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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2167 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1176 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Superconductivity     Open Access  
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 221)
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal  
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

  First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

Journal Cover   Journal of Applied Logic
  [SJR: 0.936]   [H-I: 19]   Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1570-8683
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2811 journals]
  • A concept approach to input/output logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Audun Stolpe
      This paper provides a semantics for input/input output logic based on formal concept analysis. The central result shows that an input/output logic axiomatised by a relation R is the same as the logic induced by deriving pairs from the concept lattice generated by R using a ∧- and ∨-classical Scott consequence relation. This correspondence offers powerful analytical techniques for classifying, visualising and analysing input/output relations, revealing implicit hierarchical structure and/or natural clusterings and dependencies. The application of all formal developments are illustrated by a worked example towards the end.


      PubDate: 2015-05-16T01:04:45Z
       
  • Topological FLew-algebras
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Jean B. Nganou , Serge F.T. Tebu
      The main goal of this article is to introduce topological FL ew -algebras and study their main properties. We also treat completions of FL ew -algebras with respect to inductive family of filters. This work generalizes similar works on MV-algebras [10] and on FL ew -algebras equipped with uniform topologies [9].


      PubDate: 2015-05-16T01:04:45Z
       
  • Gödel spaces and perfect MV-algebras
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Antonio Di Nola , Revaz Grigolia
      The category of Gödel spaces GS (with strongly isotone maps as morphisms), which are dually equivalent to the category of Gödel algebras, is transferred by a contravariant functor H into the category M V ( C ) G of MV-algebras generated by perfect MV-chains via the operators of direct products, subalgebras and direct limits. Conversely, the category M V ( C ) G is transferred into the category GS by means of a contravariant functor P . Moreover, it is shown that the functor H is faithful, the functor P is full and the both functors are dense. The description of finite coproduct of algebras, which are isomorphic to Chang algebra, is given. Using duality a characterization of projective algebras in M V ( C ) G is given.


      PubDate: 2015-05-16T01:04:45Z
       
  • On classifying abduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Woosuk Park
      We can witness the recent surge of interest in classifying different patterns or types of abduction. Many philosophers have suggested their own classifications emphasizing different aspects of abduction. Such a development is remarkable, in view of the fact that until quite recently the focus of the research on Peircean abduction was to identify its logical form. Another agenda in the recent attempts to classify abduction is whether to allow non-explanatory abductions. In order to resolve these two closely related issues, I propose to examine how Peirce would have responded to them. In particular, I suggest to do this in connection with Peirce's another life-long project, the classification of sciences. In this examination, it will be shown that Peirce struggled with the problem of conflating induction and abduction. I shall discuss how this problem influenced both Peirce's views on the interrelationship between abduction, deduction, and induction on the one hand, and his many classifications of sciences on the other. Also, the implication of the fundamental change in Peirce's views of abduction, deduction, and induction to the problem of the classification of sciences will be uncovered. Finally, I shall discuss whether inference to the best explanation is abduction. Insofar as this problem has bearing on the two controversial issues in classifying abduction, my negative answer will demonstrate that classifying abduction is yet to get off the ground.


      PubDate: 2015-04-12T07:14:51Z
       
  • Towards the logic of projective identification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Andriy Vasylchenko
      This paper is devoted to the ‘logic of the unconscious’ and its application to the analysis of projective intentionality in psychoanalysis. Subjective assumptions concerning the existence and identity of intentional objects are often unconscious. They result from personal experience through its assimilation and transformation in further psychological (e.g. defensive) processes. Formal aspects of these subjective assumptions and their influence on our judgment and action have been studied by a number of psychoanalytic authors, in particular by Silvano Arieti, Ignacio Matte-Blanco and their followers who tried to develop ‘logic of the unconscious’. My project consists in the reformulation, clarification and elaboration of the logic of the unconscious using contemporary modal and relevant logics, in particular Graham Priest's logic of intentionality. An important advantage of this logic is that it allows for truth indeterminacy and paraconsistency of the propositional content of intentional states. In this article I explore the logic of projective identification, which I assume plays the central role in the logic of the unconscious. Special attention is given to the logical analysis of the notion of an internal object, and to a logical reconstruction of the phantasy of projective identification.


