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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2410 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (206 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1268 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (392 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (78 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

ENGINEERING (1268 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Batteries
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [203 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Application of Robust Design Methodology to
           Battery Packs for Electric Vehicles: Identification of Critical Technical
           Requirements for Modular Architecture

    • Authors: Shashank Arora, Ajay Kapoor, Weixiang Shen
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Modularity-in-design of battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) is crucial to offset their high manufacturing cost. However, inconsistencies in performance of EV battery packs can be introduced by various sources. Sources of variation affect their robustness. In this paper, parameter diagram, a value-based conceptual analysis approach, is applied to analyze these variations. Their interaction with customer requirements, i.e., ideal system output, are examined and critical engineering features for designing modular battery packs for EV applications are determined. Consequently, sources of variability, which have a detrimental effect on mass-producibility of EV battery packs, are identified and differentiated from the set of control factors. Theoretically, appropriate control level settings can minimize sensitivity of EV battery packs to the sources of variability. In view of this, strength of the relationship between ideal system response and various control factors is studied using a “house of quality” diagram. It is found that battery thermal management system and packaging architecture are the two most influential parameters having the largest effect on reliability of EV battery packs. More importantly, it is noted that heat transfer between adjacent battery modules cannot be eliminated. For successful implementation of modular architecture, it is, therefore, essential that mechanical modularity must be enabled via thermal modularity of EV battery packs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 31: Comparison of Battery Architecture
           Dependability

    • Authors: Christophe Savard, Pascal Venet, Éric Niel, Laurent Piétrac, Ali Sari
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This paper presents various solutions for organizing an accumulator battery. It examines three different architectures: series-parallel, parallel-series and C3C architecture, which spread the cell output current flux to three other cells. Alternatively, to improve a several cell system reliability, it is possible to insert more cells than necessary and soliciting them less. Classical RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) solutions can be deployed by adding redundant cells or by tolerating some cell failures. With more cells than necessary, it is also possible to choose active cells by a selection algorithm and place the others at rest. Each variant is simulated for the three architectures in order to determine the impact on battery-operative dependability, that is to say the duration of how long the battery complies specifications. To justify that the conventional RAMS solutions are not deployed to date, this article examines the influence on operative dependability. If the conventional variants allow to extend the moment before the battery stops to be operational, using an algorithm with a suitable optimization criterion further extend the battery mission time.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 32: Effect of La3+ Modification on the
           Electrochemical Performance of Na3V2(PO4)2F3

    • Authors: Nina V. Kosova, Daria O. Rezepova, Nicolas Montroussier
      First page: 32
      Abstract: La3+ modification of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 was performed by the direct mechanochemically assisted solid-state synthesis of the Na3V2−xLax(PO4)2F3 compositions, and by the LaPO4 coating of the as-prepared Na3V2(PO4)2F3 via the precipitation method. It has been shown that no noticeable substitution of the V3+ ions by the La3+ ions occurs in the Na3V2(PO4)2F3 structure under the synthesis conditions; meanwhile, the introduction of the La3+ ions into the reagent mixture leads to the formation of the LaPO4 phase, and accordingly, an increase in the NaF/VPO4 ratio. The latter results in the formation of the Na3PO4 and Na3VF6 surface impurity phases, which possess high ionic and electronic conductivity, respectively, and significantly enhances the electrical conductivity and the cycling performance of the composite cathode material both in Na and Li cells, while simple surface modification of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 by LaPO4 via precipitation does not.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 33: Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Al- and
           Y-Substituted NaSICON Solid Solution Na3+2xAlxYxZr2−2xSi2PO12

    • Authors: Sahir Naqash, Marie-Theres Gerhards, Frank Tietz, Olivier Guillon
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Because of an increasing interest in NaSICON materials as electrolyte materials in all-solid state sodium batteries, their thermal expansion was investigated in this study. The thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the Al and Y-substituted NaSICON compositions Na3+2xAlxYxZr2−2xSi2PO12 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 was obtained by dilatometry and compared to the CTE derived from the lattice parameters using high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The difference in CTE obtained from techniques, the influence of sodium content and central metal cation on CTE, as well as other observations such as phase changes are described and rationalized.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of
           Bioelectrochemical System Applications: Data Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Simeng Li, Gang Chen
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are promising bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy/resource recovery. Unlike conventional fuel cells that are based on stable chemical reactions, these BESs are sensitive to environmental and operating conditions, such as temperature, pH, external resistance, etc. Substrate type, electrode material, and reactor configuration are also important factors affecting power generation in MFCs and hydrogen production in MECs. In order to discuss the influence of these above factors on the performance of MFCs and MECs, this study analyzes published data via data synthesis and meta-analysis. The results revealed that domestic wastewater would be more suitable for treatment using MFCs or MECs, due to their lower toxicity for anode biofilms compared to swine wastewater and landfill leachate. The optimal temperature was 25–35 °C, optimal pH was 6–7, and optimal external resistance was 100–1000 Ω. Although systems using carbon cloth as the electrodes demonstrated better performance (due to carbon cloth’s large surface area for microbial growth), the high prices of this material and other existing carbonaceous materials make it inappropriate for practical applications. To scale up and commercialize MFCs and MECs in the future, enhanced system performance and stability are needed, and could be possibly achieved with improved system designs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 35: State-of-Charge Monitoring by Impedance
           Spectroscopy during Long-Term Self-Discharge of Supercapacitors and
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Peter Kurzweil, Mikhail Shamonin
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of several commercially available supercapacitors. It is found that the kinetics of the self-discharge of supercapacitors comprises at least two characteristic time constants in the range of days and months. The curvature of the Nyquist curve at frequencies above 10 Hz (charge transfer resistance) depends on the available electric charge as well, but it is of little use for applications. Lithium-ion batteries demonstrate a linear correlation between voltage and capacitance as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 36: Binding Energy Referencing for XPS in Alkali
           Metal-Based Battery Materials Research (II): Application to Complex
           Composite Electrodes

