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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2251 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1194 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1001 - 1200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Purinergic Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaderns d’Història de l’Enginyeria     Open Access  
Quality and Reliability Engineering International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quality Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Radiochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rapid Prototyping Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal  
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Redes de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Regional Maritime University Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Regular and Chaotic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Requirements Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access  
Research in Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Works of Air Force Institute of Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Reviews in Advanced Sciences and Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ciencias e Ingeniería al Día     Open Access  
Revista CINTEX     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Engenharia da Universidade Católica de Petrópolis     Open Access  
Revista de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación     Open Access  
Revista EIA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Informador Técnico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Petra     Open Access  
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Russian Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sadhana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science & Technique     Open Access  
Science and Engineering Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science China Technological Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Technology and innovations     Open Access  
Science Progress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Scientia cum Industria     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Review     Open Access  
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Securitas Vialis     Hybrid Journal  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Selcuk University Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Semiconductors     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Separation and Purification Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
SIAM Journal on Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
SIAM Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SILICON     Hybrid Journal  
Sistemas & Telemática     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sleep and Biological Rhythms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Smart Grid     Open Access  
Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access  
Solid-State Circuits Magazine, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
SourceOCDE Developpement urbain, rural et regional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Energie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Energy     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Science and Technology Statistics - SourceOCDE Base de donnees des sciences et de la technologie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
SourceOECD Urban, Rural and Regional Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Computer Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stahlbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Steel in Translation     Hybrid Journal  
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Stochastic Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stochastics and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Studies in Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surface Review and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveying and Land Information Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sustainability Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sustainability Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Management of Sediment Resources     Full-text available via subscription  
Swiss Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal  
Symmetry     Open Access  
Synthesis Lectures on Algorithms and Software in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Antennas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Energy and the Environment: Technology, Science, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Global Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Professionalism and Career Advancement for Scientists and Engineers     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthetic Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Systems Engineering Procedia     Open Access  
Systems Research Forum     Hybrid Journal  
Systems Science & Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Techno.Com     Open Access  
Technological Engineering     Open Access  
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TECHNOLOGY     Hybrid Journal  
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Technology in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Technometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tecnologia, Ciencia, Educacion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tecnura     Open Access  
Telecommunications Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Terahertz Science and Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Textile Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Full-text available via subscription  
The Journal of Supercomputing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Thermal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tikrit Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access  
