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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1971 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (154 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (150 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (83 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1117 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (294 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1117 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal  
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal  
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ISRN - International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
ISRN Nanotechnology     Open Access  
ISRN Signal Processing     Open Access  
ISRN Thermodynamics     Open Access  
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)

  First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Applied Logic
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 1570-8683
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2570 journals]   [SJR: 1.079]   [H-I: 17]
  • Runtime verification using the temporal description logic ALC-LTL
           revisited
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Franz Baader , Marcel Lippmann
      Formulae of linear temporal logic (LTL) can be used to specify (wanted or unwanted) properties of a dynamical system. In model checking, the system's behaviour is described by a transition system, and one needs to check whether all possible traces of this transition system satisfy the formula. In runtime verification, one observes the actual system behaviour, which at any point in time yields a finite prefix of a trace. The task is then to check whether all continuations of this prefix to a trace satisfy (violate) the formula. More precisely, one wants to construct a monitor, i.e., a finite automaton that receives the finite prefix as input and then gives the right answer based on the state currently reached. In this paper, we extend the known approaches to LTL runtime verification in two directions. First, instead of propositional LTL we use the more expressive temporal logic ALC -LTL, which can use axioms of the Description Logic (DL) ALC instead of propositional variables to describe properties of single states of the system. Second, instead of assuming that the observed system behaviour provides us with complete information about the states of the system, we assume that states are described in an incomplete way by ALC -knowledge bases. We show that also in this setting monitors can effectively be constructed. The (double-exponential) size of the constructed monitors is in fact optimal, and not higher than in the propositional case. As an auxiliary result, we show how to construct Büchi automata for ALC -LTL-formulae, which yields alternative proofs for the known upper bounds of deciding satisfiability in ALC -LTL.


      PubDate: 2014-09-10T07:00:48Z
       
  • A logical calculus for controlled monotonicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Marcello D'Agostino , Mario Piazza , Gabriele Pulcini
      In this paper we introduce a new deductive framework for analyzing processes displaying a kind of controlled monotonicity. In particular, we prove the cut-elimination theorem for a calculus involving series-parallel structures over preorders which is built up from multi-level sequents, an interesting and promising variant of Gentzen-style sequents. More broadly, our purpose is to provide a general, syntactical tool for grasping the combinatorics of non-monotonic processes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-01T06:14:20Z
       
  • Products of Modal Logics and Tensor Products of Modal Algebras
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): D. Gabbay , Ilya Shapirovsky , Valentin Shehtman
      One of natural combinations of Kripke complete modal logics is the product, an operation that has been extensively investigated over the last 15 years. In this paper we consider its analogue for arbitrary modal logics: to this end, we use product-like constructions on general frames and modal algebras. This operation was first introduced by Y. Hasimoto in 2000; however, his paper remained unnoticed until recently. In the present paper we quote some important Hasimoto's results, and reconstruct the product operation in an algebraic setting: the Boolean part of the resulting modal algebra is exactly the tensor product of original algebras (regarded as Boolean rings). Also, we propose a filtration technique for Kripke models based on tensor products and obtain some decidability results.


      PubDate: 2014-09-01T06:14:20Z
       
  • Constraint LTL Satisfiability Checking without Automata
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Marcello M. Bersani , Achille Frigeri , Angelo Morzenti , Matteo Pradella , Matteo Rossi , Pierluigi San Pietro
      This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB( D ) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB( D ) formulae into QF-EU D , the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D . Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB( D ) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Z ot formal verification tool.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T03:26:46Z
       