      PubDate: 2015-04-04T06:34:03Z
       
  • Using inductive reasoning for completing OCF-networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Christian Eichhorn , Gabriele Kern-Isberner
      OCF-networks provide the possibility to combine qualitative information expressed by rankings of (conditional) formulas with the strong structural information of a network, in this respect being a qualitative variant of the better known Bayesian networks. Like for Bayesian networks, a global ranking function can be calculated quickly and efficiently from the locally distributed information, whereas the latter significantly reduces the exponentially high complexity of the semantical ranking approach. This qualifies OCF-networks for applications. However, in practical applications the provided ranking information may not be in the format needed to be represented by an OCF-network, or some values may be simply missing. In this paper, we present techniques for filling in the missing values using methods of inductive reasoning and we elaborate on formal properties of OCF-networks.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:33:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Uncertain reasoning at FLAIRS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Christoph Beierle , Cory Butz , Souhila Kaci



      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:33:00Z
       
  • Learning discrete Bayesian network parameters from continuous data
           streams: What is the best strategy?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Parot Ratnapinda , Marek J. Druzdzel
      We compare three approaches to learning numerical parameters of discrete Bayesian networks from continuous data streams: (1) the EM algorithm applied to all data, (2) the EM algorithm applied to data increments, and (3) the online EM algorithm. Our results show that learning from all data at each step, whenever feasible, leads to the highest parameter accuracy and model classification accuracy. When facing computational limitations, incremental learning approaches are a reasonable alternative. While the differences in speed between incremental algorithms are not large (online EM is slightly slower), for all but small data sets online EM tends to be more accurate than incremental EM.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:33:00Z
       
  • Conflict-free and conflict-tolerant semantics for constrained
           argumentation frameworks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Ofer Arieli
      In this paper we incorporate integrity constraints in abstract argumentation frameworks. Two types of semantics are considered for these constrained frameworks: conflict-free and conflict-tolerant. The first one is a conservative extension of standard approaches for giving coherent-based semantics to argumentation frameworks, where in addition certain constraints must be satisfied. A primary consideration behind this approach is a dismissal of any contradiction between accepted arguments of the constrained frameworks. The second type of semantics preserves contradictions, which are regarded as meaningful and sometimes even critical for the conclusions. We show that this approach is particularly useful for assuring the existence of non-empty extensions and for handling contradictions among the constraints, in which cases conflict-free extensions are not available. Both types of semantics are represented by propositional sets of formulas and are evaluated in the context of three-valued and four-valued logics. Among others, we show a one-to-one correspondence between the models of these theories, the extensions, and the labelings of the underlying constrained argumentation frameworks.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:33:00Z
       
  • On the complexity of bribery and manipulation in tournaments with
           uncertain information
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Nicholas Mattei , Judy Goldsmith , Andrew Klapper , Martin Mundhenk
      We study the computational complexity of bribery and manipulation schemes for sports tournaments with uncertain information. We introduce a general probabilistic model for multi-round tournaments and consider several special types of tournament: challenge (or caterpillar); cup; and round robin. In some ways, tournaments are similar to the sequential pair-wise, cup and Copeland voting rules. The complexity of bribery and manipulation are well studied for elections, usually assuming deterministic information about votes and results. We assume that for tournament entrants i and j, the probability that i beats j and the costs of lowering each probability by fixed increments are known to the manipulators. We provide complexity analyses for several problems related to manipulation and bribery for the various types of tournaments. Complexities range from probabilistic log space to NP PP . This shows that the introduction of uncertainty into the reasoning process drastically increases the complexity of bribery problems in some instances.


