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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2255 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (189 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (180 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1196 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (386 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (61 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1196 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería e Investigación     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access  
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access  
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinary Fluid Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Flow Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Frontiers in Energy
  [SJR: 0.279]   [H-I: 9]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Statistical analysis of recombination properties of the boron-oxygen
           defect in p-type Czochralski silicon
    • Authors: Nitin Nampalli; Tsun Hang Fung; Stuart Wenham; Brett Hallam; Malcolm Abbott
      Pages: 4 - 22
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the application of lifetime spectroscopy to the study of carrier-induced degradation ascribed to the boron-oxygen (BO) defect. Specifically, a large data set of p-type silicon samples is used to investigate two important aspects of carrier lifetime analysis: ①the methods used to extract the recombination lifetime associated with the defect and ② the underlying assumption that carrier injection does not affect lifetime components unrelated to the defect. The results demonstrate that the capture cross section ratio associated with the donor level of the BO defect (k 1) vary widely depending on the specific method used to extract the defect-specific recombination lifetime. For the data set studied here, it was also found that illumination used to form the defect caused minor, but statistically significant changes in the surface passivation used. This violation of the fundamental assumption could be accounted for by applying appropriate curve fitting methods, resulting in an improved estimate of k 1 (11.90±0.45) for the fully formed BO defect when modeled using the donor level alone. Illumination also appeared to cause a minor, apparently injectionindependent change in lifetime that could not be attributed to the donor level of the BO defect alone and is likely related to the acceptor level of the BO defect. While specific to the BO defect, this study has implications for the use of lifetime spectroscopy to study other carrier induced defects. Finally, we demonstrate the use of a unit-less regression goodness-of-fit metric for lifetime data that is easy to interpret and accounts for repeatability error.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0442-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Laser enhanced gettering of silicon substrates
    • Authors: Daniel Chen; Matthew Edwards; Stuart Wenham; Malcolm Abbott; Brett Hallam
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Abstract One challenge to the use of lightly-doped, high efficiency emitters on multicrystalline silicon wafers is the poor gettering efficiency of the diffusion processes used to fabricate them. With the photovoltaic industry highly reliant on heavily doped phosphorus diffusions as a source of gettering, the transition to selective emitter structures would require new alternative methods of impurity extraction. In this paper, a novel laser based method for gettering is investigated for its impact on commercially available silicon wafers used in the manufacturing of solar cells. Direct comparisons between laser enhanced gettering (LasEG) and lightly-doped emitter diffusion gettering demonstrate a 45% absolute improvement in bulk minority carrier lifetime when using the laser process. Although grain boundaries can be effective gettering sites in multicrystalline wafers, laser processing can substantially improve the performance of both grain boundary sites and intra-grain regions. This improvement is correlated with a factor of 6 further decrease in interstitial iron concentrations. The removal of such impurities from multicrystalline wafers using the laser process can result in intra-grain enhancements in implied open-circuit voltage of up to 40 mV. In instances where specific dopant profiles are required for a diffusion on one surface of a solar cell, and the diffusion process does not enable effective gettering, LasEG may enable improved gettering during the diffusion process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0441-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Defect passivation on cast-mono crystalline screen-printed cells
    • Authors: Alison Wenham; Lihui Song; Malcolm Abbott; Iskra Zafirovska; Sisi Wang; Brett Hallam; Catherine Chan; Allen Barnett; Stuart Wenham
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Abstract Cast-mono crystalline silicon wafers contain crystallographic defects, which can severely impact the electrical performance of solar cells. This paper demonstrates that applying hydrogenation processes at moderate temperatures to finished screen print cells can passivate dislocation clusters within the cast-mono crystalline silicon wafers far better than the hydrogenation received during standard commercial firing conditions. Efficiency enhancements of up to 2% absolute are demonstrated on wafers with high dislocation densities. The impact of illumination to manipulate the charge state of hydrogen during annealing is investigated and found to not be significant on the wafers used in this study. This finding is contrary to a previous study on similar wafers that concluded increased H– or H0 from laser illumination was responsible for the further passivation of positively charged dangling bonds within the dislocation clusters.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0443-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of different energy saving lights using solar panel
    • Authors: Huzaifa Mubarak; Saad Bin Abul Kashem
      Pages: 466 - 472
      Abstract: Abstract The recent trend in light emitting diode or LED lighting applications and their claimed energy saving capabilities together with their overall attractiveness has us all convinced that they really are a greener alternative to the compact fluorescent lights or CFL. As convincing as it seems, the actual energy saving capabilities of LEDs are yet to be proven scientifically or at the least, on an empirical level when compared to CFLs. This paper tackles the issue with the use of a solar cell by evaluating the photovoltaic current and voltage generated by the solar cell subjected to each lighting system. Graphical representations are drawn and a conclusion is then reached based on the amount of power generation in the solar cells in order to determine the energy saving capabilities of each lighting system and its efficiency. From the result, it has been found that an LED is 3.7 times more power efficient than a CFL based light source of equal wattage.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0417-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Retracted article: Using a Newton-type technique for smart meters
           estimation frequency of electric power system
    • Authors: Tanveer Ahmad; Qadeer Ui Hasan
      Pages: 489 - 489
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0395-9
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • POCl 3 diffusion for industrial Si solar cell emitter formation
    • Authors: Hongzhao Li; Kyung Kim; Brett Hallam; Bram Hoex; Stuart Wenham; Malcolm Abbott
      Abstract: Abstract POCl3 diffusion is currently the de facto standard method for industrial n-type emitter fabrication. In this study, we present the impact of the following processing parameters on emitter formation and electrical performance: deposition gas flow ratio, drive-in temperature and duration, drive-in O2 flow rate, and thermal oxidation temperature. By showing their influence on the emitter doping profile and recombination activity, we provide an overall strategy for improving industrial POCl3 tube diffused emitters.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0433-7
       
