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Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
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at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
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Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
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Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
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Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Journal Cover Batteries
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [148 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 11: Doping LiMnPO4 with Cobalt and Nickel: A
           First Principle Study

    • Authors: Mauro Francesco Sgroi, Roberto Lazzaroni, David Beljonne, Daniele Pullini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural stability and high theoretical capacity. The investigation focuses on LiMnPO4, which could offer an improved cell potential (4.1 V) with respect to the reference LiFePO4 compound, but it is characterized by poor lithium intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics. Substitution of cations like Co and Ni in the olivine structure of LiMnPO4 was recently reported in an attempt to improve the electrochemical performances. Here the electronic structure and lithium intercalation potential of Ni- and Co-doped LiMnPO4 were calculated in the framework of the Hubbard U density functional theory (DFT+U) method for highly correlated materials. Moreover, the diffusion process of lithium in the host structures was simulated, and the activation barriers in the doped and pristine structures were compared. Our calculation predicted that doping increases Li insertion potential while activation barriers for Li diffusion remain similar to the pristine material. Moreover, Ni and Co doping induces the formation of impurity states near the Fermi level and significantly reduces the band gap of LiMnPO4.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit
           Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Hicham Chaoui, Sravanthi Mandalapu
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS), along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC). Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 13: High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model
           Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Nicolas Sockeel, Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, William Meadows
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC) based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC), and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in
           18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter

    • Authors: Boxia Lei, Wenjiao Zhao, Carlos Ziebert, Nils Uhlmann, Magnus Rohde, Hans Seifert
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 15: Developing Electrolyte for a Soluble Lead
           Redox Flow Battery by Reprocessing Spent Lead Acid Battery Electrodes

    • Authors: Keletso Orapeleng, Richard Wills, Andrew Cruden
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The archival value of this paper is the investigation of novel methods to recover lead (II) ions from spent lead acid battery electrodes to be used directly as electrolyte for a soluble lead flow battery. The methods involved heating electrodes of spent lead acid batteries in methanesulfonic acid and hydrogen peroxide to dissolve solid lead and lead dioxide out of the electrode material. The processes yielded lead methanesulfonate, which is an electrolyte for the soluble lead acid battery. The lead (II) ions in the electrolyte were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and their electrochemistry confirmed using cyclic voltammetry. The concentration of lead (II) ions was determined and it was found that using the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide yielded the highest concentration of lead (II) ions. The method was therefore found to be sufficient to make electrolyte for a soluble lead cell.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Influence of Using Metallic Na on the
           Interfacial and Transport Properties of Na-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Maider Zarrabeitia, Miguel Muñoz-Márquez, Francesco Nobili, Teófilo Rojo, Montse Casas-Cabanas
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Na2Ti3O7 is a promising negative electrode for rechargeable Na-ion batteries; however, its good properties in terms of insertion voltage and specific capacity are hampered by the poor capacity retention reported in the past. The interfacial and ionic/electronic properties are key factors to understanding the electrochemical performance of Na2Ti3O7. Therefore, its study is of utmost importance. In addition, although rather unexplored, the use of metallic Na in half-cell studies is another important issue due to the fact that side-reactions will be induced when metallic Na is in contact with the electrolyte. Hence, in this work the interfacial and transport properties of full Na-ion cells have been investigated and compared with half-cells upon electrochemical cycling by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (conventional XPS and Auger parameter analysis) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell has been assembled with C-coated Na2Ti3O7 against metallic Na whilst the full-cell uses C-coated Na2Ti3O7 as negative electrode and NaFePO4 as positive electrode, delivering 112 Wh/kganode+cathode in the 2nd cycle. When comparing both types of cells, it has been found that the interfacial properties, the OCV (open circuit voltage) and the electrode–-electrolyte interphase behavior are more stable in the full-cell than in the half-cell. The electronic transition from insulator to conductor previously observed in a half-cell for Na2Ti3O7 has also been detected in the full-cell impedance analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic
           Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and
           Safety Shut-Down

    • Authors: Fredrik Larsson, Antti Rytinki, Istaq Ahmed, Ingvar Albinsson, Bengt-Erik Mellander
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editors of Batteries would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Test Method for Thermal Characterization of
           Li-Ion Cells and Verification of Cooling Concepts

