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ENGINEERING (1330 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.673
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Comparative analysis of airborne bacteria and fungi in two salt mines in
    • Authors: Elżbieta Gębarowska; Wojciech Pusz; Jolanta Kucińska; Włodzimierz Kita
      Pages: 127 - 138
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the genera or species composition and the number of colony forming units of airborne bacteria and fungi, respectively, in two salt mines in Poland “Wieliczka” (Lesser Poland) and “Polkowice–Sieroszowice” (Lower Silesia). Both of them are working environments characterized by extreme conditions, and additionally “Wieliczka,” officially placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites’ list, plays a role of tourist attraction. There are also some curative chambers located in this mine. Air samples were taken once in December 2015, between 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. There were nine measurement points located about 200 m underground in “Wieliczka” and six measurement points located in the working shafts about 400 m underground in “Polkowice–Sieroszowice.” The total volume of each air sample was 150 L. Air samples, collected in individual measurement points of both salt mines, were inoculated on two microbiological media: potato dextrose agar and tryptic soy agar using the impact method. We identified 10 and 3 fungal genera in the “Wieliczka” Salt Mine and in “Polkowice–Sieroszowice,” respectively. The most common were fungi of the Penicillium genus. In both mines, the Gram-positive bacteria of genus Micrococcus were detected most frequently. Among identified microorganisms, there were neither pathogenic fungi nor bacteria. The most prevalent microorganisms detected in indoor air were Gram-positive cocci, which constituted up to 80% of airborne microflora. Our results showed that microorganisms recorded in the air samples are not a threat to workers, tourists or patients. Neither pathogens nor potentially pathogenic microorganisms, listed as BSL-2, BSL-3 or BSL-4, were detected. The microbes identified during our analysis commonly occur in such environments as the soil, water and air. Some of the detected bacteria are component of natural microflora of human skin and mucous membranes, and they can cause only opportunistic infections in individuals depending on their health condition.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9502-6
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 2 (2018)
  • Thirty-four years of pollen monitoring: an evaluation of the temporal
           variation of pollen seasons in Belgium
    • Authors: Lucie Hoebeke; Nicolas Bruffaerts; Caroline Verstraeten; Andy Delcloo; Tom De Smedt; Ann Packeu; Monique Detandt; Marijke Hendrickx
      Pages: 139 - 155
      Abstract: For the first time in Belgium, fluctuations in airborne pollen quantities over a 34 years period have been analyzed. Seven pollen types have been selected comprising the most clinically relevant in Belgium nowadays (birch, alder, hazel and grasses) and others that are known to be allergenic in other European countries and frequently found in Belgium (plane, ash and mugwort). Pollen monitoring was performed with a seven-day recording volumetric spore trap placed in Brussels. We measured increasing airborne pollen for four trees, namely alder, hazel, ash and plane. Although the total pollen index for birch has not increased significantly, an increasing trend in the annual amount of days above the concentration threshold of 80 pollen grains/m3 was clearly observed. Concerning temporal variations, the pollen season has tended to end earlier for birch, ash and plane and the peak concentration of the pollen of plane has been appearing earlier in the year. In the investigated period, the pollen seasons of grasses and mugwort have tended to become less severe. Furthermore, we reported a temporal shift of the grass pollen season, beginning and ending earlier, together with an advance of the annual peak date.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9503-5
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 2 (2018)
  • Flowering of allergenically important plant species in relation to the
           North Atlantic Oscillation system and thermal time in the Czech Republic
    • Authors: Lenka Hájková; Zdeněk Hubálek; Věra Kožnarová; Lenka Bartošová; Martin Možný
      Pages: 157 - 169
      Abstract: This paper analyses long-term (1960–2015) onset of flowering in 16 native terrestrial plants (11 of them produce important allergens) recorded in different parts of the Czech Republic (southern, central and northern part) in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter and thermal data—growing degree-days (GDD) and soil temperature. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (February, March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g. wood anemone, common snowdrop, goat willow, common hazel and common alder. There was found a difference between the southern and northern part of the country, e.g. in silver birch and pedunculate oak. Out of the later-flowering (May–July) plant species, black elder and meadow foxtail also significantly correlated with the winter NAO index, lime tree correlated less markedly. The best results of a threshold for calculation of GDD to onset of beginning of flowering were found in lime tree—it was 5 °C at all three stations. Results of other taxa were more variable (e.g. 4–7 °C in goat willow; 6–10 °C in silver birch). Pearson correlation coefficients between NAO index and GDD were negative in lime tree at all thresholds (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 °C), while goat willow and silver birch were not so uniform (both positive and negative values). Correlation coefficients between phenophase onset and soil temperature (10 cm depth) had the highest values in silver birch, European larch and wood anemone. Stations situated at higher elevation showed negative correlation coefficient with soil temperature in common snowdrop, pedunculate oak, meadow foxtail and lime tree; other values were positive.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9504-4
