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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1957 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (150 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1124 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (3 followers)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (4 followers)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (15 followers)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (2 followers)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (5 followers)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal  
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal  
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription  
ISRN Communications and Networking     Open Access   (4 followers)
ISRN Nanotechnology     Open Access  
ISRN Signal Processing     Open Access  
ISRN Thermodynamics     Open Access  
ISRN Tribology     Open Access  
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (77 followers)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Applied Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  

  First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

Ionics    Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1862-0760 - ISSN (Online) 0947-7047
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 0.522]   [H-I: 25]
  • Lithium electrochromic properties of atmospheric pressure plasma
           jet-synthesized tungsten/molybdenum-mixed oxide films for flexible
           electrochromic device
    • Abstract: Abstract An investigation is conducted into the enhanced lithium electrochromic performance of flexible tungsten/molybdenum-mixed oxide (WMo x O y C z ) films deposited onto 40 Ω/□ flexible polyethylene terephthalate/indium tin oxide substrates, using a low temperature (~23 °C) atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet at various substrate distances. The rapid synthesis of flexible WMo x O y C z films is performed by injecting the mixed hexacarbonyl and precursors W(CO)6 and Mo(CO)6 into an air plasma jet and exposing the substrate in the plasmas for short exposure durations (19–34 s) at various substrate distances. The flexible WMo x O y C z films possess the remarkable Li+ ion electrochromic performance, even though after being bent 360° around a 2.5-cm diameter rod for 1,000 cycles and tested for 200 cycles of reversible Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation in a 1-M LiClO4-propylene carbonate electrolyte, respectively, by a potential sweep switching at the scan rates of ±50 mV/s from the potential of −1 to 1 V and a potential step switching at the potentials of −1 and 1 V. Significant optical modulation and optical density change of up to 71.2 % and 0.73 at a wavelength of 622 nm are respectively achieved.
      PubDate: 2014-01-26
       
  • Studies of the electrochemical properties and thermal stability of
           LiNi1/3Co       class="a-plus-plus">1/3Mn       class="a-plus-plus">1/3O       class="a-plus-plus">2/LiFePO       class="a-plus-plus">4 composite cathodes for
           lithium ion batteries
    • Abstract: Abstract A series of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/LiFePO4 composite cathodes with the LiFePO4 mass content ranging from 10 to 30 wt% were prepared by ball milling in order to combine the merits of layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and olivine LiFePO4. The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The composite cathodes exhibited improved electrochemical performance compared with pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. Among all the composite cathodes, the one with 20 wt% of LiFePO4 showed the best electrochemical performance in terms of discharge capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that mixing of LiFePO4 in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 decreased the internal resistance of the electrode, retarded the formation of SEI film, and facilitated the charge transfer reaction. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the composite cathode had better thermal stability than pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.
      PubDate: 2014-01-25
       
  • Microstructural and electrochemical properties of rf-sputtered
           LiFePO4 thin films
    • Abstract: Abstract LiFePO4 has been synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis. A 2-in. sputtering target has been prepared using synthesized powder and employed for the deposition of LiFePO4 films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Microstructural properties have been studied by using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope. The films deposited at 350 °C with subsequent annealing at 600 °C for 4 h exhibited well-crystallized peaks along with (101) predominant orientation which corresponds to orthorhombic olivine-type structure with Pnma space group. The electrochemical properties have been studied for films in aqueous as well as in non-aqueous media. Both the electrochemical cells at same current density of 20 μA/cm2 delivered the same initial discharge capacity around 38 μAh/cm2 μm. The Li//LiFePO4 cell exhibited good cycling stability for the first 20 cycles.
      PubDate: 2014-01-25
       
  • Influence of hydrophilic properties on capacitive behavior of
           functionalized graphene
    • Abstract: Abstract Super-hydrophobic graphene was treated with 4-benzenediazoniumsulfonate to obtain a series of functionalized graphene (FG) with enhanced hydrophilic properties. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses demonstrate that −SO3H groups are covalently anchored to functionalized graphene and alter the thermal stability of graphene-based materials. In comparison to pristine graphene (PG), functionalized graphene as prepared exhibits enhanced hydrophilic properties which can be conducted by varying the diazotization-coupling reaction time. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves indicate that enhanced hydrophilic properties improve the capacitance of functionalized graphene up to twice than that of pristine graphene in Na2SO4 electrolytes. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveals that the high level of functionalization will cause the decrease of the electric conductivity and capacitive performance, suggesting that functionalization of graphene provides the competitive relationship between the positive hydrophilicity increase and the negative conductivity decrease to capacitive performance.
      PubDate: 2014-01-21
       
