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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2017 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (159 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (86 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1135 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (308 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (48 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (76 journals)

ENGINEERING (1135 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access  
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Complex Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Middle European Construction and Design of Cars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
   Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
     Published by IOS Press Homepage  [93 journals]   [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
  • Author Index Volume 22 (2014)
    • Abstract:
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 809-817
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:15:34 GMT
       
  • Individual thorax geometry reduces position and size differences in
           reconstructed images of electrical impedance tomography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Due to the ill-posed problem, the electrical impedance within the thorax cannot be exactly reconstructed.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to prove that reconstruction with individual thorax geometry improved the quality of EIT (electrical impedance tomography) images.METHODS: Seven mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were examined by EIT. The thorax contours were determined from routine computed tomography (CT) images based on automatic threshold filtering. EIT raw data was reconstructed offline with (1) back-projection with circular forward model; (2) GREIT reconstruction method with circular forward model and (3) GREIT with individual thorax geometry. The resulting EIT images were compared to rescaled CT images. The distance between the lung contour and the thorax contour was calculated for each method and the differences to that in CT were denoted as position differences. Shape differences was defined as the ratio of thorax (or lungs) size in EIT and that in rescaled CT.RESULTS: Method (3) has the smallest position differences (6.6 ± 2.8, 5.3 ± 3.3, 2.3 ± 1.4 in pixel, for each reconstruction method respectively; mean ± SD). The thorax and lungs sizes in the transformed CT images were 514 ± 73 and 177 ± 39. Shape differences of thorax were 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.10 ± 0.12 and that of lungs were 1.69 ± 0.45, 1.52 ± 0.45, 1.34 ± 0.35 for each method respectively.CONCLUSION: The reconstructed images using the GREIT method with individual thorax geometry were more realistic. Improvement of EIT image quality may foster the acceptance of EIT in routine clinical use.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 797-807

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140464

      Authors
      Zhanqi Zhao, Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, VS-Schwenningen, Germany
      Inéz Frerichs, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany
      Sven Pulletz, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Center Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany
      Ullrich Müller-Lisse, Department of Radiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
      Knut Möller, Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, VS-Schwenningen, Germany
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:15:04 GMT
       
  • Detection of posteriorly located breast tumors using gold nanoparticles: A
           breast-mimicking phantom study
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Accurately depicting breast tumors located posteriorly, close to the chest wall musculature, with conventional mammography is a technical challenge.OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates the proof of concept of an x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) technique to address this issue.METHODS: A tissue-equivalent gel phantom is designed to mimic structures in the central part of a compressed breast. The posterior aspect of the breast and adjacent pectoralis major muscle are represented by another 10-mm-thickness breast tissue simulation phantom (BR12) that is attached to the back of the gel phantom as a region of interest (ROI). Two gold nanoparticle (GNP) solutions are embedded into the ROI to simulate varying GNP uptake within breast lesions. The ROI is imaged through performing the XFM technique with an x-ray pencil-beam and a single spectrometer.RESULTS: A 2D mapping of the middle plane in the ROI demonstrates feasibility and matches well the known spatial distribution and different GNP concentrations. 3D reconstruction of the ROI is easily rendered by repeating the 2D mapping process.CONCLUSION: XFM system geometry and its insensitivity to attenuation coefficients of breast tissue components are unique characteristics that may complement conventional mammography and improve the detection of breast cancers located posteriorly, adjacent to or overlying the chest wall musculature.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 785-796

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140463

      Authors
      Liqiang Ren, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Di Wu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Laurie L. Fajardo, Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
      Yuhua Li, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Bin Zheng, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Hong Liu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:14:43 GMT
       
  • x-ray irradiation analysis based on wavelet transform in tokamak plasma
    • Abstract: Hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons is an important issue in tokamaks. Suggesting methods to reduce the Runaway electrons and therefore the emitted hard x-ray is important for tokamak plasma operation. In this manuscript, we have investigated the effects of external fields on hard x-ray intensity and Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) activity. In other words, we have presented the effects of positive biased limiter and Resonant Helical Field (RHF) on the MHD fluctuations and hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons. MHD activity and hard x-ray intensity were analyzed using Wavelet transform in the presence of external fields and without them. The results show that the MHD activity and therefore the hard x-ray intensity can be controlled by the external electric and magnetic fields.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 777-783

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140462

      Authors
      K. Ghanbari, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      M. Ghoranneviss, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      A. Salar Elahi, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      S. Saviz, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:13:43 GMT
       