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 2 (2018)
  • Survey of viable airborne fungi in wine cellars of Tokaj, Hungary
    • Authors: Donát Magyar; Zoltán Kállai; Matthias Sipiczki; Csaba Dobolyi; Flóra Sebők; Tímea Beregszászi; Zoltán Bihari; László Kredics; Gyula Oros
      Pages: 171 - 185
      Abstract: The composition of fungal biota and air quality of five traditional subterranean wine cellars and one store building of a modern wine production facility were examined in the Tokaj wine region (northeastern Hungary). Air samples were collected with SAS IAQ sampler onto PDA, MEA and RBA. Strains representing morphotypes were isolated from colonies formed on agar plates from either air or surface samples. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene cluster was amplified with primers ITS1 and ITS4. Altogether 90 morphotypes were isolated, 48 and 12 strains (43 species) from the air and surfaces, respectively. The number of spore-forming species generated high diversity of indoor fungi and differences between the cellars’ fungal compositions; however, their dominant species were proved to be the same. Among the isolated strains Penicillium spp. were the most frequent. The walls of cellars were covered by colonies of Zasmidium (Cladosporium) cellare often referred to as a noble mold. Even so, this mold has been found only at a small concentration in the air samples (10–30 CFU/m3). The walls of the modern store were free of molds. Diversity of fungi of the examined wine cellars was influenced by environmental conditions to a certain degree, such as elevation (height above sea level), age, reconstruction time of cellars, indoor ethanol concentration and the number of chimneys. The location of cellars poorly influenced the concentration of fungi of the air inside cellars, contrary to outdoors where the air of the municipal area contained more CFUs than that of rural spaces.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9505-3
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 2 (2018)
  • Aeropalynological study of two selected locations in North-Central Nigeria
    • Authors: O. S. Alebiosu; O. H. Adekanmbi; G. I. Nodza; O. T. Ogundipe
      Pages: 187 - 202
      Abstract: Pollen and spores have been found as major biological sources of morbidity among individuals sensitive to respiratory disorders. The aim of the present study was to analyse the deposition rate of atmospheric pollen and fern spores at selected sites in Benue and Plateau states of the North-Central Nigeria between July 2015 and June 2016. This was accomplished by: (1) determining the pollen and fern spore content of each monitoring station; (2) establishing the relationship between total pollen count and meteorological parameters; and (3) comparing the recovered airborne pollen spectra with identified plants in the surrounding vegetation types of the sampling sites. The collection of atmospheric pollen was done using a modified Tauber sampler and plants in the surrounding environment of the sampling sites were enumerated. The residual solution was collected monthly and acetolysed, after which slide preparation and microscopy of the treated residue were done. Meteorological data were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Lagos. The results obtained reveal seasonal distribution patterns of various airborne pollen grains in the study locations. The most abundant pollen types recovered in Plateau State were produced by Syzygium guineense, Tridax procumbens, Alchornea sp., Terminalia sp., Poaceae and Amaranthaceae. Pollen types of Casuarina equisetifolia, Syzygium guineense, Tridax procumbens, Poaceae and Cyperaceae were preponderant in Benue State. Pteris sp., Nephrolepis sp. and a trilete fern spore were also represented in this study. The recovered airborne pollen spectra correspond favourably with some identified plants in the study locations. There was no significant correlation between monthly total pollen count and mean monthly values of meteorological parameters in Benue State. Air temperature and wind speed correlated significantly with monthly total pollen count in Plateau State. It is suggested that the allergenic effect of these abundant pollen types on humans should be further examined.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9506-2
      Issue No: Vol. 34, No. 2 (2018)
  • Airborne pollen parameters and their relationship with meteorological
           variables in NE Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: Husam T. Majeed; Cristina Periago; Marta Alarcón; Jordina Belmonte
      Abstract: The present study explores the role of the meteorological variability in the pollen production and the timing of the airborne pollen season by analysis of the correlation between precipitation, insolation and temperature and the main standardised airborne pollen parameters of 22 taxa collected at 6 localities in Catalonia (NE Spain). The pollen parameters included in the study were: Annual Pollen Integral and the Start, End and Length of the Main Pollen Season. Considering that the Main Pollen Season of most of the taxa in Catalonia lasts from spring to summer or autumn, correlations between the pollen parameters and winter (from December to March) values of meteorological variables were calculated. Correlations between Monthly Pollen Integral and monthly values of the meteorological variables were also calculated. The results obtained report the synchronism registered in the variations of pollen concentration with precipitation (negative), insolation (positive) and temperature (positive). Temperature was the meteorological variable that showed a greater influence in the pollen production and the timing of the pollen season, being insolation the least one. The Start of the Main Pollen Season was the pollen parameter more correlated with the meteorological variables, especially with winter temperatures.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9520-z
