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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2277 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (66 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1204 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Future Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Marine Engineering Innovation and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Frontiers in Energy
  [SJR: 0.279]   [H-I: 9]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Failure mode investigation of fuel cell for vehicle application
    • Authors: Zhongjun Hou; Renfang Wang; Keyong Wang; Weiyu Shi; Danming Xing; Hongchun Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract The durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been posing a key technical challenge to commercial spread of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). To improve the durability, it is necessary to optimize the fuel cell system (FCS) design against failure modes. The fuel cell durability research method at FCS scale was exhibited, and the failure modes of fuel cell were experimentally investigated in this paper. It is found that the fuel cell dry operation, start/stop cycle and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding are typical failure modes of fuel cells. After the modifications against the failure modes, the durability of FCSs is improved to over 3000 h step by step.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0488-0
       
  • Experimental study on combined buoyant-thermocapillary flow along with
           rising liquid film on the surface of a horizontal metallic mesh tube
    • Authors: Manuel J. Gomes; Ning Mei
      Abstract: Abstract Temperature distribution and variation with time has been considered in the analysis of the influences of the initial level of immersion of a horizontal metallic mesh tube in the liquid on combined buoyant and thermocapillary flow. The combined flow occurs along with the rising liquid film flow on the surface of a horizontal metallic mesh tube. Three different levels of immersion of the metallic mesh tube in the liquid have been tested. Experiments of 60 min in duration have been performed using a heating metallic tube with a diameter of 25 mm and a length of 110 mm, sealed outside with a metallic mesh of 178 mm by 178 mm, and distilled water. These reveal two distinct flow patterns. Thermocouples and infrared thermal imager are utilized to measure the temperature. The level of the liquid free surface relative to the lower edge of the tube is measured as angle θ. The results show that for a smaller θ angle, or a low level of immersion, with a relatively low heating power, it is possible to near fully combine the upwards buoyant flow with the rising liquid film flow. In this case, the liquid is heated only in the vicinity of the tube, while the liquid away from the flow region experiences small changes in temperature and the system approaches steady conditions. For larger θ angles, or higher levels of immersion, a different flow pattern is noticed on the liquid free surface and identified as the thermo-capillary (Marangoni) flow. The rising liquid film is also present. The higher levels of immersion cause a high temperature gradient in the liquid free surface region and promote thermal stratification; therefore the system could not approach steady conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0483-5
       
  • A genetic algorithm based improved optimal sizing strategy for
           solar-wind-battery hybrid system using energy filter algorithm
    • Authors: Aeidapu Mahesh; Kanwarjit Singh Sandhu
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize a grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-wind-battery hybrid system using a novel energy filter algorithm. The main objective of this paper is to minimize the total cost of the hybrid system, while maintaining its reliability. Along with the reliability constraint, some of the important parameters, such as full utilization of complementary nature of PV and wind systems, fluctuations of power injected into the grid and the battery’s state of charge (SOC), have also been considered for the effective sizing of the hybrid system. A novel energy filter algorithm for smoothing the power injected into the grid has been proposed. To validate the proposed method, a detailed case study has been conducted. The results of the case study for different cases, with and without employing the energy filter algorithm, have been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sizing strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0484-4
       
  • Simulation analysis of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification
           based on Aspen plus
    • Authors: Na Deng; Dongyan Li; Qiang Zhang; Awen Zhang; Rongchang Cai; Biting Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract To predict and analyze the municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis and gasification process in an updraft fixed bed more veritably and appropriately, numerical modeling based on Gibbs energy minimization was executed using the Aspen plus software. The RYield module was combined with the RGibbs module to describe the pyrolysis section, while the RGibbs module was used for the gasification section individually. The proposed model was used to forecast and analyze the target performance parameters including syngas composition, lower heating value (LHV) and carbon conversion rate under different conditions of the gasification temperatures, and ratios and types of gasifying agents. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between the experimental data and the simulated data obtained using this model. The predicted optimum gasification temperature is approximately 750°C, and the best ratio of water vapor as gasifying agent is around 0.4. The mixture of flue gas and water vapor has an economical and recycled prospect among four commonly used gasifying agents.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0481-7
       
