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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1209 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1001 - 1200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Processes     Open Access  
Production     Open Access  
Production and Operations Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Production Planning & Control: The Management of Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Progress in Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Puente     Open Access  
Purinergic Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaderns d’Història de l’Enginyeria     Open Access  
Quality and Reliability Engineering International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Quality Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Radiochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rapid Prototyping Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Redes de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Regional Maritime University Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Regular and Chaotic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Requirements Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research in Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Research Works of Air Force Institute of Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Reviews in Advanced Sciences and Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias e Ingeniería al Día     Open Access  
Revista CINTEX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Engenharia da Universidade Católica de Petrópolis     Open Access  
Revista de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación     Open Access  
Revista EIA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Fatec Zona Sul : REFAS     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Informador Técnico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Russian Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sadhana     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technique     Open Access  
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access  
Science and Engineering Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science China Technological Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Technology and innovations     Open Access  
Science Progress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Scientia cum Industria     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Securitas Vialis     Hybrid Journal  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Selcuk University Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Semiconductors     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Separation and Purification Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SIAM Journal on Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
SIAM Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SILICON     Hybrid Journal  
Sistemas & Telemática     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sleep and Biological Rhythms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Smart Grid     Open Access  
Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
SourceOCDE Developpement urbain, rural et regional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Energie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Energy     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Science and Technology Statistics - SourceOCDE Base de donnees des sciences et de la technologie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SourceOECD Urban, Rural and Regional Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Computer Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stahlbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Steel in Translation     Hybrid Journal  
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Stochastic Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stochastics and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Studies in Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sud-Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surface Review and Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveying and Land Information Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sustainability Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sustainability Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Management of Sediment Resources     Full-text available via subscription  
Swiss Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Symmetry     Open Access  
Synthesis Lectures on Algorithms and Software in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Antennas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Energy and the Environment: Technology, Science, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Global Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Professionalism and Career Advancement for Scientists and Engineers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthetic Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Systems Engineering Procedia     Open Access  
Systems Research Forum     Hybrid Journal  
Systems Science & Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Technological Engineering     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECHNOLOGY     Hybrid Journal  
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technology in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Technometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tecnologia, Ciencia, Educacion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tecnura     Open Access  
Telecommunications Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Terahertz Science and Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Textile Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
The Journal of Supercomputing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thermal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tikrit Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access  
tm - Technisches Messen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Traffic Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
