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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (187 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1209 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Future Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Marine Engineering Innovation and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Frontiers in Energy
  [SJR: 0.279]   [H-I: 9]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Experiment study of a quartz tube falling particle receiver
    • Authors: Tianjian Wang; Fengwu Bai; Shunzhou Chu; Xiliang Zhang; Zhifeng Wang
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experimental evaluation of a specially designed falling particle receiver. A quartz tube was used in the design, with which the particles would not be blown away by wind. Concentrated solar radiation was absorbed and converted into thermal energy by the solid particles flowed inside the quartz tube. Several experiments were conducted to test the dynamic thermal performance of the receiver on solar furnace system. During the experiments, the maximum particle temperature rise is 212°C, with an efficiency of 61.2%, which shows a good thermal performance with a falling distance of 0.2 m in a small scale particle receiver. The average outlet particle temperature is affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI) and other factors such as wind speed. The solid particles obtain a larger viscosity with a higher temperature while smaller solid particles are easier to get stuck in the helix quartz tube. The heat capacity of the silicon carbide gets larger with the rise of particle temperature, because as the temperature of solid particles increases, the temperature rise of the silicon carbide decreases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0502-6
       
  • How diplomacy saved the COP21 Paris Climate Conference, but now, can we
           save ourselves'
    • Authors: D. Nathaniel Mulcahy; David L. Mulcahy
      Abstract: Abstract To solve a problem, three things are necessary: awareness, means, and will. The 2015 COP21 Paris accord was a masterful, perhaps even world-saving, diplomatic advance toward making the world aware of climate change. Some of that success may have been because publications from the IPCC and the National Academy of Science were made available, on line, as prepublication offerings, in order to be widely viewed before the Paris Climate Conference. This provided diplomats and negotiators with the latest information about climate change, its nearness in time, its consequences, and how well current mitigation technologies can succeed. Whatever the reasons, the Paris Climate Conference, was a success. Leaders of 195 nations agreed that climate change is a real and present danger to life as is known to all. This important understanding was accomplished despite the presentation of well established scientific facts which, without very diplomatic handling, could easily have evoked overwhelming political opposition to an agreement and thus another COP failure. In this paper, the fact that how some scientific truths, written specifically to be overlooked, were presented in order to prepare COP21 participants for the conference is explained. Besides, the effectiveness and efficiency of currently favored mitigation policies, the extent of ongoing progress to better ones, and finally, how a new appreciation of climate change consequences can strengthen the will of nation states and industries to work toward solutions are evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0498-y
       
  • A systematic approach in load disaggregation utilizing a multi-stage
           classification algorithm for consumer electrical appliances classification
           
    • Authors: Chuan Choong Yang; Chit Siang Soh; Vooi Voon Yap
      Abstract: Abstract The potential to save energy in existing consumer electrical appliances is very high. One of the ways to achieve energy saving and improve energy use awareness is to recognize the energy consumption of individual electrical appliances. To recognize the energy consumption of consumer electrical appliances, the load disaggregation methodology is utilized. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a load disaggregation methodology that disaggregates the sum of power consumption in a single point into the power consumption of individual electrical appliances. In this study, load disaggregation is performed through voltage and current waveform, known as the V-I trajectory. The classification algorithm performs cropping and image pyramid reduction of the V-I trajectory plot template images before utilizing the principal component analysis (PCA) and the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. The novelty of this paper is to establish a systematic approach of load disaggregation through V-I trajectory-based load signature images by utilizing a multi-stage classification algorithm methodology. The contribution of this paper is in utilizing the “k-value,” the number of closest data points to the nearest neighbor, in the k-NN algorithm to be effective in classification of electrical appliances. The results of the multi-stage classification algorithm implementation have been discussed and the idea on future work has also been proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0497-z
       
  • Highly active and durable Pd-Cu catalysts for oxygen reduction in alkaline
           exchange membrane fuel cells
    • Authors: Xiong Peng; Travis J. Omasta; Justin M. Roller; William E. Mustain
      Abstract: Abstract A Pd-Cu catalyst, with primary B2-type phase, supported by VulcanXC-7R carbon was synthesized via a solvothermal method. The catalysts were physically and electrochemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and both cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). During the RDE testing, the half-wave potential of the Pd-Cu/Vulcan catalyst was 50 mV higher compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The Pd-Cu/Vulcan exhibited a specific activity of 1.27 mA/cm2 and a mass activity of 0.59 A/mgPd at 0.9 V, which were 4 and 3 times greater than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively. The Pd-Cu/Vulcan catalyst also showed higher in-situ alkaline exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) performance, with operating power densities of 1100 MW/cm2 operating on H2/O2 and 700 MW/cm2 operating on H2/Air (CO2-free), which were markedly higher than those of the commercial Pt/C. The Pd-Cu/Vulcan catalyst also exhibited high stability during a short-term, in-situ AEMFC durability test, with only around 11% performance loss after 30 hours of operation, an improvement over most AEMFCs reported in the literature to date.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0495-1
       
