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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2017 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (159 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (86 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1135 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (308 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (48 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (76 journals)

ENGINEERING (1135 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal  
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal  
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ISRN - International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
ISRN Nanotechnology     Open Access  
ISRN Signal Processing     Open Access  
ISRN Thermodynamics     Open Access  
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 152)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  

  First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Electronic Testing
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0727 - ISSN (Online) 0923-8174
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.424]   [H-I: 22]
  • Improving Semiconductor Reliability with Advanced Engineering Methods in
           Test Program Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Advancing semiconductor technology in combination with new assembly and packaging technologies are unfolding a new level of challenges for production testing. Reliability of semiconductors should be ensured by applying dedicated techniques within production testing addressing various aging aspects such as: device wear-out related degradation or reduced operational voltage headroom. Thus, test program quality is emerging as a major concern, as it is directly translating into microelectronics reliability and devices quality. With the heightened sensitivity of semiconductor technology to smallest deviations in test methods from the allowed operational range, the risk of accidentally degrading the integrated circuits reliability increases significant. In this paper we propose an approach that addresses the demand for improving semiconductor technology reliability production tests quality. The presented industry usage based case studies, in combination with described techniques, provide a set of valuable practical guidelines.
      PubDate: 2014-11-19
       
  • Test Technology Newsletter
    • PubDate: 2014-11-14
       
  • On-line Condition Monitoring and Maintenance of Power Electronic
           Converters
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents on-line technique for condition based maintenance of power electronic converters. The wear-out condition for high failure rate components is obtained based on parametric degradation. As per MIL Handbook 217 F, electrolytic capacitors and switching transistors together constitutes more than 90 % failures of power electronic systems. An electronic control gear circuit for fluorescent lamp is designed for on-line condition monitoring of target aluminum electrolytic capacitors and MOSFET at an accelerated aging condition. A low cost microcontroller board is programmed for data acquisition and test circuit control. Data values are serially communicated to National Instruments LabVIEW software, installed on the host computer for algorithm implementation and condition based maintenance of circuit. Using web publishing tool, the control of running state front panel VI is continuously transferred from local host to the client as an HTML file that is accessed in standard web browsers. Operator can remotely monitor the health of life limiting devices and can perform condition based shut down of the circuit. Also parametric data values of target devices are stored on hard disk of host computer in MS Excel file.
      PubDate: 2014-11-09
       
  • Efficient Error-Tolerability Testing on Image Processing Circuits Based on
           Equivalent Error Rate Transformation
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper we address two key issues related to error-tolerability testing on image processing circuits, namely acceptable threshold determination and acceptability evaluation. A JPEG 2000 decoder is employed as a case study. We first carefully investigate the acceptability threshold values of images in terms of error rate and error significance. The investigation results show that appropriate threshold values should be determined depending on a number of factors, including size (resolution), brightness, contrast and frequency of test images as well as human subjectiveness. Based on the determined threshold values we propose an equivalent error rate transformation technique to help test engineers easily and quickly examine the acceptability of a circuit under test. We also carry out hardware implementation of the proposed technique. The implementation results show that the hardware area overhead with respect to a commercial JPEG decoder design is only 2.24 %. To validate the proposed technique, 13,860 erroneous color images produced by faulty JPEG 2000 decoders as well as 450 erroneous benchmark images are employed. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is as effective as the exhaustive test method. Moreover, our technique requires much less test time and storage space compared with the exhaustive test method. The achievable reduction ratio in test time and storage space is more than 99 %.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
       
  • A Small Chip Area Stochastic Calibration for TDC Using Ring Oscillator
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a small chip area stochastic calibration for TDC linearity and input range, and analyzes it with FPGA. The proposed calibration estimates the absolute values of the delay of the buffers and the range of measurement statistically. The hardware implementation of the proposed calibration requires single counter to construct the histogram, so that the extra area for the proposed calibration is smaller. Because the implementation is fully digital, it is easily implemented on digital LSIs such as FPGA, micro-processor, and SoC. Experiments with Xilinx Virtex-5 LX FPGA ML501 reveal that both the periods of the external clock and the ring oscillator are preferred as short as possible under more than twice of the range of measurement of TDC when the oscillation period of the ring oscillator is wider than that of the external clock for fast convergence. The required time for the proposed calibration is 0.08 ms, and the required hardware resources LUTs and FFs for the implementation on FPGA are 24.1% and 22.2% of the conventional implementation, respectively.
      PubDate: 2014-11-05
       
