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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1957 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (150 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1124 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (73 journals)

ENGINEERING (1124 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Developments in Geotechnical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Developments in Mineral Processing     Full-text available via subscription  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Documents pour l'histoire des techniques     Open Access   (1 follower)
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Dyna     Open Access  
Dynamical Systems: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
El Hombre y la Máquina     Open Access  
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Elsevier Geo-Engineering Book Series     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Energies     Open Access   (1 follower)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (6 followers)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Energy Procedia     Open Access   (2 followers)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (2 followers)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (9 followers)
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
ENGEVISTA     Open Access  
ENGI : Revista Electrónica de la Facultad de Ingenieria     Open Access  
Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Engineering     Open Access   (2 followers)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Engineering Economics     Open Access   (4 followers)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Engineering Education     Open Access  
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (21 followers)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Engineering Journal     Open Access   (1 follower)
Engineering Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (4 followers)
Engineering Management Reviews     Open Access   (1 follower)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Engineering Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (3 followers)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access  
Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Full-text available via subscription  
ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing     Open Access   (3 followers)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription  
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
European Medical Device Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (9 followers)
Evolutionary Intelligence     Hybrid Journal  
Evolving Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Exacta     Open Access  
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (1 follower)
First Monday     Open Access   (107 followers)
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Fluid Dynamics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Food Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Formación Universitaria     Open Access   (3 followers)
FORMakademisk     Open Access  
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal  
Forschung im Ingenieurwesen     Hybrid Journal  
Foundations and Trends in Systems and Control     Full-text available via subscription  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation     Full-text available via subscription  
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (2 followers)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Frontiers in Energy    [4 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 2095-1701 - ISSN (Online) 2095-1698
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2188 journals]
  • Electricity demand, GDP and employment: evidence from Italy
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper applies time series methodologies to examine the causal relationship among electricity demand, real per capita GDP and total labor force for Italy from 1970 to 2009. After a brief introduction, a survey of the economic literature on this issue is reported, before discussing the data and introducing the econometric techniques used. The results of estimation indicate that one cointegrating relationship exists among these variables. This equilibrium relation implies that, in the long-run, GDP and labor force are correlated negatively, as well as GDP and electricity. Moreover, there is a bi-directional Granger causality flow between real per capita GDP and electricity demand; while labor force does not Grangercause neither real per capita GDP nor electricity demand. This implies that electricity demand and economic growth are jointly determined at the same time for the Italian case. The forecast error variance decomposition shows that forecast errors in real per capita GDP are mainly caused by the uncertainty in GDP itself, while forecast errors in labor force are mainly resulted from the labor force itself, although aggregate income and electricity are important, too.
      PubDate: 2014-01-15
  • Influence of infiltration on energy consumption of a winery building
    • Abstract: Abstract With the wide use of light steel structure in industrial buildings, some problems such as air leakage, water dripping and condensation and so forth occur during the construction and operation phases. Through the onsite testing of a winery building in Huailai County, Hebei Province in China, the influence of infiltration on energy consumption in industrial buildings was studied. The pressurization test method and moisture condensation method were used to test the infiltration rates. The results show that the winery building is twice as leaky as normal Chinese buildings and five times as leaky as Canadian buildings. The energy use simulation demonstrates that the reduction of the infiltration rate of the exterior rooms to 1/3 and the interior rooms to 1/2 could help decrease a total energy consumption of approximately 20% and reduce a total energy cost of approximately $ 225000. Therefore, it has a great potential to reduce the energy consumption in this type of buildings. Enforcement of the appropriate design, construction and installation would play a significant role in improving the overall performance of the building.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
  • Assessment of a fuzzy logic based MRAS observer used in a photovoltaic
           array supplied AC drive
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper a fuzzy logic (FL) based model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed observer for high performance AC drives is proposed. The error vector computation is made based on the rotor-flux derived from the reference and the adaptive model of the induction motor. The error signal is processed in the proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for speed adaptation. The drive employs an indirect vector control scheme for achieving a good closed loop speed control. For powering the drive system, a standalone photovoltaic (PV) energy source is used. To extract the maximum power from the PV source, a constant voltage controller (CVC) is also proposed. The complete drive system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink and the performance is analyzed for different operating conditions.
