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ENGINEERING (1195 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Control Engineering Practice
  [SJR: 1.354]   [H-I: 84]   [40 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0967-0661
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Longitudinal tunnel ventilation control. Part 1: Modelling and dynamic
           feedforward control
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Nikolaus Euler-Rolle, Martin Fuhrmann, Markus Reinwald, Stefan Jakubek
      Road tunnels exceeding a certain minimum length are equipped with a ventilation system. In case of a fire it is used to achieve a predefined air flow velocity in the tunnel by adequately controlling the installed jet fans in order to ensure sufficient visibility for persons to safely follow the escape routes. As the dynamics of the air flow in road tunnels strongly depend on the tunnel length, short tunnels with longitudinal ventilation systems pose a challenging control task. In this paper, non-linear dynamic feedforward control is proposed for longitudinal ventilation control in case of an emergency. For this purpose, an analytical non-linear zero-dimensional model of the air flow is feedback linearised. Due to its special properties, which are presented and analysed, two different versions of feedforward control are proposed: One is focused on performance, the other on robustness. Finally, the beneficial behaviour of the presented two-degrees-of-freedom control approach is demonstrated by its application to an Austrian motorway tunnel.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:38:21Z
  • Control-oriented tools for the design and validation of the JT-60SA
           magnetic control system
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): N. Cruz, G. De Tommasi, M. Mattei, A. Mele, Y. Miyata, A. Pironti, T. Suzuki
      The construction and operation of the JT-60SA tokamak is the main project currently carried out jointly by Japan and the European Union under the Broader Approach agreement. Within the Integrated Project Team, Japanese and European scientists are developing and testing a number of tools to support preliminary studies and future operations of JT-60SA. Within this collaborative framework, European scientists are using a set of assessed modeling tools to design and validate possible solutions for the plasma magnetic control system of JT-60SA. This paper introduces these tools and describes a possible control architecture to be used on the JT-60SA tokamak. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is shown by means of numerical simulations.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:38:21Z
  • Ensemble-based simultaneous input and state estimation for nonlinear
           dynamic systems with application to wildfire data assimilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Huazhen Fang, Thayjes Srivas, Raymond A. de Callafon, Mulugeta A. Haile
      This paper presents a study of simultaneous input and state estimation for nonlinear dynamic systems, which is formulated as a filtering problem and defining the simultaneous input and state filtering (SISF) approach. The problem considers both unknown input and state variables, where the inputs offer a general description of unknown signals driving or existing in a system. To deal with the problem, a set of ensemble-based approaches for both filtering and smoothing are developed in a Bayesian statistical framework. The fundamental notion is to approximately represent the probability distributions of the unknown input and state variables conditioned on output measurements by ensembles of samples, propagate the ensembles to track the evolution of the probability distributions, and then extract the input and state estimates from the ensembles. The computational efficiency of the proposed method allows application characterized by high-dimensional nonlinear dynamic state representations. The results can be regarded as an extension of the celebrated ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), which is intended for only state estimation by design, to the new inquiry on SISF. The proposed SISF approach is validated on the forty-dimension Lorenz'96 model. Furthermore, an elaborate demonstration of the effectiveness is illustrated on data-driven wildfire data assimilation, where uncertain wind conditions that act as an input driving the wildfire are estimated using SISF.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:38:21Z
  • Contents list
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:38:21Z
  • Longitudinal tunnel ventilation control. Part 2: Non-linear observation
           and disturbance rejection
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Martin Fuhrmann, Nikolaus Euler-Rolle, Michaela Killian, Markus Reinwald, Stefan Jakubek
      Tunnel ventilation control plays a key role in tunnel fire safety, nevertheless there is considerable scope for improving conventional control schemes. This paper proposes a practical approach on how to improve the disturbance attenuation ability of longitudinal tunnel ventilation systems by adding a non-linear unknown disturbance observer to an existing two-degrees-of-freedom control scheme in order to establish active disturbance rejection. The focus of attention is on tunnels using jet fans for fresh air supply. Conventional control does not specifically take into account external disturbances that tunnels are exposed to due to the momentum introduced by moving vehicles and meteorological circumstances like wind load onto the portals, or meteorological pressure differences between the portals. The proposed control scheme provides promising simulation as well as experimental results of a real tunnel implementation. The observer and rejection scheme's convergence and stability is analysed based on Lyapunov theory.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T08:56:58Z
  • Prioritised objectives for model predictive control of building heating
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Edward O'Dwyer, Luciano De Tommasi, Konstantinos Kouramas, Marcin Cychowski, Gordon Lightbody
      Advantages of Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategies for control of building energy systems have been widely reported. A key requirement for successful realisation of such approaches is that strategies are formulated in such a way as to be easily adapted to fit a wide range of buildings with little commissioning effort. This paper introduces an MPC-based building heating strategy, whereby the (typically competing) objectives of energy and thermal comfort are optimised in a prioritised manner. The need for balancing weights in an objective function is eliminated, simplifying the design of the strategy. The problem is further divided into supply and demand problems, separating a high order linear optimisation from a low order nonlinear optimisation. The performance of the formulation is demonstrated in a simulation platform, which is trained to replicate the thermal dynamics of a real building using data taken from the building.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T08:56:58Z