tm - Technisches Messen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Traffic Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
TRANSACTIONS of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Transport and Telecommunication Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Applied Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tribology in Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tribology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tribology Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Tribotest     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ultramicroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Utilities Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vacuum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Virtual and Physical Prototyping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Visualization in Engineering     Open Access  
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Waste Management Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Waves in Random and Complex Media     Hybrid Journal  
Waves, Wavelets and Fractals     Open Access  
Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Women in Engineering Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
World Journal of Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Pumps     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal  
Zede Journal     Open Access  
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Ionics
  [SJR: 0.486]   [H-I: 36]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1862-0760 - ISSN (Online) 0947-7047
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite for
           lithium-sulfur battery
    • Authors: Huimin Yan; Meng Cheng; Benhe Zhong; Yanxiao Chen
      Pages: 1999 - 2006
      Abstract: Abstract A three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite (NGS3) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as the nitrogen source and subsequent thermal treatment. The structure and electrochemical performance of the prepared nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite (NGS3) were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping (EDS), and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. SEM and EDS mapping show that NGS3 exhibits a porous structure with uniform distribution of sulfur. Compared with the graphene/sulfur composite (NGS1), NGS3 delivers an outstanding rate capability with 1501, 1278, 1136, and 1024 mAh g−1 at 200, 400, 800, and 1000 mA g−1, respectively, and the cycle stability of NGS3 is also wonderful, a reversible discharge capacity of 1330 mAh g−1 is obtained after 80 cycles under the current rate of 200 mA g−1. The wonderful electrochemical performance could be attributed to the special three-dimensional conductive structure with the help of nitrogen atom.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1739-5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Study on transformation mechanism of lithium titanate modified with
           hydrochloric acid
    • Authors: Liyuan Zhang; Gang He; Dali Zhou; Jiabei Zhou; Qianqian Yao
      Pages: 2007 - 2014
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and treatment time on the transformation of Li2TiO3 were studied in detail. The results demonstrate that lithium ions are easily removed from the (−133) and (−206) planes. In contrast, Li+ extraction requires a longer time for the (002) and (−131) planes. A mixture of the anatase and rutile phases, pure rutile, and pure anatase can be generated by treating Li2TiO3 with a suitable concentration of hydrochloric acid for an appropriate amount of time. The phase(s) that are present significantly affect the cyclic adsorption performance of a titanium lithium ion sieve and the dissolution of Ti. The transformation from H2TiO3 particles to TiO2 primarily occurs via the dissolution-recrystallization process. The electrophilic H+ and highly electronegative Cl− affect the Ti–O bond, resulting in the destruction of the Ti–O bond in TiO6 octahedrons, promoting the structural rearrangement of anatase to rutile TiO2.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1742-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Synthesis of hierarchical nanospheres Fe 2 O 3 /graphene composite and its
           application in lithium-ion battery as a high-performance anode material
    • Authors: Xiaobin Lian; Mocao Cai; Linlin Qin; Yong Cao; Qi-Hui Wu
      Pages: 2015 - 2020
      Abstract: Abstract A hierarchically nanospherical α-Fe2O3/graphene composite with a homogeneous mono-pore size of 4 nm has been prepared using a hydrothermal method. The composite showed an extremely high rate performance and good cycling stability when applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries owing to its unique three dimensional architecture. A specific capacity of 110 mAh/g was obtained at an extremely high current rate of 40 A/g and recover to 830 mAh/g at 0.5 A/g after 60 cycles. After 250 cycles at 2 A/g, the composite electrode exhibited a capacity of 630 mAh/g with a columbic efficiency of 99.5 %.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1749-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Improved cycling performance of LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 /Al 2 O 3
           with core-shell structure synthesized by a heterogeneous
           nucleation-and-growth process
    • Authors: Gaole Dai; Min Yu; Fei Shen; Jiali Cao; Liang Ni; Yanbin Chen; Yuefeng Tang; Yanfeng Chen
      Pages: 2021 - 2026
