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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2054 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (169 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (160 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (87 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1142 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (318 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (50 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (76 journals)

ENGINEERING (1142 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of ASTM International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access  
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of China University of Mining and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Complex Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dairy Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Imaging     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Computer Innovations     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Engineering, Computers and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Inverse and Ill-posed Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of K-Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Konbin     Open Access  
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane and Separation Technology     Hybrid Journal  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology     [SJR: 0.41]   [H-I: 20]
   Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0895-3996 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9114
   Published by IOS Press Homepage  [93 journals]
  • Distributed CT image reconstruction algorithm based on the alternating
           direction method
    • Abstract: With the development of compressive sensing theory, image reconstruction from few-view projections has been paid considerable research attention in the field of computed tomography (CT). Total variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has been shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. Motivated by the need of solving few-view reconstruction problem with large scale data, a general block distribution reconstruction algorithm based on TV minimization and the alternating direction method (ADM) has been developed in this study. By utilizing the inexact ADM, which involves linearization and proximal point techniques, the algorithm is relatively simple and hence convenient for the derivation and distributed implementation. And because the data as well as the computation are distributed to individual nodes, an outstanding acceleration factor is achieved. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can accelerate the alternating direction total variation minimization (ADTVM) algorithm with nearly no loss of accuracy, which means compared with ADTVM, the proposed algorithm has a better accuracy with same running time.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 83-99

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140472

      Authors
      Linyuan Wang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Ailong Cai, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hanming Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Guoen Hu, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Shanglian Bao, The Beijing City Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • Optical properties of tissues quantified using morphological granulometry
           from phase-contrast images of thin tissue samples
    • Abstract: A method combining morphological granulometry with Mie theory to determine optical scattering in biological tissues was proposed. Otsu's method was applied to binarize phase-contrast images. Binary morphological granulometry was used to estimate size density distribution of the tissue samples based on the binary phase-contrast images. Our results showed that the optical parameters associated with light scattering in tissue could be quantitatively determined by combining size density distribution with Mie theory. It was suggested that this unique method could be used to characterize biological tissues for disease diagnosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 111-118

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140474

      Authors
      Zhifang Li, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Haiyu Chen, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Hui Li, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Wei R. Chen, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, College of Photonic and Electronic Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • Effect of local mild hypothermia on regional cerebral blood flow in
           patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage assessed by ^99mTc-ECD SPECT
           imaging
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the effect of local mild hypothermia on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to evaluate its relation to clinical outcome in patients with ICH.METHODS: 36 CT proven ICH patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 5 or more were randomly assigned to 2 group: local mild hypothermia with conventional mannitol (Group A) or conventional mannitol (Group B). SPECT study was performed at day 7 after therapy. The SPECT images were semi-quantitatively analyzed, and the radioactivity ratios of lesion to normal tissue (L/NT) were calculated. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were used in evaluation at days 14 and 21 after therapy.RESULTS: There were significant differences in NIHSS score at days 14 and 21, and the L/NT ratios between the groups A and B (P < 0.05). Based on GCS, more patients in the group A showed favorable outcomes than patients in the group B (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the L/NT ratios significantly increased in patients with favorable outcomes compared to poor outcomes. Changes in NIHSS score at days 14 and 21 were closely negatively correlated with the L/NT ratios in the groups A and B (r= −0.58, −0.61, and −0.52, −0.75, respectively, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Local mild hypothermia could significantly increase rCBF and improve clinical outcome in ICH patients as evaluated by ^{99m}Tc-ECD SPECT study.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 101-109

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140473

      Authors
      Xinhui Su, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Kunmu Zheng, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Qilin Ma, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Jingxiong Huang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Xiaojiang He, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Guibing Chen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Weixing Wang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Fu Su, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Hui Tang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Hua Wu, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Suijun Tong, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:20 GMT
       
  • A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray
           computed tomography for dimensional metrology
    • Abstract: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 65-82