  • Optimization control of a pulverizing system on the basis of the
           estimation of the outlet coal powder flow of a coal mill
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Yaokui Gao, Deliang Zeng, Jizhen Liu, Yifan Jian
      This study aimed to master the operating characteristics of a pulverizing system, improve the output control precision of the system, and reduce the fluctuation amplitude of the main operating parameters of coal-fired units. A nonlinear dynamic model of a direct-fired pulverizing system that considers the effect of coal moisture on the energy balance of a coal mill was established. Then, an estimated signal of the outlet coal powder flow of the coal mill was constructed as a new output control target of the pulverizing system. Finally, an output control optimization method for the pulverizing system was designed on the basis of this signal. Simulation results showed that the model effectively reflects the dynamic characteristics of a pulverizing system. In addition, the results of simulation were concordant with those of online measurements. The control scheme reduced the internal disturbances in the coal feed rate, thereby improving the tracking capability and control precision of the pulverizing system's output and enhancing the disturbance suppression capability of the mill outlet temperature. Thus, the designed control scheme can ensure the safe and stable operation of coal-fired units.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T08:56:58Z
  • Entry guidance with smooth drag planning and non-linear tracking
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): R. Gifty, U.P. Rajeev, V.R. Lalithambika, M.V. Dhekane
      A guidance strategy is developed for the entry phase, meeting range requirements while honouring the constraints on heat flux, dynamic pressure and structural load on the vehicle. Space shuttle guidance is taken as the baseline and an improved strategy to plan and track a reference drag acceleration profile is developed. Trajectory planning is done in drag-energy plane. Drag acceleration and its derivatives are stored as function of specific energy. An analytical, continuous drag modulation strategy is developed for generating the reference trajectory on-board honouring the constraints. The modulated reference trajectory is tracked by a non-linear controller using Incremental Non-linear Dynamic Inversion technique (INDI). The guidance scheme is demonstrated in a short-range re-entry technology demonstrator vehicle. Simulation studies are carried out to establish the robustness of the guidance algorithm for a wide range of performance dispersions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T08:36:38Z
  • Sliding-based image-guided 3D needle steering in soft tissue
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Bita Fallahi, Carlos Rossa, Ron S. Sloboda, Nawaid Usmani, Mahdi Tavakoli
      This paper presents a sliding-based method for steering beveled-tip needles in a 3D environment. The controller determines the needle roll angle using the needle tip position deviation, obtained from ultrasound images, and its first time derivative. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed using 3D unicycle model for the needle, as a result of which parameter constraints are derived. In this method the needle is steered by performing adjustments of needle orientation, which reduces the tissue trauma and injury. The performance of this method is verified by performing experiments using phantom tissue for environments with and without obstacles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T08:36:38Z
  • Optimal pressure sensor placement and assessment for leak location using a
           relaxed isolation index: Application to the Barcelona water network
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Miquel À. Cugueró-Escofet, Vicenç Puig, Joseba Quevedo
      Water distribution networks are large complex systems affected by leaks, which often entail high costs and may severely jeopardise the overall water distribution performance. Successful leak location is paramount in order to minimize the impact of these leaks when occurring. Sensor placement is a key issue in the leak location process, since the overall performance and success of this process highly depends on the choice of the sensors gathering data from the network. Common problems when isolating leaks in large scale highly gridded real water distribution networks include leak mislabelling and the obtention of large number of possible leak locations. This is due to similarity of leak effect in the measurements, which may be caused by topological issues and led to incomplete coverage of the whole network. The sensor placement strategy may minimize these undesired effects by setting the sensor placement optimisation problem with the appropriate assumptions (e.g. geographically cluster alike leak behaviors) and by taking into account real aspects of the practical application, such as the acceptable leak location distance. In this paper, a sensor placement methodology considering these aspects and a general sensor distribution assessment method for leak diagnosis in water distribution systems is presented and exemplified with a small illustrative case study. Finally, the proposed method is applied to two real District Metered Areas (DMAs) located within the Barcelona water distribution network.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:21:57Z
  • Identification of a multivariable nonlinear and time-varying mist reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 63
      Author(s): Chin Leei Cham, Ai Hui Tan, Wooi Haw Tan
      This paper considers the identification of a multivariable nonlinear and time-varying mist reactor system which presents an important system in the industry for applications in cell culture. A systematic approach is formulated for characterizing the linear dynamics, nonlinear distortion, disturbing noise and time variation. The best time-invariant approximation is introduced as part of the methodology in the proposed approach. By incorporating significant nonlinear terms into the model, the main source of disturbance can be determined with greater confidence. The power at the different harmonics is further capitalized upon in deriving an indicator for the relative variance of the time-varying delay.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:21:57Z