  • Preparation and electrochemical performances of submicro-TiP       class="a-plus-plus">2O       class="a-plus-plus">7 cathode for lithium ion
           batteries
    • Abstract: Abstract The TiP2O7 with a cubic 3 × 3 × 3 superstructure was synthesized by a liquid-assisted solid-state reaction, and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammogram, galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results showed that there was only one step of intercalation into TiP2O7, corresponding to a pair redox (E Li/Li + = 2.74/2.48 V). The initial discharge capacity of TiP2O7 was 110 mAh/g at a current density of 15 mA/g, and the capacity retention was 76.12 % of the initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles. The EIS of TiP2O7 electrode consisted of two semicircles in organic electrolyte, which was attributed to SEI resistance as well as the contact resistance, and charge transfer process, respectively. A suitable model was proposed to explain the impedance response of the insertion TiP2O7 material of lithium ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2014-01-17
       
  • Solvothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of Ag-doped
           V6O       class="a-plus-plus">13 as cathode material for
           lithium-ion battery
    • Abstract: Abstract For the first time, belt-like V6O13 precursor was synthesized via a simple solvothermal method. Rod-like Ag-doped V6O13 was successfully synthesized by this method followed by heating at 350 °C. Both crystal domain size, electronic conductivity, and the lithium diffusion coefficient of the Ag-doped V6O13 samples are influenced by the added amount of AgNO3. When the amount of AgNO3 is 0.008 g, the product is rod-like particles, which are 0.1–0.3 μm wide and 1–2 μm long, and exhibits the best electrochemical performance. The enhanced electrochemical performance originates from its higher total conductivity, higher lithium diffusion coefficient, and better structural reversibility.
      PubDate: 2014-01-14
       
  • Thermodynamic properties and application of CBH model in the ac
           conductivity of LiNi       class="a-plus-plus">1.5P       class="a-plus-plus">2O       class="a-plus-plus">7 ceramic
    • Abstract: Abstract The LiNi1.5P2O7 compound was prepared by the solid-state reaction method at 923 K and characterized through XRD and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in the frequency and the temperature range (300 Hz–5 MHz) and (633–729 K), respectively. The ac conductivity for grain contribution is interpreted using the universal Jonscher’s power low. The exponent n decreases with increasing temperature which reveals that the conduction inside the studied material is insured by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The parameters of CBH model were determined showing that the ac conduction is realised by single-polaron hopping mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy for dipole relaxation ΔF, the enthalpy ΔH, and the change in entropy ΔS have been calculated.
      PubDate: 2014-01-14
       
  • The first electrochemical sensor for determination of mangiferin based on
           an ionic liquid–graphene nanosheets paste electrode
    • Abstract: Abstract A novel carbon paste electrode modified with graphene nanosheets and an ionic liquid (n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate) was fabricated and used for the electrochemical study of mangiferin for the first time. This modified electrode offers a considerable improvement in voltammetric sensitivity toward mangiferin, compared to the bare electrode. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) exhibits a linear dynamic range from 5.0 × 10−8 to 2.0 × 10−4 M and a detection limit of 20.0 nM for mangiferin. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of mangiferin in real samples such as serum and urine.
      PubDate: 2014-01-11
       
  • Effect of the TiO2
           content as support with carbon toward methanol electro-oxidation in
           alkaline media using platinum nanoparticles as electrocatalysts
    • Abstract: Abstract Platinum nanoparticles supported on physical mixtures of Vulcan carbon and TiO2 (Pt/(C + TiO2)) were prepared by the borohydride method and tested for methanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed peaks characteristic of Pt face-centered cubic (fcc) structure and peaks associated with TiO2 and carbon. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the Pt nanoparticles distributed preferentially over the TiO2 support with average particle sizes between 5 and 6 nm. Cyclic voltammograms showed a decrease of Pt surface area with increasing TiO2 load while linear sweep in the presence of methanol showed Pt/(C + TiO2) (60:40) with the highest current density in accordance with chronoamperometry. The results were attributed to Pt-based nanoparticles on TiO2 which show enhanced catalytic activities for methanol oxidation due to a metal-support interaction. Furthermore, TiO2 is a semiconductor with low conductivity when compared to carbon. Thus, it is expected that an intermediate proportion of carbon and TiO2 as substrate could improve the activity of Pt nanoparticles without substantial loss of conductivity, resulting in a synergic effect.
      PubDate: 2014-01-11
       
