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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2279 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1203 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Image Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Micro and Nano Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Frontiers in Energy
  [SJR: 0.279]   [H-I: 9]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Current challenge and perspective of PGM-free cathode catalysts for PEM
           fuel cells
    • Authors: Gang Wu
      Abstract: To significantly reduce the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, platinum-group metal (PGM)-free cathode catalysts are highly desirable. Current M-N-C (M: Fe, Co or Mn) catalysts are considered the most promising due to their encouraging performance. The challenge thus has been their stability under acidic conditions, which has hindered their use for any practical applications. In this review, based on the author’s research experience in the field for more than 10 years, current challenges and possible solutions to overcome these problems were discussed. The current Edisonian approach (i.e., trial and error) to developing PGM-free catalysts has been ineffective in achieving revolutionary breakthroughs. Novel synthesis techniques based on a more methodological approach will enable atomic control and allow us to achieve optimal electronic and geometric structures for active sites uniformly dispersed within the 3D architectures. Structural and chemical controlled precursors such as metal-organic frameworks are highly desirable for making catalysts with an increased density of active sites and strengthening local bonding structures among N, C and metals. Advanced electrochemical and physical characterization, such as electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy should be combined with first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations to fully elucidate the active site structures.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0477-3
       
  • Influence of envelope insulation materials on building energy consumption
    • Authors: Junlan Yang; Jiabao Tang
      Abstract: In this paper, the influence of different external wall insulation materials on the energy consumption of a newly built apartment in Germany is investigated. Three types of insulation materials commonly used in Germany including mineral fiber, polyurethane, and vacuum insulation panel are chosen for the case studies. An energy analysis model is established to clarify the primary energy use for production of the insulation materials and for building space heating. The calculation results show that the energy consumption for insulation material production increases with the insulation thickness, whereas the energy use for space heating decreases with the insulation thickness. Thus, there exists an optimum thickness to get the lowest total energy consumption for each kind of insulation material. The ascending order of the total energy consumption of the three materials is mineral fiber, polyurethane, and vacuum insulation panel. However, the optimum insulation thicknesses for the three insulation materials show a verse order at a certain heat transfer coefficient of the base envelope. The energy payback time (EPT) is proposed to calculate the payback time of the primary energy use for insulation material production. Mineral fiber has the shortest time, followed by polyurethane and vacuum insulation panel. The EPTS is 10, 19 and 21 years, respectively when the heat transfer coefficient of the base envelope is 0.2 W/(m2∙K). In addition, the simulated results show that the theoretical value and the simulated value are basically identical.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0473-7
       
  • Special issue: Development of renewable energy and smart grid
    • Authors: Harald Schwarz; Xiaoshu Cai
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0476-4
       
  • Real prospects for the development of power technologies based on
           renewable energy sources in Poland
    • Authors: Sławomir Dykas; Artur Szymański; Xiaoshu Cai
      Abstract: In Poland more than 40% of the power units have been operating for over 40 years now and more than 10%are over 50 years old, which indicates a high degree of decrease in the value of the energy sector. An analysis of the energy market shows that every year a new power plant should be built with a capacity of 1000 MW to ensure the national energy security. An energy market research indicates that in Poland the structure of energy production is changing in recent years—the share of fossil (solid) fuels in electricity and heat production was approximately 88% in 2009, while in 2004 it reached 93%. According to the analysis of the market, it can be seen that conventional energy, mainly based on coal and lignite, has been the most important segment of the sector for a long time. In this paper the prospects for the development of power technologies based on renewable energy sources (RES) in Poland are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0474-6
       
