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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2279 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; C. A. Skjøth; S. Celenk; C. Testoni; T. Abramidze; K. Alm Kübler; J. Belmonte; U. Berger; M. Bonini; A. Charalampopoulos; A. Damialis; B. Clot; Å. Dahl; L. A. de Weger; R. Gehrig; M. Hendrickx; L. Hoebeke; N. Ianovici; A. Kofol Seliger; D. Magyar; G. Mányoki; S. Milkovska; D. Myszkowska; A. Páldy; C. H. Pashley; K. Rasmussen; O. Ritenberga; V. Rodinkova; O. Rybníček; V. Shalaboda; I. Šaulienė; J. Ščevková; B. Stjepanović; M. Thibaudon; C. Verstraeten; D. Vokou; R. Yankova; M. Smith
      Pages: 181 - 189
      Abstract: The European Commission Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FA1203 “SMARTER” aims to make recommendations for the sustainable management of Ambrosia across Europe and for monitoring its efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The goal of the present study is to provide a baseline for spatial and temporal variations in airborne Ambrosia pollen in Europe that can be used for the management and evaluation of this noxious plant. The study covers the full range of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. distribution over Europe (39°N–60°N; 2°W–45°E). Airborne Ambrosia pollen data for the principal flowering period of Ambrosia (August–September) recorded during a 10-year period (2004–2013) were obtained from 242 monitoring sites. The mean sum of daily average airborne Ambrosia pollen and the number of days that Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the air were analysed. The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated regardless of the number of years included in the study period, while trends are based on those time series with 8 or more years of data. Trends were considered significant at p < 0.05. There were few significant trends in the magnitude and frequency of atmospheric Ambrosia pollen (only 8% for the mean sum of daily average Ambrosia pollen concentrations and 14% for the mean number of days Ambrosia pollen were recorded in the air). The direction of any trends varied locally and reflected changes in sources of the pollen, either in size or in distance from the monitoring station. Pollen monitoring is important for providing an early warning of the expansion of this invasive and noxious plant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9463-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Pollen-monitoring: between analyst proficiency testing
    • Authors: B. Sikoparija; EAS QC Working Group; C. Galán; M. Smith
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: This study presents the results of a Europe-wide training and Quality Control (QC) exercise carried out within the framework of the European Aerobiology Society’s QC Working Group and European COST Action FA1203 entitled “sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER)” with the aim of ensuring that pollen counters in Europe are confident in the identification of Ambrosia pollen grains. A total of 69 analysts from 20 countries examined a test slide by light microscopy, which contained Ambrosia pollen and pollen from other Asteraceae that could be recorded in the atmosphere at the same time of year (i.e. Artemisia, Iva, and Xanthium). Daily average pollen concentrations produced by individual participants were compared with the assigned value and the bias was measured by z-score. Both the assigned value and standard deviation for proficiency testing were calculated following the consensus value principle (ISO13528:2005) from the results reported by all the participants in the test. It took a total of 531 days from when the exercise commenced until all 69 analysts reported their results. The most outliers were reported for Artemisia pollen concentrations followed by Xanthium and Iva. The poor results for Artemisia and Xanthium were probably caused by low concentrations on the test slide leading to larger bias due to the unequal distribution of pollen over the microscope slide. Participants performed the best in identifying and quantifying Ambrosia pollen. Performing inter-laboratory ring tests with the same sample is very time consuming and might not be appropriate for large-scale proficiency testing in aerobiology. Pollen with similar morphology should be included in the education process of aerobiologists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9461-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Errors in determining the flow rate of Hirst-type pollen traps
    • Authors: Jose Oteros; Jeroen Buters; Gottfried Laven; Stefani Röseler; Reinhard Wachter; Carsten Schmidt-Weber; Frieder Hofmann
      Pages: 201 - 210
      Abstract: Standardisation of methods of pollen monitoring networks is vital for data quality. In pollen monitoring networks in Europe, the Hirst-type trap is standard. Hirst traps are calibrated with handheld rotameters. We detected a systematic error in the flow rate calibrated by these standard handheld rotameters. We measured the flow rate of 19 Hirst traps from three commercial brands during calibration but also during monitoring. We used three different rotameters supplied by the manufacturers of the traps, respectively. The actual air flow rate was measured using an electronic heat anemometer with negligible air flow resistance. After calibration to 10 l/min, the rotameter was removed, which led to a significant increase in the flow rate in the range of 10.5–17.2 l/min, a systematic error between 5 and 72%. No significant difference was found between the different commercial trap brands. The analysis revealed that the error depended on the type of the rotameter and the individual trap. The error may be explained by the additional air flow resistance of each rotameter. The total resistance of the system—trap plus rotameter—is higher during calibration when the rotameter is held on the inlet compared to the routine monitoring without the rotameter. Depending on the characteristic curve of the suction pump in the trap (fan), the air flow rate increases to values considerably higher than 10 l/min. Thus, monitoring is done under a higher flow rate than that was calibrated. In order to obtain comparable data within a monitoring network, a solution for correction of this systematic error seems advisable, preferably in cooperation with the manufacturers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9467-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol and Sabouraud dextrose
           agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol for airborne mold sampling
    • Authors: Sibel Mentese; Muserref Tatman Otkun; Elif Palaz
      Pages: 211 - 219
      Abstract: The more the mold species isolated on a culture medium, the more the sampling environment is represented accurately. According to the sampling purpose, it is crucial to use the best culture medium for mold. However, no study is available regarding the comparison of dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol (SDA-CHX-CHL) culture media in terms of their application for airborne sampling, isolation, and identification of fungi. Airborne mold samples were impacted onto both DRBC and SDA-CHX-CHL, simultaneously using single-stage Andersen sampler. The limit of detection (LOD) value for airborne mold count was 7 CFU m−3 (1 colony growth on the Petri dish). The total mold counts (TMC) ranged between <7 and 504 CFU m−3 (med 56 CFU m−3) and <7 and 1218 CFU m−3 (med 259 CFU m−3), collected on SDA-CHX-CHL and DRBC, respectively. Significantly higher TMC were observed on DRBC than on SDA regardless of the sampling environment (i.e, indoor or outdoor) (p < 0.05). Among the most predominant mold genera, observation frequencies of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. on both culture media were found to be more than 70%. Observation frequencies of Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and yeast were found to be higher in samples collected on DRBC than those on SDA-CHX-CHL. Finally, DRBC was found to be superior to SDA in terms of both number of colonies and number of genera isolated from the air.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9462-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Atmospheric concentrations and intradiurnal pattern of Alternaria and
           Cladosporium conidia in Tétouan (NW of Morocco)
    • Authors: Fadoua Bardei; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Nabila Ajouray; Fatima El Haskouri; Mohamed Kadiri
      Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Fungal spores of Alternaria and Cladosporium are ubiquitous components of both indoor and outdoor air samples and are the main causes of human respiratory allergies. Monitoring these airborne fungal spores during 2009–2014 was carried out by means of Hirst-type spore trap to investigate their airborne spore concentrations with respect to annual load, seasonality and overall intradiurnal pattern. Alternaria and Cladosporium spores are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tétouan, although they show seasonal variations. Despite important differences between years, their highest levels presented a first peak during spring and a higher second peak in summer or autumn depending on the year. The spore concentrations were homogeneously distributed throughout the day with slight increase of 7.6 and 3.7% on average between 12–14 and 14–16 h for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. The borderline of 3000 sp/m3 of Cladosporium linked to the occurrence of allergic diseases was exceeded between 13 and 31 days. Airborne spores of Alternaria overcame the threshold value of 100 sp/m3 up to 95 days, suggesting that Cladosporium and Alternaria could be clinically significant aeroallergens for atopic patients.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9465-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Viable airborne microbial counts from air-cooling units with and without
           complaints of urine and body odors
    • Authors: Ka Man Lai; Yik Hei Sung; Kowk Keung Ma
      Pages: 229 - 241
      Abstract: Viable airborne microbial counts are commonly used in indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, but studies linking the microbial counts to a specific type of indoor microbial contamination are limited. We hypothesize that the airborne microbial counts can differentiate air-cooling units with and without complaints of urine and body odors. The keratinolytic property of some isolated bacteria prompts to the hypothesis that keratinase is present in the units to break down keratins, structural proteins that form human skin scales, as sources of amino acids and ammonium to produce the odors. Seven bacterial species and four fungal species were identified in the units and room air. Airborne Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Methylobacterium organophilum counts contributed the most to the microbial dissimilarities of units with and without odor complaints. Keratinolytic bacteria and a methylotrophic bacterium were abundant in the units. All the units contained ammonium, and keratinase activity was higher in the units with odor complaints. Extracellular keratinase activity was more effective at 20 °C than at 30 or 4 °C. Keratinolytic bacteria produced high levels of ammonium in the culture with skin cells. Viable airborne microbial counts can help IAQ inspectors to identify potential odor-causing air-cooling units. Keratins may be broken down in the units and associated with the odor complaints.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9466-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Pollen spectrum in Northern Tunis, Tunisia