  • Diurnal patterns of airborne algae in the Hawaiian Islands: a preliminary
    • Authors: Hans W. Singh; Rachael M. Wade; Alison R. Sherwood
      Abstract: Although the literature on the diversity of airborne algal communities in various locations around the world is increasing, little is known about their temporal and spatial patterns. We compared airborne algal communities from Honolulu, Hawai‘i, USA, over three 24-h sampling periods to examine diurnal patterns in diversity and abundance. Using a culture-based approach, 192 algal colonies were characterized and identified as 31 operational taxonomic units. A combination of microscopy and Sanger sequencing (of the UPA marker) was used for characterizations. More airborne algal colonies were identified from nighttime collections (127 of 192 colonies) than daytime collections (65 of 192 colonies) (p < 0.0001). Similarly, 95% of the daytime collections were Cyanobacteria, and 87% of the nighttime collections were Chlorophyta, and the trends of more Cyanobacteria being collected during the day and more Chlorophyta at night were significant (p < 0.0001). Meteorological analyses for the sampling periods indicated that air masses sampled during the three trials consistently arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on a northeast trade wind pattern, but with different origins in the Pacific Ocean, and that low-to-trace levels of rain fell during the sampling periods. Land breeze and sea breeze effects, which are common temperature-driven phenomena on tropical islands, may have played a role in the diurnal pattern observed in the current study.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9519-5
  • Collection of airborne bacteria and yeast through water-based
           condensational growth
    • Authors: Maohua Pan; Leah Carol; John A. Lednicky; Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez; Susanne Hering; Z. Hugh Fan; Chang-Yu Wu
      Abstract: One limitation in air sampling of airborne microorganisms is their inactivation by forceful impaction and/or dehydration during the collection process. Proper inhalation risk assessments require proof of viability, as non-viable microorganisms cannot cause infectious diseases. In this study, laboratory-generated aerosols of a vegetative bacterium (E. coli) or yeast (S. kudriavzevii) were collected by a laminar-flow water-based condensational “growth tube collector (GTC),” and the GTC’s collection efficiencies were compared with those using an industry standard BioSampler. Collection efficiencies resulting from two types of collection media, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and nutrient media (Nutrient Broth, NB, for E. coli, and Yeast Tryptone Glucose Broth, YTGB, for S. kudriavzevii) were also assessed. Both the GTC and the BioSampler performed equally when PBS was used as the collection medium for E. coli, whereas more viable E. coli cells were collected in the GTC than the BioSampler with NB. For S. kudriavzevii, the GTC outperformed the BioSampler using either PBS or YTGB. This is likely because aerosolized E. coli cells can better survive impaction than S. kudriavzevii under the conditions used, and the BioSampler has a much higher collection efficiency for particles in the size range of single-celled E. coli than S. kudriavzevii. Moreover, the GTC had a detection limit one order of magnitude lower for yeast aerosols compared with that of the BioSampler. These results indicate that the GTC is a promising device for sampling viable aerosolized gram-negative bacteria and yeast, as it is less damaging to these types of microorganisms during the collection process.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9517-7
  • Pollen in aeolian dust with relation to allergy and asthma in Kuwait
    • Authors: A. M. Al-Dousari; M. I. Ibrahim; N. Al-Dousari; M. Ahmed; S. Al-Awadhi
      Abstract: The studying of spatial and temporal distribution of pollen is essential, but rarely tackled in the region including Kuwait. Pollen grains and aeolian dust in the state of Kuwait were seasonally monitored from August 2009 to August 2011 to identify and correlate spatially and temporally pollen data with human health asthma and allergy data. The year 2010–2011 yielded a high in deposited dust and pollen compared to 2009–2010 by 33.2 and 9.9%, respectively. The spring (April–May) and the autumn (October–November) seasons marked the most top pollen distribution for Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae (Poaceae), Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, and Plantaginaceae. The pollen graphs for summer (July–August) and winter (January–February) seasons showed low pollen distribution due to the severe drought, dust storms, winter wind and rainfall. There are no correlations found between pollen deposition and the number of asthma patients. The annual dust deposited rate in Kuwait during 2010/2011 was 373 t km−2 which represented a 33.2% increase compared with 2009/2010. The study has concluded that pollen of Malvaceae, Compositae and Chenopodiaceae is the most common triggers of allergy in Kuwait. Additionally, a positive correlation between the number of allergy patients and deposited dust was observed during March 2010 and 2011.