  • Time-delay identification in dynamic processes with disturbance via
           correlation analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Li-Juan Li, Ting-Ting Dong, Shu Zhang, Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Shi-Ping Yang
      A time-delay identification algorithm in closed-loop dynamic processes with disturbance based on maximum correlation analysis was proposed in this paper. To denoise the output data, the response of process disturbance was first estimated on routine data and then eliminated from the output. Next the incremental denoising process data were proposed to be used against the influence of system dynamic on the time-delay estimation. The correlations between the incremental input and different delayed output were computed and the delayed time corresponding to the maximum correlation was identified as the time-delay. The application in the Wood-Berry process and an industrial process showed the validity of the proposed algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:21:57Z
  • Improved Stewart platform state estimation using inertial and actuator
           position measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): I. Miletović, D.M. Pool, O. Stroosma, M.M. van Paassen, Q.P. Chu
      Accurate and reliable estimation of the kinematic state of a six degrees-of-freedom Stewart platform is a problem of interest in various engineering disciplines. Particularly so in the area of flight simulation, where the Stewart platform is in widespread use for the generation of motion similar to that experienced in actual flight. Accurate measurements of Stewart platform kinematic states are crucial for the application of advanced motion control algorithms and are highly valued in quantitative assessments of simulator motion fidelity. In the current work, a novel method for the reconstruction of the kinematic state of a Stewart platform is proposed. This method relies on an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) for a tight coupling of on-platform inertial sensors with measurements of the six actuator positions. The proposed algorithm is shown to be superior to conventional iterative methods in two main areas. First, more accurate estimates of motion platform velocity are obtained and, second, the algorithm is robust to inherent measurement uncertainties like noise and bias. The results were validated on the SIMONA Research Simulator (SRS) at TU Delft. To this end, an efficient implementation of the algorithm was driven, in real time, by actual sensor measurements from two representative motion profiles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:21:57Z
  • Issues in closed-loop needle steering
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Carlos Rossa, Mahdi Tavakoli
      Percutaneous needle insertion is amongst the most prevalent clinical procedures. The effectiveness of needle-base interventions heavily relies on needle targeting accuracy. However, the needle interacts with the surrounding tissue during insertion and deflects away from its intended trajectory. To overcome this problem, a significant research effort has been made towards developing robotic systems to automatically steer bevel-tipped needles percutaneously, which is a comprehensive and challenging control problem. A flexible needle inserted in soft tissue is an under-actuated system with nonholonomic constraints. Closed-loop feedback control of needle in tissue is challenging due to measurement errors, unmodelled dynamics created by tissue heterogeneity, and motion of targets within the tissue. In this paper, we review recent progress made in each of the complementary components that constitute a closed-loop needle steering system, including modelling needle-tissue interaction, sensing needle deflection, controlling needle trajectory, and hardware implementation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • The consistency control of mold level in casting process
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Ping Shen, Han-Xiong Li
      A new multiple periodic disturbance rejection control for casting process is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a high-precision multiple periodic disturbance detection method is designed. The accurate frequencies of the disturbance can be obtained. By using the disturbance observer and a group of filters with additional delay items, multiple periodic disturbance can be suppressed under time-delay environment. Then systematic control design is achieved based on the robust stability analysis. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed method is shown by comparisons between different methods and time-varying disturbance rejection in the consistency control of mold level.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • EMD-based online Filtering of Process Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Xi Ma, Jinqiu Hu, Laibin Zhang
      In chemical industries, measurements corrupted by noise or outliers may affect operators’ recognition of the current situation and lead them to make inappropriate control decisions. Data quality is a critical factor for process monitoring and fault diagnosis. A robust online filtering method (OLREMD 1 1 OLREMD: robust EMD-based online filtering of process data. ) is proposed to implement online process data rectification with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as the basic algorithm. Tests with synthetic data show that OLREMD performs robustly with a lower sensitivity to parameters and improved performance on elimination of both noise and outliers. When applied to an industrial de-ethanizing column, OLREMD is shown to enhance the process monitoring performance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Indoor low-cost localization system for controlling aerial robots
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Milton C.P. Santos, Lucas V. Santana, Alexandre S. Brandão, Mário Sarcinelli-Filho, Ricardo Carelli
