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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1961 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (149 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1114 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (292 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (46 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)

ENGINEERING (1114 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Complex Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of NanoScience, NanoEngineering & Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
     Published by IOS Press Homepage  [92 journals]   [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
  • Aortic dual-energy CT angiography with low contrast medium injection rate
    • Abstract: The contrast medium (CM) induced nephropathy required new CT imaging protocol. This study evaluated the feasibility of low contrast medium (CM) volume and injection flow using aortic dual-energy CT (DECT) angiography with non-linear blending technique. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control group (n=30), single-energy CT 70 ml CM at injection rate of 5 ml/s; study group (n=30), DECT mode, 0.5 ml per kg of patient weight CM at injection rate=(weight × 0.5 ml/kg)/(4+scan time). Non-linear blending technique was used for dual-energy images. Mean attention, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of aorta were compared. The level of visible renal artery branches was scored. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean aortic attention, SNR and CNR (all P > 0.05). Significant difference was showed in CM injection rate (p < 0.001) and volume (P < 0.001). The renal artery score had no statistically significant difference (P=0.771). Compared conventional scan and CM injection protocol, DECT with non-linear blending technique maintained the image quality of aortic CT angiography with reduced CM volume and flow rate, which could reduce the risks associated with CM injection.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 689-696

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140454

      Authors
      Jie Liu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Pei-Jie Lv, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Runze Wu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Yong-Gao Zhang, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Li-Li Hu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Ping Hou, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Jian-Bo Gao, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:49:09 GMT
       
  • Top-level design and pilot analysis of low-end CT scanners based on linear
           scanning for developing countries
    • Abstract: The goal is to develop new architectures for computed tomography (CT) which are at an ultra-low-cost for developing countries, especially in rural areas. The proposed general scheme is inspired by the recently developed compressive sensing and interior tomography techniques, where the data acquisition system targets a region of interest (ROI) to acquire limited and truncated data. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions but in contrast to conventional tomosynthesis, our proposal is for either ROI reconstruction with one or more localized linear scans or global reconstruction by combining multiple ROI reconstructions. In other words, the popular slip ring is replaced by a translation based setup, and the instrumentation cost is reduced by a relaxation of the imaging speed requirement. The various translational scanning modes are theoretically analyzed, and the scanning parameters are optimized. The numerical simulation results from different numbers of linear scans confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and suggest two preferred low-end systems for horizontal and vertical patient positions respectively. Ultra-low-cost x-ray CT is feasible with our proposed combination of linear scanning, compressive sensing, and interior tomography. The proposed architecture can be tailored into permanent, movable, or reconfigurable systems as desirable. Advanced image registration and spectral imaging features can be included as well.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 673-686

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140453

      Authors
      Fenglin Liu, Key Lab of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Engineering Research Center of Industrial Computed Tomography Nondestructive Testing, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Hengyong Yu, Department of Biomedical Engineering, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, NC, USA
      Wenxiang Cong, Biomedical Imaging Center, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
      Ge Wang, Biomedical Imaging Center, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:31 GMT
       
  • Analyzed outcome for embolization of hepatic carcinoma by C-arm
           angiographic computed tomography
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: This study evaluated and monitored the outcome of angiographic embolization of hepatic carcinoma by real-time C-arm angiographic computed tomography under number of tumors, size of tumors, and patient's age.METHODS AND MARTIALS: In total, 142 patients underwent angiographic embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The control group, 71 patients, underwent conventional angiographic (CA) embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The experimental group, 71 patients, underwent C-arm angiographic computed tomography (CCT) embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The numbers of angiographic embolization, number of tumors, size of tumors, and patients ages were recorded for comparisons between groups by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cross-interaction and the chi-square test (cross table). RESULTS: The age ranges were 20–84 and 35–84 years old for the experimental and control groups respectively. Average number of angiographic embolizations of hepatic carcinomas were 2.63 ± 1.84 and 5.32 ± 2.01 for the experimental and control groups. The number of angiographic embolizations under number of tumors, size of tumors, and patients ages between groups were significantly different (P< 0.05). The effective analyses of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) by CCT were significant by chi-square test (P< 0.05) under ⩽ 3 cm and patients aged ⩽ 60.CONCLUSION: The main advantage by CCT for undergoing TACE under tumor size smaller than 3 cm and numbers of tumor smaller 3 times were more significantly effective than those by CA. The CCT combined with TACE had high potentially reduced numbers of undergoing TACE.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 645-651