    • Authors: Steffen Oswald, Franziska Thoss, Martin Zier, Martin Hoffmann, Tony Jaumann, Markus Herklotz, Kristian Nikolowski, Frieder Scheiba, Michael Kohl, Lars Giebeler, Daria Mikhailova, Helmut Ehrenberg
      First page: 36
      Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a key method for studying (electro-)chemical changes in metal-ion battery electrode materials. In a recent publication, we pointed out a conflict in binding energy (BE) scale referencing at alkali metal samples, which is manifested in systematic deviations of the BEs up to several eV due to a specific interaction between the highly reactive alkali metal in contact with non-conducting surrounding species. The consequences of this phenomenon for XPS data interpretation are discussed in the present manuscript. Investigations of phenomena at surface-electrolyte interphase regions for a wide range of materials for both lithium and sodium-based applications are explained, ranging from oxide-based cathode materials via alloys and carbon-based anodes including appropriate reference chemicals. Depending on material class and alkaline content, specific solutions are proposed for choosing the correct reference BE to accurately define the BE scale. In conclusion, the different approaches for the use of reference elements, such as aliphatic carbon, implanted noble gas or surface metals, partially lack practicability and can lead to misinterpretation for application in battery materials. Thus, this manuscript provides exemplary alternative solutions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 37: Processing of Advanced Battery
           Materials—Laser Cutting of Pure Lithium Metal Foils

    • Authors: Tobias Jansen, David Blass, Sven Hartwig, Klaus Dilger
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Due to the increasing demand for high-performance cells for mobile applications, the standards of the performance of active materials and the efficiency of cell production strategies are rising. One promising cell technology to fulfill the increasing requirements for actual and future applications are all solid-state batteries with pure lithium metal on the anode side. The outstanding electrochemical material advantages of lithium, with its high theoretical capacity of 3860 mAh/g and low density of 0.534 g/cm3, can only be taken advantage of in all solid-state batteries, since, in conventional liquid electrochemical systems, the lithium dissolves with each discharging cycle. Apart from the current low stability of all solid-state separators, challenges lie in the general processing, as well as the handling and separation, of lithium metal foils. Unfortunately, lithium metal anodes cannot be separated by conventional die cutting processes in large quantities. Due to its adhesive properties and toughness, mechanical cutting tools require intensive cleaning after each cut. The presented experiments show that remote laser cutting, as a contactless and wear-free method, has the potential to separate anodes in large numbers with high-quality cutting edges.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 38: An Experimental Setup with Alternating
           Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Rudi Soares, Alexander Bessman, Oskar Wallmark, Göran Lindbergh, Pontus Svens
      First page: 38
      Abstract: In the majority of applications using lithium-ion batteries, batteries are exposed to some harmonic content apart from the main charging/discharging current. The understanding of the effects that alternating currents have on batteries requires specific characterization methods and accurate measurement equipment. The lack of commercial battery testers with high alternating current capability simultaneously to the ability of operating at frequencies above 200 Hz, led to the design of the presented experimental setup. Additionally, the experimental setup expands the state-of-the-art of lithium-ion batteries testers by incorporating relevant lithium-ion battery cell characterization routines, namely hybrid pulse power current, incremental capacity analysis and galvanic intermittent titration technique. In this paper the hardware and the measurement capabilities of the experimental setup are presented. Moreover, the measurements errors due to the setup’s instruments were analysed to ensure lithium-ion batteries cell characterization quality. Finally, this paper presents preliminary results of capacity fade tests where 28 Ah cells were cycled with and without the injection of 21 A alternating at 1 kHz. Up to 300 cycles, no significant fade in cell capacity may be measured, meaning that alternating currents may not be as harmful for lithium-ion batteries as considered so far.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4030038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 14: On-Demand Micro-Power Generation from an
           Origami-Inspired Paper Biobattery Stack