  • Second order inductive logic and Wilmers' principle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): M.S. Kließ , J.B. Paris
      We extend the framework of Inductive Logic to Second Order languages and introduce Wilmers' Principle, a rational principle for probability functions on Second Order languages. We derive a representation theorem for functions satisfying this principle and investigate its relationship with the first order principles of Regularity and Super Regularity.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • A postulate-based analysis of comparative preference statements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Souhila Kaci , Namrata Patel
      There has been a growing interest in the study of preferences for their utility in solving problems related to decision making. Most of the preference representation languages developed in the literature are based on comparative preference statements since they offer a simple and intuitive way for expressing preferences. They can be further interpreted following different semantics, imparting a greater flexibility on how outcomes can be compared. So far the main objective has been to rank-order the set of outcomes given a set of comparative preference statements and one or several semantics. Tackling this problem from a different angle, we look into the behavioural aspects of the preference semantics and statements by attempting to formalise the intuition behind them using postulates studied in preference logics and non-monotonic reasoning. We select the postulates w.r.t. three criteria: coherence, syntax independence and inference. Thus, our analysis provides a means to determine those properties that are satisfied for a given preference semantics.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • The categorical imperative: Category theory as a foundation for deontic
           logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Clayton Peterson
      This article introduces a deontic logic which aims to model the Canadian legal discourse. Category theory is assumed as a foundational framework for logic. A deontic deductive system DDS is defined as two fibrations: the logic for unconditional obligations OL is defined within a Cartesian closed category on the grounds of an intuitionnistic propositional action logic PAL and an action logic AL , while a logic for conditional normative reasoning CNR is defined as a symmetric closed monoidal category. A typed syntax and typed arrows are used to define properly DDS . We show how it can solve the paradoxes of deontic logic and we provide some examples of application to legal reasoning.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • The existence of superluminal particles is consistent with relativistic
           dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Judit X. Madarász , Gergely Székely
      Within an axiomatic framework, we prove that the existence of faster than light (FTL) particles is consistent with (does not contradict) the dynamics of Einstein's special relativity. The proof goes by constructing a model of relativistic dynamics where FTL particles can move with arbitrary speeds. To have a complete picture, we not only construct an appropriate model but explicitly list all the basic assumptions (axioms) we use.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T03:10:08Z
       
  • An application of Carnapian inductive logic to an argument in the
           philosophy of statistics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Teddy Groves
      I claim that an argument from the philosophy of statistics can be improved by using Carnapian inductive logic. Gelman and Shalizi [9] criticise a philosophical account of how statisticians ought to choose statistical models which they call ‘the received view of Bayesian inference’ and propose a different account inspired by falsificationist philosophy of science. I introduce another philosophical account inspired by Carnapian inductive logic and argue that it is even better than Gelman and Shalizi's falsificationist account.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T16:15:46Z
       
  • Temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs: Satisfiability and
           model checking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Benedikt Bollig , Aiswarya Cyriac , Paul Gastin , Marc Zeitoun
      We develop a general framework for the design of temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs. A program execution is modeled as a partial order with multiple nesting relations. To specify properties of executions, we consider any temporal logic whose modalities are definable in monadic second-order logic and which, in addition, allows PDL-like path expressions. This captures, in a unifying framework, a wide range of logics defined for ranked and unranked trees, nested words, and Mazurkiewicz traces that have been studied separately. We show that satisfiability and model checking are decidable in EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME, depending on the precise path modalities.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T16:15:46Z
       
  • Editor's note: Special issue on Combining Probability and Logic to Solve
           Philosophical Problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Niki Pfeifer
      Editor's note: Special Issue on Combining Probability and Logic to Solve Philosophical Problems (Progic 2013).


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T16:15:46Z
       
  • Information, confirmation, and conditionals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Peter Milne
      Loosely speaking, a proposition adds the more information to corpus b, the greater the proportion of possibilities left open by b that it rules out. Plausible qualitative constraints lead to the result that any measure of information-added is a strictly decreasing rescaling of a conditional probability function sending 1 to 0. The two commonest rescalings are − log P and 1 − P . In a similar vein, e is favourable evidence for hypothesis h relative to background b if h rules out a smaller proportion of the possibilities left open by b and e jointly, than left open by b alone. In terms of the underlying probability measure, this secures the familiar positive relevance conception of confirmation and that f is more favourable evidence for h than e iff h rules out a smaller proportion of the possibilities left open by b and f jointly than left open by b and e jointly. In these terms, a measure of confirmation should be a function of the information added by h to b ∧ e and to b, decreasing with the first and increasing with the second. When e = h , the possibilities that drop out as we narrow the focus with e are exactly the possibilities left open by b but excluded by h. Thus the extent to which h confirms h relative to b is a measure of the information h adds to b. Given a measure I of information added, we can think of I ( a c , b ) − I ( a , b ) as a measure of the “deductive gap”, relative to b, between a and a ∧ c . When I ( a , b ) = − log P ( a b ) , I ( a c , b ) − I ( a , b ) = − log P ( c a b ) , the amount of information the indicative conditional ‘if a then c’ adds to b on Ernest Adams' account of that conditional. When I ( a , b ) = 1 − P ( a b ) , I ( a c , b ) − I ( a , b ) = I ( a ⊃ c , b ) where a ⊃ c is a material conditional. What, if anything, can be said in general about “information theoretic” conditionals obtained from measures of information-added in this way' We find that, granted a couple of provisos, all satisfy modus ponens and that the conditionals fall victim to Lewis-style triviality results if, and only if, I ( a ∧ ¬ a , b ) = ∞ (as happens with −
      PubDate: 2014-06-14T16:15:46Z
       