  • Influence of using amorphous silicon stack as front heterojunction
           structure on performance of interdigitated back contact-heterojunction
           solar cell (IBC-HJ)
    • Authors: Rui Jia; Ke Tao; Qiang Li; Xiaowan Dai; Hengchao Sun; Yun Sun; Zhi Jin; Xinyu Liu
      Abstract: Abstract Interdigitated back contact-heterojunction (IBC-HJ) solar cells can have a conversion efficiency of over 25%. However, the front surface passivation and structure have a great influence on the properties of the IBC-HJ solar cell. In this paper, detailed numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the potential of front surface field (FSF) offered by stack of n-type doped and intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers on the front surface of IBC-HJ solar cells. Simulations results clearly indicate that the electric field of FSF should be strong enough to repel minority carries and cumulate major carriers near the front surface. However, the overstrong electric field tends to drive electrons into a-Si layer, leading to severe recombination loss. The n-type doped amorphous silicon (n-a-Si) layer has been optimized in terms of doping level and thickness. The optimized intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-a-Si) layer should be as thin as possible with an energy band gap (E g) larger than 1.4 eV. In addition, the simulations concerning interface defects strongly suggest that FSF is essential when the front surface is not passivated perfectly. Without FSF, the IBC-HJ solar cells may become more sensitive to interface defect density.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0434-6
       
  • Special issue: Technologies for future high-efficiency industrial silicon
           wafer solar cells
    • Authors: Wenzhong Shen; Bram Hoex
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0436-4
       
  • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of excellent a-Si:H passivation
           layers for a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells at high pressure and
           high power
    • Authors: Lei Zhao; Wenbin Zhang; Jingwei Chen; Hongwei Diao; Qi Wang; Wenjing Wang
      Abstract: Abstract The intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layer inserted between the doped a-Si:H layer and the c-Si substrate is very crucial for improving the performance of the a-Si:H/c- Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell. The passivation performance of the a-Si:H layer is strongly dependent on its microstructure. Usually, the compact a-Si:H deposited near the transition from the amorphous phase to the nanocrystalline phase by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) can provide excellent passivation. However, at the low deposition pressure and low deposition power, such an a-Si:H layer can be only prepared in a narrow region. The deposition condition must be controlled very carefully. In this paper, intrinsic a- Si:H layers were prepared on n-type Cz c-Si substrates by 27.12 MHz PECVD at a high deposition pressure and high deposition power. The corresponding passivation performance on c-Si was investigated by minority carrier lifetime measurement. It was found that an excellent a-Si:H passivation layer could be obtained in a very wide deposition pressure and power region. Such wide process window would be very beneficial for improving the uniformity and the yield for the solar cell fabrication. The a-Si:H layer microstructure was further investigated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy characterization. The correlation between the microstructure and the passivation performance was revealed. According to the above findings, the a-Si:H passivation performance was optimized more elaborately. Finally, a large-area SHJ solar cell with an efficiency of 22.25% was fabricated on the commercial 156 mm pseudo-square n-type Cz c-Si substrate with the openc-ircuit voltage (V oc) of up to 0.732 V.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0437-3
       