    • Authors: Maedeh Mohammadifar, Seokheun Choi
      First page: 14
      Abstract: We use origami to create a compact, scalable three-dimensional (3-D) biobattery stack that delivers on-demand energy to the portable biosensors. Folding allows a two-dimensional (2-D) paper sheet possessing predefined functional components to form nine 3-D microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and connect them serially within a small and single unit (5.6 cm × 5.6 cm). We load the biocatalyst Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in predefined areas that form the MFCs, and freeze-dry them for long-term storage. The biobattery stack generates a maximum power and current of 20 μW and 25 μA, respectively, via microbial metabolism when the freeze-dried cells are rehydrated with readily available wastewater. This work establishes an innovative strategy to revolutionize the fabrication, storage, operation, and application of paper-based MFCs, which could potentially make energy available even in resource-limited settings.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 15: Prognosis and Remaining Useful Life
           Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery with Optimal Multi-Level Particle Filter
           and Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Chinedu Ossai
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Prognosis and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of components and systems (C&S) are vital for intelligent asset-integrity management. The implementation of the traditional multi-level particle filter (TRMPF) has improved prognosis when compared with the one-step traditional particle filter that depended on the first-order state equation. However, despite this improvement, the need to enhance the accuracy of fault prognosis, diagnosis and detection cannot be overemphasized. To this end, an optimal multi-level particle filter (OPMPF) algorithm that combines genetic algorithm (GA) optimization and multi-level particle filter (MPF) techniques is used to predict the RUL of the C&S in order to enhance the accuracy of the estimation at different forms of deterioration in operation. A 9-fold cross-validation ensemble MPF that utilized lithium-ion (Li+) batteries’ charge capacity decay to test the developed OPMPF algorithm showed an improvement of over 200% in the estimated RUL when compared with the TRMPF estimation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 16: Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for
           Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries

    • Authors: Sascha Koch, Kai Birke, Robert Kuhn
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS) describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 17: Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion
           Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers

    • Authors: Huiran Lu, Johan Hagberg, Göran Lindbergh, Ann Cornell
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Flexible, low-weight electrodes with integrated current collectors based on chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers (CF) were produced using an easy, aqueous fabrication process, where only 4 wt% of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as the binder. A flexible full cell was assembled based on a LiFePO4 (LFP) positive electrode with a CF current collector and a current collector-free CF negative electrode. The cell exhibited a stable specific capacity of 121 mAh g−1 based on the LFP weight. The CF in the negative electrode acted simultaneously as active material and current collector, which has a significant positive impact on energy density. Stable specific capacities of the CF/CNF negative electrode of 267 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g−1 at 1 C are demonstrated. The LFP/CNF with CF/CNF, as the current collector positive electrode (LFP-CF), exhibited a good rate performance with a capacity of ~150 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 133 mAh g−1 at 1 C. The polarization of the LFP-CF electrode was similar to that of a commercial Quallion LFP electrode, while much lower compared to a flexible LFP/CNF electrode with Al foil as the current collector. This is ascribed to good contact between the CF and the active material.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 18: An In-Situ Reference Electrode Insertion
           Method for Commercial 18650-Type Cells

    • Authors: Limhi Somerville, Stefania Ferrari, Michael Lain, Andrew McGordon, Paul Jennings, Rohit Bhagat
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This work introduces a new method for inserting a Lithium reference electrode into commercially available 18650-type cells in order to obtain electrode potentials during cell operation. The proposed method is simple and requires limited equipment. Furthermore, electrical performance is significantly better and the cell capacity and resistance can be recorded for longer durations when compared to some of the previously used methods. Electrical performance of this new third electrode method is characterized and compared to 18650 cells with no reference electrode inserted. The capacity retention of the modified cell is more than 98% in the first 20 cycles. Harvested electrodes from a disassembled cell were also used to make coin cells that was proven to be a rather critical approach to get electrode potentials and capacities. This is an initial study that shows three-electrode performances of a commercial 18650-type cell, which suggests it could be used for understanding electrode behavior throughout a cell lifetime and for manufacturing instrumented cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Real-Time Implementation of an Extended
           Kalman Filter and a PI Observer for State Estimation of Rechargeable
           Li-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications—A Case Study