      PubDate: 2014-01-04
  • Calculations of narrow-band transimissities and the Planck mean absorption
           coefficients of real gases using line-by-line and statistical narrow-band
    • Abstract: Abstract Narrow-band transmissivities in the spectral range of 150 to 9300 cm−1 and at a uniform resolution of 25 cm−1 were calculated using the statistical narrow-band (SNB) model with the band parameters of Soufiani and Taine, the more recent parameters of André and Vaillon, and the line-by-line (LBL) method along with the HITEMP-2010 spectroscopic database. Calculations of narrow-band transmissivity were conducted for gas columns of different lengths and containing different isothermal and non-isothermal CO2-H2O-N2 mixtures at 1 atm. Narrow-band transmissivities calculated by the SNB model are in large relative error at many bands. The more recent SNB model parameters of André and Vaillon are more accurate than the earlier parameters of Soufiani and Taine. The Planck mean absorption coefficients of CO2, H2O, CO, and CH4 in the temperature range of 300 to 2500 K were calculated using the LBL method and different versions of the high resolution transmission (HITRAN) and high-temperature spectroscopic absorption parameters (HITEMP) spectroscopic databases. The SNB model was also used to calculate the Planck mean absorption coefficients of these four radiating gases. The LBL results of the Planck mean absorption coefficient were compared with the classical results of Tien and those from the SNB model.
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
  • A simple digital control algorithm for three phase shunt active filter:
           simulation and experimentation
    • Abstract: Abstract A novel and simple i freal control algorithm using digital signal processor (DSP) has been proposed and realized for a three phase shunt active filter (SAF). The simulation and prototype construction of SAF is conducted to compensate the reactive power and harmonics in a distribution system. The major feature of the proposed i freal algorithm is that it does not require unit vector templates and any transformations for the reference current generation of SAF. This reduces the computational complexity and makes the control flexible and faster. The simulation is conducted in MATLAB/SIMULINK while DSP TMS320LF2407 is employed in the digital implementation of hysteresis current control (HCC) for experimentation. The hardware results correlate with the simulation results in reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the source current and achieving unity power factor.
      PubDate: 2013-12-30
  • A linear quadratic regulator control of a stand-alone PEM fuel cell power
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper introduces a technique based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to control the output voltage at the load point versus load variation from a standalone proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plant (FCPP) for a group housing use. The controller modifies the optimal gains k i by minimizing a cost function, and the phase angle of the AC output voltage to control the active and reactive power output from an FCPP to match the terminal load. The control actions are based on feedback signals from the terminal load, output voltage and fuel cell feedback current. The topology chosen for the simulation consists of a 45 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), boost type DC/DC converter, a three-phase DC/AC inverter followed by an LC filter. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy operated at low commutation frequency (2 kHz) offers good performances versus load variations with low total harmonic distortions (THD), which is very useful for high power applications.
      PubDate: 2013-12-26
  • Progress in hydrogen enriched hydrocarbons combustion and engine
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper summarized the work on hydrogen enriched hydrocarbons combustion and its application in engines. The progress and understanding on laminar burning velocity, flame instability, flame structure flame and chemical kinetics were presented. Based on fundamental combustion, both homogeneous spark-ignition engine and direct-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends were conducted and the technical route of natural gas-hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation was proposed which experimentally demonstrated benefits on both thermal efficiency improvement and emissions reduction.
      PubDate: 2013-12-26
  • Power quality improvement using fuzzy logic controller for five-level
           shunt active power filter under distorted voltage conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a five-level inverter is used as a shunt active power filter (APF), taking advantages of the multilevel inverter such as low harmonic distortion and reduced switching losses. It is used to compensate reactive power and eliminate harmonics drawn from a thyristor rectifier feeding an inductive load (RL) under distorted voltage conditions. The APF control strategy is based on the use of self-tuning filters (STF) for reference current generation and a fuzzy logic current controller. The use of STF instead of classical extraction filters allows extracting directly the voltage and current fundamental components in the α-β axis without phase locked loop (PLL). The MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox is used for implementing the fuzzy logic control algorithm. The obtained results show that the proposed shunt APF controller has produced a sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic distortion and in phase with the line voltage.
      PubDate: 2013-12-19
  • A novel algorithm for frequency dependent modeling of ferrite ring and its
           optimum design to study VFTO behaviors within GIS
    • Abstract: Abstract One of the fundamental issues in gas insulated substations (GIS) which has destructive effects on GIS equipment is the very fast transient over-voltages (VFTOs). This paper models a 400/230 kV substation in order to study the effects of VFTO extensively implemented on EMTP-RV. In addition, the application of ferrite rings for suppressing VFTOs is assessed thoroughly. The main advantage of this paper is its new proposed algorithm according to the ferrite ring frequency dependent modeling that is validated with experimental results. This paper examines the effects of three compositions of the ferrite ring on VFTO suppression. Moreover, it estimates the dimension of the ferrite ring based on the SF6 gas insulation withstand and the maximum effect of ferrite rings on VFTO suppression constraint with the COMSOL multiphysics software. Furthermore, it gains VFTO attenuated percentages due to the installation of the ferrite ring in different GIS nodes. Finally, it analyzes the offered VFTO amendment technique in various GIS switching scenarios.
