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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2246 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (188 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (178 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1191 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (386 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (61 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1191 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería e Investigación     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access  
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access  
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinary Fluid Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Flow Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 173)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Frontiers in Energy
  [SJR: 0.279]   [H-I: 9]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Heat prices for public buildings in Tianjin
    • Authors: Boyuan Hao; Zhe Tian; Yan Ding; Peng Peng
      Pages: 249 - 259
      Abstract: Abstract Energy-saving awareness of heat users and heating enterprises can be stimulated by implementing heat metering for public buildings and by establishing scientific and reasonable policies for heat prices in China. In this paper, a two-part heat price for public buildings in Tianjin is introduced, which divides the heat price into a basic part and a metering part. According to the statistical analysis of information collected from two pilot heating enterprises, the specific heat load for public buildings in Tianjin is calculated, and three candidate schemes of heat price are proposed. A simulation of heat cost is also conducted, and the benefits for both heat users and heating enterprises are balanced. Finally, the two-part heat price for public buildings in Tianjin is determined: the basic heat price is recommended to be 20 CNY/m2, and the metering heat price is recommended to be 76.10 CNY/GJ. Such a price could be implemented in the initial stage of heat metering for public buildings in Tianjin.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0412-z
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • A new method for estimating the longevity and degradation of photovoltaic
           systems considering weather states
    • Authors: Amir Ahadi; Hosein Hayati; Joydeep Mitra; Reza Abbasi-Asl; Kehinde Awodele
      Pages: 277 - 285
      Abstract: Abstract The power output of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems is affected by solar radiation and ambient temperature. The commonly used evaluation techniques usually overlook the four weather states which are clear, cloudy, foggy, and rainy. In this paper, an ovel analytical model of the four weather conditions based on the Markov chain is proposed. The Markov method is well suited to estimate the reliability and availability of systems based on a continuous stochastic process. The proposed method is generic enough to be applied to reliability evaluation of PV systems and even other applications. Further aspects investigated include the new degradation model for reliability predication of PV modules. The results indicate that the PV module degradation over years, failures, and solar radiation must be considered in choosing an efficient PV system with an optimal design to achieve the maximum benefit of the PV system. For each aspect, a method is proposed, and the complete focusing methodology is expounded and validated using simulated point targets. The results also demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for effective modeling of the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of solar cells as well as the optimal configuration and sizing of large PV plants in terms of cost and reliability.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0400-3
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • PV based water pumping system for agricultural irrigation
    • Authors: T. A. Binshad; K. Vijayakumar; M. Kaleeswari
      Pages: 319 - 328
      Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the operation and analysis of the photovoltaic water pumping system in detail. Power electronic controllers were designed and developed for the water pumping system using a boost converter along with an inverter followed by an induction motor pump set. The proposed system could be employed in agricultural irrigation under any operating condition of varying natures of solar irradiances and temperatures. The configuration and implementation of the system were described in detail. Further, the detailed method of analysis and simulation characteristics of such PV water pumping system was also presented.With the concern of shortage of fossil fuel, global warming and energy security, the proposed PV based water pumping system can meet the significant demand of electricity and serve for the agricultural sector.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0409-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Potential hybrid feedstock for biodiesel production in the tropics
    • Authors: Solomon Giwa; Oludaisi Adekomaya; Collins Nwaokocha
      Pages: 329 - 336
      Abstract: Abstract Recently, mixture of different oils at various proportions have been used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The primary aim is to improve fuel properties which are strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition of the individual oil that makes up the feedstock mix. The tropics are renowned for abundant oil-bearing crops of which palm kernel oil (PKO) from palm seed and groundnut oil (GNO) are prominent. This present paper investigated biodiesel production from hybrid oil (HO) of PKO (medium carbon chain and highly saturated oil) and GNO (long carbon chain and highly unsaturated oil) at 50/50 (v/v) blending. The principal fatty acids (FAs) in the HO are oleic (35.62%) and lauric acids (24.23%) with 47.80% of saturated FA and 52.26% of unsaturated FA contents. The chemical conversion of the oil to methyl ester (ME) gave 86.56% yield. Fuel properties of hybrid oil methyl ester (the HOME) were determined in accordance with standard test methods and were found to comply with both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The oxidative stability, cetane number and kinematic viscosity (KV) of HOME were observed to be improved when compared with those of GNO methyl ester from single parent oil, which could be accredited to the improved FA composition of the HO. The KV (3.69 mm2/s) of HOME obtained in this paper was remarkably low compared with those reported in literature for most biodiesels. This value suggests better flow, atomization, spray and combustion of this fuel. Conclusively, the binary blend of oils can be a viable option to improve the fuel properties of biodiesel feedstock coupled with reduced cost.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0408-8
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Control of peak pressures of an HCCI engine under varying swirl and
           operating parameters
    • Authors: T. Karthikeya Sharma; G. Amba Prasad Rao; K. Madhu Murthy
      Pages: 337 - 346
      Abstract: Abstract The major advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are high efficiency in combination with low NO x -emissions. However, one of the major challenges with HCCI is the control of higher peak pressures which may damage the engine, limiting the HCCI engine life period. In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze computationally the effect of induction swirl in controlling the peak pressures of an HCCI engine under various operating parameters. A single cylinder 1.6 L reentrant piston bowl diesel engine is chosen. For computational analysis, the ECFM-3Z model of STAR–CD is considered because it is suitable for analyzing the combustion processes in SI and CI engines. As an HCCI engine is a hybrid version of SI and CI engines, the ECFM- 3Z model with necessary modifications is used to analyze the peak pressures inside the combustion chamber. The ECFM-3Z model for HCCI mode of combustion is validated with the existing literature to make sure that the results obtained are accurate. Numerical experiments are performed to study the effect of varying properties like speed of the engine, piston bowl geometry, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and equivalence ratio under different swirl ratios in controlling the peak pressures inside the combustion chamber. The results show that the swirl ratio has a considerable impact on controlling the peak pressures of HCCI engine. A reduction in peak pressures are observed with a swirl ratio of 4 because of reduced in cylinder temperatures. The combined effect of four operating parameters, i.e., the speed of the engine, piston bowl geometry, EGR, and equivalence ratio with swirl ratios suggest that lower intake temperatures, reentrant piston bowl, higher engine speeds and higher swirl ratios are favorable in controlling the peak pressures.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0401-2
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • A state-of-the-art review of solar passive building system for heating or
           cooling purpose
    • Authors: Arun Kumar Nanda; C. K. Panigrahi
      Pages: 347 - 354
      Abstract: Abstract The major portion of energy in a building is consumed by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC). The traditional heating and cooling systems contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Four different ways, i.e., Trombe wall, solar chimney, unglazed transpired solar façade, and solar roof, are adopted for solar heating. Similarly, two major ways, i.e., evaporative cooling and building integrated evaporative cooling are adopted for cooling of the building. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this paper to compile the developments of solar heating and cooling technologies in a building.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0403-0
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • A review of cryogenic power generation cycles with liquefied natural gas
           cold energy utilization
    • Authors: Feier Xue; Yu Chen; Yonglin Ju
      Pages: 363 - 374
      Abstract: Abstract Liquefied natural gas (LNG), an increasingly widely applied clean fuel, releases a large number of cold energy in its regasification process. In the present paper, the existing power generation cycles utilizing LNG cold energy are introduced and summarized. The direction of cycle improvement can be divided into the key factors affecting basic power generation cycles and the structural enhancement of cycles utilizing LNG cold energy. The former includes the effects of LNG-side parameters, working fluids, and inlet and outlet thermodynamic parameters of equipment, while the latter is based on Rankine cycle, Brayton cycle, Kalina cycle and their compound cycles. In the present paper, the diversities of cryogenic power generation cycles utilizing LNG cold energy are discussed and analyzed. It is pointed out that further researches should focus on the selection and component matching of organic mixed working fluids and the combination of process simulation and experimental investigation, etc.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0397-7
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Impact of thermal processes on multi-crystalline silicon
    • Abstract: Abstract Fabrication of modern multi-crystalline silicon solar cells involves multiple processes that are thermally intensive. These include emitter diffusion, thermal oxidation and firing of the metal contacts. This paper illustrates the variation and potential effects upon recombination in the wafers due to these thermal processes. The use of light emitter diffusions more compatible with selective emitter designs had a more detrimental effect on the bulk lifetime of the silicon than that of heavier diffusions compatible with a homogenous emitter design and screen-printed contacts. This was primarily due to a reduced effectiveness of gettering for the light emitter. This reduction in lifetime could be mitigated through the use of a dedicated gettering process applied before emitter diffusion. Thermal oxidations could greatly improve surface passivation in the intragrain regions, with the higher temperatures yielding the highest quality surface passivation. However, the higher temperatures also led to an increase in bulk recombination either due to a reduced effectiveness of gettering, or due to the presence of a thicker oxide layer, which may interrupt hydrogen passivation. The effects of fast firing were separated into thermal effects and hydrogenation effects. While hydrogen can passivate defects hence improving the performance, thermal effects during fast firing can dissolve precipitating impurities such as iron or de-getter impurities hence lower the performance, leading to a poisoning of the intra-grain regions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20
       