  • Clean energy technology: materials, processes and devices for
           electrochemical energy conversion and storage
    • PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0501-7
       
  • Current challenge and perspective of PGM-free cathode catalysts for PEM
           fuel cells
    • Authors: Gang Wu
      Abstract: Abstract To significantly reduce the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, platinum-group metal (PGM)-free cathode catalysts are highly desirable. Current M-N-C (M: Fe, Co or Mn) catalysts are considered the most promising due to their encouraging performance. The challenge thus has been their stability under acidic conditions, which has hindered their use for any practical applications. In this review, based on the author’s research experience in the field for more than 10 years, current challenges and possible solutions to overcome these problems were discussed. The current Edisonian approach (i.e., trial and error) to developing PGM-free catalysts has been ineffective in achieving revolutionary breakthroughs. Novel synthesis techniques based on a more methodological approach will enable atomic control and allow us to achieve optimal electronic and geometric structures for active sites uniformly dispersed within the 3D architectures. Structural and chemical controlled precursors such as metal-organic frameworks are highly desirable for making catalysts with an increased density of active sites and strengthening local bonding structures among N, C and metals. Advanced electrochemical and physical characterization, such as electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy should be combined with first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations to fully elucidate the active site structures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0477-3
       
  • A review of Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Changlin Zhang; Xiaochen Shen; Yanbo Pan; Zhenmeng Peng
      Abstract: Abstract Development of active and durable electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains one challenge for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Pt-based nanomaterials show the greatest promise as electrocatalyst for this reaction among all current catalytic structures. This review focuses on Pt-based ORR catalyst material development and covers the past achievements, current research status and perspectives in this research field. In particular, several important categories of Pt-based catalytic structures and the research advances are summarized. Key factors affecting the catalyst activity and durability are discussed. An outlook of future research direction of ORR catalyst research is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0466-6
       
  • β-Nickel hydroxide cathode material for nano-suspension redox flow
           batteries
    • Authors: Yue Li; Cheng He; Elena V. Timofeeva; Yujia Ding; Javier Parrondo; Carlo Segre; Vijay Ramani
      Abstract: Abstract As part of an effort to build a prototype flow battery system using a nano-suspension containing β-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles as the cathode material, nanosized β-Ni(OH)2 particles with well-controlled particle size and morphology were synthesized via the one-step precipitation of a NiCl2 precursor. The composition and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns confirmed that β-Ni(OH)2 was successfully synthesized, while SEM results showed that the particle sizes range from 70 to 150 nm. To ensure that Ni(OH)2 could be employed in the nano-suspension flow battery, the electrochemical performance of the synthesized β-Ni(OH)2 was initially tested in pouch cells through charge/discharge cycling. The phase transformations occurring during charge/discharge were investigated using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the shift in the oxidation state of Ni (X-ray adsorption near edge structure, XANES) and the distances between Ni and surrounding atoms in charged and discharged states (extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS). XANES results indicated that the electrode in the discharged state was a mixture of phases because the edge position did not shift back completely. XAFS results further proved that the discharge capacity was provided by β-NiOOH and the ratio between β-Ni(OH)2 and γ-NiOOH in the electrode in the discharged state was 71:29. Preliminary nano-suspension tests in a lab-scale cell were conducted to understand the behavior of the nanosuspension during charge/discharge cycling and to optimize the operating conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0496-0
       