      PubDate: 2018-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9516-8
  • Designing new automatically generated pollen calendars for the public in
    • Authors: R. Gehrig; F. Maurer; C. Schwierz
      Abstract: Pollen calendars are one of the most comprehensible means to inform allergy sufferers or medical professionals about the mean presence of allergenic pollen during the course of the year. They have been produced with a variety of methods and were distributed with great success since the beginning of pollen monitoring. Current technologies, longer data series and changing user demands allow to develop new calculation methods. For designing the new pollen calendars of Switzerland, the following requirements were formulated: The pollen load levels in the calendars should correspond to the levels used in pollen forecasts. A pollen load level in the calendar should show the time window in which it potentially occurs. Further requirements were an automatic generation of the calendars, a regular update and the possibility to provide calendars for single stations, regions or specific pollen species. The data analysis is based on mean daily pollen concentrations of the last 20 years of all 14 pollen-monitoring stations in Switzerland for the 15 pollen types most relevant for allergies. For each day of the year, the 90% quantile of the daily pollen concentrations is determined in a moving 9-day time window over 20 years of data. The calculated concentrations are converted afterward into a pollen load level. The new method is flexible because various parameters can be selected freely: the reference period, the size of the moving time window, the quantile value and the thresholds for pollen load levels. Adjusting these parameters, also pollen calendars for fewer than 20 years can be calculated. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that a reference period of 20 years provides much more stable pollen calendars than shorter reference periods.
      PubDate: 2018-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9518-6
  • Improving the use of aerobiological and phenoclimatological data to
           forecast the risk of late blight in a potato crop
    • Authors: A. Seijo-Rodríguez; O. Escuredo; M. S. Rodríguez-Flores; M. C. Seijo
      Abstract: The paper describes phenological and aerobiological monitoring conducted during 6 years on a potato crop. The progression of the phenological stages in relation with thermal time [growing degree-days (GDD) and physiological days (P-days)] was analyzed. The growing cycle for Kennebec variety required less than 120 days and mean values of 1700 GDD and 720 P-days to complete the phenological development. The presence of Phytophthora infestans in the environment was common in each crop cycle, but the maximum peaks of sporangia were detected a few days after the emergence of the plants. The growing cycles with lower maximum temperature had the highest presence of sporangia. Thus, significant negative correlations between mean temperature, maximum temperature, accumulated growing degree-days, accumulated physiological days and the concentration of P. infestans in the environment were found. Maximum temperature and accumulated growing degree-days of 5 previous days were the parameters that best estimated the P. Infestans concentration in the regression model applied, with an explained variance of the data of 33 and 34%.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9515-9
  • Statistical techniques for modeling of Corylus , Alnus , and Betula pollen
           concentration in the air
    • Authors: Jakub Nowosad; Alfred Stach; Idalia Kasprzyk; Kazimiera Chłopek; Katarzyna Dąbrowska-Zapart; Łukasz Grewling; Małgorzata Latałowa; Anna Pędziszewska; Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Dorota Myszkowska; Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Małgorzata Puc; Piotr Rapiejko; Tomasz Stosik
      Abstract: Prediction of allergic pollen concentration is one of the most important goals of aerobiology. Past studies have used a broad range of modeling techniques; however, the results cannot be directly compared owing to the use of different datasets, validation methods, and evaluation metrics. The main aim of this study was to compare nine statistical modeling techniques using the same dataset. An additional goal was to assess the importance of predictors for the best model. Aerobiological data for Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen counts were obtained from nine cities in Poland and covered between five and 16 years of measurements. Meteorological data from the AGRI4CAST project were used as a predictor variables. The results of 243 final models (3 taxa  \(\times\)   9 cities  \(\times\)  9 techniques) were validated using a repeated k-fold cross-validation and compared using relative and absolute performance statistics. Afterward, the variable importance of predictors in the best models was calculated and compared. Simple models performed poorly. On the other hand, regression trees and rule-based models proved to be the most accurate for all of the taxa. Cumulative growing degree days proved to be the single most important predictor variable in the random forest models of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula. Finally, the study suggested potential improvements in aerobiological modeling, such as the application of robust cross-validation techniques and the use of gridded variables.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9514-x