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140471

      Authors
      Joseph J. Lifton, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Group, The University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
      Andrew A. Malcolm, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Precision Measurements Group, Singapore
      John W. McBride, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Group, The University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:36:19 GMT
       
  • Computer simulation of a backscattered x-ray fluorescence system
    • Abstract: An EGSnrc user code is developed to simulate a backscattered geometry in vivo x-ray fluorescence system for the measurement of platinum concentration in head and neck tumours. The user code is fundamentally based on a previous study which used the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. The new user code, which we have developed in this study, has new improvements which made it able to simulate the process of photon transportation through the different components of the modelled x-ray fluorescence system. The simulation process included modelling of the photon source, collimators, phantoms and detector. Simulation results were compared and evaluated against x-ray fluorescence data obtained experimentally from an existing system developed by the Swansea In vivo Analysis and Cancer Research Group. In addition, simulation results of this study were also compared with our previous study in which the EGS4 user code was used. Comparison between results has shown that the new EGSnrc user code was able to reproduce the spectral shape obtained using the experimental x-ray fluorescence system. The area under the Compton peak differs by 2.5% between the experimental measurement and the EGSnrc simulation. Similarly, the area under the two Pt Kα peaks differs by 2.3% and 2.2%.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 57-64

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140470

      Authors
      Fayez H.H AL-Ghorabie, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Tel.: +966 12 5270000; Fax: +966 12 5564560; E-mail: fhghorabie@uqu.edu.sa
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:54 GMT
       
  • Clinical values of of gemstone spectral CT in diagnosing thyroid disease
    • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic value of gemstone spectral CT in thyroid disease.PATIENTS and METHODS: A total of 123 patients with thyroid diseases were enrolled in the retrospective study. All the patients underwent spectral CT scan, and 39 of them underwent dual-phase enhanced scan. Iodine concentration (IC) and normalized IC (NIC) were compared between benign and malignant nodules. The optimal threshold to predict malignancy was obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Multivariate ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of combining the IC (NIC) and conventional morphological characteristics.RESULTS: Ten diffuse diseases and 113 nodular diseases were confirmed by clinical laboratory examination and histopathology. In total, 122 nodules (87 benign and 35 malignant) were detected, 41 nodules in enhanced cases. The IC and NIC_{VP} of malignant nodules were significantly lower than benign nodules in noncontrast and venous phase (VP) (P=0.000). The optimal IC and NIC_{VP} threshold was 0.68 mg/mL and 0.38, achieving 74.3% and 76.9% sensitivity, 66.7% and 80.0% specificity, respectively. For multivariate analysis, the area under ROC (AUC) was 0.88 and 0.94 in noncontrast and VP, respectively. Sensitivities of 77.1% and 84.6%, and specificities of 84.5% and 88.0% were achieved. CONCLUSION: Gemstone spectral CT can generally evaluate the abnormal iodine content in thyroid disease. Lower iodine can help differentiating malignant from benign nodules. A comprehensive analysis combining spectrum parameters and morphological characteristics is suggested in differential diagnosis.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 45-56

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140469

      Authors
      Hong-Wen Li, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Xing-Wang Wu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Bin Liu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Wen-Dong Liu, Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
      Na Gao, GE China CT Research Center, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:53 GMT
       
  • Maximum intensity projection using bidirectional compositing with block
           skipping
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Maximum intensity projection (MIP) is a volume rendering technique that determines the pixel intensity as the maximum of all values sampled along the viewing direction. MIP has been successfully applied to diagnose bone fractures in computed tomography (CT) and the stenosis of vascular structures in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). However, MIP has a major drawback in that the depth and occlusion information cannot be perceived in the output images. The most universal way to alleviate this problem is to occasionally change the viewpoint for depth perception. To support this function in real time, MIP should be performed at an interactive frame rate.OBJECTIVE: We develop an efficient rendering algorithm for MIP so that MIP is performed at an interactive frame rate without a loss of image quality.METHODS: The proposed method predicts the position of the maximum intensity for each ray using blockwise maximum bounds, after which it performs bidirectional compositing toward both ends of the ray from this predicted position. During the compositing process, block skipping is used as an acceleration method.RESULTS: The proposed method outperformed the block skipping method using the sequential compositing with a speed-up factor of 2.2 ∼ 2.8 depending on the data set without any degradation of the image quality.CONCLUSION: We proposed an efficient rendering technique for MIP. Our method was superior to the conventional block skipping method with respect to the rendering speed and degree of performance consistency.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 33-44