      This paper presents a low-cost localization system to guide an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in indoor flights, considering an environment with invariant texture and typical indoor illumination. The first contribution of the paper is the proposal of a system to estimate the position and orientation of the UAV, through a multi-sensor fusion scheme, dealing with data provided by a RGB-D sensor, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), an ultrasonic sensor and optical flow-based velocity estimates. A second contribution of the paper is the proposal of a high-level control system to guide the UAV in path-following tasks, involving two controllers: a kinematic one, responsible for generating reference velocities for the vehicle, and a PD one, responsible for tracking such reference velocities, thus characterizing a cascade controller. Experiments with such a localization and control systems, during which abrupt disturbances are applied, were carried out to check the effectiveness of the developed capture and control systems, whose results validate the proposed framework.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Algebraic estimation and active disturbance rejection in the control of
           flat systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): John Cortés-Romero, Alexander Jimenez-Triana, Horacio Coral-Enriquez, Hebertt Sira-Ramírez
      This paper proposes a feedback method for the control of uncertain systems with unknown external disturbances, which includes an algebraic estimator and relies on the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) approach. The proposed estimator considers a generalized disturbance in order to deal with systems which may simultaneously present time varying parameters, external disturbances, un-modeled dynamics, and process noise. The on-line estimated disturbance is obtained by means of differential algebraic methods and it is used as the major part of an on-line feedback cancellation scheme aiming at linearization and uncertainty suppression. The algebraic estimator proposed in the paper makes unnecessary the use of classical extended state observers, which are widely used in ADRC. The speed of response and reliability of the proposed algebraic disturbance estimator-based control scheme was experimentally tested on three laboratory systems, including a system of directly-coupled DC motors, a roto-magnet system, and a disc and beam system, showing that the experimental results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the theory.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Robust numerical approach to steady-state calibration of mean-value models
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Radek Beňo, Daniel Pachner, Vladimír Havlena
      A numerically robust approach to steady-state calibration of nonlinear dynamic models is presented. The approach is based on explicit formulation of the constraints on validity of internal model signals by set of inequalities. The constrained optimization with feasible iterates guarantees that the model will never be evaluated with invalid internal signals. This overcomes numerical difficulties often encountered when dealing with highly nonlinear models. Because the approach uses a large number of slack variables, distributed least squares algorithm is proposed. The robustness of this approach is demonstrated on a steady-state calibration of turbocharged diesel engine model starting from grossly inaccurate initial estimates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Optimizing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of gasoline-HEV with
           catalytic converter
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Pierre Michel, Alain Charlet, Guillaume Colin, Yann Chamaillard, Gérard Bloch, Cédric Nouillant
      Because of more and more stringent vehicle emission standards, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are developed. Gasoline-HEV are equipped with 3-Way Catalytic Converter (3WCC). So the energy management systems of such vehicles, which must reduce not only fuel consumption, but also vehicle pollutant emissions, have to consider the 3WCC heating. A pollutant constrained energy management strategy is presented. A 3WCC multi-0D model is built from physical equations, with a good complexity-performances compromise. An off-line optimal strategy allows the joint minimization of pollution and fuel consumption with only one parameter to tune, while considering all the standardized pollutant emissions. This strategy reduces significantly the vehicle emissions for a minor fuel consumption increase and leads to define 3WCC smart heating. Thus an on-line smart heating strategy is implemented in a HyHIL (Hybrid Hardware In the Loop) test bench, reducing the pollutant emissions of the classical charge sustaining strategy by 30% for CO and 10% for NO X .

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): M.C.F. Donkers, J. Van Schijndel, W.P.M.H. Heemels, F.P.T. Willems
      Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic real-time implementable solution is used, which is based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP). In this paper, we compute the optimal solution using both PMP and Dynamic Programming (DP). As the emission legislation imposes a terminal state constraint, standard DP algorithms are sensitive to numerical errors that appear close to the boundary of the feasible sets. Therefore, we propose two extensions to existing DP methods, which use an approximation of the forward reachable sets to reduce the grid size over time and an approximation of the backward reachable sets to avoid the aforementioned numerical errors. Using a simulation study of a cold-start World Harmonised Transient Cycle for a Euro-VI engine, we show that the novel extension to the DP algorithm yields the best approximation of the optimal cost, when compared to existing DP methods. Furthermore, we show that PMP yields almost the same results as DP, and that the real-time implementable solution only deviates approximately 0.08–0.16% from the optimal solution.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Effect of driving, charging, and pricing scenarios on optimal component
           sizing of a PHEV
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Mitra Pourabdollah, Bo Egardt, Nikolce Murgovski, Anders Grauers
      In this paper, the problem of optimal sizing of a series PHEV is studied by formulating a convex program that minimizes the sum of operational and component costs. The solution gives the optimal sizes of the main powertrain components, simultaneously with the vehicle's optimal energy management. Investigations are performed on driving cycles generated stochastically from real data using Markov chains, with different driving distance distributions and charging patterns. The results show that the optimal component sizing is affected more from the driving distances between charging opportunities, than the speed profile of the driving. With anticipated future battery and petroleum prices, larger battery sizes are obtained.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Predictive planning of optimal velocity and state of charge trajectories