    • Authors: S. Hadj Hamda; A. Ben Dhiab; C. Galán; M. Msallem
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: This study has been focused on airborne pollen concentration in Northern Tunis. Pollen has been detected by a volumetric Hirst-type spore trap. This suction sampler was placed for two hydrologic years in the area of Mornag, northeastof Tunisia (36°40N; 10°17E). Fifty-two taxa were identified with heterogeneous daily pollen concentrations and a dominance of anemophilous plants. The main pollen types detected in the atmosphere were Olea europaea (38.7 and 20.75%), Cupressus (33.57 and 55.4%), Urticaceae (9.22 and 12.24%), Poaceae (3.55 and 3.32%), Mercurialis annua (2.96 and 1.6%) and Amaranthaceae (2.49 and 1.55%). The monthly pollen spectrum indicated a seasonal periodicity of airborne pollen with the main pollen season during spring. Two pollen seasons have been observed during these hydrologic years, due to both Cupressus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen is represented during winter or spring, and also during autumn and late summer, respectively. Other pollen types represent a long pollen season, i.e., Urticaceae, starting in autumn and following until late spring. Daily pollen concentration showed a different behavior during the flowering season between both years, observing differences related to pollen index. Correlation between daily pollen concentrations of the dominant taxa showed a positive and significant correlation between airborne pollen concentrations of spring-pollinated taxa and mean temperature, but negative with maximum temperature, humidity and rainfall. In the case of minimum temperature, a different response, positive for trees and negative for herbaceous plants, has been observed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9464-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Variations and trends of Betula pollen seasons in Moscow (Russia) in
           relation to meteorological parameters
    • Authors: Elena Severova; Olga Volkova
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: This study investigates possible links of meteorological data and the start date, end date, duration, date of peak, peak value and Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI) of birch pollen seasons recorded in Moscow, Russia, during 1993–2015. Pollen data were collected by a volumetric spore trap. Correlation analysis was used to study relationships between various parameters of pollen seasons. Simple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate trends over time; multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to describe SPI fluctuations as a function of seasonal or monthly climatic parameters. Air temperatures increased significantly during the study period, but no effect on the timing of the birch pollen season was found. Only the severity of the season showed significant changes that can be considered as a consequence of global warming. Rainfall in May and June of the year preceding flowering, total rainfall in the 40-day pre-season period and average temperature during the pollination were shown to be the most important parameters affecting birch pollen concentrations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9460-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index recorded by
           sites belonging to the Portuguese Aerobiology Network
    • Authors: Irene Câmara Camacho; Elsa Caeiro; Raquel Ferro; Roberto Camacho; Rita Câmara; Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń; Matt Smith; Agnieszka Strzelczak; Carlos Nunes; Mário Morais-Almeida
      Pages: 265 - 279
      Abstract: This study presents the findings of a 10-year survey carried out by the Portuguese Aerobiology Network (RPA) at seven pollen-monitoring stations: five mainland stations (Oporto, Coimbra, Lisbon, Évora and Portimão) and two insular stations [Funchal (Madeira archipelago) and Ponta Delgada (Azores archipelago)]. The main aim of the study was to examine spatial and temporal variations in the Annual Pollen Index (API) with particular focus on the most frequently recorded pollen types. Pollen monitoring (2003–2012) was carried out using Hirst-type volumetric spore traps, following the minimum recommendations proposed by the European Aerobiology Society Working Group on Quality Control. Daily pollen data were examined for similarities using the Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test and multivariate regression trees. Simple linear regression analysis was used to describe trends in API. The airborne pollen spectrum at RPA stations is dominated by important allergenic pollen types such as Poaceae, Olea and Urticaceae. Statistically significant differences were witnessed in the API recorded at the seven stations. Mean API is higher in the southern mainland cities, e.g. Évora, Lisbon and Portimão, and lower in insular and littoral cities. There were also a number of significant trends in API during the 10-year study. This report identifies spatial and temporal variations in the amount of airborne pollen recorded annually in the Portuguese territory. There were also a number of significant changes in API, but no general increases in the amount of airborne pollen.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9468-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Airborne pollen in Córdoba City (Spain) and its implications for
           pollen allergy
    • Authors: J. Cebrino; S. Portero de la Cruz; M. J. Barasona; P. Alcázar; C. Moreno; E. Domínguez-Vilches; C. Galán