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140468

      Authors
      Ohjae Kwon, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Sung-Tae Kang, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Soo-Hong Kim, Department of Computer Software Engineering, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
      Yoon-Ho Kim, Department of Computer Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
      Yeong-Gil Shin, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:52 GMT
       
  • Deformation vector fields (DVF)-driven image reconstruction for 4D-CBCT
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: High quality 4D-CBCT can be obtained by deforming a planning CT (pCT), where the deformation vector fields (DVF) are estimated by matching the forward projections of pCT and 4D-CBCT projections. The matching metric used in the previous study is the sum of squared intensity differences (SSID). The scatter signal level in CBCT projections is much higher than pCT, the SSID metric may not lead to optimal DVF.OBJECTIVE: To improve the DVF estimation accuracy, we develop a new matching metric that is less sensitive to the intensity level difference caused by the scatter signal.METHODS: The negative logarithm of correlation coefficient (NLCC) is used as the matching metric. A non-linear conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is used to estimate the DVF. A 4D NCAT phantom and an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom were used to evaluate the NLCC-based algorithm.RESULTS: In the NCAT phantom study, the relative reconstruction error is reduced from 18.0% in SSID to 14.13% in NLCC. In the thoracic phantom study, the root mean square error of the tumor motion is reduced from 1.16 mm in SSID to 0.43 mm in NLCC.CONCLUSION: NLCC metric can improve the image reconstruction and motion estimation accuracy of DVF-driven image reconstruction for 4D-CBCT.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 11-23

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140466

      Authors
      Jun Dang, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Ouyang Luo, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Xuejun Gu, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Jing Wang, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:51 GMT
       
  • Left ventricle segmentation in dynamic cardiac CT using random walks
           method
    • Abstract: PURPOSE: Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) in cardiac CT (CCT) images is difficult due to the intensity heterogeneity arising from accumulation of contrast agent in papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae. In this study, we demonstrated the random walks method for LV segmentation in CCT through cardiac phases. METHODS: 63 CCT data sets from 7 patients with 9 cardiac phases were included in this study. All cardiac CT examinations were performed with GE 64-detector CT scanner with ECG gating. In each patient, 60–80 ml iohexol was injected at a flow rate of 5 ml/sec followed by 60 ml normal saline solution. Random walks (RW) based on probability of labels was used for LV segmentation. The LV delineations generated by the experienced physician (MD), conventional image-based method (IB), and RW were compared. RESULTS: In general the contours segment the LV closely by RW and MD, but the discrepancies in papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae were observed while using the IB method. CONCLUSION: We showed the RW method potentially improved LV segmentation as compared to the volume by conventional IB method. In this study, we demonstrated the clinical feasibility of LV volume segmentation using random walks algorithm.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 25-31

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140467

      Authors
      Yang-Hsien Lin, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
      Kang-Ping Lin, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chun Yuan Christian University, Taiwan
      Shih-Min Huang, Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
      Hui-Ting Lu, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Peng Hu Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
      Tien-Hsiang Lin, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Peng Hu Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan
      Tzung-Chi Huang}, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taiwan
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:51 GMT
       