    • Authors: Rouven Christen, Gerhard Rizzo, Alfred Gadola, Max Stöck
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as heat source location, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a single cell in order to design appropriate cooling measures. This paper describes an advanced test facility, which allows not only an estimation of the thermal properties of a battery cell, but also the verification of proposed cooling strategies in operation. To do this, an active measuring unit consisting of a temperature and heat flux density sensor and a Peltier element was developed. These temperature/heat flux sensing (THFS) units are uniformly arranged around a battery cell with a spatial resolution of 25 mm. Consequently, the temperature or heat flux density can be controlled individually, thus forming regions with constant temperature (cooling) or zero heat flux (insulation). This test setup covers the whole development loop from thermal characterization to the design and verification of the proposed cooling strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 4: Ionic Liquid-Based Non-Aqueous Electrolytes
           for Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Tiejun Meng, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Diana Wong, Jean Nei
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The voltage of an alkaline electrolyte-based battery is often limited by the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V). As an alternative to water, ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte has been shown to exhibit excellent proton conducting properties and a wide electrochemical stability window, and can be used in proton conducting batteries. In this study, we used IL/acid mixtures to replace the 30 wt % KOH aqueous electrolyte in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries, and verified the proton conducting character of these mixtures through electrochemical charge/discharge experiments. Dilution of ILs with acetic acid was found to effectively increase proton conductivity. By using 2 M acetic acid in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, stable charge/discharge characteristics were obtained, including low charge/discharge overpotentials, a discharge voltage plateau at ~1.2 V, a specific capacity of 161.9 mAh·g−1, and a stable cycling performance for an AB5 metal hydride anode with a (Ni,Co,Zn)(OH)2 cathode.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Domain Size of Phase-Separated NaxCoO2 as
           Investigated by X-Ray Microdiffraction

    • Authors: Hideharu Niwa, Takayuki Shibata, Yasuhiko Imai, Shigeru Kimura, Yutaka Moritomo
      First page: 5
      Abstract: O3-NaCoO 2 is a promising cathode material for sodium ion secondary batteries (SIBs). Na x CoO 2 shows phase separation (PS) into the O3 and O ′ 3 phases in the Na concentration range of 0.89 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.99. In order to estimate the domain size (r) in the two-phase region, we performed X-ray microdiffraction (XRMD) of thin films of Na x CoO 2 at x = 0.97 and ∼1. We found that r (≈400 nm) of the O ′ 3 domain is comparable to the particle size d (=331 ± 87 nm) in the as-grown O3-NaCoO 2 film. This observation suggests that individual particles of Na x CoO 2 are single phase to minimize the strain at the O3–O ′ 3 phase boundary.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH)2

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Lixin Wang, Shuli Yan, Xingqun Liao, Tiejun Meng, Haoting Shen, William Mays
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH)2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH)2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling), and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH)2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH)2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH)2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH)2/α-Ni(OH)2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH)2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH)2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH)2 is also included in the paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Low Voltage Charge/Discharge Behavior of
           Manganese Hexacyanoferrate

    • Authors: Takayuki Shibata, Masamitsu Takachi, Yutaka Moritomo
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Recently, Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) have been reported to exhibit a low voltage charge/discharge behavior with high capacity (300–545 mAh/g) in lithium-ion secondary batteries (LIBs) [...]
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit
           Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Natthawuth Somakettarin, Tsuyoshi Funaki
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for the OCV behavior, such as resting period, step-size of the pulse test, testing current amplitude, hysteresis phenomena, and terminal voltage relationship, are investigated and evaluated. To this end, a general OCV model based on state of charge (SOC) tracking is developed and validated with satisfactory results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 9: Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management
           System: A Review

    • Authors: Mohammad Khan, Maciej Swierczynski, Søren Kær
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power
           Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    • Authors: Lluc Canals Casals, Beatriz Amante García
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH) of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 30: Charge-Discharge Properties of the
           Surface-Modified ZrNi Alloy Electrode with Different Degrees of Boiling
           Alkaline Treatment

    • Authors: Akihiro Matsuyama, Hironori Mizutani, Takumi Kozuka, Hiroshi Inoue
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Charge-discharge properties of the surface-modified ZrNi negative electrodes with different degrees of boiling alkaline treatment were investigated. The boiling alkaline treatment was performed by immersing the ZrNi electrode in a boiling 6 M KOH aqueous solution for 2 h or 4 h. The initial discharge capacity for the untreated ZrNi negative electrode was 21 mAh·g−1, but it was increased to 114 mAh·g−1 and 308 mAh·g−1 after the boiling alkaline treatments for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. The discharge capacity for the ZrNi negative electrode after the treatment for 2 h steadily increased with repeating charge-discharge cycles as well as that of the untreated electrode, whereas that for the ZrNi negative electrode after the 4 h treatment greatly decreased. The high rate of dischargeability was improved with an increase in the treatment period of time, and the charge-transfer resistance was drastically decreased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the ZrO2 passive layer on the ZrNi alloy surface was removed by the boiling alkaline treatment to form a porous morphology containing Ni(OH)2, which can be reduced to Ni during charging, leading to the reduction of a barrier for the charge-discharge reactions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040030
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 31: Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Nineteen papers focusing on recent research investigations in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been selected for this Special Issue of Batteries. These papers summarize the joint efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Michigan State University, and FDK during 2015–2016 through reviews of basic operational concepts, previous academic publications, issued US Patent and filed Japan Patent Applications, descriptions of current research results in advanced components and cell constructions, and projections of future works.
      PubDate: 2016-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040031
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 32: Thermal Analysis of a Fast Charging Technique
           for a High Power Lithium-Ion Cell

