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ENGINEERING (1195 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • FTIR analysis of molecular composition changes in hazel pollen from
           unpolluted and urbanized areas
    • Authors: J. Depciuch; I. Kasprzyk; O. Sadik; M. Parlińska-Wojtan
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: In this study, the effect of urbanization and environmental pollution on qualitative (structural) and quantitative changes of the Corylus avellana (hazel) pollen was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile. The obtained spectroscopic results show significant variations in the fraction of proteins in the hazel pollen, which probably depend on various degrees of anthropopression. Our results suggest that alterations in the chemical composition of pollen, induced by urbanization and air pollutants, may intensify the allergenic potential and may cause the increase in the incidence of allergies in people. Mutations in nucleic acids are accompanied by a number of molecular changes leading to the formation of allergenic proteins. It seems that the type of habitat, where the pollen grew, affects the individual differentiation. Indeed, it was found that in the site exhibiting low pollution, the hazel pollen contain a lower amount of proteins than to the ones from a site with high anthropopression. Hence, FTIR spectroscopy and curve-fitting analysis of amide I profile can be successfully applied as tools for identifying quantitative and qualitative changes of proteins in hazel pollen. Graphical Anthropogenic factors such as air pollution and urbanization lead to changes in structure and chemical composition of hazel pollen. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gaussian analysis showed structural changes in hazel pollen collected from sites with different absorbance values of individual chemical functional groups and changes in the secondary structure of proteins of the pollen.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9445-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Pollen production and release in Mesua ferrea Linn. (Guttiferae): a
           spatio-temporal pattern
    • Authors: Vinod Prasad Khanduri; Kewat Sanjay Kumar
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Abstract Based on a five-year study of pollen production and release in two different natural populations of Mesua ferrea from Indo-Burma region of Northeast India, we determined that pollen output follows a spatio-temporal pattern. Pollen productivity determinations considered various sources of variability, including the number of flowers per branch, flowers per tree, anthers per tree and pollen grains per tree. Each of these parameters revealed significant year-to-year and population effects. Anthesis follows a forenoon pattern, whereas anther dehiscence pursues the diurnal pattern. The former was significantly correlated with the timing of floral visitation and pollen deposition on stigmas. The latter, however, had significant relationship with the deposition of pollen grains on microscopic slides. The Apis and Xylocopa bees are the efficient pollinators to achieve the reproductive success in M. ferrea. Annual production of pollen per tree varied from averages of 1.07 ± 0.10 × 1010 and 3.24 ± 0.16 × 1010 in years of low production, with alternate high years, producing 3.85 ± 0.34 × 1010 and 8.22 ± 0.76 × 1010 pollen grains per tree.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9446-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Fern and lycopod spores rain in a cloud forest of Hidalgo, Mexico
    • Authors: Felipe Gómez-Noguez; Blanca Pérez-García; Aniceto Mendoza-Ruiz; Alma Orozco-Segovia
      Pages: 23 - 35
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the “spore rain” of ferns and lycopods in a cloud forest. We tested whether the canopy impedes spore dispersal to surrounding areas and how spore dispersal is affected by rainfall. The spores were captured with a modified Bush–Gosling trap placed at 30 cm above ground level in forested and non-forested sites from March 2009 to February 2010. We collected 2462 fern spores from 158 morphospecies of which 76 were identified to species level. Thirty-seven species were found exclusively in the spore rain, and 39 were found as sporophytes as well (local component). Mean daily spore density (spores m−2) was calculated to find the sporulation period for each species. Twenty species showed seasonal patterns of sporulation. The highest spore density was found at the forested site (70 morphospecies and 1856 spores), of which 39 morphospecies (1482 spores) corresponded to the local vegetation. Fifty-five taxa were shared between the forested and non-forested site. In the non-forested site, 605 spores were captured belonging to 64 species. The density of spore rain between sites was significantly different. The rainfall amount was the same at both sites, with a dry period in March, April, and July 2009, and February 2010. There was a negative effect of rainfall on spore rain. The main sporulation occurred in the dry season with strong winds. Although the canopy inhibits airborne dispersal of fern spores, a small amount of spores can disperse beyond the canopy and reach surrounding areas. The rainfall might wash spores to ground and favor the colonization and the establishment of new populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9447-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Efficacy of cold fogging and oral herbal extracts on air quality and