  • Towards classifying propositional probabilistic logics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Glauber De Bona , Fabio Gagliardi Cozman , Marcelo Finger
      This paper examines two aspects of propositional probabilistic logics: the nesting of probabilistic operators, and the expressivity of probabilistic assessments. We show that nesting can be eliminated when the semantics is based on a single probability measure over valuations; we then introduce a classification for probabilistic assessments, and present novel results on their expressivity. Logics in the literature are categorized using our results on nesting and on probabilistic expressivity.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Probabilities of counterfactuals and counterfactual probabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Alan Hájek
      Probabilities figure centrally in much of the literature on the semantics of conditionals. I find this surprising: it accords a special status to conditionals that other parts of language apparently do not share. I critically discuss two notable ‘probabilities first’ accounts of counterfactuals, due to Edgington and Leitgeb. According to Edgington, counterfactuals lack truth values but have probabilities. I argue that this combination gives rise to a number of problems. According to Leitgeb, counterfactuals have truth conditions-roughly, a counterfactual is true when the corresponding conditional chance is sufficiently high. I argue that problems arise from the disparity between truth and high chance, between approximate truth and high chance, and from counterfactuals for which the corresponding conditional chances are undefined. However, Edgington, Leitgeb and I can unite in opposition to Stalnaker and Lewis-style ‘similarity’ accounts of counterfactuals.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Reasoning about evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Igor Douven
      Bayesians understand the notion of evidential support in terms of probability raising. Little is known about the logic of the evidential support relation, thus understood. We investigate a number of prima facie plausible candidate logical principles for the evidential support relation and show which of these principles the Bayesian evidential support relation does and which it does not obey. We also consider the question which of these principles hold for a stronger notion of evidential support.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Stochastic λ-calculi: An extended abstract
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Dana S. Scott
      It is shown how the operators in the “graph model” for λ-calculus (which can function as a programming language for Recursive Function Theory) can be expanded to allow for “random combinators”. The result then is a model for a new language for random algorithms.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Category theory, logic and formal linguistics: Some connections, old and
           new
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jean Gillibert , Christian Retoré
      We seize the opportunity of the publication of selected papers from the Logic, categories, semantics workshop to survey some current trends in logic, namely intuitionistic and linear type theories, that interweave categorical, geometrical and computational considerations. We thereafter present how these rich logical frameworks can model the way language conveys meaning.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • On the logical structure of de Finetti's notion of event
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Tommaso Flaminio , Lluis Godo , Hykel Hosni
      This paper sheds new light on the subtle relation between probability and logic by (i) providing a logical development of Bruno de Finetti's conception of events and (ii) suggesting that the subjective nature of de Finetti's interpretation of probability emerges in a clearer form against such a logical background. By making explicit the epistemic structure which underlies what we call Choice-based probability we show that whilst all rational degrees of belief must be probabilities, the converse doesn't hold: some probability values don't represent decision-relevant quantifications of uncertainty.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Erratum to “Confirmation as partial entailment” [Journal of
           Applied Logic 11 (2013) 364–372]
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2
      Author(s): Vincenzo Crupi , Katya Tentori
      We provide a correction to the proof of the main result in Crupi and Tentori (2013).