           for hybrid electric vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Gunter Heppeler, Marcus Sonntag, Uli Wohlhaupter, Oliver Sawodny
      The combination of electric motors and internal combustion engines in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can considerably improve the fuel efficiency compared to conventional vehicles. In order to use its full potential, a predictive intelligent control system using information about impending driving situations has to be developed, to determine the optimal gear shifting strategy and the torque split between the combustion engine and the electric motor. To further increase fuel efficiency, the vehicle velocity can be used as an additional degree of freedom and the development of a predictive algorithm calculating good choices for all degrees of freedom over time is necessary. In this paper, an optimization-based algorithm for combined energy management and economic driving over a limited horizon is proposed. The results are compared with results from an offline calculation, which determine the overall fuel savings potential through the use of a discrete dynamic programming algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Velocity profile optimization of on road vehicles: Pontryagin's Maximum
           Principle based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Engin Ozatay, Umit Ozguner, Dimitar Filev
      Driving profile of on road vehicles has shown to have significant effect on fuel economy. This paper discusses the development of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP) based solution to determine the energy optimal velocity profile by incorporating the gear shifting, speed limit and road grade constraints simultaneously. In the proposed approach the real world road grade profile and speed limits are approximated by a set of piece-wise constant functions and the corresponding first order necessary conditions are derived. By solving a number of differential equations an analytical solution is generated. Therefore, the computation time of the solution is extremely fast. To verify the global optimality of the solution, the results are compared with dynamic programming (DP) solution that solves the complex and non-linear representative model of the actual test vehicle. The comparison results prove that the generated optimal speed trajectories are very close to global optimal solution.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Model-based diagnosis and fault tolerant control for ensuring torque
           functional safety of pedal-by-wire systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jiyu Zhang, Giorgio Rizzoni, Andrea Cordoba-Arenas, Alessandro Amodio, Bilin Aksun-Guvenc
      This paper presents a model based approach for defining automotive functional safety requirements and provides a solution to ensure functional safety through model-based diagnosis and fault tolerant control. This model-based approach is consistent with ISO 26262 – functional safety standard. In particular, this paper presents the necessary steps for defining and implementing functional safety requirements, including item and function definition, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, as well as the design of a model-based diagnostic and fault tolerant control (FTC) system that can lead to a systematic solution to automotive functional safety problems. The methodology proposed in this paper is applied to the problem of torque functional safety of pedal-by-wire systems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Road profile estimation using an adaptive Youla–Kučera parametric
           observer: Comparison to real profilers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): M. Doumiati, J. Martinez, O. Sename, L. Dugard, D. Lechner
      Road profile acts as a disturbance input to the vehicle dynamics and results in undesirable vibrations affecting the vehicle stability. An accurate knowledge of this data is a key for a better understanding of the vehicle dynamics behavior and active vehicle control systems design. However, direct measurements of the road profile are not trivial for technical and economical reasons, and thus alternative solutions are needed. This paper develops a novel observer, known as a virtual sensor, suitable for real-time estimation of the road profile. The developed approach is built on a quarter-car model and uses measurements of the vehicle body. The road roughness is modeled as a sinusoidal disturbance signal acting on the vehicle system. Since this signal has unknown and time-varying characteristics, the proposed estimation method implements an adaptive control scheme based on the internal model principle and on the use of Youla–Kučera (YK) parameterization technique (also known as Q-parameterization). For performances assessment, estimations are comparatively evaluated with respect to measurements issued from Longitudinal Profile Analyzer (LPA) and Inertial Profiler (IP) instruments during experimental trials. The proposed method is also compared to the approach provided in Doumiati, Victorino, Charara, and Lechner (2011), where a stochastic Kalman filter is applied assuming a linear road model. Results show the effectiveness and pertinence of the present observation scheme.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Nonlinear analysis and control of a variable-geometry suspension system
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Balázs Németh, Péter Gáspár
      The paper proposes methods for both the analysis and the synthesis of variable-geometry suspension systems. The nonlinear polynomial Sum-of-Squares (SOS) programming method is applied in the analysis and it gives the optimal utilization of the maximum control forces on the tires. Moreover, the construction of the system can be based on the nonlinear analysis. The variable-geometry suspension system affects the wheel camber angle and generates an additional steering angle, thus the coordination of steering and wheel tilting can be handled. An LPV (Linear Parameter-Varying) based control-oriented modeling and control design for lateral vehicle dynamics are also proposed. The novelty of the method is the combination of the LPV-based control design and the SOS-based invariant set analysis. The simulation example presents the efficiency of the variable-geometry suspension system and it shows that the system is suitable to be used as a driver assistance system. In the SIL (software-in-the-loop) simulation both the dSPACE-AutoBox hardware and the CarSim simulator are used as standard industrial tools.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Nonlinear state estimation for suspension control applications: a