  • Chemical composition and formation mechanisms in the cathode-electrolyte
           interface layer of lithium manganese oxide batteries from reactive force
           field (ReaxFF) based molecular dynamics
    • Authors: Sahithya Reddivari; Christian Lastoskie; Ruofei Wu; Junliang Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a principal cathode material for high power and high energy density electrochemical storage on account of its low cost, non-toxicity, and ease of preparation relative to other cathode materials. However, there are well-documented problems with capacity fade of lithium ion batteries containing LiMn2O4. Experimental observations indicate that the manganese content of the electrolyte increases as an electrochemical cell containing LiMn2O4 ages, suggesting that active material loss by dissolution of divalent manganese from the LiMn2O4 surface is the primary reason for reduced cell life in LiMn2O4 batteries. To improve the retention of manganese in the active material, it is key to understand the reactions that occur at the cathode surface. Although a thin layer of electrolyte decomposition products is known to form at the cathode surface, the speciation and reaction mechanisms of Mn2+ in this interface layer are not yet well understood. To bridge this knowledge gap, reactive force field (ReaxFF) based molecular dynamics was applied to investigate the reactions occurring at the LiMn2O4 cathode surface and the mechanisms that lead to manganese dissolution. The ReaxFFMD simulations reveal that the cathode-electrolyte interface layer is composed of oxidation products of electrolyte solvent molecules including aldehydes, esters, alcohols, polycarbonates, and organic radicals. The oxidation reaction pathways for the electrolyte solvent molecules involve the formation of surface hydroxyl species that react with exposed manganese atoms on the cathode surface. The presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) induces formation of inorganic metal fluorides and surface hydroxyl species. Reaction products predicted by ReaxFF-based MD are in agreement with experimentally identified cathode-electrolyte interface compounds. An overall cathode-electrolyte interface reaction scheme is proposed based on the molecular simulation results.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0500-8
       
  • Evaluation of renewable energies production potential in the Middle East:
           confronting the world’s energy crisis
    • Authors: Hamid Bahrampour; Amir Khosro Beheshti Marnani; Mohammad Bagher Askari; Mohammad Reza Bahrampour
      Abstract: Abstract Oil and fossil fuels, the main source of energy in the Middle East have obviously the most destructive effects on the environment and public health. The developed countries of the Middle East are faced with the crisis and energy security. This paper is about evaluating the energy demand /consumption in the Middle East. First, the position of energy consumption in the world and the Middle East is discussed. Next, the evaluation of the current potential of clean energy production from renewable energies is explained. Finally, according to related maps, charts and information presented for the condition of renewable energy which has been approved by the countries of the Middle East, the greatest places in some countries of this region are introduced and discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0486-2
       
  • Enhanced electrocatalytic performance of ultrathin PtNi alloy nanowires
           for oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Hongjie Zhang; Yachao Zeng; Longsheng Cao; Limeng Yang; Dahui Fang; Baolian Yi; Zhigang Shao
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, ultrathin Pt nanowires (Pt NWs) and PtNi alloy nanowires (PtNi NWs) supported on carbon were synthesized as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Pt and PtNi NWs catalysts composed of interconnected nanoparticles were prepared by using a soft template method with CTAB as the surface active agent. The physical characterization and electrocatalytic performance of Pt NWs and PtNi NWs catalysts for ORR were investigated and the results were compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The atomic ratio of Pt and Ni in PtNi alloy was approximately 3 to 1. The results show that after alloying with Ni, the binding energy of Pt shifts to higher values, indicating the change of its electronic structure, and that Pt3Ni NWs catalyst has a significantly higher electrocatalytic activity and good stability for ORR as compared to Pt NWs and even Pt/C catalyst. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity of Pt3Ni NWs catalyst is mainly resulted from the downshifted-band center of Pt caused by the interaction between Pt and Ni in the alloy, which facilitates the desorption of oxygen containing species (Oads or OHads) and the release of active sites.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0499-x
       
  • Review of characterization and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell
           catalyst layer: The blessing and curse of ionomer
    • Authors: Jun Huang; Zhe Li; Jianbo Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Ionomer impregnation represents a milestone in the evolution of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) catalyst layers. Ionomer acts as the binder, facilitates proton transport, and thereby drastically improves catalyst utilization and effectiveness. However, advanced morphological and functional characterizations have revealed that up to 60% of Pt nanoparticles can be trapped in the micropores of carbon support particles. Ionomer clusters and oxygen molecules can hardly enter into micropores, leading to low Pt utilization and effectiveness. Moreover, the ionomer thin-films covering Pt nanoparticles can cause significant mass transport loss especially at high current densities. Ionomer-free ultra-thin catalyst layers (UTCLs) emerge as a promising alternative to reduce Pt loading by improving catalyst utilization and effectiveness, while theoretical issues such as the proton conduction mechanism remain puzzling and practical issues such as the rather narrow operation window remain unsettled. At present, the development of PEFC catalyst layer has come to a crossroads: staying ionomer-impregnated or going ionomer-free. It is always beneficial to look back into the past when coming to a crossroads. This paper addresses the characterization and modeling of both the conventional ionomer-impregnated catalyst layer and the emerging ionomer-free UTCLs, featuring advances in characterizing microscale distributions of Pt particles, ionomer, support particles and unraveling their interactions; advances in fundamental understandings of proton conduction and flooding behaviors in ionomer-free UTCLs; advances in modeling of conventional catalyst layers and especially UTCLs; and discussions on high-impact research topics in characterizing and modeling of catalyst layers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0490-6
       