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140451

      Authors
      Jen-Chen Kuo, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Nan-Han Lu, Department of Radiology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Yung-Hui Huang, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Ming-Hong Hshiao, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Yao-Nan Lin, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Chen-Chang Lee, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Shih-Yu Chao, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Tai-Been Chen, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:11 GMT
       
  • A scatter correction method for dual-energy digital mammography: Monte
           Carlo simulation
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To develop a novel scatter correction method without additional patient dose for dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) to reduce scatter's impacts and enhance microcalcification detectability in dual-energy X-ray subtraction image. METHODS: Combining scatter radiation is lower spatial frequency component and calcifications are sparsely distributed in digital mammogram, we develop a new scatter correction strategy. First, an adaptive sampling scheme is presented to find possible noncalcification (zero calcification) pixels. Then the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm is applied to evaluate initial scatter surface. The accurate scatter radiation of sampling pixels is obtained by solving dual-energy computational formula with zero calcification constraint and scatter surface constraint. RESULTS: After scatter correction, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of wedge phantom is reduced from ∼36.0% to ∼3.1% for low-energy (LE) image and ∼29.6% to ∼0.6% for high-energy (HE) image. For step phantom, the SPR is reduced from ∼42.1% and ∼30.3% to ∼3.9% and ∼0.9% for LE and HE image, respectively. The calcification contrast-to-noise ratio is improved by two orders of magnitudes in calcification images.CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method shows an excellent performance on scatter reduction and calcification detection. Compared with hardware based scatter correction strategy, our method need no extra exposure and is easy to implementation.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 653-671

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140452

      Authors
      Kai Ai, School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
      Yanhua Gao, Medical Imaging Center, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
      Gang Yu, School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:11 GMT
       
  • A geometric-sensitivity-difference method improves object
           depth-localization for continuous-wave fluorescence diffuse optical
           tomography: An in silico study in an axial outward-imaging geometry
    • Abstract: A geometric-sensitivity-difference (GSD) based reconstruction method is demonstrated in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) for improving the depth-localization of objects. The GSD method optimizes the data-model fit based on paired-measurements between source-detector pairs sharing either the source or the detector channel, as comparing to conventional methods that optimize the data-model fit based on un-paired measurements of individual source-detector pairs. This in silico study is limited to continuous-wave and 2-dimension, for a circular-array outward-imaging geometry of which the native sensitivity of measurement varies strongly with respect to the depth of the object. The outcomes of GSD method are compared to that of two conventional methods: one is the baseline method which does not involve any scheme to compensate the variation of native sensitivity; the other applies a depth-adapted weight to counteract the depth-variance of the native sensitivity. These three methods were evaluated using synthetic data corresponding to the following conditions of the object: (1) Single object with a 3-folds of positive contrast of fluorescence over the background was set at edge-depths of 0.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm; (2) Two objects with identical 3-folds of positive or 1/3-folds of negative contrast of fluorescence over the background were set at a fixed edge-depth of 10 mm and different azimuthal separations of 45 degree, 135 degree, and 180 degree; (3) Two objects with identical 3-folds of positive or 1/3-folds of negative contrast of fluorescence over the background were set at a fixed azimuthal separation of 90° and at edge-depths of 0.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The GSD method outperforms the other two methods in localizing a single anomaly and resolving two anomalies, for the anomaly possessing either the 3 folds positive or 1/3-folds negative contrast of fluorescence over the background. The case of objects with negative contrast over the background has specific implications to imaging zinc-specific fluorophore uptake in prostate.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 627-643

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140450

      Authors
      Krishna T. Tokala, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
      Daqing Piao, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
      Guan Xu, Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:34 GMT
       
