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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2156 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (168 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (93 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1164 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (355 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (54 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)

ENGINEERING (1164 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Complex Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Coupled Systems and Multiscale Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access  
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

  Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
   This journal is no longer being updated because it doesn't publish new issues
    or its RSS feed has been removed by the publisher
  • Energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity studies in the
           IR-T1 tokamak
    • Abstract: Determinations of plasma parameters as well as the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activity, energetic electrons energy and energy confinement time are essential for future fusion reactors experiments and optimized operation. Also some of the plasma information can be deduced from these parameters, such as plasma equilibrium, stability, and MHD instabilities. In this contribution we investigated the relation between energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity in the IR-T1 Tokamak. For this purpose we used the magnetic diagnostics and a hard x-ray spectroscopy in IR-T1 tokamak. A hard x-ray emission is produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles or limiters. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 267-274

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150486

      Authors
      K. Mikaili Agah, Department of Physics and Mathematics, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      M. Ghoranneviss, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      A. Salar Elahi, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:24 GMT
       
  • Convex hull matching and hierarchical decomposition for multimodality
           medical image registration
    • Abstract: This study proposes a novel hierarchical pyramid strategy for 3D registration of multimodality medical images. The surfaces of the source and target volume data are first extracted, and the surface point clouds are then aligned roughly using convex hull matching. The convex hull matching registration procedure could align images with large-scale transformations. The original images are divided into blocks and the corresponding blocks in the two images are registered by affine and non-rigid registration procedures. The sub-blocks are iteratively smoothed by the Gaussian kernel with different sizes during the registration procedure. The registration result of the large kernel is taken as the input of the small kernel registration. The fine registration of the two volume data sets is achieved by iteratively increasing the number of blocks, in which increase in similarity measure is taken as a criterion for acceptation of each iteration level. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method in registering the multiple modalities of medical images.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 253-265

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150485

      Authors
      Jian Yang, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Jingfan Fan, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Tianyu Fu, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Danni Ai, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Jianjun Zhu, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Qin Li, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Yongtian Wang, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:24 GMT
       
  • Scattering correction algorithm in the PET sinogram using the factorial
           design of experimental method: A phantom study
    • Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) had been utilized to image gene therapy, estimate tumor growth, detect neural function of the brain, and diagnose disease. However, sinogram noise always results inaccurate PET images. The factorial design of experiment (DOE), a statistical method, was applied to investigate, correct and estimate the fraction of scattering of 2D sinogram in PET. The DOE was included as factors of angle views and scatter media with two levels designed. The PET sinogram after scattering correction was then reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP). Both Ge-68 uniform phantom and Jaszczak anthropomorphic torso phantom were applied to exam the performance of presented scattering correction algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), standard deviation (STD) of background, and full width at half maximum (FWHM), and uniformity test were applied to validate the performance of presented method. The proposed method provides a narrower FWHM, smaller STD of the background, higher SNR and better uniformity than those of original protocols. This method should be tested for accuracy and feasibility with three-dimensional phantoms or real animal studies and consideration effects of cross-talk between slices in future work.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 243-251

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150484

      Authors
      Huei-Yung Chen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Nan-Han Lu, Department of Radiology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Yung-Hui Huang, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Tai-Been Chen, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:22 GMT
       
  • A prior-based metal artifact reduction algorithm for x-ray CT
    • Abstract: In computed tomography (CT), metal objects in the scanning filed are accompanied by physical phenomenon that causes projections to be inconsistent. These inconsistencies produce bright and dark shadows or streaks in analytically reconstructed images. Interpolation-based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms usually replace the inconsistent projection data by estimating surrogate data based on the surrounding uncorrupted projections. In such cases, secondary artifacts will be generated when the data estimates are inaccurate. Therefore, better projection estimation is critical. This paper proposes an image post-processing strategy to create an intermediate image, named the prior image and better estimates of the surrogate data by forward projecting this prior image. The proposed method consists of three steps based on the forward projection MAR framework. First, metallic implants in the uncorrected images are segmented using a Markov random field model (MRF). Then a prior image is generated via an edge-preserving filter and a recovery procedure of the adjacent anatomical structures. Finally, the projection is completed via forward projecting this prior image and the corrected image is reconstructed by the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. Studies on both phantom and clinical data are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed method. The comparisons with other previous MAR algorithms demonstrate that the proposed MAR method performs better in metal artifact suppression and anatomical structure preservation.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 229-241