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
  • Causality between energy consumption and GDP in the U.S.: evidence from
           wavelet analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the dynamic causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in the U.S. at different time scales. The main novelty of the study is that this paper complements the existing studies on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth by employing the wavelet transformation to obtain different time scales in order to investigate causality between energy consumption and economic growth. This method is first developed by Ramsey and Lampart. Their approach consists of first decomposing the series into time scales by wavelet filters and testing causality of each time scale with the pertinent time scale of the other series separately. The data span from 1973q1 to 2012q1 on a quarterly basis. The main empirical insight is that the causal relationship is stronger at finer time scales, whereas the relationship is less and less apparent at longer time horizons. The results indicate that energy consumption causes economic growth, while the reverse is not true at the original frequency of the data. At the very finest scale the same result arises. However, at coarser scales feedback is observed. In particular, at intermediate time scales the evidence indicates that energy consumption causes economic growth, while the reverse is also true. These empirical findings are expected to be of high importance in terms of the effective design and implementation of energy and environmental policies, especially when a number of countries in the pursuit of high economic growth targets do not pay any serious attention on environmental issues.
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
  • Development of a combined approach for improvement and optimization of
           karanja biodiesel using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper described the production of karanja biodiesel using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA). The optimum combination of reaction variables were analyzed for maximizing the biodiesel yield. The yield obtained by the RSM was 65% whereas the predicted value was 70%. The mathematical regression model proposed from the RSM was coupled with the GA. By using this technique, 90% of the yield was obtained at a molar ratio of 38, a reaction time of 8 hours, a reaction temperature of 40 °C, a catalyst concentration of 2% oil, and a mixing speed of 707 r/min. The yield produced was closer to the predicted value of 94.2093%. Hence, 25% of the improvement in the biodiesel yield was reported. Moreover the different properties of karanja biodiesel were found closer to the American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) standard of biodiesel.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Impact of climate change on building heating energy consumption in Tianjin
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigated the variation of building heating energy consumption caused by global warming in Tianjin, China. Based on the hourly historical and monthly projected future (B1/A1B emissions scenarios) meteorological data, the variation of those relevant meteorological parameters was first analyzed. ATRNSYS simulation model for a reference building was introduced to investigate historical variation of office building energy consumption. The results showed that the 10-year-average heating energy consumption of 2001–2010 had reduced by 16.1% compared to that of 1961–1970. By conducting principal component analysis and regression analysis, future variation of building heating load was studied. For B1/A1B emissions scenarios, the multi-year-average heating load was found to decrease by 9.7% (18.1%)/10.2% (22.7%) compared to that of 1971–2010 by 2011–2050 (2051–2100).
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Comparative study of various artificial intelligence approaches applied to
           direct torque control of induction motor drives
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, three intelligent approaches were proposed, applied to direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor drive to replace conventional hysteresis comparators and selection table, namely fuzzy logic, artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The simulated results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system based direct torque control (ANFIS-DTC). Compared with the classical direct torque control, fuzzy logic based direct torque control (FL-DTC), and neural networks based direct torque control (NNDTC), the proposed ANFIS-based scheme optimizes the electromagnetic torque and stator flux ripples, and incurs much shorter execution times and hence the errors caused by control time delays are minimized. The validity of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation results.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Experimental investigation of liquid metal alloy based mini-channel heat
           exchanger for high power electronic devices
    • Abstract: Abstract There is currently a growing demand for developing efficient techniques for cooling integrated electronic devices with ever increasing heat generation power. To better tackle the high-density heat dissipation difficulty within the limited space, this paper is dedicated to clarify the heat transfer behaviors of the liquid metal flowing in mini-channel exchangers with different geometric configurations. A series of comparative experiments using liquid metal alloy Ga68%In20%Sn12% as coolant were conducted under prescribed mass flow rates in three kinds of heat exchangers with varied geometric sizes. Meanwhile, numerical simulations for the heat exchangers under the same working conditions were also performed which well interpreted the experimental measurements. The simulated heat sources were all cooled down by these three heat dissipation apparatuses and the exchanger with the smallest channel width was found to have the largest mean heat transfer coefficient at all conditions due to its much larger heat transfer area. Further, the present work has also developed a correlation equation for characterizing the Nusselt number depending on Peclet number, which is applicable to the low Peclet number case with constant heat flux in the hydrodynamically developed and thermally developing region in the rectangular channel. This study is expected to provide valuable reference for designing future liquid metal based mini-channel heat exchanger.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • Impact of FACTS devices on exercising market power in deregulated
           electricity market
    • Abstract: Abstract In power system studies, congestion in transmission lines and utilization of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices are closely associated. These devices are very important due to their role in power delivery system enhancement. It is to be noted that the generation companies can exercise their market power which depends on the line flows, line constraints, generators’ location and its share to the individual loads. This issue cannot be overlooked as it creates monopoliness which is against the deregulated market policy. The objective of this paper is to study the impact of market power when FACTS devices like thyristor controlled switching capacitor (TCSC) and thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) are used under steady state operation. The market power is determined using nodal must-run share (NMRS) index for the standard IEEE 14-bus system with and without the above FACTS devices and the results obtained are compared. All the above simulations are conducted in a MATLAB 7.9-R2009b environment.