      Pages: 281 - 291
      Abstract: Pollen allergy is among the most widespread allergic disease in Andalusia. However, few studies have examined patient information in conjunction with data on airborne pollen concentrations. This paper sought to identify the airborne pollen types prevalent in Córdoba, to examine the relationship between airborne pollen and the occurrence of allergies, and to investigate the use of drugs to treat various symptoms displayed by pollen-allergy sufferers over the study period. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in Córdoba City between February and June in 2014 and 2015, using an original specific questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, symptom and pollen-allergy data. Airborne pollen was collected using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied. A total of 178 sensitive subjects were included in the study. The prevalence of allergy to olive, grass and plane-tree pollen was 70.73, 73.17 and 19.51%, respectively, in 2014, and 70.83, 70.83 and 21.12%, respectively, in 2015. In both years, rhinitis was the most common allergic symptom (93.90% in 2014, 87.75% in 2015) and a significant correlation between the occurrence of rhinitis and antihistamine consumption was found (p < 0.05 in 2014, p < 0.001 in 2015). The percentage of asthmatic subjects using an inhaler was significantly higher than those who did not used it (63.16% vs. 26.98%; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this paper supports previous studies showing that the most allergenic pollen types in spring were olive, grass and plane-tree pollen. In addition, we found that rhinitis was the main symptom and antihistamines the medication most widely used by the sensitized population in Córdoba.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9469-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Statistical modeling, forecasting and time series analysis of birch
           phenology in Montreal, Canada
    • Authors: Alain Robichaud; Paul Comtois
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse birch pollen time series observed in Montreal (Canada) in order to understand the link between inter-annual variability of phenology and environmental factors and to build predictive models for the upcoming pollen season. Modeling phenology is challenging, especially in Canada, where phenological observations are rare. Nevertheless, understanding phenology is required for scientific applications (e.g. inputs to numerical models of pollen dispersion) but also to help allergy sufferers to better prepare their medication and avoidance strategies before the start of the pollen season. We used multivariate statistical regression to analyse and predict phenology. The predictors were drawn from a large basin (over 60) of potential environmental predictors including meteorological data and global climatic indices such NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation index) and ENSO/MEI (Multivariate Enso Index). Results of this paper are summarized as follows: (1) an accurate forecast for the upcoming season starting date of the birch pollen season was obtained (showing low bias and total forecast error of about 4 days in Montreal), (2) NAO and ENSO/MEI indices were found to be well correlated (i.e. 44% of the variance explained) with birch phenology, (3) a long-term trend of 2.6 days per decade (p < 0.1) towards longer season duration was found for the length of the birch pollen season in Montreal. Finally, perturbations of the quasi-biennial cycle of birch were observed in the pollen data during the pollen season following the Great Ice Storm of 1998 which affected south-eastern Canada.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9488-0
       
  • Allergenic Asteraceae in air particulate matter: quantitative DNA analysis
           of mugwort and ragweed
    • Authors: I. Müller-Germann; D. A. Pickersgill; H. Paulsen; B. Alberternst; U. Pöschl; J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky; V. R. Després
      Abstract: Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) are highly allergenic Asteraceae. They often cause pollen allergies in late summer and fall. While mugwort is native to Europe, ragweed reached Europe as a neophyte from North America about 150 years ago and continued spreading ever since. To understand possible relationships between the spread of ragweed, its abundance in air, and to judge possible health risks for the public, we quantified ragweed DNA in inhalable fine as well as in coarse air particulate matter. Mugwort was chosen for comparison, as it is closely related to ragweed and grows in similar, though mainly not identical, habitats but is native to Germany. The DNA quantification was performed on atmospheric aerosol samples collected over a period of 5 years in central Europe. The DNA concentrations were highest during the characteristic pollination periods but varied greatly between different years. In the inhalable fine particle fraction, ragweed exceeds the mugwort DNA concentration fivefold, while the coarse particle fraction, bearing intact pollen grains, contains more mugwort than ragweed DNA. The higher allergenic potential of ragweed might be linked to the humidity or long-range transport-induced bursting of ragweed pollen into smaller allergenic particles, which may reach the lower airways and cause more intense allergic reactions. Airborne ragweed DNA was detected also outside the local pollination periods, which can be explained by atmospheric long-range transport. Back-trajectory analyses indicate that the air masses containing ragweed DNA during winter had originated in regions with milder climate and large ragweed populations (Southern France, Carpathian Basin).