      Abstract: Abstract Al2O3 was successfully coated on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode material by a heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth process with a core-shell structure for Li-ion battery. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to indicate that the crystal structure of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 had no changes and no impurity phase existed after coating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed differences of surface morphology between coated and uncoated samples. A thin and bright coating layer was visually observed through transmission electron microscope (TEM). It reveals that the thickness of coating layer is 7 nm approximately. Electrochemical measurements were also carried out. Although the initial discharge capacity of the coated sample decreased, the 1-wt.% Al2O3-coated sample showed improved cycling performance at room temperature (25 °C) and elevated temperature (55 °C). It provided higher capacity retention of 71.7 and 70.1 % for 1C at 25 and 55 °C after 100 cycles, in comparison with 55.3 and 55.8 % for the uncoated sample. Meanwhile, interfacial resistance between active material and electrolyte decreased detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. These enhancements in electrochemical characterizations are attributed to the improved stability of interface and the coating layer which served as the physical barriers to protect the active material from electrolyte attack.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1750-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Preparation of LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 cathode materials by electrospinning
    • Authors: Shengkui Zhong; Piao Hu; Xia Luo; Xiaoping Zhang; Ling Wu
      Pages: 2037 - 2044
      Abstract: Abstract LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was prepared by electrospinning using lithium hydroxide, manganese acetate, nickel acetate, acetic acid, ethanol, and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as raw materials. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties was investigated. XRD results indicate that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 composite is well crystallized as a spinel structure at calcination temperature of 650 °C for 3 h. SEM results reveal that this composite has a nanofiber shape with average size of about 300–500 nm. Electrochemical performance tests reveal that this composite shows the initial discharge capacity of 127.8 and 105 mAhg−1 at 0.1 and 3 C rates, respectively, and exhibits good cycling performance.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1736-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Lithium-rich layered nickel–manganese oxides as high-performance cathode
           materials: the effects of composition and PEG on performance
    • Authors: Meifeng Chen; Wan Ren; Yijia Shao; Ting Shu; Lina Liu; Shijun Liao
      Pages: 2067 - 2073
      Abstract: Abstract Lithium-rich layered nickel–manganese oxide (LRL-NMO) as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was successfully prepared using an oxalic acid co-precipitation method, with polyethylene glycol (PEG1000) as an additive. The effects of the Ni/Mn ratio and of PEG on the phase purity, morphology, and electrochemical performance of LRL-NMO were investigated with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge/discharge testing. Li[Li0.167Ni0.25Mn0.580]O2 delivered the best electrochemical performance among the various Li[Li1/3−2x/3Ni x Mn2/3−x/3]O2 (0 < x < 0.5) materials. Furthermore, the sample to which an appropriate amount of PEG had been added showed much smaller and more uniform particle size, higher discharge capacity and energy density, better cycling stability, and lower resistance. The material prepared by adding 9 wt% PEG exhibited high discharge capacity and stability; after 100 cycles at 2 C, it still delivered a discharge capacity of 125.6 mAh g−1, which was 50 % higher than that of a sample prepared without PEG.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1747-5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Microstructure and electrical properties of Sr 1 − x Na x SiO
           3 − x/2 ceramics prepared by SPS process
    • Authors: F. Yang; Z. Yu; B. Meng; Y. J. Zhu; Q. Q. Yang; Z. L. Lin; H. M. Zhou; X. L. Liang
      Pages: 2087 - 2093
      Abstract: Abstract The Sr1 − x Na x SiO3 − x/2 samples (SNS, x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.45) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at a lower sintering temperature of 850 °C for a shorter holding time of 5 min. All SNS samples by SPS are composed of single monoclinic SrSiO3 phase, and the grain sizes are in the range of 1.9 ± 0.5 μm. The measurement results of the electrical properties show that the conductivities of SPS samples are one order of magnitude higher than those of the samples by traditional sintering method. The ion transference numbers of SNS samples by SPS are all higher than 0.99 in the temperature range of 500∼650 °C, which demonstrates that the SNS has met the requirements as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes and the SPS process is a promising candidate for preparations of SNS electrolytes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1737-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Identification of solid electrolyte interphase formed on graphite
           electrode cycled in trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylate-based
           electrolytes for low-temperature lithium-ion batteries
    • Authors: Wei Lu; Shizhao Xiong; Kai Xie; Yi Pan; Chunman Zheng
      Pages: 2095 - 2102