           immune response of broilers
    • Authors: Awad A. Shehata; Klaus Herrmann; Thomas Pfalz; Hafez M. Hafez; Wieland Schrödl; Monika Krüger
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, the effect of aerosolized and water-supplemented Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented herbal extract (FHE) on air quality and immune response of broilers was studied. The experiments were performed in commercial broiler barns each accommodating 22,000 broiler chicks. Chickens kept in the house that were fogged twice daily with 20 l FHE (10 % in tap water) and provided with FHE in drinking water were compared with those in a comparable non-treated house. The total dust, airborne bacteria and endotoxins were significantly reduced in the FHE-fogged house. Chickens treated with FHE had significantly higher total IgY, better immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination and greater body weight (2 %), while serum avidin was significantly reduced compared with non-treated chickens. On the other hand, water fogging significantly decreased the total dust in a treated house compared with untreated house. However, cold fogging of water did not significantly decrease the cultivable airborne microorganisms in the treated house, and there was no significant difference in hemagglutinating antibodies in chickens of the water-fogged and non-treated houses. Body weights and mortality rates between the water-fogged and non-treated houses were not significantly different as well. These results suggest that cold fogging and oral applications of FHE could reduce the bioaerosols in poultry farms and improve the immune system of chickens.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9448-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Dead Sea medical tourism: an allergological point of view
    • Authors: Carmi Geller-Bernstein; Ron S. Kenett; Valentina Epstein; Amram Eshel
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Abstract A 1-year study was conducted, with the aim to investigate the airborne allergens around the Dead Sea (DS), identify and quantify airborne pollen and spores in the DS region, and determine the different sensitization prevalence among various population groups to these aeroallergens. According to results, we also aimed to define “safe seasons” when there are no or only few aeroallergens in the atmosphere that surrounds the Dead Sea. A Rotorod and a Hirst trap were used for continuous monitoring of pollen and spores which were then identified. Sensitization to aeroallergens was assessed by skin prick tests (SPT) in three groups of allergic residents: foreign tourists, Israeli tourists, and local workers from the hotel industry. Air around the DS is by no means free of aeroallergens, 50 pollen and 43 mold types were identified. Pollen was from native plants, imported ornamentals, and others transported by winds from long distances. Overall pollen concentrations were lower around the Dead Sea than in the Tel Aviv region, but in certain months, they were higher around the DS. Marked seasonal variations in pollen and spore dispersal were observed. By SPT, hypersensitivity to Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cupressus, Solidago, Poaceae, Olea, Artemisia as well as molds such as Alternaria and Aspergillus, was found. As assessed by SPT, some of tourists and permanent residents are allergic to pollen, molds, and house dust mites. The presented study enables one to denote “safe” seasons when the concentration of airborne allergens is below “allergenic risk”: June–August and November–February. These seasons are the most suitable for allergic medical tourists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9449-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Size distribution of allergenic Cry j 2 released from airborne Cryptomeria
           japonica pollen grains during the pollen scattering seasons
    • Authors: Xiumin Gong; Qingyue Wang; Senlin Lu; Miho Suzuki; Daisuke Nakajima; Kazuhiko Sekiguchi; Makoto Miwa
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Abstract Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis is one of seasonal allergic rhinitis that mainly occurs in Japan. The pollinosis is caused by two main kinds of allergenic proteins called Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 which exist in Cryptomeria japonica pollen. In our previous study, we reported that the size-segregated of airborne fine allergenic Cry j 1 and morphological change of Cry j 1 due to the contact with rainfall. However, the study on airborne allergenic Cry j 2 in different particle sizes has not been identified until now. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate the size distribution and scattering behavior of allergenic Cry j 2. The Cry j 2 particles were collected and determined in different particle sizes at the urban sampling points during the most severe pollination season of 2012 in Saitama, Japan. After the size-segregated Cry j 2 allergenic particles were collected using an Andersen high-volume (AHV) atmospheric sample, the airborne Cry j 2 concentrations were determined with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. At the same time, the airborne Cryptomeria japonica pollens were also counted by the Durham pollen sampler. The higher concentrations of the allergenic Cry j 2 were detected even in particle sizes equal to or less than 1.1 μm (PM1.1) than other particle sizes. The airborne particles ranges from 0.06 to 11 μm were also collected by a low-pressure impactor (LPI) atmospheric sampler. After that, the concentrations of Cry j 2 allergenic particles in fine particle sizes were measured by the SPR method either. With the help of this study, we have confirmed the existence of fine daughter allergenic particles, which clearly differ from the parent pollen grains in size, especially after the rainy days. It is possible that the daughter allergenic species will be released from the fractions of cell wall and burst pollen grains. We concluded that rainwater was one of the important factors that affects the release of pollen allergenic proteins of both Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 from the parent pollen grains.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9450-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Molecular analysis of environmental plant DNA in house dust across the
           United States
    • Authors: Joseph M. Craine; Albert Barberán; Ryan C. Lynch; Holly L. Menninger; Robert R. Dunn; Noah Fierer
      Pages: 71 - 86
      Abstract: Abstract Despite the prevalence and costs of allergic diseases caused by pollen, we know little about the distributions of allergenic and non-allergenic pollen inside and outside homes at the continental scale. To better understand patterns in potential pollen diversity across the United States, we used DNA sequencing of a chloroplast marker gene to identify the plant DNA found in settled dust collected on indoor and outdoor surfaces across 459 homes. House location was the best predictor of the relative abundance of plant taxa found in outdoor dust samples. Urban, southern houses in hotter climates that were further from the coast were more likely to have more DNA from grass and moss species, while rural houses in northern, cooler climates closer to the coast were more likely to have higher relative abundances of DNA from Pinus and Cedrus species. In general, those plant taxa that were more abundant outdoors were also more abundant indoors, but indoor dust had uniquely high abundances of DNA from food plants and plants associated with lawns. Approximately 14 % of the plant DNA sequences found outside were from plant taxa that are known to have allergenic pollen compared to just 8 % inside. There was little geographic pattern in the total relative abundance of these allergens highlighting the difficulties associated with trying to predict allergen exposures based on geographic location alone. Together, this work demonstrates the utility of using environmental DNA sequencing to reconstruct the distributions of plant DNA inside and outside buildings, an approach that could prove useful for better understanding and predicting plant allergen exposures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9451-5
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Comparison between the counting methods used by two aerobiology networks
           in southern Europe (Spain and Italy)
    • Authors: D. Gharbi; M. A. Brighetti; A. Travaglini; M. M. Trigo
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Abstract Aerobiology studies the biological particles suspended in the atmosphere in order to know what types are present in the air and how their concentrations vary spatially or seasonally. The measurement of airborne pollen concentration requires a standardized methodology. Normally, the analysis of the slides obtained after samplings is carried out according to national network procedures. Different networks use different slide counting methods (longitudinal sweeps, transverse sweeps or random fields), and a different number of lines/fields are routinely read. In this study, we compared two slide counting methods adopted by two monitoring centres belonging to different aerobiology networks that operate in southern Europe, the University of Malaga (Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA) and the University of Roma Tor Vergata (Rete Italiana di Monitoraggio in Aerobiologia, the RIMA). For that, the same samples were counted following the two methodologies consisting on the reading of four (REA) and six (RIMA), respectively, longitudinal sweeps at a magnification of 400X (REA). Statistical analysis was performed in order to search the degree of association between the two series of data obtained, as well as whether or not there were significant differences between them. The results showed highly significant correlation and regression coefficients. On the other hand, Wilcoxon tests, in general, did not showed significant differences between the series for the total pollen as well as for the major pollen types. This confirms that the two methods can be used indistinctly although it would be convenient for the different networks to standardize and unify methodologies in order to follow the same operating procedures.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9452-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • An aeropalynological survey in the city of Van, a high altitudinal region,
           East Anatolia-Turkey
    • Authors: Adem Bicakci; Aycan Tosunoglu; Mustafa Kemal Altunoglu; Gulsah Saatcioglu; Ali Murat Keser; Fevzi Ozgokce
      Pages: 93 - 108