  • Quantifying the relationship between airborne pollen and vegetation in the
           urban environment
    • Authors: Athanasios Charalampopoulos; Maria Lazarina; Ioannis Tsiripidis; Despoina Vokou
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to quantitatively assess the relationship linking vegetation and airborne pollen. For this, we established six sampling stations in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Once every week for 2 years, we recorded airborne pollen in them, at breast height, by use of a portable volumetric sampler. We also made a detailed analysis of the vegetation in each station by counting all existing individuals of the woody species contributing pollen to the air, in five zones of increasing size, from 4 to 40 ha. We found the local vegetation to be the driver of the spatial variation of pollen in the air of the city. Even at very neighbouring stations, only 500 m apart, considerable differences in vegetation composition were expressed in the pollen spectrum. We modelled the pollen concentration of each pollen taxon as a function of the abundance of the woody species corresponding to that taxon by use of a Generalized Linear Model. The relationship was significant for the five most abundantly represented taxa in the pollen spectrum of the city. It is estimated that every additional individual of Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Platanus, Ulmus and Olea increases pollen in the air by approximately 0.7, 0.2, 2, 6 and 5%, respectively. Whether the relationships detected for the above pollen taxa hold outside the domain for which we have data, as well as under different environmental conditions and/or with different assemblages of species representing them are issues to be explored in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9513-y
  • Environmental analysis of airborne pollen occurrence, pollen source
           distribution and phenology of Fraxinus angustifolia
    • Authors: Alejandro Monroy-Colín; Inmaculada Silva-Palacios; Rafael Tormo-Molina; José María Maya-Manzano; Santiago Fernández Rodríguez; Ángela Gonzalo-Garijo
      Abstract: Narrow-leafed ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) is a common polygamous tree growing on the banks of rivers in the western Mediterranean region. Pollination occurs during winter, and the tree’s pollen is among the most abundant during that season. This work aims to relate the phenology of pollen shedding, source tree distribution, meteorology and airborne pollen occurrence for the species. Aerobiological sampling was conducted in Badajoz (south-western Spain) using a Hirst volumetric sampler over 24 years (1993–2016). Trees were geo-localized in a circle 500 m in diameter surrounding the pollen sampler. During the last two periods, pollination phenology was studied in 10 specimens, five in the surroundings of the pollen station and five 3 km apart, at a frequency of 3–4 days on average. Moreover, a detailed analysis of pollen occurrence was conducted for these two periods. Daily data for the whole period and hourly data over the last 2 years were used, including pollen monitoring and meteorology. A comparison was made between pollen occurrence and source distribution. The main pollen season lasted on average 53 (28–75) days. Average values were less than 10 grains m−3, except for two periods of 23–24 grains m−3. Daily data and hourly data correlation with meteorology showed different signs in correlation analysis. Hourly analysis showed that the maximum concentration occurred just after noon. Most pollen was recorded at an average temperature of 9 °C. Analysis of pollen sources and pollen occurrence showed a close relationship between predominant wind directions and tree distribution. Peaks of phenology were not coincident with pollen peaks. No trends in pollination were found. Non-homogeneous distribution of pollen sources for Fraxinus angustifolia provided a suitable tool to demonstrate that wind direction plays a relevant role when aerobiological data are interpreted according to source distribution. A limitation in phenology analysis and aerobiological data was noted in the narrow-leafed ash species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9512-z
  • Influence of meteorological factors on the level and characteristics of
           culturable bacteria in the air in Gliwice, Upper Silesia (Poland)
    • Authors: Ewa Brągoszewska; Józef S. Pastuszka