  • Study of the electrochemical performance of VO       class="a-plus-plus">2+/VO       class="a-plus-plus">2        class="a-plus-plus">+ redox couple in sulfamic
           acid for vanadium redox flow battery
    • Abstract: Abstract The present work was performed in order to evaluate sulfamic acid as the supporting electrolyte for VO2+/VO2 + redox couple in vanadium redox flow battery. The oxidation process of VO2+ has similar electrochemical kinetics compared with the reduction process of VO2 +. The exchange current density and standard rate constant of VO2+/VO2 + redox reaction on a graphite electrode in sulfamic acid are determined as 7.6 × 10−4 A cm−2 and 7.9 × 10−5 cm s−1, respectively. The energy efficiency of the cell employing sulfamic acid as supporting electrolyte in the positive side can reach 75.87 %, which is adequate for redox flow battery applied in energy storage. The addition of NH4 + to the positive electrolyte can enhance the electrochemical performance of the cell, with larger discharge capacity and energy efficiency. The preliminary exploration shows that the vanadium sulfamate electrolyte is promising for vanadium redox flow battery and is worthy of further study.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
       
  • Conductivity of Fe       class="a-plus-plus">2O       class="a-plus-plus">3-doped YSZ
    • Abstract: Abstract Effect of 2 mol.% Fe2O3 addition on conductivity of yttria stabilized zirconia ceramics (YSZ, 6–12 mol.% Y2O3) was established. For Fe doped material, it was shown that conductivity demonstrates maximum at 10 mol.% Y2O3, and its value increases by 1.4 times. Conductivity maximum corresponds with the minimal volume of crystal lattice. Discussion of results was performed in terms of the model that assumes the control effect of hydrostatic pressure on oxygen ions diffusion.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Relaxation process in chitosan–oxalic acid solid polymer
           electrolytes
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigate the room temperature frequency dependence of electrical modulus for the polymer electrolytes consisting of chitosan and oxalic acid in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. Oxalic acid serves as the proton provider. It is found that the lowest imaginary electrical modulus is shown by the highest conducting sample OA40, which contains 60 wt.% chitosan and 40 wt.% oxalic acid. The electrical moduli for OA40 sample membrane at different temperatures are also studied, and the peak of the imaginary electrical modulus has been observed to shift towards higher frequency with increasing temperature. This indicates that relaxation is thermally assisted. Analysis of electrical modulus shows that the main relaxation process in chitosan–oxalic acid polymer electrolyte system is a non-Debye process associated with viscoelastic relaxation.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of Li       class="a-plus-plus">2CoSiO       class="a-plus-plus">4 cathode with
           pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries
    • Abstract: Abstract Li2CoSiO4, a silicate olivine cathode for lithium rechargeable batteries, is synthesized for the first time by sol–gel method using polyacrylic acid (PAA) as the chelating agent. Coupled thermal and vibrational analysis of the gel and also the X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of the sample at 800 °C. 1-Butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMPyTFSI) solutions of lithium bis(trifuloromethansulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) having a concentration of 0.2 mol kg−1 is used as electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of this electrolyte is found to be >5 V by linear sweep voltammetry technique. The compatibility of Li2CoSiO4 with 0.2 mol kg−1 LiTFSI-BMPyTFSI electrolyte is tested by charge–discharge cycles which show charging and discharging capacities of about 204 and 32 mAh g−1, respectively, in the first cycle.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of polymer blends consisting of cationic
           polyallylamine and anionic polyvinyl alcohol
    • Abstract: Abstract Thin sheets of polyallylamine (PAAm) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend were prepared by employing solution casting technique for potential membranes application. The blends were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties. The zeta potential, conductivity and rheological properties of PAAm/PVA blends were also studied. The FTIR spectrum reveals that the C–H asymmetric stretching vibration band of PVA at 2,928 cm−1 disappeared in all the blend samples. Thermal stability of the blend membrane was better than pure polymers. The crystallinity of the PAAm/PVA blends was decreased, which may be due to the entanglement of PAAm in to PVA chains, which is also responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of the blends. Zeta potential decreases where as the conductivity increases as a function of temperature. Hydrophilicity is improved by addition of PVA to PAAm, which may be due to hydroxyl group of PVA. The blend solution shows non-Newtonian character of the liquid. By applying shear stress, increase in the effect of rarefaction was observed. The knowledge about the investigated parameters will be of vital importance for use of the blended material in membrane applications, especially where CO2 separation is in focus. The membrane performance (separation properties) of the PAAm/PVA blended material is, however, not reported in the current article.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Structural, electrical and dielectric studies of nanocrystalline
           LiMnPO4 particles
    • Abstract: Abstract Olivine-structured LiMnPO4 nanoparticles were prepared by microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The as obtained LiMnPO4 sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of LiMnPO4 phase with an orthorhombic structure. The electrical conductivity of the sample at room temperature is found to be 1.2654 × 10−7 S cm−1. Dielectric spectra show an increase in dielectric constant with increase of temperature. The dielectric loss spectra reveal the predomination of DC conduction in the sample. The modulus studies indicate the non-Debye nature of the sample which corresponds to the distribution of elements in the sample. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMnPO4 nanoparticles displayed good cycleability in 30 cycles.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
       