  • Prediction of cost and emission from Indian coal-fired power plants with
           CO 2 capture and storage using artificial intelligence techniques
    • Authors: Naushita Sharma; Udayan Singh; Siba Sankar Mahapatra
      Abstract: Abstract Coal-fired power plants are one of the most important targets with respect to reduction of CO2 emissions. The reasons for this are that coal-fired power plants offer localized large point sources (LPS) of CO2 and that the Indian power sector contributes to roughly half of all-India CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and storage (CCS) can be implemented in these power plants for long-term decarbonisation of the Indian economy. In this paper, two artificial intelligence (AI) techniques—adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi gene genetic programming (MGGP) are used to model Indian coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture. The data set of 75 power plants take the plant size, the capture type, the load and the CO2 emission as the input and the COE and annual CO2 emissions as the output. It is found that MGGP is more suited to these applications with an R2 value of more than 99% between the predicted and actual values, as against the ~96% correlation for the ANFIS approach. MGGP also gives the traditionally expected results in sensitivity analysis, which ANFIS fails to give. Several other parameters in the base plant and CO2 capture unit may be included in similar studies to give a more accurate result. This is because MGGP gives a better perspective toward qualitative data, such as capture type, as compared to ANFIS.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0482-6
       
  • High purity Mn 5 O 8 nanoparticles with a high overpotential to gas
           evolution reactions for high voltage aqueous sodium-ion electrochemical
           storage
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Shan; Fenghua Guo; Wenqian Xu; Xiaowei Teng
      Abstract: Abstract Developing electrodes with high specific energy by using inexpensive manganese oxides is of great importance for aqueous electrochemical energy storage (EES) using non-Li charge carriers such as Na-or K-ions. However, the energy density of aqueous EES devices is generally limited by their narrow thermodynamic potential window (~1.23 V). In this paper, the synthesis of high purity layered Mn5O8 nanoparticles through solid state thermal treatment of Mn3O4 spinel nanoparticles, resulting in a chemical formula of [Mn2+ 2 ] [Mn4+ 3 O8 2–], evidenced by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron- based X-ray diffraction, has been reported. The electro-kinetic analyses obtained from cyclic voltammetry measurements in half-cells have demonstrated that Mn5O8 electrode has a large overpotential (~ 0.6 V) towards gas evolution reactions, resulting in a stable potential window of 2.5 V in an aqueous electrolyte in half-cell measurements. Symmetric full-cells fabricated using Mn5O8 electrodes can be operated within a stable 3.0 V potential window for 5000 galvanostatic cycles, exhibiting a stable electrode capacity of about 103 mAh/g at a C-rate of 95 with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency and 96% energy efficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0485-3
       
  • Numerical study of thermal characteristics of double skin facade system
           with middle shade
    • Authors: Shaoning Liu; Xiangfei Kong; Hua Yang; Minchao Fan; Xin Zhan
      Abstract: Abstract Architectural shade is an effective method for improving building energy efficiency. A new shade combined with the double skin façade (DSF) system, called middle shade (MS), was introduced and developed for buildings. In this paper, a 3D dynamic simulation was conducted to analyze the influence of MS combined with DSF on the indoor thermal characteristics. The research on MS for DSF involves the temperature, the ventilation rate, the velocity distribution of the air flow duct, and the indoor temperature. The results show that the angle and position of the shade in the three seasons are different, and different conditions effectively enhance the indoor thermal characteristics. In summer, the appearance of MS in DSF makes the indoor temperature significantly lower. The indoor temperature is obviously lower than that of the air flow duct, and the temperature of the air flow duct is less affected by MS. The influence of the position of blinds on indoor temperature and ventilation rate is greater than the influence of the angle of blinds. According to the climate characteristics of winter and transition season, in winter, early spring, and late autumn, the indoor temperature decreases with the increase of the position of blinds at daytime, but the opposite is true at night. The results found in this paper can provide reference for the design and use of MS combined with DSF in hot summer and cold winter zone.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0480-8
       