      Abstract: Abstract Pollen concentrations in the atmosphere of Van city has been monitored for two consecutive years (2010–2011). This was the first detailed aeropalynological study for the elevated East Anatolia Region of Turkey. The sampling was performed by Hirst-type volumetric sampler, and pollen grains of 35 taxa were identified. The main pollen producers of the pollen flora were recorded as: Poaceae (20.94 %), Cupressaceae (10.53 %), Fraxinus (8.56 %), Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (7.77 %), Populus (7.75 %), Quercus (6.70 %), Platanus (6.68 %), Morus (5.57 %), Plantago (3.03 %). The pollen spectrum reflected the floristic diversity of the region, and the highest pollen concentration was recorded in April. There were a great percentage of allergenic taxa found in the city atmosphere, otherwise many of them scored under threshold values for risk of pollinosis. Statistical analyses were performed for correlating daily pollen concentrations of dominated pollen types concurrent with the data of meteorological parameters in MPS periods and number of significant correlations found. In addition, comparing 2-year data in terms of pollen concentrations and meteorological factors in MPS durations, many variables were found explanatory and concordant with the data. MPS starting dates of many plant taxa were found nearly a month later compared with western sites and lower altitudes of the country as well as Mediterranean countries; this case is mostly thought the ecological factors of the study area which directly affects the plant growth about the timing.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9453-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • The long-range transport of Pinaceae pollen: an example in Kraków
           (southern Poland)
    • Authors: Kazimierz Szczepanek; Dorota Myszkowska; Elżbieta Worobiec; Katarzyna Piotrowicz; Monika Ziemianin; Zuzanna Bielec-Bąkowska
      Pages: 109 - 125
      Abstract: Abstract High Pinaceae pollen concentrations in the air and on the surface of puddles before the main pollen season started were observed in Kraków (southern Poland) in May 2013. The paper presents the results of detailed studies of the composition and source of the “yellow rain” in 2013, and as a comparison, the Pinaceae pollen concentrations and samples collected from the ground surface in 2014 were considered. The air samples were collected using the volumetric method (Hirst-type device), while pollen grains sampled from the ground surface were processed using a modified Erdtman acetolysis method. Finally, all samples were studied using a light microscope. In 2013, the period of higher Abies, Picea and Pinus pollen concentrations was observed from the 5 to 12 of May, earlier than the main pollen season occurred. The presence of rainfall on the 12 and 13 of May 2013 caused the pollen deposition on the ground surface, where the prevalence of Pinaceae pollen was found. The synoptic situation and the analysis of the back-trajectories and air mass advection at the beginning of May 2013 indicated that Pinaceae pollen grains could have been transported from Ukraine, Romania, Hungary and Slovakia. In contrast, Pinaceae pollen grains deposited on the ground surface as a “yellow” film in May 2014, originated from local sources.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9454-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Next-generation sequencing revealed dominant fungal populations in
           collected dust from selected public school classrooms in Metro Manila
    • Authors: Marilen P. Balolong; Leslie Michelle M. Dalmacio; Mark Lester V. Magabo; Diane Nicole L. Sy; Arnold V. Hallare
      Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: Abstract Fungal contaminants inside classrooms may increase the chance of health-related problems for school children and teachers, reducing their learning and productivity. Recent initiatives have utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in order to understand dust ecology and were used to significantly correlate some genera with health-related conditions. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report, describing the fungal community profile of collected dust using 454 pyrosequencing of the ITS region of the 18S rRNA gene from public school classrooms in Metro Manila, Philippines. Culture-dependent technique was done by gravimetric sampling on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) to note the importance of existing viable spores present in the rooms. Composite samples of settled dust from each classroom were collected and pooled to represent one sample per school. The fungal ITS rRNA genes amplified from genomic DNA with barcoded primers were sent for pyrosequencing on a 454 GS FLX titanium platform, and sequences were analyzed using the ITScan pipeline. Fungal sequences from the collected dust samples clustered in 108 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which occur as singleton. The number of OTUs that correspond to fungal species varied from 16 to 29 per sample. Rarefaction curves indicated that sampling coverage was partial and that the remaining fraction of the species diversity remains to be discovered. Genera that were detected by both NGS and by cultivation on SDA include Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9455-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • The effect of season and terrestrial biome on the abundance of bacteria
           with plant growth-promoting traits in the lower atmosphere
    • Authors: Miranda L. Striluk; Ken Aho; Carolyn F. Weber