      Abstract: Abstract Trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylates with different length of carbon-chain in acyl groups have been introduced into carbonate-based electrolyte as co-solvents to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries, both in capacity retention and lowering polarization of graphite electrode. To identify the further influence of trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylates on graphite electrode, the components and properties of the surface film on graphite electrode cycled in different electrolytes are investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical measurements. The IR and XPS results show that the chemical species of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on graphite electrode strongly depend on the selection of co-solvent. For instance, among those species, the content of RCOOLi increases with an increasing number of carbon atoms in RCOOCH2CF3 molecule, wherein R was an alkyl with 1, 3, or 5 carbon atoms. We suggest that the thickness and components of the SEI film play a crucial role on the enhanced low-temperature performance of the lithium-ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1743-9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • A novel PEO-based blends solid polymer electrolytes doping liquid
           crystalline ionomers
    • Authors: Ai-ling Zhang; Fei-yu Cao; Gui-zhou Na; Song Wang; San-xi Li; Ji-chi Liu
      Pages: 2103 - 2112
      Abstract: Abstract A novel PEO-based blends solid polymer electrolytes doping liquid crystalline ionomers (LCI), PEO/PMMA/LiClO4/LCI, and PEO/LiClO4/LCI were prepared by solution casting technology. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis proved that LCI uniformly dispersed into the solid electrolytes and restrained phase separation of PEO and PMMA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that LCI decreases the crystallinity of blends solid polymer electrolytes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved LCI not only improved thermal stability of PEO/PMMA/LiClO4 blends but also prevent PEO/PMMA from phase separation. Infrared spectra results illustrated that there exists interaction among Li+ and O, and LCI that promotes the synergistic effects between PEO and PMMA. The EIS result revealed that the conductivity of the electrolytes increases with LiClO4 concentration in PEO/PMMA blends, but it increases at first and reaches maximum value of 2.53 × 10−4 S/cm at 1.0 % of LCI. The addition of 1.0 % LCI increases the conductivity of the electrolytes due to that LCl promoting compatibility and interaction of PEO and PMMA. Under the combined action of rigidity induced crystal unit, soft segment and the terminal ionic groups in LCI, PEO/PMMA interfacial interaction are improved, the reduction of crystallinity degree of PEO leads Li+ migration more freely.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1732-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Ion dynamics in methylcellulose–LiBOB solid polymer electrolytes
    • Authors: S. Z. Yusof; H. J. Woo; A. K. Arof
      Pages: 2113 - 2121
      Abstract: Abstract A polymer electrolyte system comprising methylcellulose (MC) as the host polymer and lithium bis(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) as the lithium ion source has been prepared via the solution cast technique. The electrolyte with the highest conductivity of 2.79 μS cm−1 has a composition of 75 wt% MC–25 wt% LiBOB. The mobile ion concentration (n) in this sample was estimated to be 5.70 × 1020 cm−3. A good correlation between ionic conductivity, dielectric constant, and free ion concentration has been observed. The ratio of mobile ion number density (n) at a particular temperature to the concentration n 0 of free ions at T = ∞ (n/n 0) and the power law exponents (s) exhibit opposite trends when varied with salt concentration.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1733-y
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Conductivity studies of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)/poly(vinyl alcohol)
           (PVA) blend gel polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells
    • Authors: T. S. Tiong; M. H. Buraidah; L. P. Teo; A. K. Arof
      Pages: 2133 - 2142
      Abstract: Abstract Poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)–poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been prepared by blending equal weights of PEO and PVA in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), and iodine crystals (I2). The conductivity, diffusion coefficient, number density, and ion mobility of the electrolytes have been calculated from the impedance data obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The GPE with the composition of 7.02 wt%, PVA, 7.02 wt% PEO, 30.11 wt% ethylene carbonate (EC), 30.11 wt% DMSO, 24.08 wt% TBAI and 1.66 wt% I2 exhibits the highest conductivity of 5.5 mS cm−1 at room temperature. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with configuration fluorine tin oxide (FTO)/titanium dioxide/N3-dye/GPE/platinum/FTO have been fabricated and tested under the white light of intensity 100 mW cm−2. The DSSC containing the highest conducting GPE exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency, η of 5.36 %.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1758-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Al 2 O 3 /poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite separator for high-safety
           lithium-ion batteries
    • Authors: Weibiao Li; Xiaozhe Li; Anbao Yuan; Xiaohua Xie; Baojia Xia
      Pages: 2143 - 2149