  • Modeling, evaluation, and optimization of gas-power and energy supply
           scenarios
    • Abstract: Abstract Recently, renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) are receiving a wide acceptance because they are inexhaustible and nonpolluting. Renewable energy sources are intermittent ones because of climate changes in wind speed and solar irradiance. Due to the continuous demand growth and the necessity for efficient and reliable electricity supply, there is a real need to increase the penetration of gas technologies in power grids. The Canadian government and stakeholders are looking for ways to increase the reliability and sustainability of power grid, and gas-power technologies may provide a solution. This paper explores the integration of gas and renewable generation technologies to provide a qualified, reliable, and environmentally friendly power system while satisfying regional electricity demands and reducing generation cost. Scenarios are evaluated using four key performance indicators (KPIs), economic, power quality, reliability, and environmental friendliness. Various scenarios outcomes are compared based on the defined performance indices. The proposed scenario analysis tool has three components, the geographic information system (GIS) for recording transmission and distribution lines and generation sites, the energy semantic network (ESN) knowledgebase to store information, and an algorithm created in Matlab/Simulink for evaluating scenarios. To interact with the scenario analysis tool, a graphical user interface (GUI) is used where users can define the desired geographic area, desired generation percentage via gas technology, and system parameters. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the regional zone of the province of Ontario and Toronto are used as case studies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
       