      Pages: 137 - 149
      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies indicate that airborne bacteria follow biogeographical distributions that are influenced by the underlying terrestrial biomes. Nonetheless, dynamics of bacterial fluxes between different terrestrial biomes and the atmosphere and their implications for terrestrial ecology are not well understood. This study examined how season and three different terrestrial biomes affect the abundance of culturable bacteria with three types of plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs; phosphate-solubilization, siderophore-production, indoleacetic acid production) in the lower atmosphere. Air samples (180 L) were collected onto Petri dishes containing one of three different agar media for cultivating bacteria with the above-named PGPT in replicates of five above three distinct terrestrial biomes (aspen-forest, sagebrush-steppe, and suburban; Pocatello, ID, USA). Air was sampled once per week for three consecutive weeks during each of four seasons (autumn 2014 to summer 2015). Sequence libraries (16S rRNA gene) were also generated from air collected at each site during each sampling event. All three types of bacteria were present in the lower atmosphere above all terrestrial biomes during all seasons, but their abundance (P < 0.05) fluctuated with season, and the abundance of phosphate-solubilizers and siderophore-producers fluctuated with the interaction of biome and season (P < 0.05). Cultured bacteria with PGPTs represented 13 families; these families were also represented by 28.3–61.3 % of sequences in each of the 36-sequence libraries derived from air samples. Results of this first survey of airborne bacteria with PGPTs provide evidence that they may be ubiquitous in the lower atmosphere through which their transport to new habitats, particularly those in early successional stages, may impact ecosystem development.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9456-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bioaerosol assessment in the library of Istanbul University and fungal
           flora associated with paper deterioration
    • Authors: Duygu Göksay Kadaifciler
      Pages: 151 - 166
      Abstract: Abstract Health problems in people who are in indoor environments with poor ventilation have resulted in an increase in the number of studies regarding air quality. Microorganisms and inferior indoor air-climatic conditions not only affect human health but also cause decay of invaluable materials present in libraries. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the culturable bioaerosol composition and concentration in the library of Istanbul University. The culturable fungal flora, a biodeterioration agent, of the damaged archival materials was also examined. The air was sampled for a year, as were the surfaces of 207 biologically damaged books. The fungal colonies’ range was between 235 and 1850 CFU/m3, and the bacterial colonies range between 270 and 1920 CFU/m3. This is the first volumetric record in Turkey. Although the microbial contamination was not very high, molds such as Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus ochraceus might cause harm to human beings or to books as biodeterioration agents. The highest amount of fungus was determined in Archive 3, which contained damaged books. The fungal species isolated from the air and books were essentially the same. Therefore, it is important to determine not only the numeric values but also the microbiological composition of fungal colonies because the variety of fungal species is indicative of a deterioration process in effect over a long period. The deterioration of books must be remedied.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9457-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • On impact of transport conditions on variability of the seasonal pollen
    • Authors: M. Sofiev
      Pages: 167 - 179
      Abstract: Abstract This discussion paper reveals the contribution of pollen transport conditions to the inter-annual variability of the seasonal pollen index (SPI). This contribution is quantified as a sensitivity of the pollen model predictions to meteorological variability and is shown to be a noticeable addition to the SPI variability caused by plant reproduction cycles. A specially designed SILAM model re-analysis of pollen seasons 1980–2014 was performed, resulting in the 35 years of the SPI predictions over Europe, which was used to compute the SPI inter-annual variability. The current paper presents the results for birch and grass. Throughout the re-analysis, the source term formulations and habitation maps were kept constant, which allowed attributing the obtained variability exclusively to the pollen release and transport conditions during the flowering seasons. It is shown that the effect is substantial: it amounts to 10–20% (grass) and 20–40% (birch) of the observed SPI year-to-year changes reported in the literature. The phenomenon has well-pronounced spatial- and species-specific patterns. The findings were compared with observation-based statistical models for the SPI prediction, showing that such models highlight the same processes as the analysis with the SILAM model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9459-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of antimicrobial resistance profile of
           airborne Staphylococcus spp. isolated from flats in Kraków