  • System matrix analysis for sparse-view iterative image reconstruction in
           X-ray CT
    • Abstract: Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, used for investigations in compressive sensing (CS) claim potentially large reductions in sampling requirements. Quantifying this claim for computed tomography (CT) is non-trivial, as both the singularity of undersampled reconstruction and the sufficient view number for sparse-view reconstruction are ill-defined. In this paper, the singular value decomposition method is used to study the condition number and singularity of the system matrix and the regularized matrix. An estimation method of the empirical lower bound is proposed, which is helpful for estimating the number of projection views required for exact reconstruction. Simulation studies show that the singularity of the system matrices for different projection views is effectively reduced by regularization. Computing the condition number of a regularized matrix is necessary to provide a reference for evaluating the singularity and recovery potential of reconstruction algorithms using regularization. The empirical lower bound is helpful for estimating the projections view number with a sparse reconstruction algorithm.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 1-10

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140465

      Authors
      Linyuan Wang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Hanming Zhang, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Ailong Cai, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Yongl Li, He Nan Province People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Bin Yan, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Lei Li, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Guoen Hu, National Digital Switching System Engineering and Technological Research Center, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 23
      Journal Issue Volume 23, Number 1 / 2015
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jan 2015 14:35:50 GMT
       
  • Author Index Volume 22 (2014)
    • Abstract:
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 809-817
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:15:34 GMT
       
  • Individual thorax geometry reduces position and size differences in
           reconstructed images of electrical impedance tomography
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Due to the ill-posed problem, the electrical impedance within the thorax cannot be exactly reconstructed.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to prove that reconstruction with individual thorax geometry improved the quality of EIT (electrical impedance tomography) images.METHODS: Seven mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were examined by EIT. The thorax contours were determined from routine computed tomography (CT) images based on automatic threshold filtering. EIT raw data was reconstructed offline with (1) back-projection with circular forward model; (2) GREIT reconstruction method with circular forward model and (3) GREIT with individual thorax geometry. The resulting EIT images were compared to rescaled CT images. The distance between the lung contour and the thorax contour was calculated for each method and the differences to that in CT were denoted as position differences. Shape differences was defined as the ratio of thorax (or lungs) size in EIT and that in rescaled CT.RESULTS: Method (3) has the smallest position differences (6.6 ± 2.8, 5.3 ± 3.3, 2.3 ± 1.4 in pixel, for each reconstruction method respectively; mean ± SD). The thorax and lungs sizes in the transformed CT images were 514 ± 73 and 177 ± 39. Shape differences of thorax were 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.10 ± 0.12 and that of lungs were 1.69 ± 0.45, 1.52 ± 0.45, 1.34 ± 0.35 for each method respectively.CONCLUSION: The reconstructed images using the GREIT method with individual thorax geometry were more realistic. Improvement of EIT image quality may foster the acceptance of EIT in routine clinical use.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 797-807

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140464

      Authors
      Zhanqi Zhao, Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, VS-Schwenningen, Germany
      Inéz Frerichs, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany
      Sven Pulletz, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Center Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany
      Ullrich Müller-Lisse, Department of Radiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
      Knut Möller, Institute of Technical Medicine, Furtwangen University, VS-Schwenningen, Germany
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:15:04 GMT
       
  • Detection of posteriorly located breast tumors using gold nanoparticles: A
           breast-mimicking phantom study
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Accurately depicting breast tumors located posteriorly, close to the chest wall musculature, with conventional mammography is a technical challenge.OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates the proof of concept of an x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) technique to address this issue.METHODS: A tissue-equivalent gel phantom is designed to mimic structures in the central part of a compressed breast. The posterior aspect of the breast and adjacent pectoralis major muscle are represented by another 10-mm-thickness breast tissue simulation phantom (BR12) that is attached to the back of the gel phantom as a region of interest (ROI). Two gold nanoparticle (GNP) solutions are embedded into the ROI to simulate varying GNP uptake within breast lesions. The ROI is imaged through performing the XFM technique with an x-ray pencil-beam and a single spectrometer.RESULTS: A 2D mapping of the middle plane in the ROI demonstrates feasibility and matches well the known spatial distribution and different GNP concentrations. 3D reconstruction of the ROI is easily rendered by repeating the 2D mapping process.CONCLUSION: XFM system geometry and its insensitivity to attenuation coefficients of breast tissue components are unique characteristics that may complement conventional mammography and improve the detection of breast cancers located posteriorly, adjacent to or overlying the chest wall musculature.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 785-796