      PubDate: 2015-03-19T04:33:00Z
       
  • Robot location estimation in the situation calculus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Vaishak Belle , Hector J. Levesque
      Location estimation is a fundamental sensing task in robotic applications, where the world is uncertain, and sensors and effectors are noisy. Most systems make various assumptions about the dependencies between state variables, and especially about how these dependencies change as a result of actions. Building on a general framework by Bacchus, Halpern and Levesque for reasoning about degrees of belief in the situation calculus, and a recent extension to it for continuous probability distributions, in this paper we illustrate location estimation in the presence of a rich theory of actions using examples. The formalism also allows specifications with incomplete knowledge and strict uncertainty, as a result of which the agent's initial beliefs need not be characterized by a unique probability distribution. Finally, we show that while actions might affect prior distributions in nonstandard ways, suitable posterior beliefs are nonetheless entailed as a side-effect of the overall specification.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • A labeled argumentation framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Maximiliano C.D. Budán , Mauro Gómez Lucero , Ignacio Viglizzo , Guillermo R. Simari
      To increase the expressivity of an argumentation formalism, we propose adding meta-level information to the arguments in the form of labels representing quantifiable data such as reliability degree, strength measure, skill, time availability, or any other feature about arguments. The extra information attached to an argument is then used in the acceptability determination process. We present a Labeled Argumentation Framework (LAF), combining the knowledge representation capabilities provided by the Argument Interchange Format (AIF) with an Algebra of Argumentation Labels, enabling us to handle the labels associated with the arguments. These labels are propagated through an argumentative graph according to the relations of support, conflict, and aggregation between arguments. Through this process we obtain final labels attached to the arguments that are useful to determine their acceptability.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Reflecting rules: A note on generalizing the deduction theorem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Gillman Payette
      The purpose of this brief note is to prove a limitative theorem for a generalization of the deduction theorem. I discuss the relationship between the deduction theorem and rules of inference. Often when the deduction theorem is claimed to fail, particularly in the case of normal modal logics, it is the result of a confusion over what the deduction theorem is trying to show. The classic deduction theorem is trying to show that all so-called ‘derivable rules’ can be encoded into the object language using the conditional. The deduction theorem can be generalized in the sense that one can attempt to encode all types of rules into the object language. When a rule is encoded in this way I say that it is reflected in the object language. What I show, however, is that certain logics which reflect a certain kind of rule must be trivial. Therefore, my generalization of the deduction theorem does fail where the classic deduction theorem didn't.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Automatic non-linear analysis of non-invasive writing signals, applied to
           essential tremor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): K. Lopez-de-Ipiña , A. Bergareche , P. de la Riva , M. Faundez-Zanuy , P.M. Calvo , J. Roure , E. Sesa-Nogueras
      Essential tremor (ET) in the western world is the most common movement disorder, and 50–70% of essential tremor cases are estimated to be genetic in origin [1]. This work on selection of nonlinear biomarkers derived from drawings and handwriting is part of a wider cross-study for the diagnosis of essential tremor leaded by Biodonostia Institute. These biomarkers include not only classic linear features, but also non-linear: fractal dimension and entropy. The presence of integrated features of other diseases such as stress is also analyzed. In future works, these new biomarkers will be integrated with the ones obtained in the wider study of Biodonostia. Note that the use of these methods provide undoubted benefits towards the development of more sustainable, low cost, high quality, and non-invasive technologies. These systems are easily adaptable to the user and environment, and can be very useful in real complex environments with regard to a social and economic point of view.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • The complement of a point subset in a projective space and a Grassmann
           space
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 3
      Author(s): Krzysztof Petelczyc , Mariusz Żynel
      In a projective space we fix some set of points, a horizon, and investigate the complement of that horizon. We prove, under some assumptions on the size of lines, that the ambient projective space, together with its horizon, both can be recovered in that complement. Then we apply this result to show something similar for Grassmann spaces.


      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 2, Part A




      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Simplified method based on an intelligent model to obtain the extinction
           angle of the current for a single-phase half wave controlled rectifier
           with resistive and inductive load
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 2, Part A
      Author(s): José Luis Calvo-Rolle , Héctor Quintian-Pardo , Emilio Corchado , María del Carmen Meizoso-López , Ramón Ferreiro García



      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Editorial: Weighted logics for artificial intelligence – 2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Lluis Godo , Henri Prade , Guilin Qi



      PubDate: 2015-03-15T03:34:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-02-03T06:04:08Z
       
  • Equations for formally real meadows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Jan A. Bergstra , Inge Bethke , Alban Ponse
      We consider the signatures Σ m = ( 0 , 1 , − , + , ⋅ , − 1 ) of meadows and ( Σ m , s ) of signed meadows. We give two complete axiomatizations of the equational theories of the real numbers with respect to these signatures. In the first case, we extend the axiomatization of zero-totalized fields by a single axiom scheme expressing formal realness; the second axiomatization presupposes an ordering. We apply these completeness results in order to obtain complete axiomatizations of the complex numbers.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T05:33:40Z
       
  • Similarity-based relaxed instance queries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Andreas Ecke , Rafael Peñaloza , Anni-Yasmin Turhan
      In Description Logics (DL) knowledge bases (KBs), information is typically captured by clear-cut concepts. For many practical applications querying the KB by crisp concepts is too restrictive; a user might be willing to lose some precision in the query, in exchange of a larger selection of answers. Similarity measures can offer a controlled way of gradually relaxing a query concept within a user-specified limit. In this paper we formalize the task of instance query answering for DL KBs using concepts relaxed by concept similarity measures (CSMs). We investigate computation algorithms for this task in the DL EL , their complexity and properties for the CSMs employed regarding whether unfoldable or general TBoxes are used. For the case of general TBoxes we define a family of CSMs that take the full TBox information into account, when assessing the similarity of concepts.