    • Authors: Roxana-Elena Tudoroiu, Mohammed Zaheeruddin, Sorin-Mihai Radu, Nicolae Tudoroiu
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The Li-Ion battery state-of-charge estimation is an essential task in a continuous dynamic automotive industry for large-scale and successful marketing of hybrid electric vehicles. Also, the state-of-charge of any rechargeable battery, regardless of its chemistry, is an essential condition parameter for battery management systems of hybrid electric vehicles. In this study, we share from our accumulated experience in the control system applications field some preliminary results, especially in modeling, control and state estimation techniques. We investigate the design and effectiveness of two state-of-charge estimators, namely an extended Kalman filter and a proportional integral observer, implemented in a real-time MATLAB environment for a particular Li-Ion battery. Definitely, the aim of this work is to find the most suitable estimator in terms of estimation accuracy and robustness to changes in initial conditions (i.e., the initial guess value of battery state-of-charge) and changes in process and measurement noise levels. By a rigorous performance analysis of MATLAB simulation results, the potential estimator choice is revealed. The performance comparison can be done visually on similar graphs if the information gathered provides a good insight, otherwise, it can be done statistically based on the calculus of statistic errors, in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean square error.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal
           Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Erik Schaltz, Søren Knudsen Kær
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 21: Local Study of Lithiation and Degradation
           Paths in LiMn2O4 Battery Cathodes: Confocal Raman Microscopy Approach

    • Authors: Boris Slautin, Denis Alikin, Daniele Rosato, Dmitry Pelegov, Vladimir Shur, Andrei Kholkin
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Lithium manganese-based cathodes are widely used in rechargeable batteries due to their low cost, safety, and ecological stability. On the other hand, fast capacity fade occurs in LiMn2O4 mainly because of the induced manganese dissolution and formation of additional phases. Confocal Raman microscopy provides many opportunities for sensitive and spatially resolved structural studies of micro- and nanoscale phenomena. Here, we demonstrate advantages of confocal Raman spectroscopy approach for uncovering the mechanisms of lithiation/delithiation and degradation in LiMn2O4 commercial cathodes. The analysis of Raman spectra for inspecting local lithiation state and phase composition is proposed and exploited for the visualization of the inhomogeneous distribution of lithium ions. The cycling of cathodes is shown to be followed by the formation and dissolution of the Mn3O4 phase and local disturbance of the lithiation state. These processes are believed to be responsible for the capacity fade in the commercial batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 22: Nontrivial Effects of “Trivial”
           Parameters on the Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    • Authors: Junbin Liao, Zhibin Ye
      First page: 22
      Abstract: A robust lithium-sulfur (Li–S) battery is constituted by a wide range of optimized fundamental parameters (e.g., amount of electrolyte, electrolyte additive, sulfur loading density, and the size of sulfur particles). In this paper, some other often-neglected “trivial” parameters (including assembly pressure of the coil cells, thickness of spring/lithium foil in coin cells, sheet number of separator, and cut-off voltage) of Li–S batteries have been demonstrated to show pronounced effects on the battery performance. Our results indicate that the coin cell assembly pressure and sheet number of the separator play the important roles in suppressing polysulfide shuttling over battery cycling, which improves significantly the cycling life of Li–S batteries. The thickness of springs/lithium foils also affects the battery performance greatly. When switching the cut-off voltage of 1.5–3.0 V to narrower ones (1.7–2.5 V or 1.8–2.6 V), the cycling life of batteries at 0.2 C can be further enhanced to >300 cycles while with no drastic polysulfide shuttling. Adjusting these trivial parameters can thus synergistically improve the cycling performance of Li–S batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 23: Simultaneous Sensing of Temperature and
           Bi-Directional Strain in a Prismatic Li-Ion Battery

    • Authors: Micael Nascimento, Marta S. Ferreira, João L. Pinto
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Thermal and pressure stability of Li-ion batteries (LiB) are the most important parameters for safety. In abuse operating conditions, the rapid increase of temperature and pressure can cause the appearance of hot-spots, which may lead to an increasing degradation rate or even to the battery’s explosion and/or combustion. A sensing network of fiber Bragg gratings is attached to the surface of a prismatic LiB to monitor its temperature and bi-directional strain variations through normal charge (0.70 C) and two different discharge rates (1.32 C and 5.77 C) in the x- and y-directions. More significant variations are registered when the LiB operates in abnormal conditions. A maximum temperature variation of 27.52 ± 0.13 °C is detected by the sensors located close to the positive electrode side. Regarding strain and consequent length variations, maximum values of 593.58 ± 0.01 µε and 51.05 ± 0.05 µm are respectively obtained by the sensors placed on the y-direction. The sensing network presented can be a solution for the real-time monitoring, multipoint and in operando temperature and bi-directional strain variations in the LiBs, promoting their safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 24: High-Yield Preparation of ZnO Nanoparticles
           on Exfoliated Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries and the
           Effect of Particle Size as well as of Conductivity on the Electrochemical
           Performance of Such Composites