  • Montmorillonite-based ceramic membranes as novel lithium-ion battery
           separators
    • Abstract: Abstract Novel montmorillonite-based ceramic membrane (CM) has been prepared with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVdF-HFP) copolymer as binder. Physical properties such as surface morphology, porosity, liquid electrolyte uptake and thermal stability were analysed. The ceramic membrane was activated by soaking it in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 solution in 1/1 v/v ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate mixture) for 10 min. The compatibility of the membrane with lithium metal anode as a function of storage time was analysed by assembling a Li/CM/Li symmetric cell. Finally, a lab-scale cell composed of Li/CM/LiFePO4 is assembled and its cycling performance analysed at different C-rates. Although the ceramic membrane is not flexible, it shows high thermal stability and stable interfacial properties when in contact with the lithium metal anode. A stable cycling behaviour is demonstrated even at 1C-rate with limited fade in capacity.
      PubDate: 2014-01-05
       
  • Photovoltaic properties of ZnO photoanode incorporating with CNTs for
           dye-sensitized solar cell application
    • Abstract: Abstract Zinc oxide carbon nanotube (ZnO-CNTs) thin films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and immersed in N719 dye for 24 h. The structure and surface morphology of the samples was captured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) unit, respectively. The photovoltaic properties of ZnO- and ZnO-CNT-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were measured by considering the power conversion efficiency (η), photocurrent density (J sc), open-circuit voltage (V oc), and fill factor (FF). The cell's efficiency doped with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reached 0.65 and 0.28 %, respectively. ZnO-based DSSC generated only η = 0.003 %. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit was employed to investigate the electron transport properties such as effective electron lifetime (τ eff), effective electron chemical diffusion coefficient (D eff), and effective electron diffusion length (L n ). The addition of CNTs has enhanced the photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs and reduced the recombination effect inside the solar cell.
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
       
  • Study of assorted interactions of an ionic liquid in significant solvent
           systems using compensated equation of Fuoss conductance and vibrational
           mode
    • Abstract: Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analyses of molecular interaction prevailing in ionic liquid tetrabutylphosphonium methanesulfonate [Bu4PMS] in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) probed by electrical conductances and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements have been reported at 298.15 K. Corresponding conductance data have been analysed using the Fuoss conductance-concentration equation (1978) for ion pair formation. The limiting ionic conductances (λ o ± ) have been estimated from the appropriate division of the limiting molar conductivity value of tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate [Bu4NBPh4] as the ‘reference electrolyte’. The diffusion coefficient (D) has been obtained from Stokes-Einstein relation and the ionic mobility (i) for [Bu4P]+ and MS− using appropriate equation. The results have been discussed in terms of dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bond formation and structural aspect of the solvents and configurational theory. The FT-IR spectra have also been studied to predict the interactions occurring in the system. Figure Exploration of significant interaction of ionic liquid in some liquid systems having a wide range of industrial application
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
       
  • Composites of olive-like manganese oxalate on graphene sheets for
           supercapacitor electrodes
    • Abstract: Abstract MnC2O4/graphene composites are prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction with KMnO4 using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. Olive-like MnC2O4 particles are distributed uniformly on the surface of graphene sheets. The composites are evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes, which show that the specific capacitance of MnC2O4/graphene composites is 122 F g−1, more than twice as high as that of free MnC2O4 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1. In addition, this composite material exhibits an excellent cycle stability with the capacitance retention of 94.3 % after 1,000 cycles.
      PubDate: 2014-01-01
       
  • 50 MeV Li3+ ion
           irradiation effect on structural, electrical, and dielectric properties of
           PVA-based nanocomposite polymer electrolytes
    • Abstract: Abstract Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte thin films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4)-Al2O3 have been prepared by solution cast technique. Films are irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ions having four different fluences viz. 5 × 1010, 1 × 1011, 5 × 1011, and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2. The effect of irradiation on polymeric samples has been studied and characterized. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal that percent degree of crystallinity of samples decrease with ion fluences. Glass transition and melting temperatures have been also decreased as observed in differential scanning calorimetry. A possible complexation/interaction has been shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity shows an Arrhenius behavior before and after glass transition temperature. It is observed that ionic conductivity increases with ion fluences and after a critical fluence, it starts to decrease. Maximum ionic conductivity of ∼2.3 × 10−5 S/cm owing to minimum activation energy of ∼0.012 eV has been observed for irradiated electrolyte sample at fluence of 5 × 1011 ions/cm2. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss also increase with ion fluences while they decrease with frequency. Transference number of ions shows that the samples are of purely ionic in nature before and after ion irradiation.
      PubDate: 2014-01-01
       
 
 
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