      PubDate: 2015-01-23T05:04:29Z
       
  • The fallacy of composition: Guiding concepts, historical cases, and
           research problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Maurice A. Finocchiaro
      Although the fallacy of composition is little studied by theorists and trivially illustrated in textbooks, some view it as ubiquitous and highly significant. Furthermore, although definitions regard the concept as unproblematic, it contains three distinct elements that are often confused, and is often carelessly conflated with the fallacy of division. And although some apparently claim that fallacies are figments of a critic's imagination, they are really proposing to study fallacies in the context of meta-argumentation. Guided by these ideas, I find three important historical examples: Aristotle's geocentric argument from natural motion, as critiqued by Galileo; a step in the theological argument from design, as critiqued by Hume; and Michels's iron law of oligarchy, as critiqued by social scientists Dahl and Lipset. Finally, I formulate some problems for future research on compositional arguments: distinguishing incorrectness from fallaciousness; elaborating general principles of evaluation; clarifying the three distinct subtypes; shifting from the arbitrary pluralism of argument-identification to the normal meta-argumentation of argument-analysis; and further historical-empirical search for such fallacies in various controversies, over holism, over global warming, and over national debts.


      PubDate: 2015-01-23T05:04:29Z
       
  • A concept for the evolution of relational probabilistic belief states and
           the computation of their changes under optimum entropy semantics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Nico Potyka , Christoph Beierle , Gabriele Kern-Isberner
      Coping with uncertain knowledge and changing beliefs is essential for reasoning in dynamic environments. We generalize an approach to adjust probabilistic belief states by use of the relative entropy in a propositional setting to relational languages, leading to a concept for the evolution of relational probabilistic belief states. As a second contribution of this paper, we present a method to compute the corresponding belief state changes by considering a dual problem and present first application and experimental results. The computed belief state usually factorizes and we explain how the factorization can be exploited to store the belief state more compactly and to simplify its computation by exploiting equivalences of worlds. Finally, we present results on the computational complexity of determining equivalence classes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-09T04:03:26Z
       
  • Abduction: A categorical characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Fernando Tohmé , Gianluca Caterina , Rocco Gangle
      Scientific knowledge is gained by the informed (on the basis of theoretic ideas and criteria) examination of data. This can be easily seen in the context of quantitative data, handled with statistical methods. Here we are interested in other forms of data analysis, although with the same goal of extracting meaningful information. The idea is that data should guide the construction of suitable models, which later may lead to the development of new theories. This kind of inference is called abduction and constitutes a central procedure called Peircean qualitative induction. In this paper we will present a category-theoretic representation of abduction based on the notion of adjunction, which highlights the fundamental fact that an abduction is the most efficient way of capturing the information obtained from a large body of evidence.


      PubDate: 2015-01-09T04:03:26Z
       
  • A Dempster–Shafer model of imprecise assertion strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Henrietta Eyre , Jonathan Lawry
      A Dempster–Shafer theory based model of assertion is proposed for multi-agent communications so as to capture both epistemic and strategic uncertainty. Treating assertion as a choice problem, we argue that for complex multi-agent communication systems, individual agents will only tend to have sufficient information to allow them to formulate imprecise strategies for choosing between different possible true assertions. In a propositional logic setting, an imprecise assertion strategy is defined as a functional mapping between a valuation and a set of true sentences, where the latter is assumed to contain the optimal assertion given that particular state of the world. Uncertainty is then quantified in terms of probability distributions defined on the joint space of valuations and strategies, naturally leading to Dempster–Shafer belief and plausibility measures on sets of possible assertions. This model is extended so as to include imprecise valuations and to provide a meta-level treatment of weak and strong assertions. As a case study, we consider the application of our proposed assertion models to the problem of choosing between a number of different vague descriptions, in the context of both epistemic and supervaluationist approaches to vagueness.