  • Testing Disturbance Faults in Various NAND Flash Memories
    • Abstract: Abstract NAND flash memory is one popular non-volatile memory. Flash memory is prone to disturbance faults due to its specific mechanism of functional operations. Furthermore, different NAND flash memories might be different on the array organizations and the supported functional operations. For example, some NAND flash memories can support the random program operation, but some cannot; some NAND flash memories with single-page wordlines and some with multiple-page wordlines. The differences on the array organizations and the functional operations result in the heavy influence on the testing of disturbance faults. In this paper, therefore, we analyze the disturbance faults for NAND flash memories with different array organizations and functional operations. Also, test algorithms for covering the disturbance faults in various types of NAND flash memories are proposed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
       
  • Diagnostic Test Generation for Transition Delay Faults Using Stuck-At
           Fault Detection Tools
    • Abstract: Abstract By adding a few logic gates and one or two modeling flip-flops to the circuit under test (CUT), we create a detection or diagnostic automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) model of transition delay faults usable by a conventional single stuck-at fault test pattern generator. Given a transition delay fault pair, the diagnostic ATPG model can either find an exclusive test or prove the equivalence of the fault pair. Our work offers advantages over existing work. First, the detection of a transition delay fault or the diagnosis of a fault pair can be modeled in only one instead of two or four time-frames of the CUT. Second, an exclusive test can be generated under either launch off capture (LOC) or launch off shift (LOS) mode for a full-scan sequential circuit. Third, the proposed ATPG models can be expanded into two time frames to facilitate the use of combinational ATPG tools, though with lower modeling complexity than was possible before. As a result, the percentage of distinguished transition delay fault pairs is larger and the proposed automatic exclusive test generation system is more time-efficient.
      PubDate: 2014-10-31
       
  • Three-Level Management Algorithm to Increase the SEU Emulation Rate in DPR
           Based Emulators
    • Abstract: Abstract Evaluation of the single event upsets (SEUs) impact on SRAM-based FPGAs is a major issue in the adoption of these FPGAs in aerospace applications. In this context, different approaches have been recorded in the literatures, among which the emulation methods are applied most frequently regarding their proper cost-effectiveness and time-saving aspects. This paper has proposed a new approach for increasing the SEU emulation rate in the dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR)-based emulators. Unlike the traditional procedure that emulates the SEU faults only in one loop, the proposed three-level management algorithm (3-LMA) consists of three nested loops. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the suggested technique is to some orders of magnitude faster than traditional approach.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28
       
  • Characterization of a Passive Telemetric System for ISM Band Pressure
           Sensors
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a passive telemetric system for ISM band pressure sensors. The passive telemetric system is consisted of an external planar spiral coil and a pressure sensor. Theoretical analysis for the principle of the telemetric technique is described. Since the sensitivity and efficiency of the telemetric system is related with the performance of the pressure sensor and external coil. The characterization of the critical parameters for the design of pressure sensor and inductive coils are presented and analyzed separately. The characteristic impedance of the system, expressed as the function of the frequency, is measured by R&S ZVA67 VNA. The Measurement results show that the resonant frequency of the pressure sensor can shift from 397.83 to 396.84 MHz with an increasing pressure from 0 to 100 mmHg. This measurement proves the work of the telemetric system and also reflects that the ISM band pressure sensor has a high pressure sensitivity of 0.92 KHz/mmHg.
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
       