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Propositional dynamic logic for searching games with errors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Bruno Teheux
      We investigate some finitely-valued generalizations of propositional dynamic logic with tests. We start by introducing the n + 1 -valued Kripke models and a corresponding language based on a modal extension of Łukasiewicz many-valued logic. We illustrate the definitions by providing a framework for an analysis of the Rényi–Ulam searching game with errors. Our main result is the axiomatization of the theory of the n + 1 -valued Kripke models. This result is obtained through filtration of the canonical model of the smallest n + 1 -valued propositional dynamic logic.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Capturing equilibrium models in modal logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2
      Author(s): Luis Fariñas del Cerro , Andreas Herzig , Ezgi Iraz Su
      Here-and-there models and equilibrium models were investigated as a semantical framework for answer-set programming by Pearce, Valverde, Cabalar, Lifschitz, Ferraris and others. The semantics of equilibrium logic is given in an indirect way: the notion of an equilibrium model is defined in terms of quantification over here-and-there models. We here give a direct semantics of equilibrium logic, stated for a modal language embedding the language of equilibrium logic.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • A propositional linear time logic with time flow isomorphic to ω2
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bojan Marinković , Zoran Ognjanović , Dragan Doder , Aleksandar Perović
      Primarily guided with the idea to express zero-time transitions by means of temporal propositional language, we have developed a temporal logic where the time flow is isomorphic to ordinal ω 2 (concatenation of ω copies of ω). If we think of ω 2 as lexicographically ordered ω × ω , then any particular zero-time transition can be represented by states whose indices are all elements of some { n } × ω . In order to express non-infinitesimal transitions, we have introduced a new unary temporal operator [ ω ] (ω-jump), whose effect on the time flow is the same as the effect of α ↦ α + ω in ω 2 . In terms of lexicographically ordered ω × ω , [ ω ] ϕ is satisfied in 〈 i , j 〉 -th time instant iff ϕ is satisfied in 〈 i + 1 , 0 〉 -th time instant. Moreover, in order to formally capture the natural semantics of the until operator U, we have introduced a local variant u of the until operator. More precisely, ϕ u ψ is satisfied in 〈 i , j 〉 -th time instant iff ψ is satisfied in 〈 i , j + k 〉 -th time instant for some nonnegative integer k, and ϕ is satisfied in 〈 i , j + l 〉 -th time instant for all 0 ≤ l < k . As in many of our previous publications, the leitmotif is the usage of infinitary inference rules in order to achieve the strong completeness.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • JohnWoodsErrors of Reasoning: Naturalizing the Logic of
           Inference2013College PublicationsLondon978-1-84890-114-8
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2
      Author(s): Matthieu Fontaine



      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • The paradoxes of permission an action based solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2014
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 12, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dov Gabbay , Loïc Gammaitoni , Xin Sun
      The aim of this article is to construct a deontic logic in which the free choice postulate allow (Ross, 1941) [11] would be consistent and all the implausible result mentioned in (Hanson, in press) [5] will be blocked. To achieve this we first developed a new theory of action. Then we build a new deontic logic in which the deontic action operator and the deontic proposition operator are explicitly distinguished.


      PubDate: 2014-04-29T07:30:36Z
       
  • A logical framework for privacy-preserving social network publication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Tsan-sheng Hsu , Churn-Jung Liau , Da-Wei Wang
      Social network analysis is an important methodology in sociological research. Although social network data are valuable resources for data analysis, releasing the data to the public may cause an invasion of privacy. In this paper, we consider privacy preservation in the context of publishing social network data. To address privacy concerns, information about a social network can be released in two ways. Either the global structure of the network can be released in an anonymized way; or non-sensitive information about the actors in the network can be accessed via a query-answering process. However, an attacker could re-identify the actors in the network by combining information obtained in these two ways. The resulting privacy risk depends on the amount of detail in the released network structure and expressiveness of the admissible queries. In particular, different sets of admissible queries correspond to different types of attacks. In this paper, we propose a logical framework that can represent different attack models uniformly. Specifically, in the framework, individuals that satisfy the same subset of admissible queries are considered indiscernible by the attacker. By partitioning a social network into equivalence classes (i.e., information granules) based on the indiscernibility relation, we can generalize the privacy criteria developed for tabulated data to social network data. To exemplify the usability of the framework, we consider two instances of the framework, where the sets of admissible queries are the ALCI and ALCQI concept terms respectively; and we exploit social position analysis techniques to compute their indiscernibility relations. We also show how the framework can be extended to deal with the privacy-preserving publication of weighted social network data. The uniformity of the framework provides us with a common ground to compare existing attack models; while its generality could extend the scope of research to meet privacy concerns in the era of social semantic computing.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T04:23:59Z
       