  • Lumbar developmental malformation: Intertransverse pseudarthrosis
    • Abstract: Developmental malformations of lumbar transverse processes commonly include hypertrophy of the transverse process, overgrowth of the transverse process, and persistence of the transverse process epiphysis. To date, the intertransverse pseudarthrosis malformation has not been reported. In this case report, we identified a case of intertransverse pseudarthrosis through X-ray imaging, which was confirmed by CT scanning. And intertransverse pseudarthrosis of spine was proved by Surgery.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 773-776

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140461

      Authors
      Xiaozhong Li, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Taiyun Liu, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Lin Wang, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:12:48 GMT
       
  • Fast estimation of first-order scattering in a medical x-ray computed
           tomography scanner using a ray-tracing technique
    • Abstract: This study describes a deterministic method for simulating the first-order scattering in a medical computed tomography scanner. The method was developed based on a physics model of x-ray photon interactions with matter and a ray tracing technique. The results from simulated scattering were compared to the ones from an actual scattering measurement. Two phantoms with homogeneous and heterogeneous material distributions were used in the scattering simulation and measurement. It was found that the simulated scatter profile was in agreement with the measurement result, with an average difference of 25% or less. Finally, tomographic images with artifacts caused by scatter were corrected based on the simulated scatter profiles. The image quality improved significantly.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 763-772

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140460

      Authors
      Xin Liu, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W14th Street, Rolla, MO 65401, USA. Tel.: +1 573 341 4693; Fax: +1 573 341 4720; E-mail: xinliu@mst.edu
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:12:39 GMT
       
  • Iterative dual energy material decomposition from spatial mismatched raw
           data sets
    • Abstract: Today's clinical dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners generally measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire spatial mismatched raw data sets. The deficits in clinical DECT technologies suggest that mainly image based material decomposition methods are in use nowadays. However, the image based material decomposition is an approximate technique, and beam hardening artifacts remain in decomposition results. A recently developed image based iterative method for material decomposition from inconsistent rays (MDIR) can achieve much better image quality than the conventional image based methods. Inspired by the MDIR method, this paper proposes an iterative method to indirectly perform raw data based DECT even with completely mismatched raw data sets. The iterative process is initialized by density images that were obtained from an image based material decomposition. Then the density images are iteratively corrected by comparing the estimated polychromatic projections and the measured polychromatic projections. Only three iterations of the method are sufficient to greatly improve the qualitative and quantitative information in material density images. Compared with the MDIR method, the proposed method needs not to perform additional water precorrection. The advantages of the method are verified with numerical experiments from inconsistent noise free and noisy raw data.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 745-762

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140459

      Authors
      Xing Zhao, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Jing-Jing Hu, School of Software, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Yun-Song Zhao, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Hui-Tao Zhang, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Peng Zhang, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:11:58 GMT
       
  • Detector response function of an energy-resolved CdTe single photon
           counting detector
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: While spectral CT using single photon counting detector has shown a number of advantages in diagnostic imaging, knowledge of the detector response function of an energy-resolved detector is needed to correct the signal bias and reconstruct the image more accurately. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to study the photo counting detector response function using laboratory sources, and investigate the signal bias correction method. METHODS: Our approach is to model the detector response function over the entire diagnostic energy range (20 keV <E< 140 keV) using a semi-analytical method with 12 parameters. The model includes a primary photo peak, an exponential tail, and four escape peaks. Four radioactive isotopes including Cdmium-109, Barium-133, Americium-241 and Cobalt-57 are used to generate the detector response function at six photon energies. The 12 parameters are obtained by non-linear least-square fitting with the measured detector response functions at the six energies. The correlations of the 12 parameters with energy are also investigated with the measured data. RESULTS: The analytical model generally describes the detector response function and is in good agreement with the measured data. The trend lines of the 12 parameters indicate higher energies tend to cause grater spectrum distortion. The spectrum distortion caused by the detector response function on spectral CT reconstruction is analyzed theoretically, and a solution to correct this spectrum distortion is also proposed. CONCLUSION: In spectral and fluorescence CT, the spectrum distortion caused by detector response function poses a problem and cannot be ignored in any quantitative analysis. The detector response function of a CdTe detector can be obtained by a semi-analytical method.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 735-744

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140458

      Authors
      Xin Liu, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA
      Hyoung Koo Lee, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:11:56 GMT
       
  • Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed
           cryptococcus and candida cholangitis
    • Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 727-733

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140457

      Authors
      Yanji Luo, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Min-Yi Cui, Department of Radiology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China
      Bing Liao, Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Margaret H. Pui, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sault Area Hospital, Sault Ste Marie, ON, Canada
      Zhi Dong, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Xue-Hua Li, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Can-Hui Sun, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zhen-Peng Peng, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zi-Ping Li, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Shi-Ting Feng, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:10:51 GMT
       
  • A stationary computed tomography system with cylindrically distributed
           sources and detectors
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The temporal resolution of current computed tomography (CT) systems is limited by the rotation speed of their gantries.OBJECTIVE: A helical interlaced source detector array (HISDA) CT, which is a stationary CT system with distributed X-ray sources and detectors, is presented in this paper to overcome the aforementioned limitation and achieve high temporal resolution.METHODS: Projection data can be obtained from different angles in a short time and do not require source, detector, or object motion. Axial coverage speed is increased further by employing a parallel scan scheme. Interpolation is employed to approximate the missing data in the gaps, and then a Katsevich-type reconstruction algorithm is applied to enable an approximate reconstruction.RESULTS: The proposed algorithm suppressed the cone beam and gap-induced artifacts in HISDA CT. The results also suggest that gap-induced artifacts can be reduced by employing a large helical pitch for a fixed gap height.CONCLUSIONS: HISDA CT is a promising 3D dynamic imaging architecture given its good temporal resolution and stationary advantage.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 707-725

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140456

      Authors
      Yi Chen, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Yan Xi, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Jun Zhao, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:10:51 GMT
       
  • Reduction of radiation dose in the spiral CT scan of the lumbar spine by
           the combined use of body mass index (BMI) and automatic exposure control
           (AEC)
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the combined use of BMI and AEC in reducing the radiation dose of CT volume scans of the lumbar spine. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to continuously collect data from 50 patients (age range from 19 to 60 years, male versus female 20/30) whose BMIs were less than 25 kg/m^{2} (group A) and 50 patients (age range from 21 to 82 years, male versus female 24/26) whose BMIs were equal to or more than 25 kg/m^{2} (group B). The 50 patients in each group were randomly divided into 5 subgroups with each subgroup having lower radiation dose from subgroup 1 to 5. All the patients were performed lumbar spiral CT scans (GE LightSpeed VCT 64-slice scanner) and the scan parameters were different in different subgroups. Volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) was recorded. The qualities of the images were graded. The one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test were done. RESULTS: Both in group A and B, there were significant differences in CTDIvol among the 5 subgroups (P< 0.001). The quality of the images in the 5 subgroups of group A didn't show statistical difference. The standard deviation (SD) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) values of the L4-5 psoas major muscles in subgroup 5 of group B was statistical different from the other 4 subgroups (P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: Use of BMI combined with AEC reduces radiation dosage, without compromising the image quality. For patients in group A and group B, parameters of subgroup 5 and subgroup 4 may respectively be applied for lower dose CT scanning.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 697-706

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140455

      Authors
      Wenli Tan, Radiology Department of Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, China
      Songhua Zhan, Radiology Department of Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, China
      Shuohui Yang, Radiology Department of Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, China
      Yuan Zhuang, Radiology Department of Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, China
      Ruixin Cheng, Radiology Department of Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai, China
      Hongsheng Zhan, Shu Guang Hospital, TCM Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shanghai, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:10:32 GMT
       
  • Aortic dual-energy CT angiography with low contrast medium injection rate
    • Abstract: The contrast medium (CM) induced nephropathy required new CT imaging protocol. This study evaluated the feasibility of low contrast medium (CM) volume and injection flow using aortic dual-energy CT (DECT) angiography with non-linear blending technique. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to two groups: control group (n=30), single-energy CT 70 ml CM at injection rate of 5 ml/s; study group (n=30), DECT mode, 0.5 ml per kg of patient weight CM at injection rate=(weight × 0.5 ml/kg)/(4+scan time). Non-linear blending technique was used for dual-energy images. Mean attention, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of aorta were compared. The level of visible renal artery branches was scored. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean aortic attention, SNR and CNR (all P > 0.05). Significant difference was showed in CM injection rate (p < 0.001) and volume (P < 0.001). The renal artery score had no statistically significant difference (P=0.771). Compared conventional scan and CM injection protocol, DECT with non-linear blending technique maintained the image quality of aortic CT angiography with reduced CM volume and flow rate, which could reduce the risks associated with CM injection.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 689-696