  • Access Port Protection for Reconfigurable Scan Networks
    • Abstract: Abstract Scan infrastructures based on IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG), 1500 (SECT), and P1687 (IJTAG) provide a cost-effective access mechanism for test, reconfiguration, and debugging purposes. The improved accessibility of on-chip instruments, however, poses a serious threat to system safety and security. While state-of-the-art protection methods for scan architectures compliant with JTAG and SECT are very effective, most of these techniques face scalability issues in reconfigurable scan networks allowed by the upcoming IJTAG standard. This paper describes a scalable solution for multi-level access management in reconfigurable scan networks. The access to protected instruments is restricted locally at the interface to the network. The access restriction is realized by a sequence filter that allows only a precomputed set of scan-in access sequences. This approach does not require any modification of the scan architecture and causes no access time penalty. Therefore, it is well suited for core-based designs with hard macros and 3D integrated circuits. Experimental results for complex reconfigurable scan networks show that the area overhead depends primarily on the number of allowed accesses, and is marginal even if this number exceeds the count of registers in the network.
      PubDate: 2014-10-18
       
  • On the Test and Mitigation of Malfunctions in Low-Power SRAMs
    • Abstract: Abstract In low-power SRAMs, power gating mechanisms are commonly used to reduce static power consumption. When the SRAM is not accessed for a long period, such mechanisms allow shutting off one or more memory blocks (core-cell array, address decoder, I/O logic, etc.), thus reducing leakage currents. In order to guarantee static power reduction in low-power SRAMs, reliable operation of power gating mechanisms must be ensured by adequate test techniques. In this paper, we first present a detailed analysis based on electrical simulations to identify faulty behaviors caused by realistic defects that may affect power gating mechanisms embedded in low-power SRAMs. Based on this analysis, we present an efficient test solution targeting detection of observed faulty behaviors. As a final contribution, we propose novel techniques to mitigate the impact of studied defects, once detected by test methods, therefore providing significant yield improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-10-05
       
  • Editorial
    • PubDate: 2014-10-02
       
  • Fault Diagnosis of Analog Circuit Based on High-Order Cumulants and
           Information Fusion
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a method of analog circuit fault diagnosis by using high-order cumulants and information fusion. We extract the original voltage and current signals from output terminal of the circuit under test, and determine corresponding kurtosis and skewness as fault eigenvectors, which are then used to improve Error Back Propagation (BP) neural network for fault diagnosis. With respect to fault eigenvectors consider more about the information which are sometimes ignored by principal component analysis (PCA) using second order statistics. By employing information fusion to integrate voltage with current as fault eigenvectors, eigenvectors can be used to express fault information better. Diagnosis examples are used to illustrate that our fault eigenvectors own higher recognition rate and diagnosis accuracy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
       
  • Test Technology Newsletter
    • PubDate: 2014-09-23
       
  • A New Analytical Model of SET Latching Probability for Circuits
           Experiencing Single- or Multiple-Cycle Single-Event Transients
    • Abstract: Abstract As technology scales down, more single-event transients (SETs) are expected to occur in combinational circuits and thus contribute to the increase of soft error rate (SER). We propose a systematic analysis method to precisely model the SET latching probability. Due to the decreased critical charge and shortened pipeline stage, the SET duration time is likely to exceed one clock cycle. In previous work, the SET latching probability is modeled as a function of SET pulse width, setup and hold times, and clock period for single-cycle SETs. Our analytical model does not only include new dependent parameters such as SET injection location and starting time, but also precisely categorizes the SET latching probabilities for different parameter ranges. The probability of latching multiple-cycle SETs is specifically analyzed in this work to address the increasing ratio of SET pulse width over clock period. We further propose a method that exploits the boundaries of those dependent parameters to accelerate the SER estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed analysis method achieves up to 97% average accuracy, which is applicable for both single- and multiple-cycle SETs. Our case studies on ISCAS’85 benchmark circuits confirm our analysis on the impact of SET injection location and starting time on the SET latching probability. By exploiting our analytical model, we achieve up to 78% simulation time reduction on the process of SET latching probability and SER estimation, compared with Monte-Carlo simulation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-23
       