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150483

      Authors
      Ming Li, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China
      Jian Zheng, Medical Imaging Department, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
      Tao Zhang, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China
      Yihui Guan, PET Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
      Pin Xu, Medical Imaging Department, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
      Mingshan Sun, Medical Imaging Department, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:22 GMT
       
  • Generalized fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction
    • Abstract: The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N^5).
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 157-188

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150479

      Authors
      Shuang-Ren Zhao, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Dazong Jiang, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
      Kevin Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Kang Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:21 GMT
       
  • A modularly designed fluorescence molecular tomography system for
           multi-modality imaging
    • Abstract: Nowadays multi-modality imaging has gained great interest in biology research by offering complementary information. In this paper, a modularly designed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system has been developed, which can be not only used as a standalone imaging device, but also feasibly integrated with other imaging modalities, such as X-ray computed tomography (X-CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), to perform multi-modality imaging in a sequential manner. The system rotates the CCD camera and the excitation light source in the vertical plane, while the animal is stationed on a horizontally moveable transparent animal holder at its natural prone position. FMT and other imaging modalities are co-registered automatically. Phantom and animal experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the system. The accurate results show that this innovative flexible FMT system has a great potential to be a powerful tool for the study of small animal disease models.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 147-156

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150478

      Authors
      Guohe Wang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Bin Zhang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Yichen Ding, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Yun He, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Jingsong Chen, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Yanye Lu, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Xiaoyun Jiang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Junwei Shi, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Jing Bai, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
      Qiushi Ren, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Changhui Li, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:21 GMT
       
  • A user-friendly LabVIEW software platform for grating based X-ray
           phase-contrast imaging
    • Abstract: X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide greatly improved contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging for weakly absorbing samples, such as biological soft tissues and fibre composites. In this study, we introduced an easy and fast way to develop a user-friendly software platform dedicated to the new grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of the University of Science and Technology of China. The control of 21 motorized stages, of a piezoelectric stage and of an X-ray tube are achieved with this software, it also covers image acquisition with a flat panel detector for automatic phase stepping scan. Moreover, a data post-processing module for signals retrieval and other custom features are in principle available. With a seamless integration of all the necessary functions in one software package, this platform greatly facilitate users' activities during experimental runs with this grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging setup.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 189-199

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150480

      Authors
      Shenghao Wang, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Huajie Han, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Kun Gao, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Zhili Wang, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Can Zhang, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Meng Yang, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Zhao Wu, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Ziyu Wu, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:21 GMT
       
  • Validation of a novel microradiography device for characterization of bone
           mineralization
    • Abstract: In order to simplify bone mineralization measurements, a system using radiographic films has been updated with a digital detector. The objective of this paper was to validate this new device. Technologies and physical phenomena involved in both systems (radiographic films and digital detector) are different. The methodology used to compare the two systems was based on image quality and assessed on two main parameters: contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution. Results showed that the contrast to noise ratio was similar between the two systems, provided that acquisition parameters were optimized. With regard to spatial resolution, a magnification factor of at least 4 or more was required to achieve the same resolution as films. A final validation was also shown on a real image of a bone sample. The results showed that both systems have similar image quality performances, and the system using digital detector has several advantages (easier to use than films, no consumables and faster acquisition time).
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 201-211

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150481

      Authors
      Florian Montagner, INSERM, Lyon, France
      Valérie Kaftandjian, Laboratoire Vibrations Acoustique LVA, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, France
      Delphine Farlay, INSERM, Lyon, France
      Daniel Brau, Photonic Science, St Etienne de St Geoirs, France
      Georges Boivin, INSERM, Lyon, France
      Hélène Follet, INSERM, Lyon, France
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:21 GMT
       
  • Analytic reconstruction approach for parallel translational computed
           tomography
    • Abstract: To develop low-cost and low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanners for developing countries, recently a parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT) is proposed, and the source and detector are translated oppositely with respect to the imaging object without a slip-ring. In this paper, we develop an analytic filtered-backprojection (FBP)-type reconstruction algorithm for two dimensional (2D) fan-beam PTCT and extend it to three dimensional (3D) cone-beam geometry in a Feldkamp-type framework. Particularly, a weighting function is constructed to deal with data redundancy for multiple translations PTCT to eliminate image artifacts. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to validate and evaluate the proposed analytic reconstruction algorithms, and the results confirm their correctness and merits.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 213-228

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150482

      Authors
      Huihua Kong, School of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Hengyong Yu, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:21 GMT
       