  • High-quality industrial n-type silicon wafers with an efficiency of over
           23% for Si heterojunction solar cells
    • Authors: Fanying Meng; Jinning Liu; Leilei Shen; Jianhua Shi; Anjun Han; Liping Zhang; Yucheng Liu; Jian Yu; Junkai Zhang; Rui Zhou; Zhengxin Liu
      Abstract: Abstract n-type CZ-Si wafers featuring longer minority carrier lifetime and higher tolerance of certain metal contamination can offer one of the best Si-based solar cells. In this study, Si heterojuction (SHJ) solar cells which was fabricated with different wafers in the top, middle and tail positions of the ingot, exhibited a stable high efficiency of>22% in spite of the various profiles of the resistivity and lifetime, which demonstrated the high material utilization of n-type ingot. In addition, for effectively converting the sunlight into electrical power, the pyramid size, pyramid density and roughness of surface of the Cz-Si wafer were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Furthermore, the dependence of SHJ solar cell open-circuit voltage on the surface topography was discussed, which indicated that the uniformity of surface pyramid helps to improve the open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency. Moreover, the simulation revealed that the highest efficiency of the SHJ solar cell could be achieved by the wafer with a thickness of 100 μm. Fortunately, over 23% of the conversion efficiency of the SHJ solar cell with a wafer thickness of 100 μm was obtained based on the systematic optimization of cell fabrication process in the pilot production line. Evidently, the large availability of both n-type ingot and thinner wafer strongly supported the lower cost fabrication of high efficiency SHJ solar cell.
      PubDate: 2016-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0435-5
       
  • Analysis of the double-layer α-Si:H emitter with different doping
           concentrations for α-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells
    • Authors: Haibin Huang; Gangyu Tian; Tao Wang; Chao Gao; Jiren Yuan; Zhihao Yue; Lang Zhou
      Abstract: Abstract Double-layer emitters with different doping concentrations (DLE) have been designed and prepared for amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (α-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. Compared with the traditional single layer emitter, both the experiment and the simulation (AFORS-HET, http://www.paper.edu.cn/html/releasepaper/2014/04/282/) prove that the double-layer emitter increases the short circuit current of the cells significantly. Based on the quantum efficiency (QE) results and the current-voltage-temperature analysis, the mechanism for the experimental results above has been investigated. The possible reasons for the increased current include the enhancement of the QE in the short wavelength range, the increase of the tunneling probability of the current transport and the decrease of the activation energy of the emitter layers.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0432-8
       
  • Plated contacts for solar cells with superior adhesion strength to screen
           printed solar cells
    • Authors: R. Chen; S. Wang; A. Wenham; Z. Shi; T. Young; J. Ji; M. Edwards; A. Sugianto; L. Mai; S. Wenham; C. Chong
      Abstract: Abstract The improvement of adhesion strength and durability of plated contacts is required for cell manufacturers to gain confidence for large-scale manufacturing. To overcome weak adhesion at the metal/Si interface, new approaches were developed. These involve the formation of laser-ablated anchor points, or grooves in the extreme case of overlapping anchor points, in the heavily doped silicon surface. When plated, these features greatly strengthen the mechanical adhesion strength of the metal. A stylus-based adhesion tester was developed specifically for evaluating the effectiveness of plated contacts to smooth silicon surfaces. The use of such a tester was also extended in this work to textured and roughened surfaces to allow evaluation of different metal contacting approaches. The adhesion strengths for various metal contacting schemes were evaluated, including screenprinted silver contacts, nickel/copper (Ni/Cu) lightinduced plated (LIP) contacts for laser-doped selective emitter (LDSE) cells, buried-contact solar cells (BCSCs), and Ni/Cu LIP contacts formed with laser-ablated anchoring points in selective emitter (LAASE) cells. The latter has superior adhesion strength. The standard “peel test” of the industry was compared to the stylus-based adhesion testing, with the latter shown value for testing metal contacts on smooth surfaces but with caution needed for use with textured or roughened surfaces.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0428-4
       