  • Possible role of power-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid as storages and
           flexible loads in the German 110 kV distribution grid
    • Authors: Erik Blasius
      Abstract: The sectoral coupling of road traffic (in form of E-Mobility) and electrical energy supply (known as power-to-vehicle (P2V), vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is discussed as one of the possible development concepts for the flexible system integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and the support of the objectives of the German energy transition (aka. Energiewende). It is obvious that E-mobility, which shall produce as few emissions as possible, should be based on the exclusive use of renewable energies. At the same time, the E-mobility can help to reduce the negative effects of the grid integration of RES to the distribution grids. However, this assumes that the electric vehicles are smart integrated to the grids where they charge, meaning that they must be able to communicate and be controllable. Because per se unplanned and uncontrollable charging processes are harmful for the grid operation, especially if they occur frequently and unexpected in similar time periods, the effects can hardly be controlled and can lead to serious technical problems in practical grid operation. This paper provides an insight into the current development of E-mobility in Germany. The insight will be matched with the German development of the RES. By the combination of both sectors, the possible role of the E-mobility for the distribution grid will be depicted, which can have positive and negative aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0475-5
       
  • Integration of renewable energies, flexible loads and storages into the
           German power grid: Actual situation in German change of power system
    • Authors: Harald Schwarz; Xiaoshu Cai
      Abstract: Starting from the late 1990’s, the German government decided to change the national electric power supply system dramatically. The main stimulating instrument was the German Law on Renewable Energies (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz (EEG)), which guaranteed a fixed feed-in tariff to everyone who was willing to invest into renewable generation. Based on the year of commissioning, defined revenues per kWh were fixed for the next 20 years. Due to a very attractive over-funding, more than 1.5 million renewable generation units were connected to the German grid up to the end of 2015. According to the EEG, renewable generation units can feed to the grid wherever they are located and whenever they are able to produce. The old physical principle was and is still neglected, which clearly stated that generation always has to follow the demand—simply due to the limited availability of storages in the power system. Only in cases, when temporarily renewable overproduction exceeds the tolerable loading of lines or transformers respectively endangers the system stability in total, are German grid operators allowed to announce curtailments by emergency measures. Even in such cases, the “not produced energy” from renewable sources has to be funded. Although the installed capacity from renewables is much higher than the peak load in Germany, it contributes only about 32% to German average annual energy. Unfortunately, the regional distribution of renewable generation and load is very different, e.g. in the northeast of Germany, this Renewable Energy (RE)-ratio meanwhile exceeds 100% due to the high RE-penetration and low load. High transits of renewable overproduction from the north to the south will be necessary at nearly every day per year. Therefore, a tremendous change is needed within the German power grid. This paper will give a first overview followed by several others, describing possible solutions on how to overcome this critical situation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0470-x
       
  • Possible role of power-to-heat and power-to-gas as flexible loads in
           German medium voltage networks
    • Authors: Mark Kuprat; Martin Bendig; Klaus Pfeiffer
      Abstract: Germany’s energy transition triggered a rapid and unilateral growth of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity sector. With increasing shares of intermittent RES, overcapacities during periods of strong wind and photovoltaic electricity generation occur. In the face of insufficient transmission capacities, due to an inhibited network extension, the electricity generation has to be curtailed. This curtailment of RES leads to economic losses and could be avoided through flexible loads. As an option to cope with those problems, the technologies of power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-heat (PtH) are presented in this paper. First, the alkaline electrolyzer (AEL), polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), and solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) are investigated regarding their operational parameters. Second, the electric boiler, electrode heating boiler, and heat pumps are considered. Ultimately, the network-supporting abilities and the potential to provide ancillary services, such as control power, load sequence operation, cold start and part load capability, are compared among one another.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0472-8
       