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140463

      Authors
      Liqiang Ren, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Di Wu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Laurie L. Fajardo, Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
      Yuhua Li, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Bin Zheng, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Hong Liu, Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:14:43 GMT
       
  • x-ray irradiation analysis based on wavelet transform in tokamak plasma
    • Abstract: Hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons is an important issue in tokamaks. Suggesting methods to reduce the Runaway electrons and therefore the emitted hard x-ray is important for tokamak plasma operation. In this manuscript, we have investigated the effects of external fields on hard x-ray intensity and Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) activity. In other words, we have presented the effects of positive biased limiter and Resonant Helical Field (RHF) on the MHD fluctuations and hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons. MHD activity and hard x-ray intensity were analyzed using Wavelet transform in the presence of external fields and without them. The results show that the MHD activity and therefore the hard x-ray intensity can be controlled by the external electric and magnetic fields.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 777-783

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140462

      Authors
      K. Ghanbari, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      M. Ghoranneviss, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      A. Salar Elahi, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      S. Saviz, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:13:43 GMT
       
  • Lumbar developmental malformation: Intertransverse pseudarthrosis
    • Abstract: Developmental malformations of lumbar transverse processes commonly include hypertrophy of the transverse process, overgrowth of the transverse process, and persistence of the transverse process epiphysis. To date, the intertransverse pseudarthrosis malformation has not been reported. In this case report, we identified a case of intertransverse pseudarthrosis through X-ray imaging, which was confirmed by CT scanning. And intertransverse pseudarthrosis of spine was proved by Surgery.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 773-776

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140461

      Authors
      Xiaozhong Li, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Taiyun Liu, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Lin Wang, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Gansu Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:12:48 GMT
       
  • Fast estimation of first-order scattering in a medical x-ray computed
           tomography scanner using a ray-tracing technique
    • Abstract: This study describes a deterministic method for simulating the first-order scattering in a medical computed tomography scanner. The method was developed based on a physics model of x-ray photon interactions with matter and a ray tracing technique. The results from simulated scattering were compared to the ones from an actual scattering measurement. Two phantoms with homogeneous and heterogeneous material distributions were used in the scattering simulation and measurement. It was found that the simulated scatter profile was in agreement with the measurement result, with an average difference of 25% or less. Finally, tomographic images with artifacts caused by scatter were corrected based on the simulated scatter profiles. The image quality improved significantly.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 763-772

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140460

      Authors
      Xin Liu, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W14th Street, Rolla, MO 65401, USA. Tel.: +1 573 341 4693; Fax: +1 573 341 4720; E-mail: xinliu@mst.edu
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:12:39 GMT
       
  • Iterative dual energy material decomposition from spatial mismatched raw
           data sets
    • Abstract: Today's clinical dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners generally measure different rays for different energy spectra and acquire spatial mismatched raw data sets. The deficits in clinical DECT technologies suggest that mainly image based material decomposition methods are in use nowadays. However, the image based material decomposition is an approximate technique, and beam hardening artifacts remain in decomposition results. A recently developed image based iterative method for material decomposition from inconsistent rays (MDIR) can achieve much better image quality than the conventional image based methods. Inspired by the MDIR method, this paper proposes an iterative method to indirectly perform raw data based DECT even with completely mismatched raw data sets. The iterative process is initialized by density images that were obtained from an image based material decomposition. Then the density images are iteratively corrected by comparing the estimated polychromatic projections and the measured polychromatic projections. Only three iterations of the method are sufficient to greatly improve the qualitative and quantitative information in material density images. Compared with the MDIR method, the proposed method needs not to perform additional water precorrection. The advantages of the method are verified with numerical experiments from inconsistent noise free and noisy raw data.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 745-762