  • SiO 2 passivation layer grown by liquid phase deposition for silicon solar
           cell application
    • Authors: Yanlin Chen; Sihua Zhong; Miao Tan; Wenzhong Shen
      Abstract: Abstract Surface passivation is one of the primary requirements for high efficient silicon solar cells. Though the current existed passivation techniques are effective, expensive equipments are required. In this paper, a comprehensive understanding of the SiO2 passivation layer grown by liquid phase deposition (LPD) was presented, which was cost-effective and very simple. It was found that the post-annealing process could significantly enhance the passivation effect of the LPD SiO2 film. Besides, it was revealed that both chemical passivation and field-effect passivation mechanisms played important roles in outstanding passivation effect of the LPD SiO2 film through analyzing the minority carrier lifetime and the surface recombination velocity of n-type and p-type silicon wafers. Although the deposition parameters had little influence on the passivation effect, they affected the deposition rate. Therefore, appropriate deposition parameters should be carefully chosen based on the compromise of the deposition rate and fabrication cost. By utilizing the LPD SiO2 film as surface passivation layer, a 19.5%-efficient silicon solar cell on a large-scale wafer (156 mm × 156 mm) was fabricated.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0429-3
       
  • An industrial solution to light-induced degradation of crystalline silicon
           solar cells
    • Authors: Meng Xie; Changrui Ren; Liming Fu; Xiaodong Qiu; Xuegong Yu; Deren Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Boron-oxygen defects can cause serious light-induced degradation (LID) of commercial solar cells based on the boron-doped crystalline silicon (c-Si), which are formed under the injection of excess carriers induced either by illumination or applying forward bias. In this contribution, we have demonstrated that the passivation process of boron-oxygen defects can be induced by applying forward bias for a large quantity of solar cells, which is much more economic than light illumination. We have used this strategy to trigger the passivation process of batches of aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) solar cells and passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) solar cells. Both kinds of the treated solar cells show high stability in efficiency and suffer from very little LID under further illumination at room temperature. This technology is of significance for the suppression of LID of c-Si solar cells for the industrial manufacture.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0430-x
       
  • A method to predict cooling load of large commercial buildings based on
           weather forecast and internal occupancy
    • Authors: Junbao Jia; Jincheng Xing; Jihong Ling; Ren Peng
      Abstract: Abstract Considering the fact that customers of large commercial buildings have the characteristics of the higher density and randomness, this paper presented an airconditioning cooling load prediction method based on weather forecast and internal occupancy density. The multiple linear feedback regression model was applied to predict, with precision, the air conditioning cooling load. Case analysis showed that the largest mean relative error of hourly and the daily predicting cooling load maximum were 18.1% and 5.14%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0424-8
       
  • Impact of thermal processes on multi-crystalline silicon
    • Authors: Moonyong Kim; Phillip Hamer; Hongzhao Li; David Payne; Stuart Wenham; Malcolm Abbott; Brett Hallam
      Abstract: Abstract Fabrication of modern multi-crystalline silicon solar cells involves multiple processes that are thermally intensive. These include emitter diffusion, thermal oxidation and firing of the metal contacts. This paper illustrates the variation and potential effects upon recombination in the wafers due to these thermal processes. The use of light emitter diffusions more compatible with selective emitter designs had a more detrimental effect on the bulk lifetime of the silicon than that of heavier diffusions compatible with a homogenous emitter design and screen-printed contacts. This was primarily due to a reduced effectiveness of gettering for the light emitter. This reduction in lifetime could be mitigated through the use of a dedicated gettering process applied before emitter diffusion. Thermal oxidations could greatly improve surface passivation in the intragrain regions, with the higher temperatures yielding the highest quality surface passivation. However, the higher temperatures also led to an increase in bulk recombination either due to a reduced effectiveness of gettering, or due to the presence of a thicker oxide layer, which may interrupt hydrogen passivation. The effects of fast firing were separated into thermal effects and hydrogenation effects. While hydrogen can passivate defects hence improving the performance, thermal effects during fast firing can dissolve precipitating impurities such as iron or de-getter impurities hence lower the performance, leading to a poisoning of the intra-grain regions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0427-5
       