  • Empiricism, probability, and knowledge of arithmetic: A preliminary
           defense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Sean Walsh
      The topic of this paper is our knowledge of the natural numbers, and in particular, our knowledge of the basic axioms for the natural numbers, namely the Peano axioms. The thesis defended in this paper is that knowledge of these axioms may be gained by recourse to judgements of probability. While considerations of probability have come to the forefront in recent epistemology, it seems safe to say that the thesis defended here is heterodox from the vantage point of traditional philosophy of mathematics. So this paper focuses on providing a preliminary defense of this thesis, in that it focuses on responding to several objections. Some of these objections are from the classical literature, such as Fregeʼs concern about indiscernibility and circularity (§ 2.1), while other are more recent, such as Bakerʼs concern about the unreliability of small samplings in the setting of arithmetic (§ 2.2). Another family of objections suggests that we simply do not have access to probability assignments in the setting of arithmetic, either due to issues related to the ω-rule (§ 3.1) or to the non-computability and non-continuity of probability assignments (§ 3.2). Articulating these objections and the responses to them involves developing some non-trivial results on probability assignments (Appendix A–Appendix C), such as a forcing argument to establish the existence of continuous probability assignments that may be computably approximated (Theorem 4 Appendix B). In the concluding section, two problems for future work are discussed: developing the source of arithmetical confirmation and responding to the probabilistic liar.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T04:23:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic, Volume 11, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2013-10-28T11:10:21Z
       
  • SLAP: Specification Logic of Actions with Probability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Gavin Rens , Thomas Meyer , Gerhard Lakemeyer
      A logic for specifying probabilistic transition systems is presented. Our perspective is that of agents performing actions. A procedure for deciding whether sentences in this logic are valid is provided. One of the main contributions of the paper is the formulation of the decision procedure: a tableau system which appeals to solving systems of linear equations. The tableau rules eliminate propositional connectives, then, for all open branches of the tableau tree, systems of linear equations are generated and checked for feasibility. Proofs of soundness, completeness and termination of the decision procedure are provided.


      PubDate: 2013-10-24T03:34:35Z
       
  • A neural cognitive model of argumentation with application to legal
           inference and decision making
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Artur S. dʼAvila Garcez , Dov M. Gabbay , Luis C. Lamb
      Formal models of argumentation have been investigated in several areas, from multi-agent systems and artificial intelligence (AI) to decision making, philosophy and law. In artificial intelligence, logic-based models have been the standard for the representation of argumentative reasoning. More recently, the standard logic-based models have been shown equivalent to standard connectionist models. This has created a new line of research where (i) neural networks can be used as a parallel computational model for argumentation and (ii) neural networks can be used to combine argumentation, quantitative reasoning and statistical learning. At the same time, non-standard logic models of argumentation started to emerge. In this paper, we propose a connectionist cognitive model of argumentation that accounts for both standard and non-standard forms of argumentation. The model is shown to be an adequate framework for dealing with standard and non-standard argumentation, including joint-attacks, argument support, ordered attacks, disjunctive attacks, metalevel attacks, self-defeating attacks, argument accrual and uncertainty. We show that the neural cognitive approach offers an adequate way of modelling all of these different aspects of argumentation. We have applied the framework to the modelling of a public prosecution charging decision as part of a real legal decision making case study containing many of the above aspects of argumentation. The results show that the model can be a useful tool in the analysis of legal decision making, including the analysis of what-if questions and the analysis of alternative conclusions. The approach opens up two new perspectives in the short-term: the use of neural networks for computing prevailing arguments efficiently through the propagation in parallel of neuronal activations, and the use of the same networks to evolve the structure of the argumentation network through learning (e.g. to learn the strength of arguments from data).