  • Reliability prediction and its validation for nuclear power units in
           service
    • Authors: Jinyuan Shi; Yong Wang
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper a novel method for reliability prediction and validation of nuclear power units in service is proposed. The equivalent availability factor is used to measure the reliability, and the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours and maintenance factor are used for the measurement of inherent reliability. By statistical analysis of historical reliability data, the statistical maintenance factor and the undetermined parameter in its numerical model can be determined. The numerical model based on the maintenance factor predicts the equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours, and the planed outage factor can be obtained by using the planned maintenance days. Using these factors, the equivalent availability factor of nuclear power units in the following 3 years can be obtained. Besides, the equivalent availability factor can be predicted by using the historical statistics of planed outage factor and the predicted equivalent availability factor deducting planed outage hours from period hours. The accuracy of the reliability prediction can be evaluated according to the comparison between the predicted and statistical equivalent availability factors. Furthermore, the reliability prediction method is validated using the nuclear power units in North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and China. It is found that the relative errors of the predicted equivalent availability factors for nuclear power units of NERC and China are in the range of–2.16% to 5.23% and–2.15% to 3.71%, respectively. The method proposed can effectively predict the reliability index in the following 3 years, thus providing effective reliability management and maintenance optimization methods for nuclear power units.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0425-7
       
  • Flow, thermal, and vibration analysis using three dimensional finite
           element analysis for a flux reversal generator
    • Authors: B. Vidhya; K. N. Srinivas
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the simulation of major mechanical properties of a flux reversal generator (FRG) viz., computational fluid dynamic (CFD), thermal, and vibration. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) based CFD technique for finding the spread of pressure and air velocity in air regions of the FRG is described. The results of CFD are mainly obtained to fine tune the thermal analysis. Thus, in this focus, a flow analysis assisted thermal analysis is presented to predict the steady state temperature distribution inside FRG. The heat transfer coefficient of all the heat producing inner walls of the machine are evaluated from CFD analysis, which forms the main factor for the prediction of accurate heat distribution. The vibration analysis is illustrated. Major vibration sources such as mechanical, magnetic and applied loads are covered elaborately which consists of a 3D modal analysis to find the natural frequency of FRG, a 3D static stress analysis to predict the deformation of the stator, rotor and shaft for different speeds, and an unbalanced rotor harmonic analysis to find eccentricity of rotor to make sure that the vibration of the rotor is within the acceptable limits. Harmonic analysis such as sine sweep analysis to identify the range of speeds causing high vibrations and steady state vibration at a mode frequency of 1500 Hz is presented. The vibration analysis investigates the vibration of the FRG as a whole, which forms the contribution of this paper in the FRG literature.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0423-9
       
  • Distribution and temporal variability of the solar resource at a site in
           south-east Norway
    • Authors: Muyiwa S. Adaramola
      Abstract: Abstract Globally, solar energy is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies in the near future. However, the variability of this resource has been the main barrier for solar energy development in most locations around the world. This paper investigated the distribution and variability of solar radiation using the a 10-year (2006 to 2015) data collected at Sørås meteorological station located at latitude 59° 39′ N and longitude 10° 47′E, about 93.3 m above sea level (about 30 km from Oslo), in south-eastern part of Norway. It is found that on annual basis, the total number of days with a global solar radiation of less than 1 kWh/(m2∙d) is 120 days while the total number of days with an expected global solar radiation greater than 3 kWh/(m2∙d) is 156 days (42.74%) per year. The potential energy output from a horizontally placed solar collector in these 156 days is approximately 75% of the estimated annual energy output. In addition, it is found that the inter-annual coefficient of variation of the global solar radiation is 4.28%, while that of diffuse radiation is 4.96%.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0426-6
       