TRANSACTIONS of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Applied Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tribology in Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tribology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tribology Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ultramicroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Utilities Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vacuum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Virtual and Physical Prototyping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Visualization in Engineering     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Waste Management Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Waves in Random and Complex Media     Hybrid Journal  
Waves, Wavelets and Fractals     Open Access  
Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Electronic Testing
  [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 27]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0727 - ISSN (Online) 0923-8174
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A Novel Noise-assisted Prognostic Method for Linear Analog Circuits
    • Authors: Liyue Yan; Houjun Wang; Zhen Liu; Jingyu Zhou; Bing Long
      Pages: 559 - 572
      Abstract: Abstract Integrated analog circuits play a critical role in modern industrial systems. However, research on prognosis of the remaining useful performance (RUP) of analog circuits is rarely reported. This work presents a novel prognostic scheme for analog circuits. In this scheme first a signal feature is extracted from time-domain output waveforms of the circuit during its initial and faulty states. Then, an auxiliary white-noise estimation methodology based on Kalman filter technique estimates the faulty response waveform. As the embedded planar capacitors have a great influence on integrated circuit (IC) miniaturization, performance and reliability, an empirical model based on gradually decreasing trend of its capacitance is introduced. Due to the influence of capacitor degradation, the change in the circuit output waveform is treated as a fault indicator (FI) for failure prognosis. Next, this FI tendency close to the realistic condition is used to identify the circuit degradation trend. Further, in a data-driven prognostic step, a particle filter is used to predict the RUP of the circuit. Finally, studies on two analog filter circuits verify the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5688-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 5 (2017)
  • Analysing NBTI Impact on SRAMs with Resistive Defects
    • Authors: M. T. Martins; G. C. Medeiros; T. Copetti; F. L. Vargas; L. M. Bolzani Poehls
      Pages: 637 - 655
      Abstract: Abstract Density’s increase in Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) has become an important concern for testing, since new types of defects, that may occur during the manufacturing process, are introduced. On the one hand, new manufacturing defects may lead to dynamic faults, which are considered one of the most important causes of test escape in deep-submicron technologies. On the other hand, the SRAM’s robustness is considered crucial, since it may affect the entire SoC. One of the most important phenomena to degrade SRAM reliability is Negative-Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) causing the memory cells’ aging. In this context, the paper proposes to analyse the impact of NBTI on SRAM cells with resistive defects that eventually escape manufacturing test and, with aging, may generate faults over time. Finally, SPICE simulations adopting a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology library have been performed in order to estimate NBTI’s precise impact over time.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5685-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 5 (2017)
  • Novel Method for Nondestructive Body Effect Measurement in Dynamic Random
           Access Memory
    • Authors: Ilwoo Jung; Bonggu Sung; Byoungdeog Choi
      Pages: 669 - 674
      Abstract: Abstract Body effect is a key characteristic of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell transistor. The conventional method uses a test element structure or nano-probe equipment for body effect measurements. However, the test element structure measurement is inaccurate because the structure is located outside the DRAM chip. Additionally, the nano-probe destroys the chip while measuring the body effect in the chip. Therefore, we developed a novel nondestructive method to measure the body effect in the DRAM. This method uses a memory bitmap test system. The test system was originally a device that determines pass or fail of the cells. However, it was modified to extract the gate voltage that causes the failure due to a cell transistor leakage current. Because the leakage current is correlated to the threshold voltage, this gate voltage is a relative threshold voltage. The body effect was obtained by measuring the relative threshold voltage under different body biases. After confirming the method in a single cell, we simplified the method for a mass cell measurement. Two relative threshold voltages for each body bias were used for a fast and simple test. The mass measurement method could obtain 8196 body cell effects within 2 min. The results of the newly developed method were the same as that of the conventional test element structure measurement.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5676-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 5 (2017)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Vishwani D. Agrawal
      Pages: 377 - 378
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5677-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Near-Threshold Soft Error Resilient 7T SRAM Cell with Low Read Time for
           20 nm FinFET Technology
    • Authors: Rahebeh Niaraki Asli; Shiva Taghipour
      Pages: 449 - 462