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9485-3
       
  • Assessment of microbial aerosol emissions in an urban wastewater treatment
           plant operated with activated sludge process
    • Authors: Saied Fathi; Yaghoub Hajizadeh; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Mozhgan Gorbani
      Abstract: Wastewater that enters wastewater treatment plants contains lots of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms which can become bioaerosols during treatment processes and pose health hazard to workers and nearby residents. The emission of the bioaerosols from an urban wastewater treatment plant in spring and summer in different locations and downwind of the plant adopting an extended mechanical aeration system was investigated. Samples of bacteria and fungi were collected within 6 months at 10 selected points by an Anderson one-stage impactor. The highest concentration of bacteria (mean 1373 CFU/m3, 741–2817 CFU/m3) and fungi (mean 1384 CFU/m3, 212–1610 CFU/m3) was found in downwind of the aeration basins. Statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between concentration of bacterial bioaerosols at downwind side of the aeration basins and wind speed (p value <0.05) and temperature (p value <0.05). Also, in the spring and summer, between the number of bacteria and fungi inside the plant and outside the plant (downwind) a significant correlation was observed (p value ≤0.05). The concentrations of bacteria at a distance of 500 m downwind were much higher than those at the background (upwind) point in spring and summer. The processes of wastewater treatment especially using mechanical equipment to create turbulence can be considered as a major source of spreading airborne microorganisms to ambient air of wastewater treatment plants, and the bioaerosols can be dispersed to downwind distances affecting the nearby neighboring. Therefore, in order to decrease the bioaerosols emission, doing some course of actions such as covering the surface of aeration basins, changing the aeration methods and aeration equipment (e. g using diffuser aerator) may be effective.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9486-2
       
  • Inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β- d -glucans as indicators of
           exposure in waste sorting plant environment
    • Authors: Anna Kozajda; Karolina Jeżak; Marcin Cyprowski; Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans as agents harmful to the respiratory tract of workers of municipal waste sorting plants and interaction between these agents based on the measurements taken in two plants with different processing capacities. The study was conducted in summer season in two waste sorting plants (WSPs) differing in processing capacity. Samples of bioaerosol for inhalable dust (gravimetric method), endotoxins (LAL test in kinetic, chromogenic version) and (1–3)-β-d-glucans (Glucatell test in kinetic version) were collected from 42 sorting workers using individual aspirators with glass fiber filters during the work shift. Average geometric concentrations (geometric standard deviation; min–max) of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans were: WSP1: 1.7 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.6–6.9 mg m−3); 15.9 ng m−3 (2.1; 5.4–78.9 ng m−3), 55.1 ng m−3 (1.8; 20.7–188.6 ng m−3) and WSP2: 0.8 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.2–3.8 mg m−3), 9.8 ng m−3 (2.4; 1.6–29.7 ng m−3), 45.0 ng m−3 (3.2, 5.7–212.9 ng m−3), respectively. A significantly higher concentration of inhalable dust was recorded in WSP1 with bigger processing capacity compared to WSP2 (less processing capacity). Significant (p < 0.05) and very high correlations (Spearman rank R > 0.7) were found between the concentrations of all analyzed harmful agents. Processing capacity of waste sorting plants differentially affects the concentrations of inhalable dust, whereas concentrations of endotoxins and glucans are less clearly affected. This suggests that relative concentrations of endotoxin and glucan are depending on the waste sorting capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9484-4
       
  • Olive crop-yield forecasting based on airborne pollen in a region where
           the olive groves acreage and crop system changed drastically
    • Authors: Helena Ribeiro; Ilda Abreu; Mário Cunha