  • A systematic procedure to optimise dose and image quality for the
           measurement of inter-vertebral angles from lateral spinal projections
           using Cobb and superimposition methods
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with vertebral column deformations are exposed to high risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. Risks are further increased due to the serial X-ray images that are needed to measure and asses their spinal deformation using Cobb or superimposition methods. Therefore, optimising such X-ray practice, via reducing dose whilst maintaining image quality, is a necessity. OBJECTIVES: With a specific focus on lateral thoraco-lumbar images for Cobb and superimposition measurements, this paper outlines a systematic procedure to the optimisation of X-ray practice.METHODS: Optimisation was conducted based on suitable image quality from minimal dose. Image quality was appraised using a visual-analogue-rating-scale, and Monte-Carlo modelling was used for dose estimation. The optimised X-ray practice was identified by imaging healthy normal-weight male adult living human volunteers. RESULTS: The optimised practice consisted of: anode towards the head, broad focus, no OID or grid, 80 kVp, 32 mAs and 130 cm SID. CONCLUSION: Images of suitable quality for laterally assessing spinal conditions using Cobb or superimposition measurements were produced from an effective dose of 0.05 mSv, which is 83% less than the average effective dose used in the UK for lateral thoracic/lumbar exposures. This optimisation procedure can be adopted and use for optimisation of other radiographic techniques.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 613-625

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140449

      Authors
      Bashar Al Qaroot, Prosthetics and Orthotics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
      Peter Hogg, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      Martin Twiste, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      David Howard, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:16 GMT
       
  • Value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging on the follow-up of
           nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the follow-up of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-three NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into two groups: 4 cases of residual tumor and 33 cases of non-residual within 6 months, the cases of recurrent and non-recurrent were 5 and 41 over 6 months, respectively. MRI and DWI imaging of these cases were closely analyzed, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the nasopharyngeal residual mass and nasopharyngeal wall thickening, skull base destruction and lateral pterygoid muscle were measured. RESULTS: The ADC of the lateral pterygoid muscle was (1.501 ± 0.069) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s in 83 cases. The ADCs of the non-residual group, residual group, non-recurrent group and recurrent group were (1.843 ± 0.133.4) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s, (1.097 ± 0.183) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s, (1.884 ± 0.134) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s and (0.787 ± 0.067) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s respectively.The ADCs of the residual group and recurrent group were lower than that of the lateral pterygoid muscle, while the ADCs of the non-residual group and non-recurrent group were higher than that of the lateral pterygoid muscle.The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: DWI can provide qualitative and quantitative information about the tumor cellular level; it can also identify residual, local fibrosis and recurrence after NPC radiotherapy sensitively and accurately by measuring the ADC of the region of interest.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 605-612

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140448

      Authors
      Ji-Fei Xu, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xing-Wang Wu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wan-Qin Wang, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Ling-Ling Kong, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li-Ming Wu, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Fan Wang, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:03 GMT
       
  • A correlation of breast cancer and calcium levels in hair analyzed by
           X-ray fluorescence
    • Abstract: Time variations of elemental concentrations and their abnormalities due to breast cancer have been observed along single hair strands by X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation. The renal-controlled elements Ca, Sr, S, K, Cl, Br and P have upper and lower levels associated with gating and closing of ion channels in the hair-making cells. The Ca lower level is normal. In cases of Ca deficiency, with a decrease from the normal, store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to keep the hair Ca at the normal, and paradoxically high Ca levels near or at the upper level are produced by PTH-operated channel gating of the cells. Chronic Ca deficiency shows a temporal pattern along the hair consisting of a long-term duration of the upper [Ca] level, 10-month long decay to the lower level and abrupt increase to the upper level. The observation for hair from breast-cancer patients also shows the upper Ca level for the time period well before detection, and suggests that cancer is always generated at the long-lasting [Ca] upper level and the hair [Ca] decreases gradually toward the lower level with the cancer growth. This decay of [Ca] is accompanied by those of [Sr] and [K]. Their different decay forms can be explained by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in serum secreted from the cancer having 150 times longer dwell time on the PTH receptors than that of PTH. Patient hair has a memory for the entire cancer process from the state before cancer generation, and the pattern can be distinguished from concentration variation due to the chronic Ca deficiency without cancer, leading to a criterion for cancer detection by the ratio of [Sr]/[Ca]. The hair analysis is useful for early detection of cancer.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 587-603

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140447

      Authors
      Jun-ichi Chikawa, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Yoshitaka Mouri, Himeji Health Centre, Sakata, Himeji, Japan
      Hiroki Shima, Shima Institution for Quantum Medicine, Nakatsu, Kita-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Kousaku Yamada, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Hitoshi Yamamoto, Osaka Breast Clinic, Fukushima, Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Shingo Yamamoto, Hyogo College of Medicine, Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:46:26 GMT
       