      PubDate: 2014-12-29T03:32:29Z
       
  • Special issue SOCO12-JAL
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Álvaro Herrero , Václav Snášel , Ajith Abraham , Ivan Zelinka , Bruno Baruque , Héctor Quintián , José Luis Calvo-Rolle , Javier Sedano , Andre de Carlvalho , Emilio Corchado



      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • A hybrid evolutionary model for supplier assessment and selection in
           inbound logistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Dragan Simić , Vasa Svirčević , Svetlana Simić
      Business stability, quality, safety, supply chain flexibility and cost optimization have an increasing role in companies that strive to stay and survive in the market competition. A wise supplier choice becomes ever more important prerequisite for the success of any company. This paper presents a novel hybrid model for supplier assessment and selection, based on hybrid solution including genetic algorithm (GA) and harmony search algorithm (HSA). The chosen data set presents original data which is used for assessment in “Lames” company. The results show that HSA & GA value constraint model is slightly more restricted than other discussed models, and separates, much better and with greater precision, poor companies from the good ones in business environment.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • An efficient Reverse Distribution System for solving sustainable supply
           chain network design problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Petrică C. Pop , Camelia-M. Pintea , Corina Pop Sitar , Mara Hajdu-Măcelaru
      This paper deals with a sustainable supply chain network design problem (SSCNDP) arising in the public sector. In the considered SSCNDP, given a manufacturer, a set of m potential distribution centers (DCs) having a given distinct capacity, and a set of n customers, each one with a particular demand, we have to select the number and the location of the DCs necessary to supply demands to all the customers and the allocation of the customers to these DCs such that the installation and transportation costs integrated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are minimized. Due to the complexity of the problem, an efficient Reverse Distribution System (RDS) consisting of several improved classical heuristic algorithms is proposed. The developed approaches were tested and promising results were obtained on benchmark instances based on the literature, involving between 10 and 50 distribution centers and between 10 and 100 customers.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Conventional controller design based on Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Jana Nowaková , Miroslav Pokorný , Martin Pieš
      Although it is long since the first PID controller design method was developed, new methods are still being created and no general applicable method has been found. The paper extends the set of designing methods of PID controllers. Design methods can be divided into classic (analytical tuning methods, optimization methods etc.) and not so common fuzzy knowledge based methods. In this case, a conjunction of both methods is presented. The classic design methods (Ziegler–Nichols step response method and Chien, Hrones and Reswick design method) are used for achieving the knowledge of fuzzy knowledge based design methods. The fuzzy knowledge based design methods are based on Takagi–Sugeno model. It is defined as a class of systems for which – using the new proposed method – the settling time is shorter or the settling time is nearly the same but without overshoot, which could be also very useful. The proof of efficiency of the proposed methods and a numerical experiment is presented including a comparison with the conventional methods (simulated in the software environment Matlab-Simulink).