  • Fast analytical scatter estimation using graphics processing units
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To develop a fast patient-specific analytical estimator of first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in cone-beam computed tomography, implemented using graphics processing units.METHODS: The authors developed an analytical estimator for first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in a cone-beam computed tomography geometry. The estimator was coded using NVIDIA's CUDA environment for execution on an NVIDIA graphics processing unit. Performance of the analytical estimator was validated by comparison with high-count Monte Carlo simulations for two different numerical phantoms. Monoenergetic analytical simulations were compared with monoenergetic and polyenergetic Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates were compared both qualitatively, from visual inspection of images and profiles, and quantitatively, using a scaled root-mean-square difference metric. Reconstruction of simulated cone-beam projection data of an anthropomorphic breast phantom illustrated the potential of this method as a component of a scatter correction algorithm.RESULTS: The monoenergetic analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates showed very good agreement. The monoenergetic analytical estimates showed good agreement for Compton single scatter and reasonable agreement for Rayleigh single scatter when compared with polyenergetic Monte Carlo estimates. For a voxelized phantom with dimensions 128 × 128 × 128 voxels and a detector with 256 × 256 pixels, the analytical estimator required 669 seconds for a single projection, using a single NVIDIA 9800 GX2 video card. Accounting for first order scatter in cone-beam image reconstruction improves the contrast to noise ratio of the reconstructed images.CONCLUSION: The analytical scatter estimator, implemented using graphics processing units, provides rapid and accurate estimates of single scatter and with further acceleration and a method to account for multiple scatter may be useful for practical scatter correction schemes.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 119-133

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150475

      Authors
      Harry Ingleby, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      Jonas Lippuner, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      Daniel W. Rickey, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      Yue Li, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      Idris Elbakri, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:20 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of the dose perturbation around gold and steel fiducial markers
           in a medical linac through Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Purpose of this work was to study the dose perturbation within the target volume of a external MV radiation therapy when using metal fiducials. METHODS: We developed a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 of a cylindrical fiducial made either of gold or of steel and simulated the photon irradiation beam originating from a medical Linac operating at 6, 10 or 15 MV. For each energy, two different irradiation schemes were simulated: a single 5 × 5-cm square field in the -x direction, and five 5 × 5-cm fields at 0°, 80°, 165°, 195° and 280°. RESULTS: In a single beam irradiation scheme, we observed a dose reduction behind fiducials varying from −20% for gold at 6 MV to −5% for steel at 15 MV, and a dose increment in front of the fiducial ranging from +33% for gold at 15 MV to +10% for steel at 6 MV. When five beams were employed, a dose increment ranging from +28% to +46% has been found around gold. Around a steel fiducial, an average increment of +17% was found, irrespective of the photon energy. CONCLUSIONS: When using a single beam, the decrement of dose behind both steel and gold markers increases with the photon energy. This effect vanishes when a multifield treatment is delivered; in this instance there is a dose increment around fiducials, according to both fiducial material and photon energy, with lower values for steel and 6 MV. This energy represents the best choice when fiducial markers are present inside the irradiated volume.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 135-140

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150476

      Authors
      Antonio Pontoriero, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
      Ernesto Amato, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
      Giuseppe Iatí, Radiotherapy Unit, University Hospital "G. Martino", Messina, Italy
      Costantino De Renzis, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
      Stefano Pergolizzi, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:20 GMT
       
  • Monochromatic X-ray imaging using a combination of doubly curved crystal
           and polycapillary X-ray lens
    • Abstract: A monochromatic X-ray imaging setup based on a combination of a doubly curved crystal and a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens was designed. In this setup, the bent crystal optic was used not only to monochromatize but also to focus the divergent X-ray beam from a conventional X-ray source to form a monochromatic X-ray focal spot with a size of 426 × 467 μm^{2} at 17.5 keV. The beam expanding from this focal point was focused by the polycapillary optic to obtain a focal spot which was then used as the monochromatic X-ray imaging virtual source. The output focal spot size of the focusing polycapillary optic at 17.5 keV was 97 μm. Compared with the beam expansion after the focal spot of the bent crystal optic, the beam expansion after the focal spot of the focusing polycapillary optic was relatively large. This was helpful for magnifying the X-ray image of the sample. The focused beam was helpful to decrease the exposure time for imaging small samples.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 141-146

      DOI 10.3233/XST-150477

      Authors
      Tianxi Sun, The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
      C.A. MacDonald, Department of Physics, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 2 / 2015
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:06:20 GMT
       