  • Impact of renewable energies on the operation and economic situation of
           coal fired power stations: Actual situation of coal fired power stations
           in Germany
    • Authors: Hans-Joachim Krautz; Alexander Lisk; Joachim Posselt; Christian Katzer
      Abstract: Due to the fluctuating character of the renewable energy sources the demand of conventional power plants for flexibility is increasing. In the recent years, in Germany there has been a fast rise of production capacity of renewable energies, especially from wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, and biomass plants. The installed nominal power of wind turbines is actually (December 2016) 42 GWand of photovoltaic installations 40 GW. The renewable electric energy production in Germany is about 190 TWh/a, which represents a share of 33% of the yearly demand. The increased need for flexibility affects both the power gradients as well as the minimum load of conventional power plants. Due to this flexibility behaviour, conventional power plants are faced with problems concerning the durability of power plant components, corrosion, more maintenance effort and consequently the overall life expectancy. Another consequence of the increasing share of renewable energies is the decreasing full load operating hours, especially of coal fired and gas power plants. Along with decreasing revenues from the energy exchange market, coal fired power plants are faced with new economically challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0468-4
       
  • Regional wind power forecasting model with NWP grid data optimized
    • Authors: Zhao Wang; Weisheng Wang; Bo Wang
      Abstract: Unlike the traditional fossil energy, wind, as the clean renewable energy, can reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas. To take full advantage of the environmental benefits of wind energy, wind power forecasting has to be studied to overcome the troubles brought by the variable nature of wind. Power forecasting for regional wind farm groups is the problem that many power system operators care about. The high-dimensional feature sets with redundant information are frequently encountered when dealing with this problem. In this paper, two kinds of feature set construction methods are proposed which can achieve the proper feature set either by selecting the subsets or by transforming the original variables with specific combinations. The former method selects the subset according to the criterion of minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance (mRMR), while the latter does so based on the method of principal component analysis (PCA). A locally weighted learning method is also proposed to utilize the processed feature set to produce the power forecast results. The proposed model is simple and easy to use with parameters optimized automatically. Finally, a case study of 28 wind farms in East China is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0471-9
       
  • The German Energiewende and its roll-out of renewable energies: An
           economic perspective
    • Authors: Sebastian Kreuz; Felix Müsgens
      Abstract: This paper gives a short overview of the German Energiewende, i.e. the transition of a large and mostly thermal electricity system towards electricity generation from renewable energy source. It discusses both, the motivation of the transitions as future goals and current status. Furthermore, it gives an in-depth view into the changes in economic costs for society as well as electricity price effects, especially for average private households and industrial consumers. It also discusses the benefits of the promotion of renewable energies in Germany.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0467-5
       
  • A review of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Changlin Zhang; Xiaochen Shen; Yanbo Pan; Zhenmeng Peng
      Abstract: Development of active and durable electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains one challenge for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Pt-based nanomaterials show the greatest promise as electrocatalyst for this reaction among all current catalytic structures. This review focuses on Pt-based ORR catalyst material development and covers the past achievements, current research status and perspectives in this research field. In particular, several important categories of Pt-based catalytic structures and the research advances are summarized. Key factors affecting the catalyst activity and durability are discussed. An outlook of future research direction of ORR catalyst research is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0466-6
       
  • Influence of increasing numbers of RE-inverters on the power quality in
           the distribution grids: A PQ case study of a representative wind turbine
           and photovoltaic system
    • Authors: Przemyslaw Janik; Grzegorz Kosobudzki; Harald Schwarz
      Abstract: This paper presents the selected power quality (PQ) indicia of a wind generator and a photovoltaic installation considered to be the representative of medium voltage and low voltage distribution grids. The analysis of measured values suggests that the decrease in PQ is a case of specific combination of distributed generation, grid parameters and load behaviour. Modern generators have a limited impact on PQ. On the other hand, fluctuations in power generation are regarded as an emerging PQ indicator. The growing number of distributed renewable installations causes stochastic, variable, and hardly predictable power flows in the distribution grid. The nature of fluctuations in wind and solar generation is different. In both cases, new indexes for the quantification of fluctuations are needed and are yet not standardised. Proper assessment of these fluctuations enables definition of useful fluctuation limits and rules for optimal storage system integration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0469-3
       