           Takagi-Sugeno Kalman filtering approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Nils Pletschen, Klaus J. Diepold
      A new nonlinear state estimation approach, which combines classical Kalman filter theory and Takagi-Sugeno (TS) modeling, is proposed in this paper. To ensure convergence of the TS observer, conditions are derived that explicitly account for the TS model's confined region of validity. Thereby, the secured domain of attraction (DA) of the TS error dynamics is maximized within given bounds. The TS Kalman filtering concept is then applied to a hybrid vehicle suspension configuration, whose nonlinear dynamics are exactly represented by a continuous-time TS system. The benefit of the novel estimation technique is analyzed in comparison with the well-known EKF and UKF variants in simulations and experiments of a passive and an actively controlled suspension configuration in a quarter-car set-up. Employing a real road profile as disturbance input, the TS Kalman filter shows the highest estimation quality of the concepts studied. Moreover, as its computational complexity adds up to only one third of the one involved with the classical methods, the new approach operates remarkably efficient.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Safe driving envelopes for path tracking in autonomous vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Matthew Brown, Joseph Funke, Stephen Erlien, J. Christian Gerdes
      One approach to motion control of autonomous vehicles is to divide control between path planning and path tracking. This paper introduces an alternative control framework that integrates local path planning and path tracking using model predictive control (MPC). The controller plans trajectories, consisting of position and velocity states, that best follow a desired path while remaining within two safe envelopes. One envelope corresponds to conditions for stability and the other to obstacle avoidance. This enables the controller to safely and minimally deviate from a nominal path if necessary to avoid spinning out or colliding with an obstacle. A long prediction horizon allows action in the present to avoid a dangerous situation in the future. This motivates the use of a first-order hold discretization method that maintains model fidelity and computational feasibility. The controller is implemented in real-time on an experimental vehicle for several driving scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:07:06Z
  • Iterative Learning Control of Iteration-Varying Systems via Robust Update
           Laws with Experimental Implementation
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Berk Altın, Jeroen Willems, Tom Oomen, Kira Barton
      Iterative learning control (ILC) is an efficient way of improving the tracking performance of repetitive systems. While ILC can offer significant improvement to the transient response of complex dynamical systems, the fundamental assumption of iteration invariance of the process limits potential applications. Utilizing abstract Banach spaces as our problem setting, we develop a general approach that is applicable to the various frameworks encountered in ILC. Our main result is that robust invariant update laws lead to stable behavior in ILC systems, where iteration-varying systems converge to bounded neighborhoods of their nominal counterparts when uncertainties are bounded. Furthermore, if the uncertainties are convergent along the iteration axis, convergence to the nominal case can be guaranteed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T06:54:31Z
  • Fault prognosis of filamentous sludge bulking using an enhanced
           multi-output gaussian processes regression
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Yiqi Liu, Yongping Pan, Daoping Huang, Qilin Wang
      The activated sludge process (ASP) is widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the occurrence of filamentous sludge bulking often compromises the stable operation of the ASP. For timely diagnosis of filamentous sludge bulking for an activated sludge process in advance, this study proposed a Multi-Output Gaussian Processes Regression (MGPR) model for multi-step prediction and presented the Vector auto-regression (VAR) to learn the MGPR modelling deviation. The resulting models and associated uncertainty levels are used to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), such that the evolution of SVI can be predicted for both one-step and multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and prognosis of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI prediction were tested through a simulation study. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology was capable of predicting future SVI with good accuracy, thereby providing sufficient time for filamentous sludge bulking.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T06:54:31Z
  • Two-stage voltage control of subtransmission networks with high
           penetration of wind power
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Zhiyuan Tang, David J. Hill, Tao Liu
      Voltage issues are the main factors that limit the penetration level of wind power in subtransmission systems. In this paper, based on different control characteristics, we propose a two-stage coordinated control framework to deal with the negative voltage impacts caused by wind power fluctuations. In the first control stage, on-load tap changers (OLTCs) are used to deal with the voltage variations caused by large wind power fluctuations. In the second control stage, virtual power plants (VPPs) in the subtransmission network are used to handle the remaining slight voltage variations by controlling their reactive power. The second control stage only takes actions to support voltage regulations when control actions of the first control stage cannot meet the control requirements. Control actions of OLTCs and VPPs are obtained through multi-objective optimization based model predictive control and a fully distributed optimal dispatch scheme, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is tested through case studies based on the IEEE 14-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system with wind farms. In addition, through comparison with the traditional control method, our control scheme can reduce the control costs significantly and achieve the control targets at the same time.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:42:58Z
  • Incipient fault detection with smoothing techniques in statistical process
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Hongquan Ji, Xiao He, Jun Shang, Donghua Zhou