      Abstract: Numerous studies have focused on occupational and indoor environments because people spend more than 90% of their time in them. Nevertheless, air is the main source of bacteria in indoors, and outdoor exposure is also crucial. Worldwide studies have indicated that bacterial concentrations vary among different types of outdoor environments, with considerable seasonal variations as well. Conducting comprehensive monitoring of atmospheric aerosol concentrations is very important not only for environmental management but also for the assessment of the health impacts of air pollution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present outdoor and seasonal changes of bioaerosol data regarding an urban area of Poland. This study aimed to characterize culturable bacteria populations present in outdoor air in Gliwice, Upper Silesia Region, Poland, over the course of four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) through quantification and identification procedures. In this study, the samples of bioaerosol were collected using a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor (with aerodynamic cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.65 μm). Results showed that the concentration of airborne bacteria ranged from 4 CFU m−3, measured on one winter day, to a maximum equal to 669 CFU m−3 on a spring day. The average size of culturable bacterial aerosol over the study period was 199 CFU m−3. The maximal seasonally averaged concentration was found in the spring season and reached 306 CFU m−3, and the minimal seasonally averaged concentration was found in the winter 49 CFU m−3. The most prevalent bacteria found outdoors were gram-positive rods that form endospores. Statistically, the most important meteorological factors related to the viability of airborne bacteria were temperature and UV radiation. These results may contribute to the promotion and implementation of preventative public health programmes and the formulation of recommendations aimed at providing healthier outdoor environments.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9510-1
  • Comparability between Durham method and real-time monitoring for long-term
           observation of Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica ) and Japanese
    • Authors: Kanako Watanabe; Tsuyoshi Ohizumi
      Abstract: Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis (JCP), affecting more than a quarter of the Japanese population, is a significant public health problem, due to its negative impact on daily activity. JCP patients have used the four-stage daily pollen deposition information based on the pollen monitoring over 20 years. However, the procedure for monitoring pollen was recently changed dramatically, to hourly average pollen concentration monitoring. In that type of monitoring, JCP patients cannot identify pollen exposure level because the relationship between hourly average pollen concentration and daily pollen deposition is unclear. Based on the parallel monitoring of concentration and deposition counts that we performed in Niigata prefecture, Eastern Japan, we found that the relationship between the daily pollen deposition (pollen cm−2 day−1) and the daily-average pollen concentration (pollen m−3) calculated from hourly average pollen concentration was not only statistically significant but also consistent with the aerodynamic properties of pollen. Using the relationship, we proposed new range criteria of hourly average pollen concentrations corresponding to the four stages of pollen deposition. Additionally, the conversion of pollen deposition to pollen concentration made the long-term trend analysis of the daily-average pollen concentration possible in this study area, and an increasing trend was identified at one site.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9511-0
  • Diversity of airborne Cladosporium species isolated from agricultural
           environments of northern Argentinean Patagonia: molecular characterization
           and plant pathogenicity
    • Authors: Carolina Virginia Temperini; Alejandro Guillermo Pardo; Graciela Noemí Pose
      Abstract: Fungal spores are normal components of external environments. They have been reported to be associated with human, animal and plant diseases causing primary and opportunistic infections. Cladosporium is commonly the most frequently isolated genus from air samples, and its species are considered mainly saprophytic, but there is a wide variety of taxa that can cause adverse effects on human and animal health and also on plants. In this work, we aimed to record Cladosporium spores frequency of isolation in northern Argentinean Patagonia and to perform a molecular characterization based on actin gene complemented with EF1α and ITS genes. The ability of the pathogens to cause disease in pip fruits of Packham’s Triumph and Abate Fetel pears and red delicious apples was determined. Results confirmed Cladosporium spores as the main genera isolated from air samples, and the molecular characterization revealed the existence of 11 species in this region grouped in C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum complexes. Pathogenicity tests revealed that Cladosporium sp. cause disease on fruit. Abate Fetel was the most susceptible to infection. These results compose the first study in Argentina in respect of identification at species level of airborne Cladosporium spores, and furthermore, it is the first report in northern Patagonia and the high valley of Río Negro productive region. This knowledge can help farmers to take preventive measures in order to avoid biological damage.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9509-7