  • Locally optimized non-local means denoising for low-dose X-ray backscatter
           imagery
    • Abstract: While recent years have seen considerable progress in image denoising, the leading techniques have been developed for digital photographs or other images that can have very different characteristics than those encountered in X-ray applications. In particular here we examine X-ray backscatter (XBS) images collected by airport security systems, where images are piecewise smooth and edge information is typically more correlated with objects while texture is dominated by statistical noise in the detected signal. In this paper, we show how multiple estimates for a denoised XBS image can be combined using a variational approach, giving a solution that enhances edge contrast by trading off gradient penalties against data fidelity terms. We demonstrate the approach by combining several estimates made using the non-local means (NLM) algorithm, a widely used patch-based denoising method. The resulting improvements hold the potential for improving automated analysis of low-SNR X-ray imagery and can be applied in other applications where edge information is of interest.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 569-586

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140446

      Authors
      Brian H. Tracey, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Eric L. Miller, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Yue Wu, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Christopher Alvino, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Markus Schiefele, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Omar Al-Kofahi, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:46:01 GMT
       
  • A microelectronic portal imaging device for image guided conformal
           microirradiation of murine cancer models
    • Abstract: Image guided conformal small animal orthovoltage microirradiators are currently under development to perform radiobiological experiments with preclinical cancer models. An important component of these instruments is the treatment delivery image guidance system, a microelectronic portal imaging device (μEPID). Here, we present the design and implementation of a μEPID, specifically designed and constructed for small animal orthovoltage microirradiators. The μEPID can acquire images in the range of 60 kVp to 320 kVp x-ray photon energies and can endure high doses from orthovoltage beams without radiation damage. The μEPID can acquire 200 μm resolution images at a rate of 17 frames per second for online in vivo co-registration between irradiation beams and small animal anatomy. An exposure with less than 1% of a 2 Gy treatment field is required for imaging, which is an adequate ratio between imaging dose and treatment dose to avoid undesired irradiation of healthy tissue or alteration of the preclinical cancer model. The μEPID was calibrated for microdosimetry with a precision of 4.1% with respect to an ion chamber, used as a gold standard. To validate the in vivo device performance, irradiations of lung, brain, and xenograft breast cancer preclinical models were performed and analyzed.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 551-567

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140445

      Authors
      Samantha G. Price, Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA
      Alexander A. Silvius, Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA
      Enrique W. Izaguirre, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of MO, Columbia, MO, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:45:39 GMT
       
  • Detection of uric acid depositing in tophaceous gout using a new dual
           energy spectral CT technology
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of detecting uric acid depositing among patients with tophaceous gout using a dual energy CT based Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) technology for qualitative analysis of uric acid.METHODS: Thirty one patients with clinically detectable tophaceous gout and 10 healthy volunteers underwent Discovery CT 750 HD scan with GSI mode. We selected four case groups of tophi, muscles, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. Each has a region of interest (ROI) of 10 mm diameter. We then analyzed and compared the difference of CT imaging spectroscopy quantitative parameters including concentration of uric acid, calcium, and water levels. The univariate analysis of variance and independent samples t-test were applied in data analyses. RESULTS: In case group of tophi base substance, the concentration levels were 1268.8 ± 32.2 mg/cm^3 for uric acid (Ca), 19.4 ± 9.5 mg/cm^3 for calcium (uric acid), 10.8 ± 9.5 mg/cm^3 for calcium (water), and 1171.0 ± 26.8 mg/cm^3 for water (calcium), respectively. In cortical bone case group, the four base substance concentration levels changed to 1333.6 ± 83.8 mg/cm^3, 271.1 ± 85.0 mg/cm^3, 262.6 ± 85.4 mg/cm^3, and 1230.8 ± 77.0 mg/cm^3. In muscles case group, the four base substance concentration levels were 1143.5 ± 15.7 mg/cm^3, 12.3 ± 5.0 mg/cm^3, 4.4 ± 1.9 mg/cm^3, and 1054.1 ± 14.6 mg/cm^3. Finally, in cancellous bone case group, the corresponding base substance concentration became 1070.9 ± 26.4 mg/cm^3, 85.1 ± 46.9 mg/cm^3, 77.4 ± 46.7 mg/cm^3, and 988.0 ± 23.4 mg/cm^3. Except tophi and muscle differences between Calcium (uric acid) concentration and differences in Calcium (water) concentration, which were not significantly different (p> 0.29), the remaining group pairwise comparisons of the parameters were significantly different (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dual-energy spectral CT can detect gout tophi within the peripheral joints of the patients. The quantitative measurement of the tophi concentration provides a new imaging method for quantitatively monitoring clinical outcomes of tophi.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 541-549