      Abstract: Abstract Shrinking of technology node in advanced VLSI devices and scaling of supply voltage degrade the performance characteristics and reduce the soft error resilience of modern downscaled digital circuits. In this paper, we propose a reliable near-threshold 7T SRAM cell with single ended read and differential write operations based on a previous proposed 5T cell. Our new cell improves read speed without degrading of write speed compared to the recently reported 7T cell. Furthermore, our proposed cell provides high soft error reliability amongst all the SRAM cells mentioned in this paper. We compared the performance and reliability characteristics of 5T, 6T, 8T and previous 7T cells with our new 7T SRAM cell to show its efficacy. The simulations are performed using HSPICE in 20 nm FinFET technology at VDD = 0.5 V. The results show that the new 7T cell has high write speed, read and write margins with improved read speed and low leakage power in the hold “0” state compared to 5T cell. In addition, the study of performance parameters under process and environmental variations considering ageing effect in near-threshold region shows the robustness of the proposed 7T SRAM cell against these variations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5659-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
  • Test of Mechanical Failure for Via Holes and Solder Joints of Complex
           Interconnect Structure
    • Authors: Yuling Shang; Liyuan Sun; Chunquan Li; Jianfeng Ma
      Pages: 491 - 499
      Abstract: Abstract It is known that certain faults associated with the process might be generated in any phases of the fabrication and assembly of the complex interconnection structure in a high-speed PCB composed of via holes, solder joints and traces, which will inevitably discount the electrical performance of the circuit. To address the issue, a fault-voltage detection method is proposed in this paper, firstly the equivalent fault circuit of the complex interconnection structure in high-speed PCB is scanned to extract the fault voltage, then the optimal function curve can be fitted out by the least squares method based on the faultless voltage. The empirical research on the via hole crack and solder joint void have validated that this method can effectively avoid the false tests derived under the low-frequency, major-fault and high-frequency, minor-fault conditions, and can also depict more accurately how the fault parameter varies with the changes in the frequency and fault degree, and it bears a relatively strong applicability in minor-fault of hiht-speed PCB tests.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5675-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Vishwani D. Agrawal
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5687-4
  • Soft Fault Diagnosis in Analog Circuits Based on Bispectral Models
    • Authors: Yong Deng; Ning Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Aiming at the problem to locate soft faults in analog circuits, a new approach based on bispectral models is proposed. First, the Volterra kernels of the circuit under test (CUT) are calculated. Then, the Volterra kernels are used to construct bispectral models. By comparison with the fault features of the constructed models, soft faults of linear and weak nonlinear components in the analog circuit are identified and the faults are located. Simulations and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method in analog circuits.,
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5686-5
  • Formal Methods Based Synthesis of Single Event Transient Tolerant
           Combinational Circuits
    • Authors: Ghaith Bany Hamad; Otmane Ait Mohamed; Yvon Savaria
      Abstract: Abstract Recent radiation ground testing campaigns of digital designs have demonstrated that the probability for Single Event Transient (SET) propagation is increasing in advanced technologies. This paper presents a hierarchical reliability-aware synthesis framework to design combinational circuits at gate level with minimal area overhead. This framework starts by estimating the vulnerability of the circuit to SETs. This is done by modeling the SET propagation as a Satisfiability problem by utilizing Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMTs). An all-solution SMT solver is adapted to estimate the soft error rate due to SETs. Different strategies to mitigate SETs are integrated in the proposed framework to selectively harden vulnerable nodes in the design. Both logical and temporal masking factors of the target circuit are improved to harden sensitive paths or sub-circuits, whose SET propagation probability is relatively high. This process is repeated until the desired soft error rate is achieved or a given area overhead constraint is met. The proposed framework was implemented on different combinational designs. The reliability of a circuit can be improved by 64% with less than 20% area overhead.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5682-9
  • New Light Weight Threshold Voltage Defined Camouflaged Gates for
           Trustworthy Designs
    • Authors: Vijaypal Singh Rathor; Bharat Garg; G. K. Sharma
      Abstract: Abstract The outsourcing of the IC fabrication process introduces the security vulnerabilities into the design. An attacker can exploit them to extract the functionality using image processing-based reverse engineering and can also mount the various attacks such as hardware Trojan, piracy, overbuilding, etc. Various dummy contacts and Threshold Voltage Defined (TVD) logic-based layout camouflaging techniques are presented that can deceive the attacker into incorrectly interpreting the functionality of the camouflaged gate. The existing dummy contact-based techniques require large overhead and provide poor security whereas, the TVD logic-based camouflaging techniques increase the security at the cost of large area and energy overhead. Therefore, in this paper, new light weight TVD static and dynamic logic (TVD-SL and TVD-DL) based camouflaged gates are proposed. The proposed TVD-SL/DL gates have same physical structure and provide the functionality of several standard gates by implanting different threshold voltages during manufacturing. Further, various simplified TVD-SL/DL gates are also proposed to achieve the overhead and security trade-off. To evaluate the efficacy, the proposed TVD logic gates are implemented using 32nm PTM library and simulated using the HSPICE simulator. The simulation results show that the proposed TVD-SL-based gates on an average reduce 35.49%, 59.18% and 72.05% whereas the proposed TVD-DL reduces 54.84%, 84.18% and 82.30% area, power and delay respectively over the existing. Further, on an average, the proposed TVD-DL-based camouflaged gates require 56% less power over the standard gates. Due to the low-cost and high energy efficiency, the proposed logic gates are best suited for the development of secure and portable devices for the Internet of Things applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5683-8