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Recognition of damaged letters based on mathematical fuzzy logic analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Vilém Novák , Petr Hurtík , Hashim Habiballa , Martin Štepnička
      This paper reports a real application whose task was to recognize characters printed on metal ingots. The problem is that surface of ingots is very uneven — ingots are hot or cold, cut by rough instrument, the printing machine can be worn down, etc. In this paper, we present two original recognition methods: the first one is based on application of mathematical fuzzy logic and the second one is based on representation of an image by a fuzzy-valued function. Results of these methods are compared with a simple neural network classifier and few other common methods.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Investigation on evolutionary predictive control of chemical reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Ivan Zelinka , Donald David Davendra , Roman Šenkeřík , Michal Pluháček
      This paper discusses predictive control of chemical reactor by means of evolutionary algorithm named SOMA – the Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm, that can be classified as swarm intelligence or memetic algorithm. The SOMA algorithm was used for multiple input–multiple output control of reactor model after static optimization. The MIMO control was defined for 5 inputs and 2 outputs with total number of 12 unknown variables. This paper is based on simulation results from optimization of static parameters that has been used to set up reactor for its evolutionary control.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Information retrieval from hospital information system: Increasing
           effectivity using swarm intelligence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Miroslav Bursa , Lenka Lhotska , Vaclav Chudacek , Jiri Spilka , Petr Janku , Lukas Hruban
      This paper details the process of mining information from a hospital information system that has been designed approximately 15 years ago. The information is distributed within database tables in large textual attributes with a free structure. Information retrieval from these information is necessary for complementing cardiotocography signals with additional information that is to be implemented in a decision support system. The basic statistical overview (n-gram analysis) helped with the insight into data structure, however more sophisticated methods have to be used as human (and expert) processing of the whole data were out of consideration: over 620,000 text fields contained text reports in natural language with (many) typographical errors, duplicates, ambiguities, syntax errors and many (nonstandard) abbreviations. There was a strong need to efficiently determine the overall structure of the database and discover information that is important from the clinical point of view. We have used three different methods: k-means, self-organizing map and a self-organizing approach inspired by ant-colonies that performed clustering of the records. The records were visualized and revealed the most prominent information structure(s) that were consulted with medical experts and served for further mining from the database. The outcome of this task is a set of ordered or nominal attributes with a structural information that is available for rule discovery mining and automated processing for the research of asphyxia prediction during delivery. The proposed methodology has significantly reduced the processing time of loosely structured textual records for both IT and medical experts.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Implementation and testing of a soft computing based model predictive
           control on an industrial controller
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): M. Larrea , E. Larzabal , E. Irigoyen , J.J. Valera , M. Dendaluce
      This work presents a real time testing approach of an Intelligent Multiobjective Nonlinear-Model Predictive Control Strategy (iMO-NMPC). The goal is the testing and analysis of the feasibility and reliability of some Soft Computing (SC) techniques running on a real time industrial controller. In this predictive control strategy, a Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm is used together with a Recurrent Artificial Neural Network in order to obtain the control action at each sampling time. The entire development process, from the numeric simulation of the control scheme to its implementation and testing on a PC-based industrial controller, is also presented in this paper. The computational time requirements are discussed as well. The obtained results show that the SC techniques can be considered also to tackle highly nonlinear and coupled complex control problems in real time, thus optimising and enhancing the response of the control loop. Therefore this work is a contribution to spread the SC techniques in on-line control applications, where currently they are relegated mainly to be used off-line, as is the case of optimal tuning of control strategies.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • An approach to abstract argumentation with recursive attack and support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Andrea Cohen , Sebastian Gottifredi , Alejandro J. García , Guillermo R. Simari
      This work introduces the Attack-Support Argumentation Framework (ASAF), an approach to abstract argumentation that allows for the representation and combination of attack and support relations. This framework extends the Argumentation Framework with Recursive Attacks (AFRA) in two ways. Firstly, it adds a support relation enabling to express support for arguments; this support can also be given to attacks, and to the support relation itself. Secondly, it extends AFRA's attack relation by allowing attacks to the aforementioned support relation. Moreover, since the support relation of the ASAF has a necessity interpretation, the ASAF also extends the Argumentation Framework with Necessities (AFN). Thus, the ASAF provides a unified framework for representing attack and support for arguments, as well as attack and support for the attack and support relations at any level.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Towards a logical belief function theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Laurence Cholvy
      This paper presents a version of belief function theory in which masses are assigned to propositional formulas and which allows the modeller to consider integrity constraints. It also provides three combination rules which apply within this framework. It proves that the initial version of belief function theory and its extension to non-exclusive hypotheses are two particular cases of this proposal. It finally shows that, even if this framework is not more expressive than the belief function theory as defined by Dempster and Shafer, its interest resides in the fact that it offers the modeller a rich language to express its beliefs, i.e., the propositional language.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • A logic for diffusion in social networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zoé Christoff , Jens Ulrik Hansen
      This paper introduces a general logical framework for reasoning about diffusion processes within social networks. The new “Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks” is a dynamic extension of standard hybrid logic, allowing to model complex phenomena involving several properties of agents. We provide a complete axiomatization and a terminating and complete tableau system for this logic and show how to apply the framework to diffusion phenomena documented in social networks analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Simplified method based on an intelligent model to obtain the extinction
           angle of the current for a single-phase half wave controlled rectifier
           with resistive and inductive load
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): José Luis Calvo-Rolle , Héctor Quintian-Pardo , Emilio Corchado , María del Carmen Meizoso-López , Ramón Ferreiro García
      With the aim of calculating the extinction angle of the current of a single-phase half wave controlled rectifier with resistive and inductive load, present work shows a method to obtain a regression model based on intelligent methods. This type of circuit is a typical non-linear case of study that requires a hard work to solve it by hand. To create the intelligent model, a dataset has been obtained with a computational method for the working range of the circuit. Then, with the dataset, to achieve the final solution, several methods of regression were tested from traditional to intelligent types. The model was verified empirically with electronic circuit software simulation, analytical methods and with a practical implementation. The advantage of the proposed method is its low computational cost. Then, the final solution is very appropriate for applications where high computational requirements are not possible, like low-performance microcontrollers or web applications.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Division by zero in non-involutive meadows
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): J.A. Bergstra , C.A. Middelburg
      Meadows have been proposed as alternatives for fields with a purely equational axiomatization. At the basis of meadows lies the decision to make the multiplicative inverse operation total by imposing that the multiplicative inverse of zero is zero. Thus, the multiplicative inverse operation of a meadow is an involution. In this paper, we study ‘non-involutive meadows’, i.e. variants of meadows in which the multiplicative inverse of zero is not zero, and pay special attention to non-involutive meadows in which the multiplicative inverse of zero is one.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Naturalizing logic Errors of reasoning vindicated: Logic reapproaches
           cognitive science
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Lorenzo Magnani
      A complete revision of mainstream logic is an urgent task to be achieved. This revision will be able to bring logic into a creative rapprochement with cognitive science. This can be achieved by trying to do for logic what over forty years ago Quine and others attempted for epistemology. It is necessary to propose a “naturalization” of the logic of human inference. This paper deals with an examination of how the naturalization process might go, together with some indication of what might be achieved by it. To assist the reader in understanding the naturalization of logic I will take advantage of my own research on the concept of abduction, which vindicates the positive cognitive value of the fallacy of the affirming the consequent thanks to the so-called EC-model (Eco-Cognitive model), and of the recent book Errors of Reasoning: Naturalizing the Logic of Inference (2013) [86], by John Woods. While this paper certainly aims at promoting the research program on the naturalization of logic, it also further advocates the placement of abduction in the research programmes of logic, and stresses to what extent our contemporary philosophical and logical tradition is indebted towards Charles Sanders Peirce, a thinker often praised for his productivity but whose quality and importance are too often overlooked.