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140444

      Authors
      Xiaohu Li, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xu Wang, Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
      Yonqqiang Yu, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Bin Liu, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Jing Cai, Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li Xia, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li Luo, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wanqin Wang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Qianyun Ding, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Chao Zhang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Jie Wang, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:37:06 GMT
       
  • Quantitative evaluation of the administrated dose affecting image quality
           in myocardial perfusion SPECT
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can provide the valuable cardiac functions.Image quality in nuclear medicine tomography is critically dependent on the activity administered into patients. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the optimum injected dose of 99mTc-MIBI for quantitative assessment of image quality as compared with standard injected dose used for that purpose. METHODS: The image quality parameters (Contrast, relative noise and contrast to noise ratio) were determined in 32 patients (21 male, 11 female, age 45–60 y) with weight 60 ± 15 kg. Patients were classified into four groups; each one consisted of 8 patients. The first group received 370 MBq, the second one received 555 MBq, the third group received 740 MBq and the last group received 925 MBq.RESULTS: Qualitative assessments of the images revealed equivalent scintigraphic patterns in all patients. There was a significant difference in the image contrast. The image contrast in the 370 MBq group was greater than other groups. The image noise between the four groups was significantly different. It increased with injected dose reduction. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was significantly different between 370 MBq and other groups.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that results from the first group which received 370 MBq are sufficiently similar to those of the fourth group (standard group) which received 925 MBq. Consequently,accurate estimations of differential cardiac functions are possible with the 370 MBq dose.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 529-537

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140443

      Authors
      Reem H. El-Gebaly, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
      Islam K. Maamoun, Nuclear Cardiology Department, Intensive Care Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
      Noha G. Madian, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:36:20 GMT
       
  • Voltage-Thickness-Gray imaging physical model in X-ray energy
           auto-modulation
    • Abstract: Energy auto-modulation is an important tool in X-ray imaging, as it can improve the quality and longevity of an x-ray imaging system. Because of the complex nature of imaged objects, X-ray energy auto-modulation may be difficult. If there is a physical model about imaging mechanism, one can forecast the best imaging parameters using a pre-scan that can be fed into this model. This paper offers a physical model, which is called the Voltage-Thickness-Gray (VTG) model. Based on equivalent single-energy, this paper uses the empirical formula of X-ray attenuation and X-ray photon intensity to build this VTG model. Then use linear regression to estimate the model's parameters, by multi-voltage imaging about the steel wedge block. At last, by the experiment of the steel step block, verify this model and forecast the imaging tube voltage. The result shows this model can better reflect X-ray attenuation imaging properties, and can be used to forecast the imaging voltage. Also the forecast precision can achieve 90% or so.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 519-527

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140442

      Authors
      Ping Chen, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Yan Han, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Jinxiao Pan, National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:36:20 GMT
       
  • Combination of CT imaging and endoscopy in diagnosis of appendicovesical
           fistula caused by appendiceal adenocarcinoma
    • Abstract: The appendiceal diseases, particularly appendicitis, are the most common disorders in the digestive system localized at the right lower quadrant area. However, appendiceal carcinoma with vesico-appendiceal fistula is a rare clinical phenomenon. Lacking specific symptoms, appendiceal carcinomas with fistula formations are often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis cases. The purpose of this study is to increase awareness of appendiceal neoplasms and appendicovesical fistulas. We reported our experiences in three complex cases related to digestive and urological systems, and reviewed the literature on diagnosis with various X-ray imaging techniques for this lesion. In this report, the first case failed to be diagnosed. The other two patients with appendicovesical fistulas secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinomas were successfully detected with computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopy. The patients recovered after right hemicolectomies and en bloc partial cystectomies and survived without tumor metastasis up to 7-year follow-up. In conclusion, a combined use of CT imaging and endoscopy techniques provides an accurate diagnostic alternative for appendicovesical fistula secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinoma.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 493-501