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140454

      Authors
      Jie Liu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Pei-Jie Lv, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Runze Wu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Yong-Gao Zhang, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Li-Li Hu, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Ping Hou, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Jian-Bo Gao, Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:49:09 GMT
       
  • Top-level design and pilot analysis of low-end CT scanners based on linear
           scanning for developing countries
    • Abstract: The goal is to develop new architectures for computed tomography (CT) which are at an ultra-low-cost for developing countries, especially in rural areas. The proposed general scheme is inspired by the recently developed compressive sensing and interior tomography techniques, where the data acquisition system targets a region of interest (ROI) to acquire limited and truncated data. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions but in contrast to conventional tomosynthesis, our proposal is for either ROI reconstruction with one or more localized linear scans or global reconstruction by combining multiple ROI reconstructions. In other words, the popular slip ring is replaced by a translation based setup, and the instrumentation cost is reduced by a relaxation of the imaging speed requirement. The various translational scanning modes are theoretically analyzed, and the scanning parameters are optimized. The numerical simulation results from different numbers of linear scans confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and suggest two preferred low-end systems for horizontal and vertical patient positions respectively. Ultra-low-cost x-ray CT is feasible with our proposed combination of linear scanning, compressive sensing, and interior tomography. The proposed architecture can be tailored into permanent, movable, or reconfigurable systems as desirable. Advanced image registration and spectral imaging features can be included as well.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 673-686

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140453

      Authors
      Fenglin Liu, Key Lab of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Engineering Research Center of Industrial Computed Tomography Nondestructive Testing, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
      Hengyong Yu, Department of Biomedical Engineering, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, NC, USA
      Wenxiang Cong, Biomedical Imaging Center, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
      Ge Wang, Biomedical Imaging Center, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:31 GMT
       
  • Analyzed outcome for embolization of hepatic carcinoma by C-arm
           angiographic computed tomography
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: This study evaluated and monitored the outcome of angiographic embolization of hepatic carcinoma by real-time C-arm angiographic computed tomography under number of tumors, size of tumors, and patient's age.METHODS AND MARTIALS: In total, 142 patients underwent angiographic embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The control group, 71 patients, underwent conventional angiographic (CA) embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The experimental group, 71 patients, underwent C-arm angiographic computed tomography (CCT) embolization of hepatic carcinoma. The numbers of angiographic embolization, number of tumors, size of tumors, and patients ages were recorded for comparisons between groups by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with cross-interaction and the chi-square test (cross table). RESULTS: The age ranges were 20–84 and 35–84 years old for the experimental and control groups respectively. Average number of angiographic embolizations of hepatic carcinomas were 2.63 ± 1.84 and 5.32 ± 2.01 for the experimental and control groups. The number of angiographic embolizations under number of tumors, size of tumors, and patients ages between groups were significantly different (P< 0.05). The effective analyses of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) by CCT were significant by chi-square test (P< 0.05) under ⩽ 3 cm and patients aged ⩽ 60.CONCLUSION: The main advantage by CCT for undergoing TACE under tumor size smaller than 3 cm and numbers of tumor smaller 3 times were more significantly effective than those by CA. The CCT combined with TACE had high potentially reduced numbers of undergoing TACE.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 645-651

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140451

      Authors
      Jen-Chen Kuo, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Nan-Han Lu, Department of Radiology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Yung-Hui Huang, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Ming-Hong Hshiao, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Yao-Nan Lin, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Chen-Chang Lee, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Shih-Yu Chao, Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Tai-Been Chen, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:11 GMT
       
  • A scatter correction method for dual-energy digital mammography: Monte
           Carlo simulation
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To develop a novel scatter correction method without additional patient dose for dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) to reduce scatter's impacts and enhance microcalcification detectability in dual-energy X-ray subtraction image. METHODS: Combining scatter radiation is lower spatial frequency component and calcifications are sparsely distributed in digital mammogram, we develop a new scatter correction strategy. First, an adaptive sampling scheme is presented to find possible noncalcification (zero calcification) pixels. Then the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm is applied to evaluate initial scatter surface. The accurate scatter radiation of sampling pixels is obtained by solving dual-energy computational formula with zero calcification constraint and scatter surface constraint. RESULTS: After scatter correction, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of wedge phantom is reduced from ∼36.0% to ∼3.1% for low-energy (LE) image and ∼29.6% to ∼0.6% for high-energy (HE) image. For step phantom, the SPR is reduced from ∼42.1% and ∼30.3% to ∼3.9% and ∼0.9% for LE and HE image, respectively. The calcification contrast-to-noise ratio is improved by two orders of magnitudes in calcification images.CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method shows an excellent performance on scatter reduction and calcification detection. Compared with hardware based scatter correction strategy, our method need no extra exposure and is easy to implementation.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 653-671