      PubDate: 2014-12-19T00:33:09Z
       
  • Runtime verification using the temporal description logic ALC-LTL
           revisited
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Franz Baader , Marcel Lippmann
      Formulae of linear temporal logic (LTL) can be used to specify (wanted or unwanted) properties of a dynamical system. In model checking, the system's behaviour is described by a transition system, and one needs to check whether all possible traces of this transition system satisfy the formula. In runtime verification, one observes the actual system behaviour, which at any point in time yields a finite prefix of a trace. The task is then to check whether all continuations of this prefix to a trace satisfy (violate) the formula. More precisely, one wants to construct a monitor, i.e., a finite automaton that receives the finite prefix as input and then gives the right answer based on the state currently reached. In this paper, we extend the known approaches to LTL runtime verification in two directions. First, instead of propositional LTL we use the more expressive temporal logic ALC -LTL, which can use axioms of the Description Logic (DL) ALC instead of propositional variables to describe properties of single states of the system. Second, instead of assuming that the observed system behaviour provides us with complete information about the states of the system, we assume that states are described in an incomplete way by ALC -knowledge bases. We show that also in this setting monitors can effectively be constructed. The (double-exponential) size of the constructed monitors is in fact optimal, and not higher than in the propositional case. As an auxiliary result, we show how to construct Büchi automata for ALC -LTL-formulae, which yields alternative proofs for the known upper bounds of deciding satisfiability in ALC -LTL.


      PubDate: 2014-09-10T07:00:48Z
       
  • A logical calculus for controlled monotonicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Marcello D'Agostino , Mario Piazza , Gabriele Pulcini
      In this paper we introduce a new deductive framework for analyzing processes displaying a kind of controlled monotonicity. In particular, we prove the cut-elimination theorem for a calculus involving series-parallel structures over preorders which is built up from multi-level sequents, an interesting and promising variant of Gentzen-style sequents. More broadly, our purpose is to provide a general, syntactical tool for grasping the combinatorics of non-monotonic processes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-01T06:14:20Z
       
  • Products of Modal Logics and Tensor Products of Modal Algebras
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): D. Gabbay , Ilya Shapirovsky , Valentin Shehtman
      One of natural combinations of Kripke complete modal logics is the product, an operation that has been extensively investigated over the last 15 years. In this paper we consider its analogue for arbitrary modal logics: to this end, we use product-like constructions on general frames and modal algebras. This operation was first introduced by Y. Hasimoto in 2000; however, his paper remained unnoticed until recently. In the present paper we quote some important Hasimoto's results, and reconstruct the product operation in an algebraic setting: the Boolean part of the resulting modal algebra is exactly the tensor product of original algebras (regarded as Boolean rings). Also, we propose a filtration technique for Kripke models based on tensor products and obtain some decidability results.