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
  • A solution to unit commitment problem using invasive weed optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract Unit commitment (UC) is one of the most important aspect of power generation in the world today. Though, there is no method to find the exact optimized solution, there exists several meta-heuristic algorithms to determine the close to exact solution. This paper proposes a novel solution to effectively determine UC and generation cost using the technique of invasive weed optimization (IWO). The existing technique distributes the load demand among all the generating units. The method proposed here utilizes the output of UC obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation (LR) method and calculates the required generation from only the plants that are ON discarding the OFF generator units and thereby giving a faster and more accurate response. Moreover, the results show the comparison between the LR-particle swarm optimization (PSO) and LR-IWO, and prove that the cost of generation for a 4 unit, 8 hour schedule is much less in the case of IWO when compared to PSO.
      PubDate: 2013-11-13
  • Optimal redundant placement of PMUs in Indian power grid — northern,
           eastern and north-eastern regions
    • Abstract: Abstract Effective utilization of renewable energy sources and efficient management of electric energy are essential for any developing countries like India. This can be envisioned through the implementation of concepts of smart grid (SG). One of the key requisites for SG implementation is that the grid should be completely observable. Renovation of conventional Indian power grid to a SG necessitates incorporation of the phasor measurement units (PMUs) in the present power grid measurement and monitoring system. Since the cost of PMU is high and any bus containing a PMU makes the neighboring connected buses observable, optimal placement of PMUs is very important for complete observability of the grid. This paper proposes optimal redundant geographical locations in the northern, eastern and north-eastern regions of Indian power grid for PMU placement. The PMUs installed in these geographical locations will make the grid completely observable and maintain the observability under the conditions of failure of some PMUs or branch outages. Integer linear programming has been used for finding the optimal PMU locations. The results proposed in this paper can be a stepping stone for revamping the Indian power grid to a SG ensuring complete observability during different contingency conditions.
      PubDate: 2013-09-18
  • Characteristics and application of road absorbing solar energy
    • Abstract: Abstract If the heat of road surface can be stored in summer, the road surface temperature will be decreased to prevent permanent deformation of pavement. Besides, if the heat stored is released, it can supply heat for buildings or raise the road surface temperature for snow melting in winter. A road-solar energy system was built in this study, and the heat transfer mechanism and effect of the system were analyzed according to the monitored solar radiant heat, the solar energy absorbed by road and the heat stored by soil. The results showed that the road surface temperature was mainly affected by solar radiation, but the effect is hysteretic in nature. The temperature of the solar road surface was 3°C–6°C lower than that of the ordinary road surface. The temperature of the solar road along the vertical direction was 2°C–5°C lower than that of the ordinary road. The temperature difference increased as the distance to the heat transfer tubes decreased. The average solar collector efficiency of the system was 14.4%, and the average solar absorptivity of road surface was 36%.
      PubDate: 2013-09-18
  • “Partial pressures” of humid air in wide pressure and
           temperature ranges
    • Abstract: Abstract “Partial pressure” in humid air is a question very much concerned by scientists and no satisfactory answer has been found to date. This paper proposes a novel method to obtain the “partial pressures” of the water vapor and dry air in humid air. The results obtained by the proposed method are quite different from that obtained by Dalton’s partial pressure law. The fundamental behaviors of water vapor and dry air are studied in depth in wide pressure and temperature ranges. Semi-permeable membrane models are proposed and applied for both saturated and unsaturated humid air. “Improvement factors” are developed to quantitatively describe the magnitude of the interaction between dissimilar molecules. One discovery is that the “partial pressure” of the water vapor in saturated humid air equals P s, rather than (f·P s) which was formerly believed. The other is that the interaction between dissimilar molecules may be omitted when temperature is above “cutting-off temperature” for unsaturated humid air. This paper satisfactorily answers the quest of “partial pressures” in humid air from a new perspective.
      PubDate: 2013-09-16
  • Calculation of collision frequency function for aerosol particles in free
           molecule regime in presence of force fields
    • Abstract: Abstract The collision frequency function for aerosol particles has already been calculated for the free molecule regime and for the continuum range. The present work, taking into account the influence of internal force fields such as magnetic force, electric force and molecular forces, created by particles themselves, recalculated the collision frequency in the case of particles much smaller than the mean free path of the gas (free molecule regime). Attractive forces increase naturally the collision frequency, while repulsive forces decrease it. The calculation was performed for all types of central forces deriving from a potential, including Coulomb forces and Van der Waals forces.
      PubDate: 2013-09-05
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