    • Authors: Anna Lenart-Boroń; Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka; Katarzyna Juraszek; Andrzej Kasprowicz
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from air sampled from living spaces in Kraków (Poland). In total, 55 strains belonging to the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from 45 sites, and 13 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified. The species composition of studied airborne microbiota contains Staphylococcus species that are rarely infectious to humans. Most commonly isolated species comprised S. hominis and S. warneri. The disk-diffusion tests showed that the collected isolates were most frequently resistant to erythromycin. The PCR technique was employed to search for genes conferring the resistance in staphylococci to antibiotics from the group of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins. The analyzed Staphylococcus isolates possessed simultaneously 4 different resistance genes. The molecular analysis with the use of specific primers allowed to determine the most prevalent gene which is mphC, responsible for the resistance to macrolides and for the enzymatic inactivation of the drug by phosphotransferase. The second most often detected gene was msrA1, which confers the resistance of staphylococci to macrolides and is responsible for active pumping of antimicrobial particles out of bacterial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9481-7
  • The relationship between birch pollen, air pollution and weather types and
           their effect on antihistamine purchase in two Swedish cities
    • Authors: Maria Grundström; Åslög Dahl; Tinghai Ou; Deliang Chen; Håkan Pleijel
      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to elevated air pollution levels can aggravate pollen allergy symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between airborne birch (Betula) pollen, urban air pollutants NO2, O3 and PM10 and their effects on antihistamine demand in Gothenburg and Malmö, Sweden, 2006–2012. Further, the influence of large-scale weather pattern on pollen-/pollution-related risk, using Lamb weather types (LWTs), was analysed. Daily LWTs were obtained by comparing the atmospheric pressure over a 16-point grid system over southern Sweden (scale ~3000 km). They include two non-directional types, cyclonic (C) and anticyclonic (A) and eight directional types depending on the wind direction (N, NE, E…). Birch pollen levels were exceptionally high under LWTs E and SE in both cities. Furthermore, LWTs with dry and moderately calm meteorological character (A, NE, E, SE) were associated with strongly elevated air pollution (NO2 and PM10) in Gothenburg. For most weather situations in both cities, simultaneously high birch pollen together with high air pollution had larger over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antihistamines than situations with high birch pollen alone. LWTs NE, E, SE and S had the highest OTC sales in both cities. In Gothenburg, the city with a higher load of both birch pollen and air pollution, the higher OTC sales were especially obvious and indicate an increased effect on allergic symptoms from air pollution. Furthermore, Gothenburg LWTs A, NE, E and SE were associated with high pollen and air pollution levels and thus classified as high-risk weather types. In Malmö, corresponding high-risk LWTs were NE, E, SE and S. Furthermore, occurrence of high pollen and air pollutants as well as OTC sales correlated strongly with vapour pressure deficit and temperature in Gothenburg (much less so in Malmö). This provides evidence that the combination of meteorological properties associated with LWTs can explain high levels of birch pollen and air pollution. Our study shows that LWTs represent a useful tool for integrated daily air quality forecasting/warning.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9478-2
  • Field studies measuring the aerosolization of endotoxin during the land
           application of Class B biosolids
    • Authors: R. F. Herrmann; R. J. Grosser; D. Farrar; R. B. Brobst
      Abstract: Abstract Endotoxins are a component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and are known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be potent stimulators of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin dispersed during the land application of Class B biosolids on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol samplers fitted with glass fiber filters, polycarbonate filter cassettes (both open and closed) and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared, and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers produced higher time-weighted average (TWA) measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed was found to be the variable best describing the observed results with optimal wind speed for highest deposition estimated at 5 m s−1. It is argued that HiVol air samplers are a particularly reliable approach and subsequent analyses relating TWA measurements to wind speed and biosolids characteristics were based on the measurements collected with those samplers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9480-8
  • Modelled and observed surface soil pollen deposition distance curves for
           isolated trees of Carpinus betulus , Cedrus atlantica , Juglans nigra and
           Platanus acerifolia
    • Authors: Beverley Adams-Groom; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Michael Baker; Thomas E. Welch