  • Distributed CT image reconstruction algorithm based on the alternating
           direction method
    • Abstract: With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has been paid considerable research attention in the field of computed tomography (CT). Total variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has been shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. Motivated by the need of solving few-view reconstruction problem with large scale data, a general block distribution reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization and the alternating direction method (ADM) has been developed in this study. By utilizing the inexact ADM, which involves linearization and proximal point techniques, the algorithm is relatively simple and hence convenient for the derivation and distributed implementation. And because the data as well as the computation are distributed to individual nodes, an outstanding acceleration factor is achieved. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM) algorithm with nearly no loss of accuracy, which means compared with ADTVM, the proposed algorithm has a better accuracy with same running time.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 83-99

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140472

      Authors
      Linyuan Wang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Ailong Cai, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hanming Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Guoen Hu, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Shanglian Bao, The Beijing City Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • Optical properties of tissues quantified using morphological granulometry
           from phase-contrast images of thin tissue samples
    • Abstract: A method combining morphological granulometry with Mie theory to determine optical scattering in biological tissues was proposed. Otsu's method was applied to binarize phase-contrast images. Binary morphological granulometry was used to estimate size density distribution of the tissue samples based on the binary phase-contrast images. Our results showed that the optical parameters associated with light scattering in tissue could be quantitatively determined by combining size density distribution with Mie theory. It was suggested that this unique method could be used to characterize biological tissues for disease diagnosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 111-118

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140474

      Authors
      Zhifang Li, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Haiyu Chen, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Hui Li, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Wei R. Chen, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • Effect of local mild hypothermia on regional cerebral blood flow in
           patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage assessed by ^99mTc-ECD SPECT
           imaging
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the effect of local mild hypothermia on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to evaluate its relation to clinical outcome in patients with ICH.METHODS: 36 CT proven ICH patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 5 or more were randomly assigned to 2 group: local mild hypothermia with conventional mannitol (Group A) or conventional mannitol (Group B). SPECT study was performed at day 7 after therapy. The SPECT images were semi-quantitatively analyzed, and the radioactivity ratios of lesion to normal tissue (L/NT) were calculated. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used in evaluation at days 14 and 21 after therapy.RESULTS: There were significant differences in NIHSS score at days 14 and 21, and the L/NT ratios between the groups A and B (P < 0.05). Based on GCS, more patients in the group A showed favorable outcomes than patients in the group B (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the L/NT ratios significantly increased in patients with favorable outcomes compared to poor outcomes. Changes in NIHSS score at days 14 and 21 were closely negatively correlated with the L/NT ratios in the groups A and B (r= −0.58, −0.61, and −0.52, −0.75, respectively, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Local mild hypothermia could significantly increase rCBF and improve clinical outcome in ICH patients as evaluated by ^{99m}Tc-ECD SPECT study.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 101-109

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140473

      Authors
      Xinhui Su, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Kunmu Zheng, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Qilin Ma, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Jingxiong Huang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Xiaojiang He, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Guibing Chen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Weixing Wang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Fu Su, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Hui Tang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Hua Wu, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Suijun Tong, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray
           computed tomography for dimensional metrology
    • Abstract: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 65-82

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140471

      Authors
      Joseph J. Lifton, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Group, The University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
      Andrew A. Malcolm, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Precision Measurements Group, Singapore
      John W. McBride, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Group, The University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:19 GMT
       
  • Computer simulation of a backscattered x-ray fluorescence system
    • Abstract: An EGSnrc user code is developed to simulate a backscattered geometry in vivo x-ray fluorescence system for the measurement of platinum concentration in head and neck tumours. The user code is fundamentally based on a previous study which used the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. The new user code, which we have developed in this study, has new improvements which made it able to simulate the process of photon transportation through the different components of the modelled x-ray fluorescence system. The simulation process included modelling of the photon source, collimators, phantoms and detector. Simulation results were compared and evaluated against x-ray fluorescence data obtained experimentally from an existing system developed by the Swansea In vivo Analysis and Cancer Research Group. In addition, simulation results of this study were also compared with our previous study in which the EGS4 user code was used. Comparison between results has shown that the new EGSnrc user code was able to reproduce the spectral shape obtained using the experimental x-ray fluorescence system. The area under the Compton peak differs by 2.5% between the experimental measurement and the EGSnrc simulation. Similarly, the area under the two Pt Kα peaks differs by 2.3% and 2.2%.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 57-64

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140470

      Authors
      Fayez H.H AL-Ghorabie, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Tel.: +966 12 5270000; Fax: +966 12 5564560; E-mail: fhghorabie@uqu.edu.sa
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:54 GMT
       