  • Optimal Test Scheduling Formulation under Power Constraints with Dynamic
           Voltage and Frequency Scaling
    • Abstract: Abstract As a consequence of technology scaling and increasing power consumption of modern high performance designs, various techniques, such as clock gating and Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS), have been adapted to address power issues. These techniques are important and desirable to address reliability needs as well as economic issues. From a testing point of view, the introduction of power constraints during testing is needed to achieve the desired product quality and to avoid yield loss. Unlike designers who have benefited from the Design-for-Test hardware introduced for testing, test engineers have rarely taken advantage of the extra hardware introduced to meet design needs. In this paper, we make use of the DVFS technology and its associated hardware to improve test economics. We formulate the power constrained testing problem as an optimization problem that makes use of DVFS technology. We show that superior test schedules can be obtained for both session-based and sessionless testing methods relative to existing and traditional methods of obtaining test schedules.
      PubDate: 2014-09-21
       
  • Low Cost Built-in Sensor Testing of Phase-Locked Loop Dynamic Parameters
    • Abstract: Abstract Phase-locked loops (PLLs) serve as core building blocks for communication systems and are often used to synthesize IO clocks for data synchronization and frequency sources for RF conversion. Testing of PLL loop performance is consequently important for guaranteeing the reliability of the underlying communication systems. In this paper, a low cost testing method based on loop triggering and use of built-in analog sensors (small number of transistors) to accurately predict phase-locked loop dynamic parameters is proposed. The sensor responses show strong statistical correlation with the PLL parameters being tested. Accordingly, supervised learning is applied to predict the required PLL parameters from the observed sensor response after “training”. In order to verify analog sensor testing in PLL loop response evaluation, an off-the-shelf PLL and a PLL on printed circuit board (PCB) are tested using this method. The results are analyzed and shown with high correlation to loop parameters. Parameters including charge pump current, voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain, bandwidth, phase margin, and locking time are predicted accurately to prove the viability of the proposed test method.
      PubDate: 2014-09-20
       
  • Testing Methods for PUF-Based Secure Key Storage Circuits
    • Abstract: Abstract Design for test is an integral part of any VLSI chip. However, for secure systems extra precautions have to be taken to prevent that the test circuitry could reveal secret information. This paper addresses secure test for Physical Unclonable Function based systems. It investigates two secure Built-In Self-Test (BIST) solutions for Fuzzy Extractor (FE) which is the main component of PUF-based systems. The schemes target high stuck-at-fault (SAF) coverage by performing scan-chain free functional testing, to prevent scan-chain abuse for attacks. The first scheme reuses existing FE blocks (for pattern generation and compression) to minimize the area overhead, while the second scheme tests all the FE blocks simultaneously to minimize the test time. The schemes are integrated in FE design and simulated; the results show that for the first test scheme, a SAF fault coverage of 95 % can be realized with no more than 47.1k clock cycles at the cost of a negligible area overhead of only 2.2 %; while for the second test scheme a SAF fault coverage of 95 % can be realized with 3.5k clock cycles at the cost of 18.6 % area overhead. Higher fault coverages are possible to realize at extra cost (i.e., either by extending the test time, or by adding extra hardware, or a combination of both).
      PubDate: 2014-09-17
       
  • Estiamtion and Correction of Mismatch Errors in Time-Interleaved ADCs
    • Abstract: Abstract In data acquisition systems, with help of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) architecture, the maximum sample rate of the whole system can be increased efficiently. However, inevitable offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and timing error between time-interleaved channels degrade the sampling performance. In order to develop the mismatched TIADC structure, this paper first proposes a new time-domain algorithm to estimate the three aforementioned mismatch errors, and then puts forward a calibration method to calibrate the mismatch errors. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the proposed estimation and calibration algorithm.
      PubDate: 2014-09-07
       
  • Dynamic Threshold Delay Characterization Model for Improved Static Timing
           Analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Transistors within a gate take a finite amount of time to switch and hence there is always a propagation delay associated with it. These delays are evaluated by standard cell characterization techniques using EDA tools. However, these standard measurement methods tend to fail when simulating the design with practical values of slope and load and gives rise to the problem of negative or non-monotonic delays. Negative/non-monotonic delays lead to false positives during static timing analysis, synthesis and simulation of circuits and are undesirable. Hence, there is a need to implement new methods for characterization of propagation delay that will lead to more realistic monotonic delay values, ultimately achieving early timing closures. One such method of delay measurement based on actual switching thresholds has been proposed in this work.
      PubDate: 2014-08-16
       
 
 
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