      In modern industry, detecting incipient faults timely is of vital importance to prevent serious system performance deterioration and ensure optimal process operation. Recently, multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) techniques have been extensively studied and widely applied to modern industrial systems. However, conventional fault detection indices utilized in statistical process monitoring are not sensitive to incipient faults with small magnitude. In this paper, by introducing two representative smoothing techniques, novel incipient fault detection strategies based on a generic fault detection index in MSPM are proposed. Fault detectability for each proposed strategy is analyzed. In addition, the effects of the smoothing parameters on fault detection, including advantages and disadvantages, are also investigated. Finally, case studies on a numerical example and two practical industrial processes are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incipient fault detection strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:42:58Z
  • Proportional electro-hydraulic valves: An Embedded Model Control solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 62
      Author(s): Wilber Acuña-Bravo, Enrico Canuto, Marco Agostani, Marco Bonadei
      Hierarchical control architectures are a common approach when hydraulic systems are under study; provided their multi-domain nature, the control scheme is commonly split into different hierarchical levels each one associated with a particular physical domain. This paper presents the application of a model-based control structure called Embedded Model Control (EMC) when a hierarchical scheme is implemented on an electro-hydraulic proportional valve. The overall control consists of two hierarchical loops: the inner loop is the solenoid current regulator with a closed loop bandwidth close to 1kHz. The outer loop is a position tracking control, in charge of the accurate positioning of the spool with respect to valve openings. The paper addresses the outer loop, i.e., the tracking of mechanical spool position by using the EMC. Analysis and synthesis are presented as well as experimental results obtained from a test rig provided by an industrial manufacturer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:42:58Z
  • An improved artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on
           orthogonal learning for optimal power flow problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Wenlei Bai, Ibrahim Eke, Kwang Y. Lee
      The increasing fuel price has led to high operational cost and therefore, advanced optimal dispatch schemes need to be developed to reduce the operational cost while maintaining the stability of grid. This study applies an improved heuristic approach, the improved Artificial Bee Colony (IABC) to optimal power flow (OPF) problem in electric power grids. Although original ABC has provided robust solutions for a range of problems, such as the university timetabling, training neural networks and optimal distributed generation allocation, its poor exploitation often causes solutions to be trapped in local minima. Therefore, in order to adjust the exploitation and exploration of ABC, the IABC based on the orthogonal learning is proposed. Orthogonal learning is a strategy to predict the best combination of two solution vectors based on limited trials instead of exhaustive trials, and to conduct deep search in the solution space. To assess the proposed method, two fuel cost objective functions with high non-linearity and non-convexity are selected for the OPF problem. The proposed IABC is verified by IEEE-30 and 118 bus test systems. In all case studies, the IABC has shown to consistently achieve a lower cost with smaller deviation over multiple runs than other modern heuristic optimization techniques. For example, the quadratic fuel cost with valve effect found by IABC for 30 bus system is 919.567 $/hour, saving 4.2% of original cost, with 0.666 standard deviation. Therefore, IABC can efficiently generate high quality solutions to nonlinear, nonconvex and mixed integer problems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:38:15Z
  • CEP special issue section on automotive control @ World Congress 2014
           & AAC 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice
      Author(s): Lars Eriksson, Gianfranco Rizzo, Yann Chamaillard

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:38:15Z
  • Optimal coupled and decoupled perimeter control in one-region cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jack Haddad
      Perimeter controllers, located at a regional border, can manipulate the transfer flows across the border to optimize the regional operational performance. The macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD), that relates average flow with accumulation, is used to model the traffic flow dynamics. In this paper, two cases of perimeter control inputs are considered: coupled and decoupled control. For both cases, the explicit formulations of the optimal feedback control policies and proofs of optimality are provided for three criteria. The proofs are based on the modified Krotov-Bellman sufficient conditions of optimality, where the upper and lower bounds of state variables are calculated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:50:05Z
  • Impact of voltage dip induced delayed active power recovery on wind
           integrated power systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Z.H. Rather, D. Flynn
      Installed wind power capacity is increasing rapidly in many power systems around the world, with challenging penetration targets set at national, and/or regional level. Wind power, particularly at higher penetration levels, introduces various grid issues, with frequency and voltage stability being particularly critical concerns. Voltage dip induced frequency stability following a network fault in such systems is one potential risk that has so far received limited attention by the research community. With state of the art modelling, the potential impact of a delayed active power recovery from wind generation following a network fault induced voltage dip is investigated. The subsequent voltage oscillations introduced by wind turbines, exacerbating frequency stability, are also examined. Analysis is carried out for a wide range of wind penetration levels and system scenarios, with the results demonstrated on the New England benchmark system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:50:05Z
  • Robust indirect-defined envelope control for rollover and lateral skid