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140452

      Authors
      Kai Ai, School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
      Yanhua Gao, Medical Imaging Center, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
      Gang Yu, School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:48:11 GMT
       
  • A geometric-sensitivity-difference method improves object
           depth-localization for continuous-wave fluorescence diffuse optical
           tomography: An in silico study in an axial outward-imaging geometry
    • Abstract: A geometric-sensitivity-difference (GSD) based reconstruction method is demonstrated in fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) for improving the depth-localization of objects. The GSD method optimizes the data-model fit based on paired-measurements between source-detector pairs sharing either the source or the detector channel, as comparing to conventional methods that optimize the data-model fit based on un-paired measurements of individual source-detector pairs. This in silico study is limited to continuous-wave and 2-dimension, for a circular-array outward-imaging geometry of which the native sensitivity of measurement varies strongly with respect to the depth of the object. The outcomes of GSD method are compared to that of two conventional methods: one is the baseline method which does not involve any scheme to compensate the variation of native sensitivity; the other applies a depth-adapted weight to counteract the depth-variance of the native sensitivity. These three methods were evaluated using synthetic data corresponding to the following conditions of the object: (1) Single object with a 3-folds of positive contrast of fluorescence over the background was set at edge-depths of 0.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm; (2) Two objects with identical 3-folds of positive or 1/3-folds of negative contrast of fluorescence over the background were set at a fixed edge-depth of 10 mm and different azimuthal separations of 45 degree, 135 degree, and 180 degree; (3) Two objects with identical 3-folds of positive or 1/3-folds of negative contrast of fluorescence over the background were set at a fixed azimuthal separation of 90° and at edge-depths of 0.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The GSD method outperforms the other two methods in localizing a single anomaly and resolving two anomalies, for the anomaly possessing either the 3 folds positive or 1/3-folds negative contrast of fluorescence over the background. The case of objects with negative contrast over the background has specific implications to imaging zinc-specific fluorophore uptake in prostate.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 627-643

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140450

      Authors
      Krishna T. Tokala, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
      Daqing Piao, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
      Guan Xu, Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:34 GMT
       
  • A systematic procedure to optimise dose and image quality for the
           measurement of inter-vertebral angles from lateral spinal projections
           using Cobb and superimposition methods
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with vertebral column deformations are exposed to high risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. Risks are further increased due to the serial X-ray images that are needed to measure and asses their spinal deformation using Cobb or superimposition methods. Therefore, optimising such X-ray practice, via reducing dose whilst maintaining image quality, is a necessity. OBJECTIVES: With a specific focus on lateral thoraco-lumbar images for Cobb and superimposition measurements, this paper outlines a systematic procedure to the optimisation of X-ray practice.METHODS: Optimisation was conducted based on suitable image quality from minimal dose. Image quality was appraised using a visual-analogue-rating-scale, and Monte-Carlo modelling was used for dose estimation. The optimised X-ray practice was identified by imaging healthy normal-weight male adult living human volunteers. RESULTS: The optimised practice consisted of: anode towards the head, broad focus, no OID or grid, 80 kVp, 32 mAs and 130 cm SID. CONCLUSION: Images of suitable quality for laterally assessing spinal conditions using Cobb or superimposition measurements were produced from an effective dose of 0.05 mSv, which is 83% less than the average effective dose used in the UK for lateral thoracic/lumbar exposures. This optimisation procedure can be adopted and use for optimisation of other radiographic techniques.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 613-625

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140449

      Authors
      Bashar Al Qaroot, Prosthetics and Orthotics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
      Peter Hogg, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      Martin Twiste, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      David Howard, Centre for Health Sciences Research, University of Salford, Salford, UK
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:16 GMT
       