  • Economic evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination system coupled with
           tidal energy
    • Authors: Changming Ling; Yifei Wang; Chunhua Min; Yuwen Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract A reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system coupled with tidal energy is proposed. The mechanical energy produced by the tidal energy through hydraulic turbine is directly used to drive the RO unit. The system performances and the water cost of the conventional and tidal energy RO systems are compared. It is found that the proposed tidal energy RO system can save water cost in the range of 31.0%-41.7% in comparison with the conventional RO system. There is an optimum feed pressure that leads to the lowest water cost. The tidal RO system can save more costs at a high feed pressure or a high water recovery rate. The optimum feed pressure of the tidal energy RO system is higher than that of the conventional RO system. The longer lifetime of the tidal energy RO system can save even more water cost. When the site development cost rate is lower than 40%, the water cost of the tidal energy RO system will be lower than that of the conventional RO system. The proposed technology will be an effective alternative desalination method in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-06-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0478-2
       
  • Current challenge and perspective of PGM-free cathode catalysts for PEM
           fuel cells
    • Authors: Gang Wu
      Abstract: Abstract To significantly reduce the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, platinum-group metal (PGM)-free cathode catalysts are highly desirable. Current M-N-C (M: Fe, Co or Mn) catalysts are considered the most promising due to their encouraging performance. The challenge thus has been their stability under acidic conditions, which has hindered their use for any practical applications. In this review, based on the author’s research experience in the field for more than 10 years, current challenges and possible solutions to overcome these problems were discussed. The current Edisonian approach (i.e., trial and error) to developing PGM-free catalysts has been ineffective in achieving revolutionary breakthroughs. Novel synthesis techniques based on a more methodological approach will enable atomic control and allow us to achieve optimal electronic and geometric structures for active sites uniformly dispersed within the 3D architectures. Structural and chemical controlled precursors such as metal-organic frameworks are highly desirable for making catalysts with an increased density of active sites and strengthening local bonding structures among N, C and metals. Advanced electrochemical and physical characterization, such as electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy should be combined with first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations to fully elucidate the active site structures.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0477-3
       
  • Special issue: Development of renewable energy and smart grid
    • Authors: Harald Schwarz; Xiaoshu Cai
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0476-4
       
  • Real prospects for the development of power technologies based on
           renewable energy sources in Poland
    • Authors: Sławomir Dykas; Artur Szymański; Xiaoshu Cai
      Abstract: Abstract In Poland more than 40% of the power units have been operating for over 40 years now and more than 10%are over 50 years old, which indicates a high degree of decrease in the value of the energy sector. An analysis of the energy market shows that every year a new power plant should be built with a capacity of 1000 MW to ensure the national energy security. An energy market research indicates that in Poland the structure of energy production is changing in recent years—the share of fossil (solid) fuels in electricity and heat production was approximately 88% in 2009, while in 2004 it reached 93%. According to the analysis of the market, it can be seen that conventional energy, mainly based on coal and lignite, has been the most important segment of the sector for a long time. In this paper the prospects for the development of power technologies based on renewable energy sources (RES) in Poland are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0474-6
       
  • Possible role of power-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid as storages and
           flexible loads in the German 110 kV distribution grid
    • Authors: Erik Blasius
      Abstract: Abstract The sectoral coupling of road traffic (in form of E-Mobility) and electrical energy supply (known as power-to-vehicle (P2V), vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is discussed as one of the possible development concepts for the flexible system integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and the support of the objectives of the German energy transition (aka. Energiewende). It is obvious that E-mobility, which shall produce as few emissions as possible, should be based on the exclusive use of renewable energies. At the same time, the E-mobility can help to reduce the negative effects of the grid integration of RES to the distribution grids. However, this assumes that the electric vehicles are smart integrated to the grids where they charge, meaning that they must be able to communicate and be controllable. Because per se unplanned and uncontrollable charging processes are harmful for the grid operation, especially if they occur frequently and unexpected in similar time periods, the effects can hardly be controlled and can lead to serious technical problems in practical grid operation. This paper provides an insight into the current development of E-mobility in Germany. The insight will be matched with the German development of the RES. By the combination of both sectors, the possible role of the E-mobility for the distribution grid will be depicted, which can have positive and negative aspects.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0475-5
       