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140440

      Authors
      Wenying Wang, Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Li Wang, Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Jianfeng Xu, Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Shufang Shi, Department of Pathology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Ye Tian, Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
      Yuanyuan Zhang, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • The effects of Labisia pumila on postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model:
           Dose and time-dependent micro-CT analysis
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is best treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause breast cancer, uterine cancer and cardiovascular problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb with phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects has potential as an ERT alternative. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate micro-CT analysis on the effects of LP supplementation on the trabecular microarchitecture of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Micro-CT is an effective tool in detecting changes in trabecular bone structure and providing a three dimensional information which may replace other conventional bone analysis methods. METHODS: Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats (4 to 5 months old) were randomly divided into six groups of baseline group (BL) Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC), ovariectomised with 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT), ovariectomised with 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20) and ovariectomised with 100 mg/kg of LP at (LP100). The vehicle (deionized water), Premarin and LP were given via daily oral gavages for three, six and nine weeks of treatment periods. Rats in BL group were euthanized before the start of the study, while other rats were euthanized after completion of their treatments. Femora were dissected out and trabecular bone microarchitecture analysed with micro-CT.RESULTS: Micro-CT analysis of OVXC rats revealed significant osteoporotic changes in connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation and trabecular number. Both ERT and LP were able to reverse all the OVX-induced bone changes with the best results seen with 100 mg/kg of LP for nine weeks duration of treatment. CONCLUSION: Micro-CT provides accurate and reliable information on trabecular bone parameters which aid in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. LP supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective than ERT in reversing ovariectomy-induced bone changes. Further studies are required to explore the potential of LP as ERT alternative in the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 503-518

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140441

      Authors
      Nadia Mohd Effendy, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Mohd Fadhli Khamis, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
      Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Concentration homeostasis and elements in hair and dried serum observed by
           X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation
    • Abstract: Elemental concentrations in hair and dried serum have been evaluated by X-ray fluorescence analysis using relative concentration independent of specimen thickness. Dried serum samples from 5 male and 5 female subjects given two-week Ca supplementation showed the same concentration for Ca, and for each of the other elements Cl, K, S and P under renal control by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hair concentrations of these elements have been evaluated for 50 randomly-selected females aged between 30 and 80. It was found that each element has two distinct levels in hair. The content of an element in growing hair must be equal to the inflow of that element into the hair-making cells from serum. Using this principle, the two levels can be attributed to the gating and closing of the ion channels in cell membranes and given as functions of the dried serum standard concentrations. Especially, the difference between [Ca] and [Sr] in hair shows whether Ca channels are gating or closing. The lower level of hair [Ca]_H is normal and is equal to 1/2 of the dried serum [Ca]; only the Ca on serum protein is to be incorporated into the hair in steady-state growth. Store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to maintain the normal [Ca]_H. The higher level is seen in cases of calcium deficiency, and implicated in other disease states. Prolonged Ca deficiency causes a higher hair [Ca]_H with Ca channel closing. PTH-operated Ca channel gating induces the Ca^{2+} inflow into the cells to form the hair [Ca]_H upper level and to deteriorate cell functions such as excretion of excess metals by hepatocytes. Hair analysis provides a new diagnostic tool based on cell ion channels.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 471-491