    • Authors: Olga Isakin, Stephanie Hiltl, Oliver Struck, Monika Willert-Porada, Ralf Moos
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP) and graphite provides a promising approach for applications in the field of anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, we report a facile and environmentally friendly method yielding uniformly dispersed ZnO particles with a controllable particle size between 5 and 80 nm, supported by exfoliated graphite (EG) sheets. A thermal post-treatment (420 to 800 °C, N2) of ZnO@EG composite results in high yield with the opportunity for industrial scale-up. The post-treatment leads to growing ZnO particles on the EG sheets, while oxygen is disincorporated from ZnO by the associated carbothermal reduction of ZnO@EG composites above 600 °C and the conductivity is increased. ZnO@EG composite anodes, reduced at 600 °C, show improved Li storage capacity (+25%) and good cycle stability, compared to the EG anode. This can be attributed to the increased conductivity, despite the particle size increased up to 80 nm. Furthermore, we suggest that the mechanism for the reaction of Li+ ions with ZnO@EG-composites including ZnO-particles with an average particle size below 20 nm differs from the classical Li+ ions insertion/de-insertion or alloying process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 25: The Electrochemical Sodiation of Sb
           Investigated by Operando X-ray Absorption and 121Sb Mössbauer
           Spectroscopy: What Does One Really Learn'

    • Authors: Ali Darwiche, Marcus Fehse, Abdelfattah Mahmoud, Camille La Fontaine, Bernard Fraisse, Raphael P. Hermann, Marie-Liesse Doublet, Laure Monconduit, Moulay T. Sougrati, Mouna Ben Yahia, Lorenzo Stievano
      First page: 25
      Abstract: In this study, we want to highlight the assets and restrictions of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy for investigating the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction of antimony electrode materials vs. Na. For this, operando XAS was carried out during the first one and a half cycles, and the whole set of measured data was analysed using a statistical-chemometric approach, while low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements were carried out ex situ on selected samples stopped at different points of the electrochemical reaction. Complementary ab initio calculations were performed to support the experimental findings. Both techniques show that, upon the first sodiation, most Sb reacts with Na to form disordered Na 3 Sb. This step is accompanied by the formation of amorphous Sb as an intermediate. Upon inversion of the current Na 3 Sb is desodiated and an amorphous Sb phase, distinct from the pristine bulk Sb state, is gradually formed. However, both XAS and Mössbauer spectroscopy were unable to spot the formation of intermediate Na x Sb phases, which were evinced in previous works by operando Pair Distribution Function analyses. The results shown here clearly assign such failure to the intrinsic inability of both techniques to identify these intermediates.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 26: Formation and Stability of Interface between
           Garnet-Type Ta-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal
           Electrode

    • Authors: Ryoji Inada, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiromasa Hosokawa, Masaya Saito, Tomohiro Tojo, Yoji Sakurai
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Garnet-type Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 (LLZT) is considered a good candidate for the solid electrolyte in all-solid-state lithium batteries because of its reasonably high conductivity around 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature and stability against lithium (Li) metal with the lowest redox potential. In this study, we synthesized LLZT with a tantalum (Ta) content of 0.45 via a conventional solid-state reaction process and constructed a Li/LLZT/Li symmetric cell by attaching Li metal foils on the polished top and bottom surfaces of an LLZT pellet. We investigated the influence of heating temperatures and times on the interfacial charge-transfer resistance between LLZT and the Li metal electrode. In addition, the effect of the interface resistance on the stability for Li deposition and dissolution was examined using a galvanostatic cycling test. The lowest interfacial resistance of 25 Ω cm2 at room temperature was obtained by heating at 175 °C (5 °C lower than the melting point of Li) for three to five hours. We confirmed that the current density at which the short circuit occurs in the Li/LLZT/Li cell via the propagation of Li dendrite into LLZT increases with decreasing interfacial charge transfer resistance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Introduction of Electric Vehicle Charging
           Stations to University Campuses: A Case Study for the University of
           Georgia from 2014 to 2017

    • Authors: Sierra Hovet, Blair Farley, Jason Perry, Kevin Kirsche, Michael Jerue, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular in the United States of America (USA). EVs attract buyers with benefits including energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. As EV usage grows, more public spaces are installing EV charging stations. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of EV charging station usage at the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens, Georgia. Three ChargePoint EV charging stations at UGA were used to collect data about each of 3204 charging events that occurred from 10 April 2014 to 20 June 2017. The charging event data included start date, start time, length of parking time, length of charging time, amount of energy delivered, and the postal code entered by the user during ChargePoint account registration. Analytical methods were proposed to obtain information about EV charging behavior, charging station occupancy, and geolocation of charging station users. The methodology presented here was time- and cost-effective, as well as scalable to other organizations that own charging stations. Because this study took place at a university, the results presented here can be used as a reference for EV charging station usage in other college towns in the USA that do not have EV charging stations but are planning to develop EV infrastructure.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Ion Transport in Solvent-Free, Crosslinked,
           