      Abstract: Abstract Separators have garnered substantial attention from researchers and developers in regard to their crucial role in the safety of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, a composite separator was prepared by coating cubic Al2O3 nanoparticles on non-woven poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) via a simple dip-coating process. The basic properties of the Al2O3-coated PET non-woven composite separator were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and other specific measurements in respect to its morphology, porosity, electrolyte wettability, and thermal shrinkage as well as its application in lithium-ion batteries. We found that the composite separator has outstanding thermostability, which may improve battery safety. Additionally, by comparison against the commercial Celgard 2500 separator, the proposed composite separator exhibits higher porosity, superior electrolyte wettability, and higher ionic conductivity. More importantly, the lithium-ion battery assembled with this composite separator shows better electrochemical performance (e.g., cycling and discharge C-rate capability) compared to that with the Celgard 2500 separator. The results of this study represent a simple approach to preparing high-performance separators that can be used to enhance the safety of lithium-ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1752-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Comparative study of solid-state reaction and sol-gel process for
           synthesis of Zr-doped Li 0.5 La 0.5 TiO 3 solid electrolytes
    • Authors: Ming’en Ling; Xiaohong Zhu; Yue Jiang; Jiliang Zhu
      Pages: 2151 - 2156
      Abstract: Abstract We investigated the synergistic influences of synthesis methods (solid-state reaction vs. sol-gel process) and Zr4+ doping on the structure and ionic conductivity of perovskite-structured Li0.5La0.5TiO3 (LLTO) solid electrolytes. The lithium-ion conductivity of Li0.5La0.5Ti1 − x Zr x O3 ceramic specimens was evaluated as a function of x value and compared carefully between those two synthesis methods. Regarding the conductivity, sol-gel process is better for the synthesis of LLTO than solid-state reaction. As a result, the highest grain conductivity is obtained in the sol-gel-derived pure LLTO sample with x = 0, reaching 1.10 × 10−3 S · cm−1. Partial substitution of Zr4+ enlarges the LLTO’s grain aggregate size and increases the total superficial area of aggregates. Consequently, Zr4+ substitution not only affects the grain (bulk) conductivity, but more importantly, also improves the grain boundary conductivity and the total conductivity. The highest total conductivity is 5.84 × 10−5 S · cm−1 with x = 0.04 by sol-gel process.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1744-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Electrical impedance and conduction mechanism analysis of biopolymer
           electrolytes based on methyl cellulose doped with ammonium iodide
    • Authors: N. S. Salleh; Shujahadeen B. Aziz; Z. Aspanut; M. F. Z. Kadir
      Pages: 2157 - 2167
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, the potential of methyl cellulose (MC) as biopolymer electrolyte (BPE) will be studied extensively by means of conductivity and the conduction mechanism. BPE films based on MC doped with ammonium iodide (NH4I) salt were prepared by solution-casting method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) explains that the conductivity enhancement of the electrolytes is affected by the degree of crystallinity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis shows the difference in the electrolyte’s surface with respect to NH4I. On addition of 40 wt.% of NH4I, the highest room temperature conductivity of (5.08 ± 0.04) × 10−4 S cm−1 was achieved. The temperature dependence relationship for the salted electrolyte was found to obey the Arrhenius rule where R2 ∼1 from which the activation energy (E a) was evaluated. The dielectric study analyzed using complex permittivity ε* for the sample with the highest conductivity at elevated temperature shows a non- Debye behavior. These salted electrolytes follow the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1731-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • One-step synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-supported PtCo nanoalloys
           with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation
    • Authors: Haili Gao; Lilie He; Yuanhua Xiao; Yong Zhang; Shengli Zhang
      Pages: 2175 - 2182
      Abstract: Abstract Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have recently become the research hotspot, due to their high energy-conversion efficiency, low operating temperature, and low exhaust emission. In this study, PtCo nanoalloys supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were successfully synthesized via a one-step reduction method, carried out by coreduction of PtCl6 2−, Co2+ and graphene oxide (GO) in ethylene glycol. Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were used to study microstructure, composition, particle size, and morphology, respectively. The results show that highly dispersed PtCo nanoalloys with average sizes of ca. 2.4 nm are dispersed on the surfaces of RGO sheets. The catalytic performances of the PtCo/RGO, Pt/RGO, and Pt/C catalysts toward methanol oxidation were studied, which indicates that PtCo/RGO nanoalloys show higher catalytic performance and stability than Pt/RGO and Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the PtCo/RGO catalyst exhibits improved CO-tolerance ability due to the addition of Co.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1727-9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • The effect of the internal magnetism of ferromagnetic catalysts on their
           catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction under an external
           magnetic field
    • Authors: Li Wang; Huijuan Yang; Juan Yang; Yixin Yang; Rongfang Wang; Shunxi Li; Hui Wang; Shan Ji
      Pages: 2195 - 2202