      Abstract: Abstract Source–distance relationships for pollen deposited directly into surface soil have been rarely undertaken, particularly for a single or isolated source, rather than a forest, grove or plantation. This study aimed to determine surface soil pollen deposition patterns from single, isolated source trees and to compare the results to Gaussian model curves for the same trees. Four isolated tree pollen sources were chosen in Worcester, UK: Carpinus betulus, Cedrus atlantica, Juglans nigra and Platanus acerifolia. Surface soil samples were collected at 1, 5 and then every 10 m, up to 100 m distance from the main trunk of each source along the prevailing wind direction during flowering. A Gaussian dispersion model was used to estimate source strength using tree height and width and wind speeds on days when flowering was occurring and when the wind direction flowed along the sampling transect. This model simulated the expected concentration and deposition along the sampling transect. Modelled and observed results showed that most pollen was deposited beneath the canopy (range 63–94%) in an exponentially decreasing curve and the tailing off started from around the outer edge of the canopy in most cases. The amount of pollen deposited at 50 m was no more than 2.6% of total deposition in the samples for any tree and at 100 m no more than 0.2%. Tree height, width and wind speed during the pollination period were found to be the main parameters affecting deposition away from the source.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9479-1
  • Changes in the Mediterranean pine forest: pollination patterns and annual
           trends of airborne pollen
    • Authors: Concepción De Linares; Rosario Delgado; Maria Jesús Aira; Purificación Alcázar; Silvia Alonso-Pérez; Marzia Boi; Paloma Cariñanos; Emilio Cuevas; Consuelo Díaz de la Guardia; Belén Elvira-Rendueles; Delia Fernández-González; Carmen Galán; Adela Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo; Rosa Pérez-Badia; Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rajo; Luis Ruíz-Valenzuela; Rafael Tormo-Molina; Maria del Mar Trigo; Rosa M. Valencia-Barrera; Ana Valle; Jordina Belmonte
      Abstract: Abstract In some areas, forests are being affected in diverse aspects such as structure, composition and biodiversity showing an increase or a decrease in the growth rates. Pinus is one of the most dominant genera in the forests of the Northern Hemisphere. This study analyzes the pine pollination patterns in 30 locations of Spain with an average of 21-year dataset. The aim is to evaluate possible changes in flowering intensity as well as in annual pollen production trends, according to the airborne pollen patterns. Annual Pollen Indices show three threshold values: (1) over 4000 grains per year in Catalonia, the Central System Mountains and Ourense (Galicia), (2) between 4000 and 1000 grains in central-south Spain and in the Balearic Islands, and (3) under 1000 in eastern Spain, Cartagena and the Canary Islands. Airborne pollen patterns were also influenced by Pinus species: The species located in the littoral and low land areas pollinated in the first pollination phase, from February to April, and the mountain pine species did in the second one, from April to June. The statistical analyses reveal increasing significant trends in 12 sites and significant decreasing trends in two. The Pinus flowering intensity is showing an earlier start and a delay in the end of the pollination period, thus a longer period of pollen in the air. This study suggests that the aerobiological monitoring is an interesting bio-indicator of changes happening in Pinus landscapes, and therefore explains the vulnerability of this genus in Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9476-4
  • Atmospheric pollen dispersion from herbicide-resistant horseweed ( Conyza
           canadensis L.)
    • Authors: Junming Wang; Meilan Qi; Haiyan Huang; Rongjian Ye; Xiangzhen Li; C. Neal Stewart
      Abstract: Abstract Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) with evolved herbicide resistance has become an especially problematic weed in crop production across the USA and on four continents (North America, South America, Asia, and Europe). Spread of herbicide resistance can occur through pollen-mediated gene flow between resistant and susceptible horseweed populations. However, there are little knowledge, preventive guidelines, and mechanism modeling for pollen transport in this system. We need to better understand pollen dispersion and deposition in the context of atmospheric conditions, herbicide-resistant horseweed patch size, and buffer crop type, height, and field size. A mechanistic model is needed to account for these. A pollen dispersion and deposition model was calibrated and validated using 2013 experimental field data. The validated model was run for various combinations of atmospheric conditions, horseweed characteristics (source strength), and buffer species and size (pollen can be intercepted by crop plants). Large fields with crops with a high leaf area density and tall plants can effectively prevent pollen dispersion. The information will help provide guidelines for preventing herbicide resistance spread from herbicide-resistant weeds and genetically modified plants in general.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9477-3
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