    • Authors: Clay T. Elmore, Morgan E. Seidler, Hunter O. Ford, Laura C. Merrill, Sunil P. Upadhyay, William F. Schneider, Jennifer L. Schaefer
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Solvent-free, single-ion conducting electrolytes are sought after for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we investigate the ionic conductivity and how this property is influenced by segmental mobility and conducting ion number in crosslinked single-ion conducting polyether-based electrolytes with varying tethered anion and counter-cation types. Crosslinked electrolytes are prepared by the polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and ionic monomers. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes is measured and interpreted in the context of differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy measurements. A lithiated crosslinked electrolyte prepared with PEG31DA and (4-styrenesulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (STFSI) monomers is found to have a lithium ion conductivity of 3.2 × 10−6 and 1.8 × 10−5 S/cm at 55 and 100 °C, respectively. The percentage of unpaired anions for this electrolyte was estimated at about 23% via Raman spectroscopy. Despite the large variances in metal cation–STFSI binding energies as predicted via density functional theory (DFT) and large variations in ionic conductivity, STFSI-based crosslinked electrolytes with the same charge density and varying cations (Li, Na, K, Mg, and Ca) were estimated to all have unpaired anion populations in the range of 19 to 29%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Development of an Electro-Thermal Model for
           Electric Vehicles Using a Design of Experiments Approach

    • Authors: Manoj Mathew, Mehrdad Mastali, John Catton, Ehsan Samadani, Stefan Janhunen, Michael Fowler
      First page: 29
      Abstract: An accurate and computationally efficient lithium-ion battery model is beneficial when developing state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) algorithms for battery management systems (BMS). These models allow for software-in-the-loop (SIL) and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, where the battery pack is simulated in software. However, development of these battery models can be time-consuming, especially when trying to model the effects of temperature and SOC on the equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameters. Estimation of this relationship is often accomplished by carrying out many experiments, which can be costly and time consuming for BMS manufacturers. To address these issues, this paper makes two contributions to literature. First, a comprehensive battery model is developed, where the ECM parameter surface is generated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. Second, replication runs are conducted to accurately estimate the measurement noise and determine which model parameters are significant. The technique is then compared with existing approaches from the literature, and it is shown that, by using the proposed method, the same degree of accuracy can be obtained while requiring significantly fewer experimental runs. This can be advantageous for BMS manufacturers that require a high-fidelity model but cannot afford to carry out many experiments.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4020029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 2: Towards Li-Ion Batteries Operating at 80 °C:
           Ionic Liquid versus Conventional Liquid Electrolytes

    • Authors: Gabriel Oltean, Nareerat Plylahan, Charlotte Ihrfors, Wei Wei, Chao Xu, Kristina Edström, Leif Nyholm, Patrik Johansson, Torbjörn Gustafsson
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Li-ion battery (LIB) full cells comprised of TiO2-nanotube (TiO2-nt) and LiFePO4 (LFP) electrodes and either a conventional organic solvent based liquid electrolyte or an ionic liquid based electrolyte have been cycled at 80 °C. While the cell containing the ionic liquid based electrolyte exhibited good capacity retention and rate capability during 100 cycles, rapid capacity fading was found for the corresponding cell with the organic electrolyte. Results obtained for TiO2-nt and LFP half-cells indicate an oxidative degradation of the organic electrolyte at 80 °C. In all, ionic liquid based electrolytes can be used to significantly improve the performance of LIBs operating at 80 °C.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Looking Deeper into the Galaxy (Note 7)

    • Authors: Melanie Loveridge, Guillaume Remy, Nadia Kourra, Ronny Genieser, Anup Barai, Mike Lain, Yue Guo, Mark Amor-Segan, Mark Williams, Tazdin Amietszajew, Mark Ellis, Rohit Bhagat, David Greenwood
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Li-ion cell designs, component integrity, and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably, Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes, and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings present a deeper insight into the battery’s component microstructures than previously disseminated. This points to the most probable combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Pre-Lithiation Strategies for Rechargeable
           Energy Storage Technologies: Concepts, Promises and Challenges

    • Authors: Florian Holtstiege, Peer Bärmann, Roman Nölle, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
      First page: 4
      Abstract: In order to meet the sophisticated demands for large-scale applications such as electro-mobility, next generation energy storage technologies require advanced electrode active materials with enhanced gravimetric and volumetric capacities to achieve increased gravimetric energy and volumetric energy densities. However, most of these materials suffer from high 1st cycle active lithium losses, e.g., caused by solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, which in turn hinder their broad commercial use so far. In general, the loss of active lithium permanently decreases the available energy by the consumption of lithium from the positive electrode material. Pre-lithiation is considered as a highly appealing technique to compensate for active lithium losses and, therefore, to increase the practical energy density. Various pre-lithiation techniques have been evaluated so far, including electrochemical and chemical pre-lithiation, pre-lithiation with the help of additives or the pre-lithiation by direct contact to lithium metal. In this review article, we will give a comprehensive overview about the various concepts for pre lithiation and controversially discuss their advantages and challenges. Furthermore, we will critically discuss possible effects on the cell performance and stability and assess the techniques with regard to their possible commercial exploration.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 5: A Review of Model-Based Design Tools for
           Metal-Air Batteries