  • A facile synthesis of high activity cube-like Pt/carbon composites for
           fuel cell application
    • Authors: Reza B. Moghaddam; Samaneh Shahgaldi; Xianguo Li
      Abstract: Abstract High activity catalyst with simple low-cost synthesis is essential for fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a facile procedure for the synthesis of cube-like Pt nanoparticle (PtCube) composites with high surface area carbon supports is developed by mixing precursor of Pt with carbon supports in organic batches, hence, one pot synthesis. The PtCube grow with Vulcan XC-72 or Ketjen black, respectively, and then treated for 5.5 h at 185ºC (i.e., PtCube5.5/V and PtCube5.5/K). The resulting particle sizes and shapes are similar; however, PtCube5.5/K has a larger electrochemical active surface area (EASA) and a remarkably better formic acid (FA) oxidation performance. Optimization of the PtCube/K composites leads to PtCube10/K that has been treated for 10 h at 185ºC. With a larger EASA, PtCube10/K is also more active in FA oxidation than the other PtCube/K composites. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of the temperature treated and asprepared (i.e., untreated) PtCube/K composites indicates that PtCube10/K is less resistive, and has the highest limiting capacitance among the PtCube/K electrodes. Consistently, the voltammetric EASA is the largest for PtCube10/K. Furthermore, PtCube10/K is compared with two commercial Pt/C catalysts, Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo (TKK), and Johnson Matthey (JM)Pt/C catalysts. The TKK Pt/C has a higher EASA than PtCube10/K, as expected from their relative particles sizes (3–4 nm vs. 6–7 nm for PtCube10/K), however, PtCube10/K has a significantly better FA oxidation activity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0492-4
       
  • Accelerated life-time test of MEA durability under vehicle operating
           conditions in PEM fuel cell
    • Authors: Tian Tian; Jianjun Tang; Wei Guo; Mu Pan
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a novel accelerated test method was proposed to analyze the durability of MEA, considering the actual operation of the fuel cell vehicle. The proposed method includes 7 working conditions: open circuit voltage (OCV), idling, rated output, overload, idling-rated cycle, idling-overload cycle, and OCV-idling cycle. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can effectively destroy the MEA in a short time (165 h). Moreover, the degradation mechanism of MEA was analyzed by measuring the polarization curve, CV, SEM and TEM. This paper may provide a new research direction for improving the durability of fuel cell.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0489-z
       
  • Nitrogen-doped carbon black supported Pd nanoparticles as an effective
           catalyst for formic acid electro-oxidation reaction
    • Authors: Na Sun; Minglei Wang; Jinfa Chang; Junjie Ge; Wei Xing; Guangjie Shao
      Abstract: Abstract Pd nanoparticles supported on nitrogen doped carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with two different levels of doping were prepared by the microwave-assisted ethylene glycol reduction process and used as catalyst for the formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO). The results indicate that the different nitrogen doping contents in Pd/N-C catalysts have a significant effect on the performance of FAEO. A higher N content facilitates the uniform dispersion of Pd nanoparticles on carbon black with narrow particle size distribution. Furthermore, the electrochemical results show that the catalyst with a higher N-doping content possesses a higher catalytic activity and a long-term stability for FAEO. The peak current density of the Pd/N-C (high) catalyst is 1.27 and 2.31 times that of the Pd/N-C (low) and homemade Pd/C-H catalyst. The present paper may provide a simple method for preparation of high-performance anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs).
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0491-5
       