  • Test Technology Newsletter
    • PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5684-7
  • Three-Stage Optimization of Pre-Bond Diagnosis of TSV Defects
    • Authors: Bei Zhang; Vishwani D. Agrawal
      Abstract: Abstract Pre-bond TSV testing and defect identification is important for yield assurance of 3D stacked devices. Building on a recently proposed pre-bond TSV probing procedure, this paper develops a three-stage optimization method named “SOS3” to greatly reduce TSV test time without losing the capability of identifying given number of faulty TSVs. The optimization stages are as follows. First, an integer linear programming (ILP) model generates a near-optimal set of test sessions for pre-bond defective TSV diagnosis. Second, an iterative greedy procedure sequences the application of those test sessions for quicker diagnosis. Third, a TSV defect identification algorithm terminates testing as quickly as possible, often before all sessions are applied. Extensive simulation experiments are done for various TSV networks and the results show that the SOS3 framework greatly speeds up the pre-bond TSV test.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5681-x
  • High Speed Error Tolerant Adder for Multimedia Applications
    • Authors: S. Geetha; P. Amritvalli
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a 1-bit modified full adder (MFA) cell is proposed. This eliminates the carry propagation during the addition by allowing errors in the carry bit. Using the proposed MFA, a 16-bit high speed error tolerant adder (HSETA) circuit is designed with conventional carry select adder (CSLA) structure for higher order bits and MFA based structure for lower order bits. The performance of HSETA is compared with existing adders in terms of accuracy, gate count, delay and power dissipation. The gate count of the HSETA is reduced by 23% and speed is improved by 43% compared to a conventional 16-bit adder structure. Further, implementation on FPGA Spartan 6 shows that HSETA uses 53% fewer LUT and 63% fewer slices compared to the conventional adder. Image blending application is used to evaluate the performance of the HSETA. In addition, to perform extensive error analysis, an analytical model is developed for HSETA and tested for varying bit widths and input probabilities. The analytical model is validated through simulation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5680-y
  • Efficient Techniques for Fault Detection and Correction of Reversible
    • Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu; Md. Solaiman Mia; Ashis Kumer Biswas
      Abstract: Abstract It is very important to detect and correct faults for ensuring the validity and reliability of reversible circuits. Test vectors play an important role to detect as well as correct the faults in the circuits. The optimum number of test vector implies the more capabilities for detecting several types of faults in the circuits. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for generating optimum test vectors. We have shown that the proposed algorithm generates optimum test vectors with the least complexity of time as compared to existing methods, i.e., we have proved that the proposed algorithm requires O(log 2 N) time, whereas the best known existing method requires O(N. log 2 N) time, where N is the number of inputs. We have also proposed another algorithm for detecting faults using the generated test vectors. This proposed method can detect more faults than existing ones. We have proved that the proposed fault detection algorithm requires least time complexity as compared to the best known existing methods, i.e., the proposed algorithm requires O(d. 1/N) time, whereas the best known existing methods require O(d. N) time, where N is the number of inputs and d is the number of gates in a reversible circuit. Finally, we have proposed another algorithm for correcting the detected faults. We have also proved that the proposed methods require the least time complexity as compared to the best known existing methods. In addition, the experimental results using benchmark circuits show the efficiency of the proposed methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5679-4
  • Offline Error Detection in MEDA-Based Digital Microfluidic Biochips Using
           Oscillation-Based Testing Methodology
    • Authors: Vineeta Shukla; Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin; Nor Hisham Hamid; Noohul Basheer Zain Ali; Krishnendu Chakrabarty
      Abstract: Abstract Digital microfluidics is an emerging class of lab-on-a-chip system. Reliability is a critical performance parameter as these biochips are employed in various safety-critical biomedical applications. With the introduction of highly scalable, reconfigurable and field programmable Micro-Electrode-Dot-Array (MEDA) architecture, the limitation of conventional DMFBs in varying the droplet size/volume in fine grain manner has been resolved. However, the MEDA-based biochips must be adequately tested upon fabrication to guarantee the correctness of bioassays. In this work, an offline testing approach based on Oscillation-Based Testing (OBT) methodology is presented for MEDA-based digital microfluidic biochips. Various simulations were performed for droplet-electrode short fault model involving single and multiple micro-electrodes. Furthermore, the loss of droplet volume due to the presence of defect was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics. The simulation results based on PSpice and COMSOL show that the proposed approach is effective for detecting defects in MEDA-based biochips.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5678-5