  • Integration of renewable energies, flexible loads and storages into the
           German power grid: Actual situation in German change of power system
    • Authors: Harald Schwarz; Xiaoshu Cai
      Abstract: Abstract Starting from the late 1990’s, the German government decided to change the national electric power supply system dramatically. The main stimulating instrument was the German Law on Renewable Energies (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz (EEG)), which guaranteed a fixed feed-in tariff to everyone who was willing to invest into renewable generation. Based on the year of commissioning, defined revenues per kWh were fixed for the next 20 years. Due to a very attractive over-funding, more than 1.5 million renewable generation units were connected to the German grid up to the end of 2015. According to the EEG, renewable generation units can feed to the grid wherever they are located and whenever they are able to produce. The old physical principle was and is still neglected, which clearly stated that generation always has to follow the demand—simply due to the limited availability of storages in the power system. Only in cases, when temporarily renewable overproduction exceeds the tolerable loading of lines or transformers respectively endangers the system stability in total, are German grid operators allowed to announce curtailments by emergency measures. Even in such cases, the “not produced energy” from renewable sources has to be funded. Although the installed capacity from renewables is much higher than the peak load in Germany, it contributes only about 32% to German average annual energy. Unfortunately, the regional distribution of renewable generation and load is very different, e.g. in the northeast of Germany, this Renewable Energy (RE)-ratio meanwhile exceeds 100% due to the high RE-penetration and low load. High transits of renewable overproduction from the north to the south will be necessary at nearly every day per year. Therefore, a tremendous change is needed within the German power grid. This paper will give a first overview followed by several others, describing possible solutions on how to overcome this critical situation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0470-x
       
  • Possible role of power-to-heat and power-to-gas as flexible loads in
           German medium voltage networks
    • Authors: Mark Kuprat; Martin Bendig; Klaus Pfeiffer
      Abstract: Abstract Germany’s energy transition triggered a rapid and unilateral growth of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity sector. With increasing shares of intermittent RES, overcapacities during periods of strong wind and photovoltaic electricity generation occur. In the face of insufficient transmission capacities, due to an inhibited network extension, the electricity generation has to be curtailed. This curtailment of RES leads to economic losses and could be avoided through flexible loads. As an option to cope with those problems, the technologies of power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-heat (PtH) are presented in this paper. First, the alkaline electrolyzer (AEL), polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL), and solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) are investigated regarding their operational parameters. Second, the electric boiler, electrode heating boiler, and heat pumps are considered. Ultimately, the network-supporting abilities and the potential to provide ancillary services, such as control power, load sequence operation, cold start and part load capability, are compared among one another.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0472-8
       
  • Impact of renewable energies on the operation and economic situation of
           coal fired power stations: Actual situation of coal fired power stations
           in Germany
    • Authors: Hans-Joachim Krautz; Alexander Lisk; Joachim Posselt; Christian Katzer
      Abstract: Abstract Due to the fluctuating character of the renewable energy sources the demand of conventional power plants for flexibility is increasing. In the recent years, in Germany there has been a fast rise of production capacity of renewable energies, especially from wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, and biomass plants. The installed nominal power of wind turbines is actually (December 2016) 42 GWand of photovoltaic installations 40 GW. The renewable electric energy production in Germany is about 190 TWh/a, which represents a share of 33% of the yearly demand. The increased need for flexibility affects both the power gradients as well as the minimum load of conventional power plants. Due to this flexibility behaviour, conventional power plants are faced with problems concerning the durability of power plant components, corrosion, more maintenance effort and consequently the overall life expectancy. Another consequence of the increasing share of renewable energies is the decreasing full load operating hours, especially of coal fired and gas power plants. Along with decreasing revenues from the energy exchange market, coal fired power plants are faced with new economically challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0468-4
       