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140439

      Authors
      Jun-ichi Chikawa, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Yoshitaka Mouri, Himeji Health Centre, Sakata, Himeji, Japan
      Hiroki Shima, Shima Institute for Quantum Medicine, Kitaku, Osaka, Japan
      Kousaku Yamada, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Hitoshi Yamamoto, Osaka Breast Clinic, Fukushima, Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Shingo Yamamoto, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Low-mAs X-ray CT image reconstruction by adaptive-weighted TV-constrained
           penalized re-weighted least-squares
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The negative effects of X-ray exposure, such as inducing genetic and cancerous diseases, has arisen more attentions. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate a penalized re-weighted least-square (PRWLS) strategy for low-mAs X-ray computed tomography image reconstruction by incorporating an adaptive weighted total variation (AwTV) penalty term and a noise variance model of projection data. METHODS: An AwTV penalty is introduced in the objective function by considering both piecewise constant property and local nearby intensity similarity of the desired image. Furthermore, the weight of data fidelity term in the objective function is determined by our recent study on modeling variance estimation of projection data in the presence of electronic background noise. RESULTS: The presented AwTV-PRWLS algorithm can achieve the highest full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) measurement, for data conditions of (1) full-view 10 mA acquisition and (2) sparse-view 80 mA acquisition. In comparison between the AwTV/TV-PRWLS strategies and the previous reported AwTV/TV-projection onto convex sets (AwTV/TV-POCS) approaches, the former can gain in terms of FWHM for data condition (1), but cannot gain for the data condition (2).CONCLUSIONS: In the case of full-view 10 mA projection data, the presented AwTV-PRWLS shows potential improvement. However, in the case of sparse-view 80 mA projection data, the AwTV/TV-POCS shows advantage over the PRWLS strategies.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 437-457

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140437

      Authors
      Yan Liu, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Jianhua Ma, School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Hao Zhang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Jing Wang, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Zhengrong Liang, Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Impact of rare earth element added filters on the X-ray beam spectra: A
           Monte Carlo approach
    • Abstract: The effectiveness of added filters including conventional and rare earth materials for dental radiography tasks was investigated using a simulation approach. Current study focuses on the combination of a range of various filters to investigate the reduction of radiation absorbed dose and improving the quality of a radiography image. To simulate the X-ray beam spectrum, a MCNP5 code was applied. Relative intensity, beam quality, and mean energy were investigated for a typical dental radiography machine. The impact of different rare-earth materials with different thicknesses and tube voltages on the X-ray spectrum was investigated. For Aluminum as a conventional filter, the modeled X-ray spectra and HVL values were in a good agreement with those reported by IPEM. The results showed that for a 70 kVp voltage, with an increase of the thickness and atomic number of a given added filters, an increase of HVL values were observed. However, with the increase of the attenuator thickness, X-ray beam intensity decreases. For mean energy, different results were observed. It was also found that rare earth made filters reduce high energy X-ray radiation due to k-edge absorption. This leads to an ideal beam for intra-oral radiography tasks. However, as a disadvantage of rare earth added filters, the reduction of the tube output levels should also be considered.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 459-470

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140438

      Authors
      Amir Eskandarlou, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Amir Abbas Jafari, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Mohammad Mohammadi, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Mehdi Zehtabian, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
      Reza Faghihi, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
      Abbas Shokri, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Jalal Pourolajal, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:35:54 GMT
       
  • Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized fourier slice theorem
    • Abstract: For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 415-436

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140436

      Authors
      Shuangren Zhao, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Kang Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Kevin Yang, Imrecons Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:34:46 GMT
       
  • Micro X-ray computed tomography of pits and fissures
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Most tooth cavities start to develop inside pits and fissures where brushing, saliva, fluoride toothpaste or mouthwashes have no access. Therefore, 3D morphology of pits and fissures is an important subject to be studied in relation to maintaining proper oral hygiene. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present high resolution images of pits and fissures in human teeth using a laboratory-based micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mXCT) and also to present the basic structure evaluation that could be obtained. METHODS: Three human wisdom teeth were examined. Two different set-ups were used in this study achieving resolution of 14.59 μm (Field of View of 14.9 mm) and resolution of 4.43 μm (FOV of 4.5 mm) respectively. Automated segmentation was performed for further evaluation to distinguish between empty space (pits and fissures) and the filled space (enamel). RESULTS: The 3D tomography results demonstrate detailed morphology with accurate dimensions and the locations of the pits and fissures, which is important to investigate the relationship with tooth decay that mostly starts deep inside pits and fissures. CONCLUSIONS: Segmentation from the mXCT imaging of pits and fissures provides obvious visual evidence to help in promotion of oral health and to improve personal tooth care in preventive treatment protocols.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 407-414

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140435

      Authors
      Benedicta D. Arhatari, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Physics Department, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia
      Kathy Andrewartha, Research Development, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia
      Maurice White, Supertooth NDK, Victoria, Australia
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

      Online ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 4 / 2014
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:34:46 GMT
       
 
 
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