  • Built-In Fault Localization Circuitry for High Performance FPGA Based
    • Authors: Ayan Palchaudhuri; Anindya Sundar Dhar
      Abstract: Abstract In order to meet superior performance metrics along with denser logic integration and device miniaturization, FPGAs have become more susceptible to transistor related aging, coupled with manufacturing defects owing to increased complexity in photolithographic techniques, thereby reducing the reliability and lifetime. In this paper, we propose certain built-in circuit techniques that are integrated with the original design, to localize the source of any hard or soft errors, if any, with tolerable penalty in performance, against acceptable time and/or hardware redundancy. Circuit realization on FPGA has been achieved through primitive instantiation and constrained placement, such that the exact location from which the fault has emanated can be traced, and bypassed for mapping any subsequent logic on the same FPGA. The adopted design paradigm which had earlier proved its potential for high performance FPGA based designs, has now been adopted to facilitate fault localization.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5671-z
  • Test Technology Newsletter
    • PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5673-x
  • Susceptible Workload Evaluation and Protection using Selective Fault
    • Authors: Mauricio D. Gutierrez; Vasileios Tenentes; Daniele Rossi; Tom J. Kazmierski
      Abstract: Abstract Low power fault tolerance design techniques trade reliability to reduce the area cost and the power overhead of integrated circuits by protecting only a subset of their workload or their most vulnerable parts. However, in the presence of faults not all workloads are equally susceptible to errors. In this paper, we present a low power fault tolerance design technique that selects and protects the most susceptible workload. We propose to rank the workload susceptibility as the likelihood of any error to bypass the logic masking of the circuit and propagate to its outputs. The susceptible workload is protected by a partial Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) scheme. We evaluate the proposed technique on timing-independent and timing-dependent errors induced by permanent and transient faults. In comparison with unranked selective fault tolerance approach, we demonstrate a) a similar error coverage with a 39.7% average reduction of the area overhead or b) a 86.9% average error coverage improvement for a similar area overhead. For the same area overhead case, we observe an error coverage improvement of 53.1% and 53.5% against permanent stuck-at and transition faults, respectively, and an average error coverage improvement of 151.8% and 89.0% against timing-dependent and timing-independent transient faults, respectively. Compared to TMR, the proposed technique achieves an area and power overhead reduction of 145.8% to 182.0%.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5668-7
  • A New BIST-based Test Approach with the Fault Location Capability for
           Communication Channels in Network-on-Chip
    • Authors: Babak Aghaei; Ahmad Khademzadeh; Midia Reshadi; Kambiz Badie
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a new BIST based test approach to detecting short faults on the communication channels data links in network-on-chip is proposed. The rationale underlying the novelty of the proposed approach is that it is capable of locating the faulty channels while simultaneously performing the testing as well as updating the Routing Tables (RT) in which irregular Mesh-based and fault tolerant NoCs that are using Table-based routing. The proposed approach encompasses TPG and TRA located in the Network Adapter (NA) as well as a Packet Comparing Module (PCM) embedded in the routers. The approach, in addition, with a high scalability leads to 100% Test Coverage (TC) and 82.3% capability of diagnosing faulty channels in NoCs with a high scale. Furthermore, the approach is capable of being performed within one Round (two phase) run with a total time of 70 clocks which is considered as cost-effective compared with the preceding methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the hardware cost of PCM is trivial compared with the hardware of RASoC, HERMES, Æthereal and Vici routers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5666-9
  • An Automatic Functional Coverage for Digital Systems Through a Binary
           Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with a Reinitialization Mechanism
    • Authors: Alfonso Martínez-Cruz; Ricardo Barrón-Fernández; Herón Molina-Lozano; Marco-Antonio Ramírez-Salinas; Luis-Alfonso Villa-Vargas; Prometeo Cortés-Antonio; Kwang-Ting Cheng
      Abstract: Abstract At present, functional verification represents the most expensive part of the digital systems design. Moreover, different problems such as: clock synchronization, code compatibility, simulation automation, new design methodologies, proper use of coverage metrics, among others represent challenges in this area. The automated test vector generation is involved in these problems. In this work, an automated functional test sequences generation for digital systems based on the use of coverage models and a binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with a reinitialization mechanism (BPSOr) is described. Also, a comparison with other meta-heuristic algorithms such as: Genetic algorithms (GA) and pseudo-random generation is presented using different fitness functions, coverage models and devices under verification. The main strategy is based on the combination of the simulation and meta-heuristic algorithms to test the device behavior through the generation of test vector sequences. According to the results, the proposed test generation method represents a good alternative to increase the functional coverage during the automated functional verification of block-level digital systems verification.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10836-017-5665-x
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