  • Cumulant-based correlated probabilistic load flow considering photovoltaic
           generation and electric vehicle charging demand
    • Authors: Nitesh Ganesh Bhat; B. Rajanarayan Prusty; Debashisha Jena
      Abstract: This paper applies a cumulant-based analytical method for probabilistic load flow (PLF) assessment in transmission and distribution systems. The uncertainties pertaining to photovoltaic generations and aggregate bus load powers are probabilistically modeled in the case of transmission systems. In the case of distribution systems, the uncertainties pertaining to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and battery electric vehicle charging demands in residential community as well as charging stations are probabilistically modeled. The probability distributions of the result variables (bus voltages and branch power flows) pertaining to these inputs are accurately established. The multiple input correlation cases are incorporated. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified Ward-Hale 6-bus system and an IEEE 14-bus transmission system as well as on a modified IEEE 69-bus radial and an IEEE 33-bus mesh distribution system. The results of the proposed method are compared with that of Monte-Carlo simulation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0465-7
       
  • Surface tension of liquid metal: role, mechanism and application
    • Authors: Xi Zhao; Shuo Xu; Jing Liu
      Abstract: Surface tension plays a core role in dominating various surface and interface phenomena. For liquid metals with high melting temperature, a profound understanding of the behaviors of surface tension is crucial in industrial processes such as casting, welding, and solidification, etc. Recently, the room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) mainly composed of gallium-based alloys has caused widespread concerns due to its increasingly realized unique virtues. The surface properties of such materials are rather vital in nearly all applications involved from chip cooling, thermal energy harvesting, hydrogen generation, shape changeable soft machines, printed electronics to 3D fabrication, etc. owing to its pretty large surface tension of approximately 700 mN/m. In order to promote the research of surface tension of RTLM, this paper is dedicated to present an overview on the roles and mechanisms of surface tension of liquid metal and summarize the latest progresses on the understanding of the basic knowledge, theories, influencing factors and experimental measurement methods clarified so far. As a practical technique to regulate the surface tension of RTLM, the fundamental principles and applications of electrowetting are also interpreted. Moreover, the unique phenomena of RTLM surface tension issues such as surface tension driven self-actuation, modified wettability on various substrates and the functions of oxides are discussed to give an insight into the acting mechanism of surface tension. Furthermore, future directions worthy of pursuing are pointed out.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0463-9
       
  • Feedback linearization based control for weak grid connected PV system
           under normal and abnormal conditions
    • Authors: Rahul Sharma; Sathans Suhag
      Abstract: This paper proposes a control strategy for interface of distributed energy sources into the weak grid system with a focus on the energy and ancillary services. A novel controller has been designed and implemented to tackle the challenges of coupling terms in the LCL filter, the transient behavior under sudden changes, and the voltage support under fault condition using the feedback linearization technique. The controller proposed has been implemented on the PV system connected with the weak grid using the LCL filter and the performance of the controller has been verified using Matlab/Simulink through simulation under different conditions. The results of the controller proposed have been compared with the conventional PI dual loop controller. The simulation results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the controller design strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0459-5
       
  • A comprehensive review of greenhouse shapes and its applications
    • Authors: Ravinder Kumar Sahdev; Ashwani Kumar Dhingra; Mahesh Kumar
      Abstract: Greenhouse technology is a practical option for the production and drying of agricultural products in controlled environment. For the successful design of a greenhouse, the selection of a suitable shape and orientation is of great importance. Of various shapes of greenhouses, the even-span roof and the Quonset shape greenhouses are the most commonly used for crop cultivation and drying. The orientation of greenhouses is kept east–west for maximum utilization of solar radiations. Hybrid and modified greenhouse dryers have been proposed for drying of products. The agricultural products dried in greenhouses are found to be better in quality as compared to open sun drying because they are protected from dust, rain, insects, birds and animals. Moreover, various greenhouses shapes along with their applications have been reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0464-8
       