    • Authors: Simon Clark, Arnulf Latz, Birger Horstmann
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The advent of large-scale renewable energy generation and electric mobility is driving a growing need for new electrochemical energy storage systems. Metal-air batteries, particularly zinc-air, are a promising technology that could help address this need. While experimental research is essential, it can also be expensive and time consuming. The utilization of well-developed theory-based models can improve researchers’ understanding of complex electrochemical systems, guide development, and more efficiently utilize experimental resources. In this paper, we review the current state of metal-air batteries and the modeling methods that can be implemented to advance their development. Microscopic and macroscopic modeling methods are discussed with a focus on continuum modeling derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. An applied example of zinc-air battery engineering is presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 6: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in
           2017

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Batteries maintains high quality standards for its published papers.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Current Advances in TiO2-Based Nanostructure
           Electrodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Mahmoud Madian, Alexander Eychmüller, Lars Giebeler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The lithium ion battery (LIB) has proven to be a very reliably used system to store electrical energy, for either mobile or stationary applications. Among others, TiO2-based anodes are the most attractive candidates for building safe and durable lithium ion batteries with high energy density. A variety of TiO2 nanostructures has been thoroughly investigated as anodes in LIBs, e.g., nanoparticles, nanorods, nanoneedles, nanowires, and nanotubes discussed either in their pure form or in composites. In this review, we present the recent developments and breakthroughs demonstrated to synthesize safe, high power, and low cost nanostructured titania-based anodes. The reader is provided with an in-depth review of well-oriented TiO2-based nanotubes fabricated by anodic oxidation. Other strategies for modification of TiO2-based anodes with other elements or materials are also highlighted in this report.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 8: High-Performance Na0.44MnO2 Slabs for
           Sodium-Ion Batteries Obtained through Urea-Based Solution Combustion
           Synthesis

    • Authors: Chiara Ferrara, Cristina Tealdi, Valentina Dall’Asta, Daniel Buchholz, Luciana Chagas, Eliana Quartarone, Vittorio Berbenni, Stefano Passerini
      First page: 8
      Abstract: One of the primary targets of current research in the field of energy storage and conversion is the identification of easy, low-cost approaches for synthesizing cell active materials. Herein, we present a novel method for preparing nanometric slabs of Na0.44MnO2, making use of the eco-friendly urea within a solution synthesis approach. This kind of preparation greatly reduces the time of reaction, decreases the thermal treatment temperature, and allows the obtaining of particles with smaller dimensions compared with those obtained through conventional solid-state synthesis. Such a decrease in particle size guarantees improved electrochemical performance, particularly at high current densities, where kinetic limitations become relevant. Indeed, the materials produced via solution synthesis outperform those prepared via solid-state synthesis both at 2 C, (95 mA h g−1 vs. 85 mA h g−1, respectively) and 5 C, (78 mA h g−1 vs. 68.5 mA h g−1, respectively). Additionally, the former material is rather stable over 200 cycles, with a high capacity retention of 75.7%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 9: Research in Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries
           2017