  • Solar photovoltaic fed dual input LED lighting system with constant
           illumination control
    • Abstract: Abstract A dual input LED lighting scheme with constant illumination is proposed in this paper. The scheme employs a photovoltaic array as the first input and a battery as the second one. A microcontroller is programmed to operate a changeover switch as well as a DC-DC converter for uninterrupted and constant illumination in work place. The scheme is suitable for conference halls, laboratories, clean rooms, marriage halls, theaters, etc. The complete modeling, design and experimentation of the proposed scheme are explained and the economic viability of the scheme is justified.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0420-z
       
  • Reliability prediction and its validation for nuclear power units in
           service
    • Authors: Jinyuan Shi; Yong Wang
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper a novel method for reliability prediction and validation of nuclear power units in service is proposed. The equivalent availability factor is used to measure the reliability, and the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours and maintenance factor are used for the measurement of inherent reliability. By statistical analysis of historical reliability data, the statistical maintenance factor and the undetermined parameter in its numerical model can be determined. The numerical model based on the maintenance factor predicts the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours, and the planed outage factor can be obtained by using the planned maintenance days. Using these factors, the equivalent availability factor of nuclear power units in the following 3 years can be obtained. Besides, the equivalent availability factor can be predicted by using the historical statistics of planed outage factor and the predicted equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours. The accuracy of the reliability prediction can be evaluated according to the comparison between the predicted and statistical equivalent availability factors. Furthermore, the reliability prediction method is validated using the nuclear power units in North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and China. It is found that the relative errors of the predicted equivalent availability factors for nuclear power units of NERC and China are in the range of–2.16% to 5.23% and–2.15% to 3.71%, respectively. The method proposed can effectively predict the reliability index in the following 3 years, thus providing effective reliability management and maintenance optimization methods for nuclear power units.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0425-7
       
  • Flow, thermal, and vibration analysis using three dimensional finite
           element analysis for a flux reversal generator
    • Authors: B. Vidhya; K. N. Srinivas
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the simulation of major mechanical properties of a flux reversal generator (FRG) viz., computational fluid dynamic (CFD), thermal, and vibration. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) based CFD technique for finding the spread of pressure and air velocity in air regions of the FRG is described. The results of CFD are mainly obtained to fine tune the thermal analysis. Thus, in this focus, a flow analysis assisted thermal analysis is presented to predict the steady state temperature distribution inside FRG. The heat transfer coefficient of all the heat producing inner walls of the machine are evaluated from CFD analysis, which forms the main factor for the prediction of accurate heat distribution. The vibration analysis is illustrated. Major vibration sources such as mechanical, magnetic and applied loads are covered elaborately which consists of a 3D modal analysis to find the natural frequency of FRG, a 3D static stress analysis to predict the deformation of the stator, rotor and shaft for different speeds, and an unbalanced rotor harmonic analysis to find eccentricity of rotor to make sure that the vibration of the rotor is within the acceptable limits. Harmonic analysis such as sine sweep analysis to identify the range of speeds causing high vibrations and steady state vibration at a mode frequency of 1500 Hz is presented. The vibration analysis investigates the vibration of the FRG as a whole, which forms the contribution of this paper in the FRG literature.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0423-9
       
  • Distribution and temporal variability of the solar resource at a site in
           south-east Norway
    • Authors: Muyiwa S. Adaramola
      Abstract: Abstract Globally, solar energy is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies in the near future. However, the variability of this resource has been the main barrier for solar energy development in most locations around the world. This paper investigated the distribution and variability of solar radiation using the a 10-year (2006 to 2015) data collected at Sørås meteorological station located at latitude 59° 39′ N and longitude 10° 47′E, about 93.3 m above sea level (about 30 km from Oslo), in south-eastern part of Norway. It is found that on annual basis, the total number of days with a global solar radiation of less than 1 kWh/(m2∙d) is 120 days while the total number of days with an expected global solar radiation greater than 3 kWh/(m2∙d) is 156 days (42.74%) per year. The potential energy output from a horizontally placed solar collector in these 156 days is approximately 75% of the estimated annual energy output. In addition, it is found that the inter-annual coefficient of variation of the global solar radiation is 4.28%, while that of diffuse radiation is 4.96%.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0426-6
       
 
 
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