  • Design of efficient Pt-based electrocatalysts through characterization by
           X-ray absorption spectroscopy
    • Authors: Nebojsa S. Marinkovic; Kotaro Sasaki; Radoslav R. Adzic
      Abstract: Abstract A method is described to determine the internal structure of electrocatalyst nanoparticles by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The nondestructive spectroscopic technique typically utilizing synchrotron radiation as the source measures changes in the X-ray absorption coefficient as a function of energy. The bulk technique has found its use for materials characterization in all scientific areas, including nanomaterials. The analysis of the internal structure of nanoparticles reveals interatomic distances and coordination numbers for each element, and their values and mutual relations indicate whether the elements form a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture. The core-shell heterogeneous structure in which certain elements are predominantly located in the core, and others form the encapsulating shell is of particular importance in catalysis and electrocatalysis because it may reduce the amount of precious metals in nanoparticles by replacing the atoms in the core of nanoparticles with more abundant and cheaper alternatives. The examples of nanoparticle structures designed in the laboratory and the approach to model efficient catalysts through systematic analysis of XAS data in electrochemical systems consisting of two and three metals are also demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0487-1
       
  • Pt-Ni nanourchins as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Qiaowan Chang; Yuan Xu; Shangqian Zhu; Fei Xiao; Minhua Shao
      Abstract: Abstract Pt-Ni bimetallic alloys with various nanostructures have shown excellent activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The ORR activity is highly dependent on the structure of the catalyst. In this paper, Pt- Ni nanourchins were synthesized with an average size of 50 nm consisting of 10–20 nanorods and nanooctahedra by adjusting the synthesis condition. The formation of Pt-Ni nanourchins is mainly dependent on the adding order of solvents (benzyl ether, oleylamine and oleic acid). Pt-Ni nanourchins present a reasonable high ORR activity (0.81 A/mg at 0.9 V).
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0493-3
       
  • Li 4 SiO 4 -coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 as the high performance cathode
           materials for lithium-ion batteries
    • Authors: Shifeng Yang; Wenfeng Ren; Jian Chen
      Abstract: Abstract The preparation of Li4SiO4-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials by sintering the SiO2-coated nickel-manganese oxides with lithium salts using abundant and low-cost sodium silicate as the silicon source was reported. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a uniform and complete SiO2 coating layer could be obtained at a suitable pH value of 10, which transformed to a good Li4SiO4 coating layer afterwards. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Li4SiO4-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 samples deliver a better electrochemical performance in terms of the discharge capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability than that of the pristine material. It can still deliver 111.1 mAh/g at 20 C after 300 cycles, with a retention ratio of 93.1% of the stable capacity, which is far beyond that of the pristine material (101.3 mAh/g, 85.6%).
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0494-2
       
  • Failure mode investigation of fuel cell for vehicle application
    • Authors: Zhongjun Hou; Renfang Wang; Keyong Wang; Weiyu Shi; Danming Xing; Hongchun Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract The durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been posing a key technical challenge to commercial spread of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). To improve the durability, it is necessary to optimize the fuel cell system (FCS) design against failure modes. The fuel cell durability research method at FCS scale was exhibited, and the failure modes of fuel cell were experimentally investigated in this paper. It is found that the fuel cell dry operation, start/stop cycle and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding are typical failure modes of fuel cells. After the modifications against the failure modes, the durability of FCSs is improved to over 3000 h step by step.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0488-0
       
  • High purity Mn 5 O 8 nanoparticles with a high overpotential to gas
           evolution reactions for high voltage aqueous sodium-ion electrochemical
           storage
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Shan; Fenghua Guo; Wenqian Xu; Xiaowei Teng
      Abstract: Abstract Developing electrodes with high specific energy by using inexpensive manganese oxides is of great importance for aqueous electrochemical energy storage (EES) using non-Li charge carriers such as Na-or K-ions. However, the energy density of aqueous EES devices is generally limited by their narrow thermodynamic potential window (~1.23 V). In this paper, the synthesis of high purity layered Mn5O8 nanoparticles through solid state thermal treatment of Mn3O4 spinel nanoparticles, resulting in a chemical formula of [Mn2+ 2 ] [Mn4+ 3 O8 2–], evidenced by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron- based X-ray diffraction, has been reported. The electro-kinetic analyses obtained from cyclic voltammetry measurements in half-cells have demonstrated that Mn5O8 electrode has a large overpotential (~ 0.6 V) towards gas evolution reactions, resulting in a stable potential window of 2.5 V in an aqueous electrolyte in half-cell measurements. Symmetric full-cells fabricated using Mn5O8 electrodes can be operated within a stable 3.0 V potential window for 5000 galvanostatic cycles, exhibiting a stable electrode capacity of about 103 mAh/g at a C-rate of 95 with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency and 96% energy efficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11708-017-0485-3
       
 
 
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