  • Comparison of different energy saving lights using solar panel
    • Authors: Huzaifa Mubarak; Saad Bin Abul Kashem
      Abstract: Abstract The recent trend in light emitting diode or LED lighting applications and their claimed energy saving capabilities together with their overall attractiveness has us all convinced that they really are a greener alternative to the compact fluorescent lights or CFL. As convincing as it seems, the actual energy saving capabilities of LEDs are yet to be proven scientifically or at the least, on an empirical level when compared to CFLs. This paper tackles the issue with the use of a solar cell by evaluating the photovoltaic current and voltage generated by the solar cell subjected to each lighting system. Graphical representations are drawn and a conclusion is then reached based on the amount of power generation in the solar cells in order to determine the energy saving capabilities of each lighting system and its efficiency. From the result, it has been found that an LED is 3.7 times more power efficient than a CFL based light source of equal wattage.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0417-7
       
  • A novel NN based rotor flux MRAS to overcome low speed problems for rotor
           resistance estimation in vector controlled IM drives
    • Authors: Venkadesan Arunachalam; Himavathi Srinivasan; A. Muthuramalingam
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a new neural network based model reference adaptive system (MRAS) to solve low speed problems for estimating rotor resistance in vector control of induction motor (IM). The MRAS using rotor flux as the state variable with a two layer online trained neural network rotor flux estimator as the adaptive model (FLUX-MRAS) for rotor resistance estimation is popularly used in vector control. In this scheme, the reference model used is the flux estimator using voltage model equations. The voltage model encounters major drawbacks at low speeds, namely, integrator drift and stator resistance variation problems. These lead to a significant error in the estimation of rotor resistance at low speed. To address these problems, an offline trained NN with data incorporating stator resistance variation is proposed to estimate flux, and used instead of the voltage model. The offline trained NN, modeled using the cascade neural network, is used as a reference model instead of the voltage model to form a new scheme named as “NN-FLUXMRAS.” The NN-FLUX-MRAS uses two neural networks, namely, offline trained NN as the reference model and online trained NN as the adaptive model. The performance of the novel NN-FLUX-MRAS is compared with the FLUX-MRAS for low speed problems in terms of integral square error (ISE), integral time square error (ITSE), integral absolute error (IAE) and integral time absolute error (ITAE). The proposed NN-FLUX-MRAS is shown to overcome the low speed problems in Matlab simulation.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0421-y
       
  • Energy shift: decline of easy oil and restructuring of geo-politics
    • Authors: Oliver R. Inderwildi; David A. King
      Abstract: Abstract This paper critically assesses the geopolitical and geo-economic impact of novel fuel resources on both resource exporters and importers. Presently, very strong political and economic forces drive the utilisation of domestic, unconventional oil and gas recovery in the West as these enhance energy security and ease balance of payment issues. The additional capacity generated by this trend has, supported by other effects such as Saudi Arabia’s decision to maintain current production, triggered a significant reduction of oil prices. Consequently, it is now oil exporters that struggle with the balance of payment issues and often these countries base their fiscal budget completely on fossil fuel revenues. In fact, these unconventional resources help turn the tide while oil exporters are now politically significantly weakened due to the increased energy sufficiency of the West. The catch is that the extraction of unconventional types of oil has many environmental implications. So, internalising the environmental externalities have to be considered. This paper, therefore, assesses, next to geopolitics and geo-economics, the environmental implications of this trend.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0416-8
       
  • Condition monitoring of a wind turbine generator using a standalone wind
           turbine emulator
    • Authors: Himani; Ratna Dahiya
      Abstract: Abstract The intend of this paper is to give a description of the realization of a low-cost wind turbine emulator (WTE) with open source technology from graze required for the condition monitoring to diagnose rotor and stator faults in a wind turbine generator (WTG). The WTE comprises of a 2.5 kW DC motor coupled with a 1 kW squirrel-cage induction machine. This paper provides a detailed overview of the hardware and software used along with the WTE control strategies such as MPPT and pitch control. The emulator reproduces dynamic characteristics both under step variations and arbitrary variation in the wind speed of a typical wind turbine (WT) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The usefulness of the setup has been benchmarked with previously verified WT test rigs made at the University of Manchester and Durham University in UK. Considering the fact that the rotor blades and electric subassemblies direct drive WTs are most susceptible to damage in practice, generator winding faults and rotor unbalance have been introduced and investigated using the terminal voltage and generated current. This wind turbine emulator (WTE) can be reconfigured or analyzed for condition monitoring without the need for real WTs.
      PubDate: 2016-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0419-5
       