    • Authors: Victor García Fernández, Cecilio Blanco Viejo, David Anseán González, Manuela González Vega, Yoana Fernández Pulido, Juan Alvarez Antón
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-constant voltage (CV))/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated with cell overpotential, although evidence of the reversible component is also observed, associated with the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell-specific heats and the cell materials’ thickness. The model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040032
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 33: Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials
           for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    • Authors: Xingxing Gu, Luke Hencz, Shanqing Zhang
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S) batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S) composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.
      PubDate: 2016-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 34: Fe-Substitution for Ni in Misch Metal-Based
           Superlattice Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys—Part 1. Structural, Hydrogen
           Storage, and Electrochemical Properties

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Jean Nei, Shigekazu Yasuoka
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The effects of Fe partially replacing Ni in a misch metal-based superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) were studied. Addition of Fe increases the lattice constants and abundance of the main Ce2Ni7 phase, decreases the NdNi3 phase abundance, and increases the CaCu5 phase when the Fe content is above 2.3 at%. For the gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage), Fe incorporation does not change the storage capacity or equilibrium pressure, but it does decrease the change in both entropy and enthalpy. With regard to electrochemistry, >2.3 at% Fe decreases both the full and high-rate discharge capacities due to the deterioration in both bulk transport (caused by decreased secondary phase abundance and consequent lower synergetic effect) and surface electrochemical reaction (caused by the lower volume of the surface metallic Ni inclusions). In a low-temperature environment (−40 °C), although Fe increases the reactive surface area, it also severely hinders the ability of the surface catalytic, leading to a net increase in surface charge-transfer resistance. Even though Fe increases the abundance of the beneficial Ce2Ni7 phase with a trade-off for the relatively unfavorable NdNi3 phase, it also deteriorates the electrochemical performance due to a less active surface. Therefore, further surface treatment methods that are able to increase the surface catalytic ability in Fe-containing superlattice alloys and potentially reveal the positive contributions that Fe provides structurally are worth investigating in the future.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040034
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 35: Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes

    • Authors: Madhav Singh, Jörg Kaiser, Horst Hahn
      First page: 35
      Abstract: A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48%) exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48%) showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 36: Electrolyte Additive Concentration for
           Maximum Energy Storage in Lead-Acid Batteries

    • Authors: Andreas Paglietti
      First page: 36
      Abstract: This paper presents a method to assess the effect of electrolyte additives on the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. The method applies to additives of various kinds, including suspensions and gels. The approach is based on thermodynamics and leads to the definition of a region of admissible concentrations—the battery’s admissible range—where the battery can operate without suffering irreversible changes. An experimental procedure to determine this range is presented. The obtained results provide a way to assess the potential of electrolyte additives to improve the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. They also provide a means to determine the additive concentration that produces the maximum energy capacity increase of the battery. The paper closes with an example of the application of the proposed approach to a practical case.
      PubDate: 2016-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040036
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 37: Generalized Characterization Methodology for
           Performance Modelling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Daniel-Ioan Stroe, Maciej Swierczynski, Ana-Irina Stroe, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are complex energy storage devices with their performance behavior highly dependent on the operating conditions (i.e., temperature, load current, and state-of-charge (SOC)). Thus, in order to evaluate their techno-economic viability for a certain application, detailed information about Li-ion battery performance behavior becomes necessary. This paper proposes a comprehensive seven-step methodology for laboratory characterization of Li-ion batteries, in which the battery’s performance parameters (i.e., capacity, open-circuit voltage (OCV), and impedance) are determined and their dependence on the operating conditions are obtained. Furthermore, this paper proposes a novel hybrid procedure for parameterizing the batteries’ equivalent electrical circuit (EEC), which is used to emulate the batteries’ dynamic behavior. Based on this novel parameterization procedure, the performance model of the studied Li-ion battery is developed and its accuracy is successfully verified (maximum error lower than 5% and a mean error below 8.5 mV) for various load profiles (including a real application profile), thus validating the proposed seven-step characterization methodology.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2040037
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 20: Failure Mechanisms of Nickel/Metal Hydride
           Batteries with Cobalt-Substituted Superlattice Hydrogen-Absorbing Alloy
           Anodes at 50 °C