      PubDate: 2013-10-24T03:34:35Z
       
  • Modelling Martin Löf Type Theory in Categories
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): François Lamarche
      We present a model of Martin-Löf type theory that includes both dependent products and the identity type. It is based on the category of small categories, with cloven Grothendieck bifibrations used to model dependent types. The identity type is modelled by a path functor that seems to have independent interest from the point of view of homotopy theory. We briefly describe this modelʼs strengths and limitations.


      PubDate: 2013-09-08T02:05:58Z
       
  • Selectional restrictions, types and categories
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Nicholas Asher



      PubDate: 2013-08-27T03:32:03Z
       
  • Natural language semantics in biproduct dagger categories
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Anne Preller
      Biproduct dagger categories serve as models for natural language. In particular, the biproduct dagger category of finite dimensional vector spaces over the field of real numbers accommodates both the extensional models of predicate calculus and the intensional models of quantum logic. The morphisms representing the extensional meanings of a grammatical string are translated to morphisms representing the intensional meanings such that truth is preserved. Pregroup grammars serve as the tool that transforms a grammatical string into a morphism. The chosen linguistic examples concern negation, relative noun phrases, comprehension and quantifiers.


      PubDate: 2013-08-27T03:32:03Z
       
  • Infinity and verifiability in Carnapʼs inductive logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Ruurik Holm
      Truth of sentences in infinity is discussed in the framework of Rudolf Carnapʼs inductive logic, which uses finite state descriptions and an asymptotic limit approach for defining probabilities in infinity. This means that Carnapʼs approach suits well for a semantics which is based on finite observability. However, a proper link between asymptotic probability and truth in infinity is missing from Carnapʼs treatment. A novel notion of truth in infinity is introduced and referred to as the extended truth. The idea is that the truth of the sentence S is extended by a particular sequence of state descriptions (where the larger one contains all of the smaller ones) iff S is true in each state description of the sequence. The corresponding notion of extended probability is introduced. Some important results are proved for extended truth and extended probability.


      PubDate: 2013-08-23T12:31:00Z
       
  • The sure thing principle, dilations, and objective probabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Haim Gaifman
      The common theme that unites the four sections is STP, the sure thing principle. But the paper can be divided neatly into two parts. The first, consisting of the first two sections, contains an analysis of STP as it figures in Savageʼs system and proposals of changes to that system. Also possibilities for partially ordered acts are considered. The second, consisting of the last two sections, is about imprecise probabilities, dilations and objective probabilities. Variants of STP are considered but this part is self-contained and can be read separately. The main claim there is that dilations, which can have extremely counterintuitive consequences, can be eliminated by a more careful analysis of the phenomenon. It outlines a proposal of how to do it.


      PubDate: 2013-08-15T14:08:31Z
       
  • Relational semantics for full linear logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Dion Coumans , Mai Gehrke , Lorijn van Rooijen
      Relational semantics, given by Kripke frames, play an essential role in the study of modal and intuitionistic logic. In [4] it is shown that the theory of relational semantics is also available in the more general setting of substructural logic, at least in an algebraic guise. Building on these ideas, in [5] a type of frames is described which generalise Kripke frames and provide semantics for substructural logics in a purely relational form. In this paper we study full linear logic from an algebraic point of view. The main additional hurdle is the exponential. We analyse this operation algebraically and use canonical extensions to obtain relational semantics. Thus, we extend the work in [4,5] and use their approach to obtain relational semantics for full linear logic. Hereby we illustrate the strength of using canonical extension to retrieve relational semantics: it allows a modular and uniform treatment of additional operations and axioms. Traditionally, so-called phase semantics are used as models for (provability in) linear logic [7]. These have the drawback that, contrary to our approach, they do not allow a modular treatment of additional axioms. However, the two approaches are related, as we will explain.


      PubDate: 2013-08-11T02:06:43Z
       
  • Formal Ontologies and Coherent Spaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): V. Michele Abrusci , Christophe Fouqueré , Marco Romano
      The paper contains a short summary – oriented by a logical point of view – of a joint work on Formal Ontolgies. We shall show how Formal Ontologies correspond to Coherent Spaces, and operations on Formal Ontologies correspond to operations on corresponding Coherent Spaces. So, we are offering a new way to establish the semantics of Formal Ontologies. Surely, we are giving a contribution towards a geometrical treatment of Formal Ontologies (as decidable organizations of digital data).