  • The influence of meteorological parameters on Alternaria and Cladosporium
           fungal spore concentrations in Beja (Southern Portugal): preliminary
    • Authors: Elsa Almeida; Elsa Caeiro; Ana Todo-Bom; Raquel Ferro; Ana Dionísio; Ana Duarte; Luiz Gazarini
      Abstract: Introduction Fungal spores constitute an important fraction of bioaerosols in the atmosphere. Objectives To analyse the content of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere of Beja and the effect of meteorological conditions on their concentrations. Methodology The daily and hourly data of Alternaria and Cladosporium fungal spores concentration in the atmosphere of Beja were monitored from April 12, 2012 to July 30, 2014, based on the Portuguese Aerobiology Network methodology. The influence of meteorological conditions on the studied types of fungal spore concentrations was assessed through Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results During the study period, 20,741 Alternaria spores and 320,862 Cladosporium spores were counted. In 2013, there were 5,822 Alternaria spores and 123,864 Cladosporium spores. The absolute maximum concentrations of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores were recorded on November 8, 2013, with 211 and 1301 spores/m3, respectively. Temperature, insolation and wind direction parameters showed a positive correlation with Alternaria and Cladosporium spore levels, while relative humidity and precipitation presented a negative correlation, which is statistically significant. Wind speed only showed a statistically significant positive correlation in terms of Alternaria spore levels. Conclusion Alternaria and Cladosporium spores are present in the atmospheric air of Beja throughout the year, with the highest concentration period occurring during spring and autumn. There was a clear effect of meteorological parameters on airborne concentrations of these fungal spores.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9508-8
  • How to prepare a pollen calendar for forecasting daily pollen
           concentrations of Ambrosia, Betula and Poaceae'
    • Authors: B. Šikoparija; O. Marko; M. Panić; D. Jakovetić; P. Radišić
      Abstract: Forecasting daily airborne pollen concentrations is of great importance for management of seasonal allergies. This paper explores the performance of the pollen calendar as the most basic observation-oriented model for predicting daily concentrations of airborne Ambrosia, Betula and Poaceae pollen. Pollen calendars were calculated as the mean or median value of pollen concentrations on the same date in previous years of the available historic dataset, as well as the mean or median value of pollen concentrations of the smoothed dataset, pre-processed using moving mean and moving median. The performance of the models was evaluated by comparing forecasted to measured pollen concentrations at both daily and 10-day-average resolutions. This research demonstrates that the interpolation of missing data and pre-processing of the calibration dataset yields lower prediction errors. The increase in the number of calibration years corresponds to an improvement in the performance of the calendars in predicting daily pollen concentrations. However, the most significant improvement was obtained using four calibration years. The calendar models correspond well to the shape of the pollen curve. It was also found that daily resolution instead of 10-day averages adds to their value by emphasising variability in pollen exposure, which is important for personal assessment of dose-response for pollen-sensitive individuals.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-018-9507-9
  • Airborne fungi as indicators of ecosystem disturbance: an example from
           selected Tatra Mountains caves (Poland)
    • Authors: Wojciech Pusz; Maria Król; Tomasz Zwijacz-Kozica
      Abstract: We report on the determination of the spore concentration and the species composition of the airborne fungi in selected caves of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. The following caves were surveyed: Mylna, Obłazkowa, Mroźna, Zimna and Naciekowa. The sampling was carried out in July 2015 and in January 2016. The aeromycological analyses were performed with the impact method, using the Air Ideal 3P apparatus and potato dextrose agar (PDA, Biocorp) culture medium. In the course of the July 2015 analysis, 17 species of fungi were isolated and 11 species were isolated in January 2016. In Mylna and Naciekowa caves, the dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and Stachybotrys cylindrospora. In Obłazkowa cave, Rhizoctonia predominated and in Zimna cave—the colonies of the yeast-like fungi, along with S. cylindrospora. In Mroźna cave, Penicillium notatum was the most abundant taxon. In the winter time, in the majority of the caves Penicillium spp. predominated, with the exception of Mroźna and Naciekowa caves where Aspergillus niger was dominant. We propose that aeromycological monitoring be performed regularly in the following caves: Mroźna, Naciekowa and Zimna.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9498-y
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