    • Authors: Tiejun Meng, Kwo-hsiung Young, John Koch, Taihei Ouchi, Shigekazu Yasuoka
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The incorporation of a small amount of Co in the A2B7 superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloy (HAA) can benefit its electrochemical cycle life performance at both room temperature (RT) and 50 °C. The electrochemical properties of the Co-substituted A2B7 and the failure mechanisms of cells using such alloys cycled at RT have been reported previously. In this paper, the failure mechanisms of the same alloys cycled at 50 °C are reported. Compared to that at RT, the trend of the cycle life at 50 °C versus the Co content in the Co-substituted A2B7 HAAs is similar, but the cycle life is significantly shorter. Failure analysis of the cells at 50 °C was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. It was found that the elevated temperature accelerates electrolyte dry-out and the deterioration (both pulverization and oxidation) of the A2B7 negative electrode, which are major causes of cell failure when cycling at 50 °C. Cells from HAA with higher Co-content also showed micro-shortage in the separator from the debris of the corrosion of the negative electrode.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 21: Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications
           Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Taihei Ouchi, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Dhanashree Moghe
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe), five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC), and Shin-Etsu), and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI), Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), and Toyota R & D) were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 22: Clean Grain Boundary Found in
           C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Hao-Ting Shen, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Tiejun Meng, Leonid Bendersky
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc) solid-solution, metal hydride (MH) alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures). This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 23: First-Principles Point Defect Models for
           Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 Phases

    • Authors: Diana Wong, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, K. Ng
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Synergetic effects in multi-phased AB2 Laves-phase-based metal hydride (MH) alloys enable the access of high hydrogen storage secondary phases, despite the lower absorption/desorption kinetics found in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries. Alloy design strategies to further tune the electrochemical properties of these secondary phases include the use of additives and processing techniques to manipulate the chemical nature and the microstructure of these materials. It is also of particular interest to observe the engineering of constitutional point defects and how they may affect electrochemical properties and performance. The Zr7Ni10 phase appears particularly prone to point defects, and we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled with a statistical mechanics model to study the theoretical point defects. The Zr2Ni7 phase appears less prone to point defects, and we use the Zr2Ni7 point defect model, as well as experimental lattice parameters, with Zr7Ni10 phases from X-ray diffraction (XRD) as points of comparison. The point defect models indicate that anti-site defects tend to form in the Zr7Ni10 phase, and that these defects form more easily in the Zr7Ni10 phase than the Zr2Ni7 phase, as expected.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 24: Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen
           Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) for
           Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    • Authors: Jean Nei, Kwo-Hsiung Young
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu) metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1), high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030024
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 25: The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in
           Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Jean Nei, Dhanashree Moghe
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE) elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd) to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH) alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage), and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15) are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation) and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030025
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 26: Microstructure Investigation on Metal Hydride
           Alloys by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Technique

    • Authors: Yi Liu, Kwo-Hsiung Young
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The microstructures of two metal hydride (MH) alloys, a Zr7Ni10 based Ti15Zr26Ni59 and a C14 Laves phase based Ti12Zr21.5V10Ni36.2Cr4.5Mn13.6Sn0.3Co2.0Al0.4, were studied using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The first alloy was found to be composed of completely aligned Zr7Ni10 grains with a ZrO2 secondary phase randomly scattered throughout and a C15 secondary phase precipitated along the grain boundary. Two sets of orientation alignments were found between the Zr7Ni10 grains and the C15 phase: (001)Zr7Ni10A//(110)C15 and [100]Zr7Ni10A//[0 1 ¯ 1]C15, and (01 1 ¯ )Zr7Ni10B//( 1 ¯ 00)C15 and [100]Zr7Ni10B//[313]C15. The grain growth direction is close to [313]Zr7Ni10B//[ 1 ¯ 11]C15. The second alloy is predominated by a C14 phase, as observed from X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the matrix and dendrite seen through a scanning electron microscope arise from the same C14 structure with a similar chemical composition, but different orientations, as the matrix with the secondary phases in the form of intervening Zr7Ni10/Zr9Ni11/(Zr,Ni)Ti needle-like phase coated with a thin layer of C15 phase. The crystallographic orientation of the C15 phase is in alignment with the neighboring C14 phase, with the following relationships: (111)C15//(0001)C14 and [1 1 ¯ 0]C15//[11 2 ¯ 0]C14. The alignments in crystallographic orientations among the phases in these two multi-phase MH alloys confirm the cleanliness of the interface (free of amorphous region), which is necessary for the hydrogen-storage synergetic effects in both gaseous phase reaction and electrochemistry.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030026
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 27: Studies on MgNi-Based Metal Hydride Electrode
           with Aqueous Electrolytes Composed of Various Hydroxides

    • Authors: Jean Nei, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Damian Rotarov
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Compositions of MgNi-based amorphous-monocrystalline thin films produced by radio frequency (RF) sputtering with a varying composition target have been optimized. The composition Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 is identified to possess the highest initial discharge capacity of 640 mAh·g−1 with a 50 mA·g−1 discharge current density. Reproduction in bulk form of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy composition was prepared through a combination of melt spinning (MS) and mechanical alloying (MA), shows a sponge-like microstructure with >95% amorphous content, and is chosen as the metal hydride (MH) alloy for a sequence of electrolyte experiments with various hydroxides including LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, and (C2H5)4N(OH). The electrolyte conductivity is found to be closely related to cation size in the hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 4 M KOH aqueous solution. The degradation performance of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 alloy through cycling demonstrates a strong correlation with the redox potential of the cation in the alkali hydroxide compound used as 1 M additive to the 5 M KOH aqueous solution. NaOH, CsOH, and (C2H5)4N(OH) additions are found to achieve a good balance between corrosion and conductivity performances.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030027
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 28: Durability and Reliability of Electric
           Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1:
           Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    • Authors: Arnaud Devie, Matthieu Dubarry
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V) strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030028
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 29: Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage
           Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