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Continuing from a special issue in Batteries in 2016, nineteen new papers focusing on recent research activities in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have been selected for the 2017 Special Issue of Ni/MH Batteries. These papers summarize the international joint-efforts in Ni/MH battery research from BASF, Wayne State University, Michigan State University, FDK Corp. (Japan), Institute for Energy Technology (Norway), Central South University (China), University of Science and Technology Beijing (China), Zhengzhou University of Light Industry (China), Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology (China), Shenzhen Highpower (China), and University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa) from 2016–2017 through reviews of AB2 metal hydride alloys, Chinese and EU Patent Applications, as well as descriptions of research results in metal hydride alloys, nickel hydroxide, electrolyte, and new cell type, comparison work, and projections of future works.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 10: Pyrrolidinium FSI and TFSI-Based Polymerized
           Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for High-Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Manfred Kerner, Patrik Johansson
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Promising electrochemical and dynamical properties, as well as high thermal stability, have been the driving forces behind application of ionic liquids (ILs) and polymerized ionic liquids (PILs) as electrolytes for high-temperature lithium-ion batteries (HT-LIBs). Here, several ternary lithium-salt/IL/PIL electrolytes (PILel) have been investigated for synergies of having both FSI and TFSI anions present, primarily in terms of physico-chemical properties, for unique application in HT-LIBs operating at 80 °C. All of the electrolytes tested have low Tg and are thermally stable ≥100 °C, and with TFSI as the exclusive anion the electrolytes (set A) have higher thermal stabilities ≥125 °C. Ionic conductivities are in the range of 1 mS/cm at 100 °C and slightly higher for set A PILel, which, however, have lower oxidation stabilities than set B PILel with both FSI and TFSI anions present: 3.4–3.7 V vs. 4.2 V. The evolution of the interfacial resistance increases for all PILel during the first 40 h, but are much lower for set B PILel and generally decrease with increasing Li-salt content. The higher interfacial resistances only influence the cycling performance at high C-rates (1 C), where set B PILel with high Li-salt content performs better, while the discharge capacities at the 0.1 C rate are comparable. Long-term cycling at 0.5 C, however, shows stable discharge capacities for 100 cycles, with the exception of the set B PILel with high Li-salt content. Altogether, the presence of both FSI and TFSI anions in the PILel results in lower ionic conductivities and decreased thermal stabilities, but also higher oxidation stabilities and reduced interfacial resistances and, in total, result in an improved rate capability, but compromised long-term capacity retention. Overall, these electrolytes open for novel designs of HT-LIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Li-NMC Batteries Model Evaluation with
           Experimental Data for Electric Vehicle Application

    • Authors: Aleksandra Baczyńska, Waldemar Niewiadomski, Ana Gonçalves, Paulo Almeida, Ricardo Luís
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The aim of the paper is to present the battery equivalent circuit for electric vehicle application. Moreover, the model described below is dedicated to lithium-ion types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient and transparent method to develop a battery equivalent circuit model. Battery modeling requires, depending on the chosen method, either significant calculations or a highly developed mathematical model for optimization. The model is evaluated in comparison to the real data measurements, to present the performance of the method. Battery measurements based on charge/discharge tests at a fixed C-rate are presented to show the relation of the output voltage profiles with the battery state of charge. The pulse discharge test is presented to obtain the electric parameters of the battery equivalent circuit model, using a Thévenin circuit. According to the Reverse Trike Ecologic Electric Vehicle (VEECO RT) characteristics used as a case study in this work, new values for vehicle autonomy and battery pack volume based on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cells are evaluated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Mechanical Coating of Zinc Particles with
           Bi2O3-Li2O-ZnO Glasses as Anode Material for Rechargeable Zinc-Based
           Batteries

    • Authors: Tobias Michlik, Manuela Schmid, Andreas Rosin, Thorsten Gerdes, Ralf Moos
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The electrochemical performance of zinc particles with 250 μm and 30 μm diameters, coated with Bi2O3-Li2O-ZnO glass is investigated and compared with noncoated zinc particles. Galvanostatic investigations were conducted in the form of complete discharge and charging cycles in electrolyte excess. Coated 30 μm zinc particles provide the best rechargeability after complete discharge. The coatings reached an average charge capacity over 20 cycles of 113 mAh/g compared to the known zero rechargeability of uncoated zinc particles. Proposed reasons for the prolonged cycle life are effective immobilization of discharge products in the glass layer and the formation of percolating metallic bismuth and zinc phases, forming a conductive network through the glass matrix. The coating itself is carried out by mechanical ball milling. Different coating parameters and the resulting coating quality as well as their influence on the passivation and on the rechargeability of zinc–glass composites is investigated. Optimized coating qualities with respect to adhesion, homogeneity and compactness of the glass layer are achieved at defined preparation conditions, providing a glass coating content of almost 5 wt % for 250 μm zinc particles and almost 11 wt % for 30 μm zinc particles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Untreated Natural Graphite as a Graphene
           Source for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: María Simón, Almudena Benítez, Alvaro Caballero, Julián Morales, Oscar Vargas
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Graphene nanosheets (GNS) are synthesized from untreated natural graphite (NG) for use as electroactive materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), which avoids the pollution-generating steps of purifying graphite. Through a modified Hummer method and subsequent thermal exfoliation, graphitic oxide and graphene were synthesized and characterized structurally, morphologically and chemically. Untreated natural graphite samples contain 45–50% carbon by weight; the rest is composed of different elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, silicon and oxygen, which are present as calcium carbonate and silicates of aluminium and iron. Our results confirm that in the GO and GNS synthesized, calcium is removed due to oxidation, though other impurities are maintained because they are not affected by the synthesis. Despite the remaining mineral phases, the energy storage capacity of GNS electrodes is very promising. In addition, an electrochemical comparison between GNS and NG demonstrated that the specific capacity in GNS is higher during the whole cycling process, 770 mA·g−1 at 100th cycle, which is twice that of graphite.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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