      Abstract: Olive trees are one of the most economically important perennial crops in Portugal. During the last decade, the Alentejo olive-growing region has suffered a significantly change in the crop production system, with the regional pollen index (RPI) and olive fruit production registering a significant growth. The aim of this study was to ascertain the utility of this highly variable production and pollen data in crop forecasting modeling. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Cour-type trap from 1999 to 2015. A linear regression model fitted with the regional pollen index as the independent variable showed an accuracy of 87% in estimating olives fruit production in Alentejo. However, the average deviation between observed and modeled production was 32% with half of the tested years presenting deviations between 36 and 66%. The low accuracy of this model is a consequence of the great overall variation and significant upward trend observed in both the production and the RPI dataset that conceal the true association between these variables. In order to overcome this problem, a detrend procedure was applied to both time series to remove the trend observed. The regression model fitted with the fruit production and the RPI detrended data showed a lowest forecasting accuracy of 63% but the average deviation between observed and modeled production decrease to 14% with a maximum deviation value of 33%. This procedure allows focusing the analysis on the production fluctuations related to the biological response of the trees rather than with the changes in the production system.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9483-5
       
  • Effects of wind speed and direction on monthly fluctuations of
           Cladosporium conidia concentration in the air
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Abstract: This study determined the relationship between airborne concentration of Cladosporium spp. spores and wind speed and direction using real data (local wind measured by weather station) and modelled data (air mass flow computed with the aid of HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Trajectory model). Air samples containing fungal conidia were taken at an urban site (Worcester, UK) for a period of five consecutive years using a spore trap of the Hirst design. A threshold of ≥6000 s m−3 (double the clinical value) was applied in order to select high spore concentration days, when airborne transport of conidia at a regional scale was more likely to occur. Collected data were then examined using geospatial and statistical tools, including circular statistics. Obtained results showed that the greatest numbers of spore concentrations were detected in July and August, when C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides and C. macrocarpum sporulate. The circular correlation test was found to be more sensitive than Spearman’s rank test. The dominance of either local wind or the air mass on Cladosporium spore distributions varied between examined months. Source areas of this pathogen had an origin within the UK territory. Very high daily mean concentrations of Cladosporium spores were observed when daily mean local wind speed was v s ≤ 2.5 m s−1 indicating warm days with a light breeze.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9482-6
       
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of antimicrobial resistance profile of
           airborne Staphylococcus spp. isolated from flats in Kraków
    • Authors: Anna Lenart-Boroń; Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka; Katarzyna Juraszek; Andrzej Kasprowicz
      Abstract: Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from air sampled from living spaces in Kraków (Poland). In total, 55 strains belonging to the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from 45 sites, and 13 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified. The species composition of studied airborne microbiota contains Staphylococcus species that are rarely infectious to humans. Most commonly isolated species comprised S. hominis and S. warneri. The disk-diffusion tests showed that the collected isolates were most frequently resistant to erythromycin. The PCR technique was employed to search for genes conferring the resistance in staphylococci to antibiotics from the group of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins. The analyzed Staphylococcus isolates possessed simultaneously 4 different resistance genes. The molecular analysis with the use of specific primers allowed to determine the most prevalent gene which is mphC, responsible for the resistance to macrolides and for the enzymatic inactivation of the drug by phosphotransferase. The second most often detected gene was msrA1, which confers the resistance of staphylococci to macrolides and is responsible for active pumping of antimicrobial particles out of bacterial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9481-7
       
  • The relationship between birch pollen, air pollution and weather types and
           their effect on antihistamine purchase in two Swedish cities
    • Authors: Maria Grundström; Åslög Dahl; Tinghai Ou; Deliang Chen; Håkan Pleijel