    • Authors: Alexander Zeh, Marcus Müller, Maik Naumann, Holger Hesse, Andreas Jossen, Rolf Witzmann
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV) home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs) represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs) released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC) region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC) of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2030029
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 6: Electrochemical Open-Circuit Voltage and
           Pressure-Concentration-Temperature Isotherm Comparison for Metal Hydride

    • Authors: Negar Mosavati, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Tiejun Meng, K. Ng
      First page: 6
      Abstract: In this study we compared the electrochemical pressure-concentration-temperature (EPCT) method with the gaseous phase pressure-concentration-temperature (PCT) method and demonstrated the differences between the two. Experimentally, this was done by electrochemically charging/discharging the electrodes of four different metal hydride (MH) alloys. The results indicate that in the PCT curve is flatter with a smaller hysteresis and a higher storage capacity compared to the EPCT curve. Moreover, while the PCT curves (up to around one third of the hydrogen storage capacity) reside in between the charge and discharge EPCT curves, the rest of the PCT curves are below the EPCT curves. Finally, we demonstrated a new calibration method based on the inflection points observed in the EPCT isotherms of a physical mixture of more than one alloy. This turning point can be used to find a preset calibration point to determine the state-of-charge.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 7: Fast Characterization Method for Modeling
           Battery Relaxation Voltage

    • Authors: An Li, Serge Pelissier, Pascal Venet, Philippe Gyan
      First page: 7
      Abstract: After the end of a charging or discharging sequence, the battery voltage keeps evolving towards a finite value, during hours or even days, although no current is exchanged with the battery. This corresponds to the battery relaxation. In the context of electric vehicles (EV), a good measurement of the voltage at rest allows an accurate estimation of the battery state of charge (SoC). The characterization of the battery voltage at different levels of SoC after the full relaxation would be very time consuming. In this paper, a fast method to extrapolate long relaxation voltage is proposed. It needs only one complete measurement of relaxation at one given SoC and could give accurate voltage estimation at other states of charge from short and partial measurement. This generic method was validated on three different cells and could be easily extended to any type of battery.
      PubDate: 2016-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 8: Method for Determination of the Internal Short
           Resistance and Heat Evolution at Different Mechanical Loads of a Lithium
           Ion Battery Cell Based on Dummy Pouch Cells

    • Authors: Theo Volck, Wolfgang Sinz, Gregor Gstrein, Christoph Breitfuss, Simon Heindl, Hermann Steffan, Stefan Freunberger, Martin Wilkening, Marlena Uitz, Clemens Fink, Alexander Geier
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Within the scope of developing a multi-physical model describing battery behavior during and after the mechanical load (accelerations, intrusions) of a vehicle’s high voltage battery, an internal short circuit model is of deep interest for a virtual hazard assessment. The internal short resistance and the size of the affected area must be known as a minimum for determining the released heat and, in consequence, the temperatures. The internal short resistance of purpose-built dummy pouch cells, filled with electrolyte-like solvent without conductive salt, has thus been measured in a given short area under various compressive loads. The resistances for different short scenarios obtained are analyzed and described in a mathematical form. Short circuit experiments with dummy cells using an external power source have also been carried out. This set-up allows the measurement of the temperature evolution at a known current and a determination of the actual short resistance. The post-mortem analysis of the samples shows a correlation between the maximum temperatures, released short heat and the separator melt diameter.
      PubDate: 2016-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 9: Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in
           Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests

    • Authors: Fredrik Larsson, Petra Andersson, Bengt-Erik Mellander
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 10: Reviews on the U.S. Patents Regarding
           Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Shiuan Chang, Kwo-hsiung Young, Jean Nei, Cristian Fierro
      First page: 10
      Abstract: U.S. patents filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been reviewed, starting from active materials, to electrode fabrication, cell assembly, multi-cell construction, system integration, application, and finally recovering and recycling. In each category, a general description about the principle and direction of development is given. Both the metal hydride (MH) alloy and nickel hydroxide as active materials in negative and positive electrodes, respectively, are reviewed extensively. Both thermal and battery management systems (BMSs) are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 11: Studies on Incorporation of Mg in Zr-Based
           AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Shiuan Chang, Kwo-hsiung Young, Taiehi Ouchi, Tiejun Meng, Jean Nei, Xin Wu
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Mg, the A-site atom in C14 (MgZn2), C15 (MgCu2), and C36 (MgNi2) Laves phase alloys, was added to the Ti-based AB2 metal hydride (MH) alloy during induction melting. Due to the high melting temperature of the host alloy (>1500 °C) and high volatility of Mg in the melt, the Mg content of the final ingot is limited to 0.8 at%. A new Mg-rich cubic phase was found in the Mg-containing alloys with a small phase abundance, which contributes to a significant increase in hydrogen storage capacities, the degree of disorder (DOD) in the hydride, the high-rate dischargeability (HRD), and the charge-transfer resistances at both room temperature (RT) and −40 °C. This phase also facilitates the activation process in measurement of electrochemical discharge capacity. Moreover, through a correlation study, the Ni content was found to be detrimental to the storage capacities, while Ti content was found to be more influential in HRD and charge-transfer resistance in this group of AB2 metal hydride (MH) alloys.
      PubDate: 2016-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 12: The Evolution of Lithium-Ion Cell Thermal
           Safety with Aging Examined in a Battery Testing Calorimeter

    • Authors: Jianbo Zhang, Laisuo Su, Zhe Li, Ying Sun, Ningning Wu
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The effect of calendar aging on the thermal safety of 4.6 Ah pouch cells with a LiMn2O4 (LMO) cathode was investigated by a battery test calorimeter (BTC) that can be used to determine the heat evolved during an uncontrolled exothermic runaway reaction. Cells were stored at 55 °C and 100% state of charge (SOC) for accelerated aging, and they were taken out after 10, 20, 40, 68, and 90 days of storage to obtain different aging states. Those cells were then put into the BTC for thermal safety tests. The results show the cell thermal safety improves after aging: (1) the self-heating temperature increases; (2) the thermal runaway temperature increases; and (3) the exothermal rate during the process of thermal runaway decreases. The cell voltage drops to zero about 40 °C earlier than the thermal runaway, indicating the voltage can be used as a signal for cell safety monitoring.
      PubDate: 2016-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 13: Characterising Lithium-Ion Battery
           Degradation through the Identification and Tracking of Electrochemical
           Battery Model Parameters

    • Authors: Kotub Uddin, Surak Perera, W. Widanage, Limhi Somerville, James Marco
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries undergo complex electrochemical and mechanical degradation. This complexity is pronounced in applications such as electric vehicles, where highly demanding cycles of operation and varying environmental conditions lead to non-trivial interactions of ageing stress factors. This work presents the framework for an ageing diagnostic tool based on identifying and then tracking the evolution of model parameters of a fundamental electrochemistry-based battery model from non-invasive voltage/current cycling tests. In addition to understanding the underlying mechanisms for degradation, the optimisation algorithm developed in this work allows for rapid parametrisation of the pseudo-two dimensional (P2D), Doyle-Fuller-Newman, battery model. This is achieved through exploiting the embedded symbolic manipulation capabilities and global optimisation methods within MapleSim. Results are presented that highlight the significant reductions in the computational resources required for solving systems of coupled non-linear partial differential equations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 14: Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Battery
           Systems in Germany: The Case of Tesla’s Powerwall

    • Authors: Cong Truong, Maik Naumann, Ralph Karl, Marcus Müller, Andreas Jossen, Holger Hesse
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Residential photovoltaic (PV) battery systems increase households’ electricity self-consumption using rooftop PV systems and thus reduce the electricity bill. High investment costs of battery systems, however, prevent positive financial returns for most present residential battery installations in Germany. Tesla Motors, Inc. (Palo Alto, CA, USA) announced a novel battery system—the Powerwall—for only about 25% of the current German average market price. According to Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk, Germany is one of the key markets for their product. He has, however, not given numbers to support his statement. In this paper, we analyze the economic benefit of the Powerwall for end-users with respect to various influencing parameters: electricity price, aging characteristics of the batteries, topology of battery system coupling, subsidy schemes, and retrofitting of existing PV systems. Simulations show that three key-factors strongly influence economics: the price gap between electricity price and remuneration rate, the battery system’s investment cost, and the usable battery capacity. We reveal under which conditions a positive return on invest can be achieved and outline that the Powerwall could be a worthwhile investment in multiple, but not all, scenarios investigated. Resulting trends are generally transferrable to other home storage products.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 15: Studies on the Synergetic Effects in
           Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Kwo-hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Tiejun Meng, Diana Wong
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The electrochemical reactions of multi-phase metal hydride (MH) alloys were studied using a series of Laves phase-related body-centered-cubic (BCC) Ti15.6Zr2.1V43Cr11.2Mn6.9Co1.4Ni18.5Al0.3X (X = V, B, Mg, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, La, and Nd) alloys. These alloys are composed of BCC (major), TiNi (major), C14 (minor), and Ti2Ni (minor) phases. The BCC phase was found to be responsible for the visible equilibrium pressure plateau between 0.1 MPa and 1 MPa. The plateaus belonging to the other phases occurred below 0.005 MPa. Due to the synergetic effects of other non-BCC phases, the body-centered-tetragonal (BCT) intermediate step is skipped and the face-centered-cubic (FCC) hydride phase is formed directly. During hydrogenation in both gaseous phase and electrochemistry, the non-BCC phases were first charged to completion, followed by charging of the BCC phase. In the multi-phase system, the side with a higher work function along the grain boundary is believed to be the first region that becomes hydrogenated and will not be fully dehydrided after 8 h in vacuum at 300 °C. While there is a large step at approximately 50% of the maximum hydrogen storage for the equilibrium pressure measured in gaseous phase, the charge/discharge curves measured electrochemically are very smooth, indicating a synergetic effect between BCC and non-BCC phases in the presence of voltage and charge non-neutrality. Compared to the non-BCC phases, the C14 phase benefits while the TiNi phase deteriorates the high-rate dischargeability (HRD) of the alloys. These synergetic effects are explained by the preoccupied hydrogen sites on the side of the hydrogen storage phase near the grain boundary.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 16: New Type of Alkaline Rechargeable
           Battery—Ni-Ni Battery