  • Nodal, zonal, or uniform electricity pricing: how to deal with network
           congestion
    • Authors: Martin Weibelzahl
      Abstract: In this paper, the main contributions to congestion management and electricity pricing, i.e., nodal, zonal, and uniform electricity pricing, are surveyed. The key electricity market concepts are structured and a formal model framework is proposed for electricity transportation, production, and consumption in the context of limited transmission networks and competitive, welfare maximizing electricity markets. In addition, the main results of existing short-run and long-run congestion management studies are explicitly summarized. In particular, the important interconnection between short-run network management approaches and optimal long-run investments in both generation facilities and network lines are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0460-z
       
  • Novel power capture optimization based sensorless maximum power point
           tracking strategy and internal model controller for wind turbines systems
           driven SCIG
    • Authors: Ali El Yaakoubi; Kamal Attari; Adel Asselman; Abdelouahed Djebli
      Abstract: Under the trends to using renewable energy sources as alternatives to the traditional ones, it is important to contribute to the fast growing development of these sources by using powerful soft computing methods. In this context, this paper introduces a novel structure to optimize and control the energy produced from a variable speed wind turbine which is based on a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) and connected to the grid. The optimization strategy of the harvested power from the wind is realized by a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on fuzzy logic, and the control strategy of the generator is implemented by means of an internal model (IM) controller. Three IM controllers are incorporated in the vector control technique, as an alternative to the proportional integral (PI) controller, to implement the proposed optimization strategy. The MPPT in conjunction with the IM controller is proposed as an alternative to the traditional tip speed ratio (TSR) technique, to avoid any disturbance such as wind speed measurement and wind turbine (WT) characteristic uncertainties. Based on the simulation results of a six KW-WECS model in Matlab/Simulink, the presented control system topology is reliable and keeps the system operation around the desired response.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0462-x
       
  • Review of stochastic optimization methods for smart grid
    • Authors: S. Surender Reddy; Vuddanti Sandeep; Chan-Mook Jung
      Abstract: This paper presents various approaches used by researchers for handling the uncertainties involved in renewable energy sources, load demands, etc. It gives an idea about stochastic programming (SP) and discusses the formulations given by different researchers for objective functions such as cost, loss, generation expansion, and voltage/V control with various conventional and advanced methods. Besides, it gives a brief idea about SP and its applications and discusses different variants of SP such as recourse model, chance constrained programming, sample average approximation, and risk aversion. Moreover, it includes the application of these variants in various power systems. Furthermore, it also includes the general mathematical form of expression for these variants and discusses the mathematical description of the problem and modeling of the system. This review of different optimization techniques will be helpful for smart grid development including renewable energy resources (RERs).
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0457-7
       
  • Combustion analysis of a hydrogen-diesel fuel operated DI diesel engine
           with exhaust gas recirculation
    • Authors: M. Loganathan; A. Velmurugan; Tompage; E. James Gunasekaran; P. Tamilarasan
      Abstract: The rapid depletion of fossil fuel and growing demand necessitates researchers to find alternative fuels which are clean and sustainable. The need for finding renewable, low cost and environmentally friendly fuel resources can never be understated. An efficient method of generation and storage of hydrogen will enable automotive manufacturers to introduce hydrogen fuelled engine in the market. In this paper, a conventional DI diesel engine was modified to operate as gas engine. The intake manifold of the engine was supplied with hydrogen along with recirculated exhaust gas and air. The injection rates of hydrogen were maintained at three levels with 2 L/min, 4 L/min, 6 L/min and 8 L/min and 10 L/min with an injection pressure of 2 bar. Many of the combustion parameters like heat release rate (HRR), ignition delay, combustion duration, rate of pressure rise (ROPR), cumulative heat release rate (CHR), and cyclic pressure fluctuations were measured. The HRR peak pressure decreased with the increase in EGR rate, while combustion duration increased with the EGR rate. The cyclic pressure variation also increased with the increase in EGR rate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0461-y
       
 
 
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