  • Value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging on the follow-up of
           nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the follow-up of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-three NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into two groups: 4 cases of residual tumor and 33 cases of non-residual within 6 months, the cases of recurrent and non-recurrent were 5 and 41 over 6 months, respectively. MRI and DWI imaging of these cases were closely analyzed, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the nasopharyngeal residual mass and nasopharyngeal wall thickening, skull base destruction and lateral pterygoid muscle were measured. RESULTS: The ADC of the lateral pterygoid muscle was (1.501 ± 0.069) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s in 83 cases. The ADCs of the non-residual group, residual group, non-recurrent group and recurrent group were (1.843 ± 0.133.4) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s, (1.097 ± 0.183) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s, (1.884 ± 0.134) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s and (0.787 ± 0.067) × 10^{ - 3} mm^{2}/s respectively.The ADCs of the residual group and recurrent group were lower than that of the lateral pterygoid muscle, while the ADCs of the non-residual group and non-recurrent group were higher than that of the lateral pterygoid muscle.The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: DWI can provide qualitative and quantitative information about the tumor cellular level; it can also identify residual, local fibrosis and recurrence after NPC radiotherapy sensitively and accurately by measuring the ADC of the region of interest.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 605-612

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140448

      Authors
      Ji-Fei Xu, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xing-Wang Wu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wan-Qin Wang, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Ling-Ling Kong, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Li-Ming Wu, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Fan Wang, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:47:03 GMT
       
  • A correlation of breast cancer and calcium levels in hair analyzed by
           X-ray fluorescence
    • Abstract: Time variations of elemental concentrations and their abnormalities due to breast cancer have been observed along single hair strands by X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation. The renal-controlled elements Ca, Sr, S, K, Cl, Br and P have upper and lower levels associated with gating and closing of ion channels in the hair-making cells. The Ca lower level is normal. In cases of Ca deficiency, with a decrease from the normal, store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to keep the hair Ca at the normal, and paradoxically high Ca levels near or at the upper level are produced by PTH-operated channel gating of the cells. Chronic Ca deficiency shows a temporal pattern along the hair consisting of a long-term duration of the upper [Ca] level, 10-month long decay to the lower level and abrupt increase to the upper level. The observation for hair from breast-cancer patients also shows the upper Ca level for the time period well before detection, and suggests that cancer is always generated at the long-lasting [Ca] upper level and the hair [Ca] decreases gradually toward the lower level with the cancer growth. This decay of [Ca] is accompanied by those of [Sr] and [K]. Their different decay forms can be explained by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in serum secreted from the cancer having 150 times longer dwell time on the PTH receptors than that of PTH. Patient hair has a memory for the entire cancer process from the state before cancer generation, and the pattern can be distinguished from concentration variation due to the chronic Ca deficiency without cancer, leading to a criterion for cancer detection by the ratio of [Sr]/[Ca]. The hair analysis is useful for early detection of cancer.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 587-603

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140447

      Authors
      Jun-ichi Chikawa, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Yoshitaka Mouri, Himeji Health Centre, Sakata, Himeji, Japan
      Hiroki Shima, Shima Institution for Quantum Medicine, Nakatsu, Kita-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Kousaku Yamada, Hyogo Science and Technology Association, Himeji, Japan
      Hitoshi Yamamoto, Osaka Breast Clinic, Fukushima, Fukushima-ku, Osaka, Japan
      Shingo Yamamoto, Hyogo College of Medicine, Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:46:26 GMT
       
  • Locally optimized non-local means denoising for low-dose X-ray backscatter
           imagery
    • Abstract: While recent years have seen considerable progress in image denoising, the leading techniques have been developed for digital photographs or other images that can have very different characteristics than those encountered in X-ray applications. In particular here we examine X-ray backscatter (XBS) images collected by airport security systems, where images are piecewise smooth and edge information is typically more correlated with objects while texture is dominated by statistical noise in the detected signal. In this paper, we show how multiple estimates for a denoised XBS image can be combined using a variational approach, giving a solution that enhances edge contrast by trading off gradient penalties against data fidelity terms. We demonstrate the approach by combining several estimates made using the non-local means (NLM) algorithm, a widely used patch-based denoising method. The resulting improvements hold the potential for improving automated analysis of low-SNR X-ray imagery and can be applied in other applications where edge information is of interest.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 569-586

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140446

      Authors
      Brian H. Tracey, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Eric L. Miller, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Yue Wu, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA
      Christopher Alvino, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Markus Schiefele, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Omar Al-Kofahi, American Science and Engineering, Billerica, MA, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 5 / 2014
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Sep 2014 20:46:01 GMT
       
 
 
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