      PubDate: 2013-07-26T02:07:39Z
       
  • An epistemic and dynamic approach to abductive reasoning: Abductive
           problem and abductive solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada , Fernando Soler-Toscano , Ángel Nepomuceno-Fernández
      We propose a study of abductive reasoning addressing it as an epistemic process that involves both an agentʼs information and the actions that modify this information. More precisely, we present and discuss definitions of an abductive problem and an abductive solution in terms of an agentʼs information, that is, in terms of knowledge and beliefs. The discussion is then formalised by ‘implementing’ our definitions in a dynamic epistemic logic framework, where the properties of these definitions are studied, an epistemic action that represents the application of an abductive step is introduced, and an illustrative example is provided. A number of the most interesting properties of abductive reasoning (those highlighted by Peirce) are shown to be better modelled within this approach.


      PubDate: 2013-07-26T02:07:39Z
       
  • Continuity and geometric logic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Steven Vickers
      This paper is largely a review of known results about various aspects of geometric logic. Following Grothendieckʼs view of toposes as generalized spaces, one can take geometric morphisms as generalized continuous maps. The constructivist constraints of geometric logic guarantee the continuity of maps constructed, and can do so from two different points of view: for maps as point transformers and maps as bundles.


      PubDate: 2013-07-26T02:07:39Z
       
  • On the a priori and a posteriori assessment of probabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): A. Vasudevan
      We argue that in spite of their apparent dissimilarity, the methodologies employed in the a priori and a posteriori assessment of probabilities can both be justified by appeal to a single principle of inductive reasoning, viz., the principle of symmetry. The difference between these two methodologies consists in the way in which information about the single-trial probabilities in a repeatable chance process is extracted from the constraints imposed by this principle. In the case of a posteriori reasoning, these constraints inform the analysis by fixing an a posteriori determinant of the probabilities, whereas, in the case of a priori reasoning, they imply certain claims which then serve as the basis for subsequent probabilistic deductions. In a given context of inquiry, the particular form which a priori or a posteriori reason may take depends, in large part, on the strength of the underlying symmetry assumed: the stronger the symmetry, the more information can be acquired a priori and the less information about the long-run behavior of the process is needed for an a posteriori assessment of the probabilities. In the context of this framework, frequency-based reasoning emerges as a limiting case of a posteriori reasoning, and reasoning about simple games of chance, as a limiting case of a priori reasoning. Between these two extremes, both a priori and a posteriori reasoning can take a variety of intermediate forms.


      PubDate: 2013-07-14T03:56:19Z
       
  • Abducted by Bayesians?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Jan-Willem Romeijn
      This paper discusses the role of theoretical notions in making predictions and evaluating statistical models. The core idea of the paper is that such theoretical notions can be spelled out in terms of priors over statistical models, and that such priors can themselves be assigned probabilities. The discussion substantiates the claim that the use of theoretical notions may offer specific empirical advantages. Moreover, I argue that this use of theoretical notions explicates a particular kind of abductive inference. The paper thus contributes to the discussion over Bayesian models of abductive inference.


      PubDate: 2013-07-06T03:36:03Z
       
  • Combining Probability and Logic: Papers from Progic 2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): Jeffrey Helzner



      PubDate: 2013-07-02T02:09:59Z
       
  • A model of type theory in simplicial sets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic
      Author(s): T. Streicher
      ???


      PubDate: 2013-04-29T02:07:39Z
       
  • An observation on Carnapʼs Continuum and Stochastic Independencies
    • Abstract: Available online 18 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic

      We characterize those identities and independencies which hold for all probability functions on a unary language satisfying the Principle of Atom Exchangeability. We then show that if this is strengthen to the requirement that Johnsonʼs Sufficientness Principle holds, thus giving Carnapʼs Continuum of inductive methods for languages with at least two predicates, then new and somewhat inexplicable identities and independencies emerge, the latter even in the case of Carnapʼs Continuum for the language with just a single predicate.