    • Authors: Lixin Wang, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Hao-Ting Shen
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The feasibility of utilizing disordered Ni-based metal hydroxide, as both the anode and the cathode materials, in alkaline rechargeable batteries was validated for the first time. Co and Mn were introduced into the hexagonal Ni(OH)2 crystal structure to create disorder and defects that resulted in a conductivity increase. The highest discharge capacity of 55.6 mAh·g−1 was obtained using a commercial Li-ion cathode precursor, specifically NCM111 hydroxide, as anode material in the Ni-Ni battery. Charge/discharge curves, cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to study the capacity degradation mechanism, and the segregation of Ni, Co, and Mn hydroxides in the mixed hydroxide. Further optimization of composition and control in micro-segregation are needed to increase the discharge capacity closer to the theoretical value, 578 mAh·g−1.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 17: Calculation of Constant Power Lithium Battery
           Discharge Curves

    • Authors: Lance Traub
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Standard battery testing procedure consists of discharging the battery at constant current. However, for battery powered aircraft application, consideration of the cruise portion of the flight envelope suggests that power should be kept constant, implying that battery characterization should occur over a constant power discharge. Consequently, to take advantage of existing battery discharge curves it would be useful to have a methodology that can extract a constant power discharge curve from a constant current discharge curve. The development of such a methodology for lithium batteries is described in this article.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 18: The Carbon Additive Effect on Electrochemical
           Performance of LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4/C Composites by a Simple Solid-State Method
           for Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Chun-Chen Yang, Yen-Wei Hung, Shingjiang Lue
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This work reported a solid-state method to prepare LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4/C (LFMP/C) composite cathode materials by using LiH2PO4, MnO2, Fe2O3, citric acid (C6H8O7), and sucrose (C12H22O11). The citric acid was used as a complex agent and C12H22O11 was used as a carbon source. Two novel hollow carbon sphere (HCS) and nanoporous graphene (NP-GNS) additives were added into the LFMP/C composite to enhance electrochemical performance. The HCS and NP-GNS were prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The characteristic properties of the composite cathode materials were examined by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EA), and alternating current (AC) impedance methods. The coin cell was used to investigate the electrochemical performance at various rates. It was found that the specific discharge capacities of LFMP/C + 2% NP-GNS + 2% HCS composite cathode materials were 161.18, 154.71. 148.82, and 120.00 mAh·g−1 at 0.1C, 0.2C, 1C, and 10C rates, respectively. Moreover, they all showed the coulombic efficiency ca. 97%–98%. The advantage of the one-pot solid-state method can be easily scaled up for mass-production, as compared with the sol-gel method or hydrothermal method. Apparently, the LFMP/C composite with HCS and NP-GNS conductors can be a good candidate for high-power Li-ion battery applications.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 19: Lithium Ion Cell/Batteries Electromagnetic
           Field Reduction in Phones for Hearing Aid Compliance

    • Authors: Hossein Maleki, Robert Zurek, Jason Howard, Jerald Hallmark
      First page: 19
      Abstract: “The Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988 (HAC Act) generally requires that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ensure that telephones manufactured or imported for use in the United States after August 1989, and all ‘essential’ telephones, are hearing aid-compatible”. The electromagnetic field (EMF) emission is generated by electrical currents in the phones’ circuit boards and components, including the battery. Here, we have investigated design changes to reduce the EMF from Lithium Ion (Li-ion) batteries. Changes mainly include: (1) Li-ion cell internal positive/negative tab location and length on cathode/anode layers; and (2) Li-ion cell external positive/negative connectors spacing. Results show that the cell’s internal tab locations and spacing between the cell’s external connectors play critical roles in reduction of battery EMF emissions. It is important that cells’ design changes are compatible with the manufacturing processes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2020019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 1: Electrochemical Study of Na2Fe1−xMnxP2O7 (x
           = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) as Cathode Material for Rechargeable Na-Ion