      PubDate: 2014-09-01T06:14:20Z
       
  • Constraint LTL Satisfiability Checking without Automata
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Marcello M. Bersani , Achille Frigeri , Angelo Morzenti , Matteo Pradella , Matteo Rossi , Pierluigi San Pietro
      This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB( D ) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB( D ) formulae into QF-EU D , the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D . Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB( D ) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Z ot formal verification tool.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T03:26:46Z
       
  • Second order inductive logic and Wilmers' principle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): M.S. Kließ , J.B. Paris
      We extend the framework of Inductive Logic to Second Order languages and introduce Wilmers' Principle, a rational principle for probability functions on Second Order languages. We derive a representation theorem for functions satisfying this principle and investigate its relationship with the first order principles of Regularity and Super Regularity.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • A postulate-based analysis of comparative preference statements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Souhila Kaci , Namrata Patel
      There has been a growing interest in the study of preferences for their utility in solving problems related to decision making. Most of the preference representation languages developed in the literature are based on comparative preference statements since they offer a simple and intuitive way for expressing preferences. They can be further interpreted following different semantics, imparting a greater flexibility on how outcomes can be compared. So far the main objective has been to rank-order the set of outcomes given a set of comparative preference statements and one or several semantics. Tackling this problem from a different angle, we look into the behavioural aspects of the preference semantics and statements by attempting to formalise the intuition behind them using postulates studied in preference logics and non-monotonic reasoning. We select the postulates w.r.t. three criteria: coherence, syntax independence and inference. Thus, our analysis provides a means to determine those properties that are satisfied for a given preference semantics.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • The categorical imperative: Category theory as a foundation for deontic
           logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Clayton Peterson
      This article introduces a deontic logic which aims to model the Canadian legal discourse. Category theory is assumed as a foundational framework for logic. A deontic deductive system DDS is defined as two fibrations: the logic for unconditional obligations OL is defined within a Cartesian closed category on the grounds of an intuitionnistic propositional action logic PAL and an action logic AL , while a logic for conditional normative reasoning CNR is defined as a symmetric closed monoidal category. A typed syntax and typed arrows are used to define properly DDS . We show how it can solve the paradoxes of deontic logic and we provide some examples of application to legal reasoning.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • The existence of superluminal particles is consistent with relativistic
           dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Judit X. Madarász , Gergely Székely
      Within an axiomatic framework, we prove that the existence of faster than light (FTL) particles is consistent with (does not contradict) the dynamics of Einstein's special relativity. The proof goes by constructing a model of relativistic dynamics where FTL particles can move with arbitrary speeds. To have a complete picture, we not only construct an appropriate model but explicitly list all the basic assumptions (axioms) we use.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • Temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs: Satisfiability and
           model checking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Benedikt Bollig , Aiswarya Cyriac , Paul Gastin , Marc Zeitoun
      We develop a general framework for the design of temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs. A program execution is modeled as a partial order with multiple nesting relations. To specify properties of executions, we consider any temporal logic whose modalities are definable in monadic second-order logic and which, in addition, allows PDL-like path expressions. This captures, in a unifying framework, a wide range of logics defined for ranked and unranked trees, nested words, and Mazurkiewicz traces that have been studied separately. We show that satisfiability and model checking are decidable in EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME, depending on the precise path modalities.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T16:15:46Z
       
  • Propositional dynamic logic for searching games with errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Bruno Teheux
      We investigate some finitely-valued generalizations of propositional dynamic logic with tests. We start by introducing the n + 1 -valued Kripke models and a corresponding language based on a modal extension of Łukasiewicz many-valued logic. We illustrate the definitions by providing a framework for an analysis of the Rényi–Ulam searching game with errors. Our main result is the axiomatization of the theory of the n + 1 -valued Kripke models. This result is obtained through filtration of the canonical model of the smallest n + 1 -valued propositional dynamic logic.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
 
 
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