      Abstract: Exposure to elevated air pollution levels can aggravate pollen allergy symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between airborne birch (Betula) pollen, urban air pollutants NO2, O3 and PM10 and their effects on antihistamine demand in Gothenburg and Malmö, Sweden, 2006–2012. Further, the influence of large-scale weather pattern on pollen-/pollution-related risk, using Lamb weather types (LWTs), was analysed. Daily LWTs were obtained by comparing the atmospheric pressure over a 16-point grid system over southern Sweden (scale ~3000 km). They include two non-directional types, cyclonic (C) and anticyclonic (A) and eight directional types depending on the wind direction (N, NE, E…). Birch pollen levels were exceptionally high under LWTs E and SE in both cities. Furthermore, LWTs with dry and moderately calm meteorological character (A, NE, E, SE) were associated with strongly elevated air pollution (NO2 and PM10) in Gothenburg. For most weather situations in both cities, simultaneously high birch pollen together with high air pollution had larger over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antihistamines than situations with high birch pollen alone. LWTs NE, E, SE and S had the highest OTC sales in both cities. In Gothenburg, the city with a higher load of both birch pollen and air pollution, the higher OTC sales were especially obvious and indicate an increased effect on allergic symptoms from air pollution. Furthermore, Gothenburg LWTs A, NE, E and SE were associated with high pollen and air pollution levels and thus classified as high-risk weather types. In Malmö, corresponding high-risk LWTs were NE, E, SE and S. Furthermore, occurrence of high pollen and air pollutants as well as OTC sales correlated strongly with vapour pressure deficit and temperature in Gothenburg (much less so in Malmö). This provides evidence that the combination of meteorological properties associated with LWTs can explain high levels of birch pollen and air pollution. Our study shows that LWTs represent a useful tool for integrated daily air quality forecasting/warning.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9478-2
       
  • Field studies measuring the aerosolization of endotoxin during the land
           application of Class B biosolids
    • Authors: R. F. Herrmann; R. J. Grosser; D. Farrar; R. B. Brobst
      Abstract: Endotoxins are a component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and are known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be potent stimulators of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin dispersed during the land application of Class B biosolids on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol samplers fitted with glass fiber filters, polycarbonate filter cassettes (both open and closed) and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared, and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers produced higher time-weighted average (TWA) measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed was found to be the variable best describing the observed results with optimal wind speed for highest deposition estimated at 5 m s−1. It is argued that HiVol air samplers are a particularly reliable approach and subsequent analyses relating TWA measurements to wind speed and biosolids characteristics were based on the measurements collected with those samplers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9480-8
       
  • Modelled and observed surface soil pollen deposition distance curves for
           isolated trees of Carpinus betulus , Cedrus atlantica , Juglans nigra and
           Platanus acerifolia
    • Authors: Beverley Adams-Groom; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Michael Baker; Thomas E. Welch
      Abstract: Source–distance relationships for pollen deposited directly into surface soil have been rarely undertaken, particularly for a single or isolated source, rather than a forest, grove or plantation. This study aimed to determine surface soil pollen deposition patterns from single, isolated source trees and to compare the results to Gaussian model curves for the same trees. Four isolated tree pollen sources were chosen in Worcester, UK: Carpinus betulus, Cedrus atlantica, Juglans nigra and Platanus acerifolia. Surface soil samples were collected at 1, 5 and then every 10 m, up to 100 m distance from the main trunk of each source along the prevailing wind direction during flowering. A Gaussian dispersion model was used to estimate source strength using tree height and width and wind speeds on days when flowering was occurring and when the wind direction flowed along the sampling transect. This model simulated the expected concentration and deposition along the sampling transect. Modelled and observed results showed that most pollen was deposited beneath the canopy (range 63–94%) in an exponentially decreasing curve and the tailing off started from around the outer edge of the canopy in most cases. The amount of pollen deposited at 50 m was no more than 2.6% of total deposition in the samples for any tree and at 100 m no more than 0.2%. Tree height, width and wind speed during the pollination period were found to be the main parameters affecting deposition away from the source.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9479-1
       
 
 
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