  • Clinical values of of gemstone spectral CT in diagnosing thyroid disease
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic value of gemstone spectral CT in thyroid disease.PATIENTS and METHODS: A total of 123 patients with thyroid diseases were enrolled in the retrospective study. All the patients underwent spectral CT scan, and 39 of them underwent dual-phase enhanced scan. Iodine concentration (IC) and normalized IC (NIC) were compared between benign and malignant nodules. The optimal threshold to predict malignancy was obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Multivariate ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of combining the IC (NIC) and conventional morphological characteristics.RESULTS: Ten diffuse diseases and 113 nodular diseases were confirmed by clinical laboratory examination and histopathology. In total, 122 nodules (87 benign and 35 malignant) were detected, 41 nodules in enhanced cases. The IC and NIC_{VP} of malignant nodules were significantly lower than benign nodules in noncontrast and venous phase (VP) (P=0.000). The optimal IC and NIC_{VP} threshold was 0.68 mg/mL and 0.38, achieving 74.3% and 76.9% sensitivity, 66.7% and 80.0% specificity, respectively. For multivariate analysis, the area under ROC (AUC) was 0.88 and 0.94 in noncontrast and VP, respectively. Sensitivities of 77.1% and 84.6%, and specificities of 84.5% and 88.0% were achieved. CONCLUSION: Gemstone spectral CT can generally evaluate the abnormal iodine content in thyroid disease. Lower iodine can help differentiating malignant from benign nodules. A comprehensive analysis combining spectrum parameters and morphological characteristics is suggested in differential diagnosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 45-56

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140469

      Authors
      Hong-Wen Li, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xing-Wang Wu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Bin Liu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wen-Dong Liu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Na Gao, GE China CT Research Center, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:53 GMT
       
  • Maximum intensity projection using bidirectional compositing with block
           skipping
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Maximum intensity projection (MIP) is a volume rendering technique that determines the pixel intensity as the maximum of all values sampled along the viewing direction. MIP has been successfully applied to diagnose bone fractures in computed tomography (CT) and the stenosis of vascular structures in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). However, MIP has a major drawback in that the depth and occlusion information cannot be perceived in the output images. The most universal way to alleviate this problem is to occasionally change the viewpoint for depth perception. To support this function in real time, MIP should be performed at an interactive frame rate.OBJECTIVE: We develop an efficient rendering algorithm for MIP so that MIP is performed at an interactive frame rate without a loss of image quality.METHODS: The proposed method predicts the position of the maximum intensity for each ray using blockwise maximum bounds, after which it performs bidirectional compositing toward both ends of the ray from this predicted position. During the compositing process, block skipping is used as an acceleration method.RESULTS: The proposed method outperformed the block skipping method using the sequential compositing with a speed-up factor of 2.2 ∼ 2.8 depending on the data set without any degradation of the image quality.CONCLUSION: We proposed an efficient rendering technique for MIP. Our method was superior to the conventional block skipping method with respect to the rendering speed and degree of performance consistency.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 33-44

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140468

      Authors
      Ohjae Kwon, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Sung-Tae Kang, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Soo-Hong Kim, Department of Computer Software Engineering, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
      Yoon-Ho Kim, Department of Computer Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
      Yeong-Gil Shin, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:52 GMT
       
  • Left ventricle segmentation in dynamic cardiac CT using random walks
           method
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) in cardiac CT (CCT) images is difficult due to the intensity heterogeneity arising from accumulation of contrast agent in papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae. In this study, we demonstrated the random walks method for LV segmentation in CCT through cardiac phases. METHODS: 63 CCT data sets from 7 patients with 9 cardiac phases were included in this study. All cardiac CT examinations were performed with GE 64-detector CT scanner with ECG gating. In each patient, 60–80 ml iohexol was injected at a flow rate of 5 ml/sec followed by 60 ml normal saline solution. Random walks (RW) based on probability of labels was used for LV segmentation. The LV delineations generated by the experienced physician (MD), conventional image-based method (IB), and RW were compared. RESULTS: In general the contours segment the LV closely by RW and MD, but the discrepancies in papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae were observed while using the IB method. CONCLUSION: We showed the RW method potentially improved LV segmentation as compared to the volume by conventional IB method. In this study, we demonstrated the clinical feasibility of LV volume segmentation using random walks algorithm.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 25-31

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140467

      Authors
      Yang-Hsien Lin, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
      Kang-Ping Lin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chun Yuan Christian University, Taiwan
      Shih-Min Huang, Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
      Hui-Ting Lu, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Peng Hu Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
      Tien-Hsiang Lin, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Peng Hu Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
      Tzung-Chi Huang}, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:51 GMT
       
 
 
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