    • Authors: Cristina Tealdi, Monica Ricci, Chiara Ferrara, Giovanna Bruni, Eliana Quartarone, Piercarlo Mustarelli
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered a good choice for post-lithium devices. Transition metal sodium pyrophosphates are among the most interesting cathode materials for SIBs. Here we study the electrochemical properties of the system Na2Fe1−xMnxP2O7 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1). By means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic experiments, we confirm that pure Fe and Fe-rich compounds are promising for application in sodium batteries, whereas Mn-rich samples are less satisfactory, at least in case of solid-state reaction recipes and standard slurry preparations. Proper carbon coating is likely needed to improve the electrochemical behavior of Mn-rich samples.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 2: A Technical Report of the Robust Affordable
           Next Generation Energy Storage System-BASF Program

    • Authors: Kwo-hsiung Young, K. Ng, Leonid Bendersky
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The goal of the Robust Affordable Next Generation Energy Storage System (RANGE)-BASF program is to provide an alternative solution for the energy storage media that powers electric vehicles other than the existing Li-ion battery. With the use of a rare-earth-free metal hydride (MH) as the active negative electrode material, together with a core-shell type alpha-beta nickel hydroxide as the active positive electrode and a sealed pouch design, an energy density of 145 Wh·kg−1 and cost model of $120 kWh−1 are shown to be feasible. Combined with the proven safety record and cycle stability, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a Ni-MH battery in EV applications.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 3: Capacity Degradation Mechanisms in
           Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Kwo-hsiung Young, Shigekazu Yasuoka
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The consistency in capacity degradation in a multi-cell pack (>100 cells) is critical for ensuring long service life for propulsion applications. As the first step of optimizing a battery system design, academic publications regarding the capacity degradation mechanisms and possible solutions for cycled nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) rechargeable batteries under various usage conditions are reviewed. The commonly used analytic methods for determining the failure mode are also presented here. The most common failure mode of a Ni/MH battery is an increase in the cell impedance due to electrolyte dry-out that occurs from venting and active electrode material degradation/disintegration. This work provides a summary of effective methods to extend Ni/MH cell cycle life through negative electrode formula optimizations and binder selection, positive electrode additives and coatings, electrolyte optimization, cell design, and others. Methods of reviving and recycling used/spent batteries are also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 4: Microstructures of the Activated Si-Containing
           AB2 Metal Hydride Alloy Surface by Transmission Electron Microscope

    • Authors: Kwo-hsiung Young, Benjamin Chao, Jean Nei
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The surface microstructure of an activated Si-containing AB2 metal hydride (MH) alloy was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Regions of the main AB2 and the secondary TiNi (B2 structure) phases directly underneath the surface Zr oxide/hydroxide layers are considered electrochemically inactive. The surface of AB2 is covered, on the atomic scale, by sheets of Ni2O3 with direct access to electrolyte and voids, without the buffer oxide commonly seen in Si-free AB2 alloys. This clean oxide/bulk metal alloy interface is believed to be the main source of the improvements in the low-temperature performance of Si-containing AB2 alloys. Sporadic metallic-Ni clusters can be found in the surface Ni2O3 region. However, the density of these clusters is much lower than the Ni-inclusions found in most typical metal hydride surface oxides. A high density of nano-sized metallic Ni-inclusions (1–3 nm) is found in regions associated with the TiNi secondary phase, i.e., in the surface oxide layer and in the grain boundary, which can also contribute to enhancement of the electrochemical performance.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2016)
  • Batteries, Vol. 2, Pages 5: Toxic Gas Emissions from Damaged Lithium Ion
           Batteries—Analysis and Safety Enhancement Solution

    • Authors: Antonio Nedjalkov, Jan Meyer, Michael Köhring, Alexander Doering, Martin Angelmahr, Sebastian Dahle, Andreas Sander, Axel Fischer, Wolfgang Schade
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Lithium ion batteries play an increasing role in everyday life, giving power to handheld devices or being used in stationary storage solutions. Especially for medium or large scale solutions, the latter application confines a huge amount of energy within a small volume; however, increasing the hazard potential far above the common level. Furthermore, as the safety hazards of lithium ion cells have been known for years, impressively shown by several burning cars or laptops, the need for a further enhancement of the safety of these systems is rising. This manuscript presents measurements of the gas emission from lithium ion batteries in case of a malfunction for different scenarios, showing a large variety of species with mostly toxic to highly toxic properties. The measurements were carried out using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), photoacoustic spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. It is shown that the inflammation of a cell can be overcome, also preventing a cascading effect to neighboring cells, but giving rise to worse toxic gas emission. Furthermore, a filtration concept is presented that decreases the concentration of the emitted components significantly and promises filtration below immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equivalent levels.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2016)
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