui Pu, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, People's Liberation Army 254 Hospital, Tianjin, China
      Daoyin Yu, College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 2 / 2014
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:39:02 GMT
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2014