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140459

      Authors
      Xing Zhao, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Jing-Jing Hu, School of Software, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
      Yun-Song Zhao, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Hui-Tao Zhang, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Peng Zhang, The CT laboratory, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:11:58 GMT
       
  • Detector response function of an energy-resolved CdTe single photon
           counting detector
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: While spectral CT using single photon counting detector has shown a number of advantages in diagnostic imaging, knowledge of the detector response function of an energy-resolved detector is needed to correct the signal bias and reconstruct the image more accurately. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to study the photo counting detector response function using laboratory sources, and investigate the signal bias correction method. METHODS: Our approach is to model the detector response function over the entire diagnostic energy range (20 keV <E< 140 keV) using a semi-analytical method with 12 parameters. The model includes a primary photo peak, an exponential tail, and four escape peaks. Four radioactive isotopes including Cdmium-109, Barium-133, Americium-241 and Cobalt-57 are used to generate the detector response function at six photon energies. The 12 parameters are obtained by non-linear least-square fitting with the measured detector response functions at the six energies. The correlations of the 12 parameters with energy are also investigated with the measured data. RESULTS: The analytical model generally describes the detector response function and is in good agreement with the measured data. The trend lines of the 12 parameters indicate higher energies tend to cause grater spectrum distortion. The spectrum distortion caused by the detector response function on spectral CT reconstruction is analyzed theoretically, and a solution to correct this spectrum distortion is also proposed. CONCLUSION: In spectral and fluorescence CT, the spectrum distortion caused by detector response function poses a problem and cannot be ignored in any quantitative analysis. The detector response function of a CdTe detector can be obtained by a semi-analytical method.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 735-744

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140458

      Authors
      Xin Liu, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA
      Hyoung Koo Lee, Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:11:56 GMT
       
  • Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed
           cryptococcus and candida cholangitis
    • Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 727-733

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140457

      Authors
      Yanji Luo, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Min-Yi Cui, Department of Radiology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China
      Bing Liao, Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Margaret H. Pui, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sault Area Hospital, Sault Ste Marie, ON, Canada
      Zhi Dong, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Xue-Hua Li, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Can-Hui Sun, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zhen-Peng Peng, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Zi-Ping Li, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Shi-Ting Feng, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:10:51 GMT
       
  • A stationary computed tomography system with cylindrically distributed
           sources and detectors
    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: The temporal resolution of current computed tomography (CT) systems is limited by the rotation speed of their gantries.OBJECTIVE: A helical interlaced source detector array (HISDA) CT, which is a stationary CT system with distributed X-ray sources and detectors, is presented in this paper to overcome the aforementioned limitation and achieve high temporal resolution.METHODS: Projection data can be obtained from different angles in a short time and do not require source, detector, or object motion. Axial coverage speed is increased further by employing a parallel scan scheme. Interpolation is employed to approximate the missing data in the gaps, and then a Katsevich-type reconstruction algorithm is applied to enable an approximate reconstruction.RESULTS: The proposed algorithm suppressed the cone beam and gap-induced artifacts in HISDA CT. The results also suggest that gap-induced artifacts can be reduced by employing a large helical pitch for a fixed gap height.CONCLUSIONS: HISDA CT is a promising 3D dynamic imaging architecture given its good temporal resolution and stationary advantage.
      Content Type Journal Article
      Pages 707-725

      DOI 10.3233/XST-140456

      Authors
      Yi Chen, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Yan Xi, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Jun Zhao, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
      Journal Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology
      Online ISSN 1095-9114
      Print ISSN 0895-3996
      Journal Volume Volume 22
      Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 6 / 2014
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:10:51 GMT
       
 
 
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