  • Generating capacity adequacy evaluation of large-scale, grid-connected
           photovoltaic systems
    • Authors: Amir Ahadi; Seyed Mohsen Miryousefi Aval; Hosein Hayati
      Abstract: Abstract Large-scale, grid-connected photovoltaic systems have become an essential part of modern electric power distribution systems. In this paper, a novel approach based on the Markov method has been proposed to investigate the effects of large-scale, grid-connected photovoltaic systems on the reliability of bulk power systems. The proposed method serves as an applicable tool to estimate performance (e.g., energy yield and capacity) as well as reliability indices. The Markov method framework has been incorporated with the multi-state models to develop energy states of the photovoltaic systems in order to quantify the effects of the photovoltaic systems on the power system adequacy. Such analysis assists planners to make adequate decisions based on the economical expectations as well as to ensure the recovery of the investment costs over time. The failure states of the components of photovoltaic systems have been considered to evaluate the sensitivity analysis and the adequacy indices including loss of load expectation, and expected energy not supplied. Moreover, the impacts of transitions between failures on the reliability calculations as well as on the long- term operation of the photovoltaic systems have been illustrated. Simulation results on the Roy Billinton test system has been shown to illustrate the procedure of the proposed frame work and evaluate the reliability benefits of using large-scale, grid-connected photovoltaic system on the bulk electric power systems. The proposed method can be easily extended to estimate the operating and maintenance costs for the financial planning of the photovoltaic system projects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0415-9
       
  • Prediction of the theoretical and semi-empirical model of ambient
           temperature
    • Authors: Foued Chabane; Noureddine Moummi; Abdelhafid Brima; Abdelhafid Moummi
      Abstract: Abstract It is well known that the ambient temperature is a sensitive parameter which has a great effect on biology, technology, geology and even on human behavior. A prediction is a statement about an uncertain event. It is often, but not always, based upon experience or knowledge. Although guaranteed accurate information about the future is in many cases impossible, prediction can be useful to assist in making plans about possible developments. As a result, temperature profiles can be developed which accurately represent the expected ambient temperature exposure that this environment experiences during measurement. The ambient temperature over time is modeled based on the previous T min and T max data and using a Lagrange interpolation. To observe the comprehensive variation of ambient temperature the profile must be determined numerically. The model proposed in this paper can provide an acceptable way to measure the change in ambient temperature.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0413-y
       
  • Optimal operation of microgrid using hybrid differential evolution and
           harmony search algorithm
    • Authors: S. Surender Reddy; Jae Young Park; Chan Mook Jung
      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes the generation scheduling approach for a microgrid comprised of conventional generators, wind energy generators, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, battery storage, and electric vehicles. The electrical vehicles (EVs) play two different roles: as load demands during charging, and as storage units to supply energy to remaining load demands in the MG when they are plugged into the microgrid (MG). Wind and solar PV powers are intermittent in nature; hence by including the battery storage and EVs, the MG becomes more stable. Here, the total cost objective is minimized considering the cost of conventional generators, wind generators, solar PV systems and EVs. The proposed optimal scheduling problem is solved using the hybrid differential evolution and harmony search (hybrid DE-HS) algorithm including the wind energy generators and solar PV system along with the battery storage and EVs. Moreover, it requires the least investment.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0414-x
       
  • Robust direct power control based on the Lyapunov theory of a
           grid-connected brushless doubly fed induction generator
    • Authors: M. Abdelbasset Mahboub; Said Drid; M. A. Sid; Ridha Cheikh
      Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with robust direct power control of a grid-connected brushless doubly-fed induction generator(BDFIG). Using a nonlinear feedback linearization strategy, an attempt is made to improve the desired performances by controlling the generated stator active and reactive power in a linear and decoupled manner. Therefore, to achieve this objective, the Lyapunov approach is used associated with a sliding mode control to guarantee the global asymptotical stability. Thus, an optimal operation of the BDFIG in sub-synchronous operation is obtained as well as the stator power flows with the possibility of keeping stator power factor at a unity. The proposed method is tested with the Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results illustrate the performances and the feasibility of the designed control.
      PubDate: 2016-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-016-0411-0
       
 
 
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