      Abstract: Abstract In the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the oxygen transport rate plays an important role in the ORR on the cathode. An approach by applying magnetic fields on the cathode can effectively improve the oxygen transport. However, no work reports the effect of the magnetism of ferromagnetic catalysts on ORR under an external magnetic field. Herein, the catalytic performances of the ferromagnetic catalysts including Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe-N-C for ORR are studied under an external magnetic field. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that the ORR current on the cathode increases with the strength of the external magnetic field due to the improved oxygen transfer. Meanwhile, the increase of the ORR current on Fe-N-C is larger than Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 since some internal tiny magnetic fields generated by the Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 catalysts are different from the magnetic direction of the external magnet. It is also found that the magnetic direction of the external magnet does not have any effect on the oxygen transfer.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1746-6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Facile synthesis of N-doped carbon nanosheet-encased cobalt nanoparticles
           as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts in alkaline and acidic media
    • Authors: Qiuping Zhao; Qin Ma; Fuping Pan; Junhong Guo; Junyan Zhang
      Pages: 2203 - 2212
      Abstract: In this work, a low-cost, high-performance, and environmentally friendly non-precious-metal catalyst was fabricated via a simple pyrolysis of the corn starch, dicyandiamide, and cobalt acetate for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the catalyst has porous and graphene-like carbon nanosheet-encased metal nanoparticles structure. Electrochemical measurements show that, compared to the commercial Pt/C catalysts, the catalyst has a low overpotential, larger current density, and better methanol tolerance ability for ORR in both alkaline and acidic media, which may be attributed to the incorporation of Co–Nx moieties and Co nanoparticles. The transferred number of electrons during the ORR with the catalyst was calculated to be ∼3.9 in alkaline media (∼3.7 in acidic media), indicating that the product would be a promising non-noble cathode catalyst in alkaline and acidic fuel cells or Li/Zn air batteries. Graphical abstract Proposed synthetic protocol for N-doped carbon nanosheet-encased cobalt nanoparticles, and it act as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts in alkaline and acidic media
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1748-4
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Construction of a highly sensitive NADH sensing platform based on PDDA-rGO
           nanocomposite modified electrode
    • Authors: Juanjuan Lu; Yuelin Liu; Xinhe Liu; Xiaoquan Lu; Xiuhui Liu
      Pages: 2225 - 2233
      Abstract: In this article, we constructed an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive determination of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) using the poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified electrode (PDDA-rGO/GCE). The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrated that the fabricated sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity on the oxidation of NADH with a decreased about 200 mV in overpotential and 5.0-fold increment in the oxidation peak current compared to a bare GCE. Applying cyclic voltammetry, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 2.9 × 10−3 M with low limit of detection (LOD) of 3.4 × 10−8 M and high sensitivity of 463.3 μA mM−1 cm−2 were obtained, which was superior to other NADH electrochemical sensors reported previously. Furthermore, the fabricated NADH sensor possessed excellent selectivity, reproducibility, and stability. The oxidation mechanism of NADH at the PDDA-rGO/GCE was also discussed in detail. Graphical abstract A simple NADH sensing platform based on PDDA-rGO composite is constructed, which exhibits an ultra-low detection limit ( 3.4×10-8 M) towards the oxidation of NADH, and the electrochemical reaction mechanism of NADH is discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1753-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Synthesis of carbon-encapsulated cobalt sulfide nanoparticles and their
           electrochemical property
    • Authors: Yongsheng Zhou; Pan Jin; Yatong Zhou
      Pages: 2239 - 2243
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon coated cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanoparticles (C@Co9S8) with the size of 5 to 30 nm were synthesized in a controllable way. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations confirmed that the C@Co9S8 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in carbon matrix, and the Co9S8 nanoparticles were surrounded by several carbon layers with well-ordered arrangement. The nanoparticles exhibited well-constructed core-shell structures. The possible growth process for the C@Co9S8 was discussed briefly. The electrochemical measurements were examined in a three-electrode glass cell in 1.0 M H2SO4 solutions. The C@Co9S8 nanocomposites are demonstrated to be an excellent electrode material with good specific capacitance.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1795-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2016)
  • Investigation of Al-doping effects on the NaFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 2 cathode for
           Na-ion batteries
    • Authors: Yongho Kee; Nikolay Dimov; Simon Champet; Duncan H. Gregory; Shigeto Okada
      Abstract: Abstract P2-Na2/3MO2 materials have recently been investigated as promising high-capacity cathode hosts for Na-ion batteries. On the other hand, the Na-deficiency in these materials precludes a high energy density when coupled with Na-free anodes. As an alternative, O3-NaFeO2 and its various derivatives such as NaFe0.5Mn0.5O2 have been suggested and investigated. In this study, we dope Al in NaFe0.5Mn0.5O2 and investigate Al-doping effects on the electrochemical properties of the Na+ host. The Al-doped compound shows almost the same conductivity and diffusivity as the pristine structure. However, Al-doping enhances O3-P3 phase transition.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11581-016-1839-2
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