  • Regional wind power forecasting model with NWP grid data optimized
    • Authors: Zhao Wang; Weisheng Wang; Bo Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Unlike the traditional fossil energy, wind, as the clean renewable energy, can reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas. To take full advantage of the environmental benefits of wind energy, wind power forecasting has to be studied to overcome the troubles brought by the variable nature of wind. Power forecasting for regional wind farm groups is the problem that many power system operators care about. The high-dimensional feature sets with redundant information are frequently encountered when dealing with this problem. In this paper, two kinds of feature set construction methods are proposed which can achieve the proper feature set either by selecting the subsets or by transforming the original variables with specific combinations. The former method selects the subset according to the criterion of minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance (mRMR), while the latter does so based on the method of principal component analysis (PCA). A locally weighted learning method is also proposed to utilize the processed feature set to produce the power forecast results. The proposed model is simple and easy to use with parameters optimized automatically. Finally, a case study of 28 wind farms in East China is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0471-9
       
  • The German Energiewende and its roll-out of renewable energies: An
           economic perspective
    • Authors: Sebastian Kreuz; Felix Müsgens
      Abstract: Abstract This paper gives a short overview of the German Energiewende, i.e. the transition of a large and mostly thermal electricity system towards electricity generation from renewable energy source. It discusses both, the motivation of the transitions as future goals and current status. Furthermore, it gives an in-depth view into the changes in economic costs for society as well as electricity price effects, especially for average private households and industrial consumers. It also discusses the benefits of the promotion of renewable energies in Germany.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0467-5
       
  • Influence of increasing numbers of RE-inverters on the power quality in
           the distribution grids: A PQ case study of a representative wind turbine
           and photovoltaic system
    • Authors: Przemyslaw Janik; Grzegorz Kosobudzki; Harald Schwarz
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the selected power quality (PQ) indicia of a wind generator and a photovoltaic installation considered to be the representative of medium voltage and low voltage distribution grids. The analysis of measured values suggests that the decrease in PQ is a case of specific combination of distributed generation, grid parameters and load behaviour. Modern generators have a limited impact on PQ. On the other hand, fluctuations in power generation are regarded as an emerging PQ indicator. The growing number of distributed renewable installations causes stochastic, variable, and hardly predictable power flows in the distribution grid. The nature of fluctuations in wind and solar generation is different. In both cases, new indexes for the quantification of fluctuations are needed and are yet not standardised. Proper assessment of these fluctuations enables definition of useful fluctuation limits and rules for optimal storage system integration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0469-3
       
  • Cumulant-based correlated probabilistic load flow considering photovoltaic
           generation and electric vehicle charging demand
    • Authors: Nitesh Ganesh Bhat; B. Rajanarayan Prusty; Debashisha Jena
      Abstract: Abstract This paper applies a cumulant-based analytical method for probabilistic load flow (PLF) assessment in transmission and distribution systems. The uncertainties pertaining to photovoltaic generations and aggregate bus load powers are probabilistically modeled in the case of transmission systems. In the case of distribution systems, the uncertainties pertaining to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and battery electric vehicle charging demands in residential community as well as charging stations are probabilistically modeled. The probability distributions of the result variables (bus voltages and branch power flows) pertaining to these inputs are accurately established. The multiple input correlation cases are incorporated. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified Ward-Hale 6-bus system and an IEEE 14-bus transmission system as well as on a modified IEEE 69-bus radial and an IEEE 33-bus mesh distribution system. The results of the proposed method are compared with that of Monte-Carlo simulation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0465-7
       
  • Nodal, zonal, or uniform electricity pricing: how to deal with network
           congestion
    • Authors: Martin Weibelzahl
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the main contributions to congestion management and electricity pricing, i.e., nodal, zonal, and uniform electricity pricing, are surveyed. The key electricity market concepts are structured and a formal model framework is proposed for electricity transportation, production, and consumption in the context of limited transmission networks and competitive, welfare maximizing electricity markets. In addition, the main results of existing short-run and long-run congestion management studies are explicitly summarized. In particular, the important interconnection between short-run network management approaches and optimal long-run investments in both generation facilities and network lines are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0460-z
       
 
 
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