      PubDate: 2013-03-20T03:07:19Z
       
  • From Bayesian epistemology to inductive logic
    • Abstract: Available online 18 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic

      Inductive logic admits a variety of semantics [7, Part 1]. This paper develops semantics based on the norms of Bayesian epistemology [16, Chapter7]. §1 introduces the semantics and then, in $ 2, the paper explores methods for drawing inferences in the resulting logic and compares the methods of this paper with the methods of Barnett and Paris [2]. §3 then evaluates this Bayesian inductive logic in the light of four traditional critiques of inductive logic, arguing (i) that it is language independent in a key sense, (ii) that it admits connections with the Principle of Indifference but these connections do not lead to paradox, (iii) that it can capture the phenomenon of learning from experience, and (iv) that while the logic advocates scepticism with regard to some universal hypotheses, such scepticism is not problematic from the point of view of scientific theorising.


      PubDate: 2013-03-20T03:07:19Z
       
  • Confirmation as partial entailment: A representation theorem in inductive
           logic
    • Abstract: Available online 18 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic

      The most prominent research program in inductive logic – here just labelled The Program, for simplicity – relies on probability theory as its main building block and aims at a proper generalization of deductive-logical relations by a theory of partial entailment. We prove a representation theorem by which a class of ordinally equivalent measures of inductive support or confirmation is singled out as providing a uniquely coherent way to work out these two major sources of inspiration of The Program.


      PubDate: 2013-03-20T03:07:19Z
       
  • Probabilities on Sentences in an Expressive Logic
    • Abstract: Available online 18 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic

      Automated reasoning about uncertain knowledge has many applications. One difficulty when developing such systems is the lack of a completely satisfactory integration of logic and probability. We address this problem directly. Expressive languages like higher-order logic are ideally suited for representing and reasoning about structured knowledge. Uncertain knowledge can be modeled by using graded probabilities rather than binary truth-values. The main technical problem studied in this paper is the following: Given a set of sentences, each having some probability of being true, what probability should be ascribed to other (query) sentences? A natural wish-list, among others, is that the probability distribution (i) is consistent with the knowledge base, (ii) allows for a consistent inference procedure and in particular (iii) reduces to deductive logic in the limit of probabilities being 0 and 1, (iv) allows (Bayesian) inductive reasoning and (v) learning in the limit and in particular (vi) allows confirmation of universally quantified hypotheses/sentences. We translate this wish-list into technical requirements for a prior probability and show that probabilities satisfying all our criteria exist. We also give explicit constructions and several general characterizations of probabilities that satisfy some or all of the criteria and various (counter) examples. We also derive necessary and sufficient conditions for extending beliefs about finitely many sentences to suitable probabilities over all sentences, and in particular least dogmatic or least biased ones. We conclude with a brief outlook on how the developed theory might be used and approximated in autonomous reasoning agents. Our theory is a step towards a globally consistent and empirically satisfactory unification of probability and logic.


      PubDate: 2013-03-20T03:07:19Z
       
  • Ultralarge lotteries: Analyzing the Lottery Paradox using non-standard
           analysis
    • Abstract: Available online 15 March 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Journal of Applied Logic

      A popular way to relate probabilistic information to binary rational beliefs is the Lockean Thesis, which is usually formalized in terms of thresholds. This approach seems far from satisfactory: the value of the thresholds is not well-specified and the Lottery Paradox shows that the model violates the Conjunction Principle. We argue that the Lottery Paradox is a symptom of a more fundamental and general problem, shared by all threshold-models that attempt to put an exact border on something that is intrinsically vague. We propose application of the language of relative analysis—a type of non-standard analysis—to formulate a new model for rational belief, called Stratified Belief. This contextualist model seems well-suited to deal with a concept of beliefs based on probabilities ‘sufficiently close to unity’ and satisfies a moderately weakened form of the Conjunction Principle. We also propose an adaptation of the model that is able to deal with beliefs that are less firm than ‘almost certainty’. The adapted version is also of interest for the epistemicist account of vagueness.


      PubDate: 2013-03-16T03:06:55Z
       
 
 
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