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Martin R. Licea, Ilse Cervantes
      This paper introduces a means to evaluate the severity of the lateral skid phenomenon based on a balance of forces applied to the vehicle. Derived from this analysis, a lateral Skid Index (SI) is proposed which, along with the well-known rollover index, is used to monitor the vehicle and to derive an indirect envelope specification. A robust control ensures the accident risk mitigation in spite of model uncertainty and perturbations from the driver. Speed and predictive dependent risk switching criteria are used to activate the control action. The proposed strategy is illustrated using Hardware-in-the-Loop experiments and its comparison with existing strategies is performed.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights fx1

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:50:05Z
  • Train scheduling and circulation planning in urban rail transit lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Yihui Wang, Zhibin Liao, Tao Tang, Bin Ning
      This paper proposes a two-stage optimization approach to optimize the train schedule and circulation plan with consideration of passenger demand for an urban rail transit line. A train scheduling model is based on the operation of train services, which results a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Moreover, a train circulation model is formulated to adjust the departure and arrival times obtained by the train scheduling model to reduce the number of trains required, which results in a mixed integer linear programming problem. The case study based on the Beijing Yizhuang line illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution approach.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T17:42:42Z
  • Neural network models for virtual sensing of NOx emissions in automotive
           diesel engines with least square-based adaptation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ivan Arsie, Andrea Cricchio, Matteo De Cesare, Francesco Lazzarini, Cesare Pianese, Marco Sorrentino
      To meet current Diesel engine pollutant legislation, it is important to manage after-treatment devices. The paper describes the development of Neural Network based virtual sensors used to estimate NOx emissions at the exhaust of automotive Diesel engines. Suitable identification methodologies and experimental tests were developed with the aim of meeting the conflicting needs of feasible on-board implementation and satisfactory prediction accuracy. In addition, since the prediction of control-oriented models is typically affected by engine aging and production spread as well as components drift, least square technique features were exploited in order to overcome these issues by adapting the virtual sensor output. The NOx adaptive virtual sensor was tested via comparison with experimental data, measured at the engine test bench on a turbocharged common-rail automotive Diesel engine. Furthermore, besides model validation, the experimental measurements were modified to simulate a sensor drift in order to enable full assessment of the proposed LS-based algorithm adaptation capabilities.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T09:27:47Z
  • Non-linear sliding mode load frequency control in multi-area power system
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Sheetla Prasad, Shubhi Purwar, Nand Kishor
      This paper addresses non-linear sliding mode controller (SMC) with matched and unmatched uncertainties for load frequency control (LFC) application in three-area interconnected power system. In conventional LFC scheme, as the nominal operating point varies due to system uncertainties, frequency deviations cannot be minimized. These lead to degradation in the dynamic performance or even system instability. In this paper, an effective control law is proposed against matched and unmatched uncertainties.. The proposed controller has ability to vary closed-loop system damping characteristics according to uncertainties and load disturbances present in the system. The frequency deviation converges to zero with minimum undershoot/overshoot, fast settling time, significantly reduced chattering and ensures asymptotic stability. In addition, the controller is robust in the presence of parameter uncertainties and different disturbance patterns. It also guarantees high dynamic performance in the presence of governor dead band (GDB) and generation rate constraint (GRC). Simulations are performed to compare the proposed controller with linear SMC. Using proposed control strategy, undershoot/overshoot and settling time gets reduced by approximately 30% with respect to linear SMC. The computed performance indices and qualitative results establish the superiority as well as applicability of the proposed design for the LFC problem. Further, the proposed controller scheme is validated on IEEE 39 bus large power system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T09:27:47Z
  • Moving window adaptive soft sensor for state shifting process based on
           weighted supervised latent factor analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Le Yao, Zhiqiang Ge
      Process nonlinearity and state shifting are two of the main factors that cause poor performance of online soft sensors. Adaptive soft sensor is a common practice to ensure high predictive accuracy. In this paper, the moving window method is introduced to the supervised latent factor analysis model to capture the state shifting feature of the process. To make the moving window strategy more efficient, the weighted form of the supervised latent factor analysis approach is applied. In this method, contributions of training samples are expressed through incorporating the similarity index into the noise variance of the process variable, which renders strong adaptability of the method for describing nonlinear relationships and abrupt changes of the process. A numerical example and a real industrial process are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive soft sensor.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T09:27:47Z
  • A unified observer for robust sensorless control of DC–DC converters
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Gionata Cimini, Gianluca Ippoliti, Giuseppe Orlando, Sauro Longhi, Rosario Miceli
      Due to the large variety of converters' configurations, many different sensorless controllers are available in the literature, each one suited for a particular converter. The need for different configurations, especially on the same power supply, make it clear the advantage of having a shared control algorithm. This paper presents a unified nonlinear robust current observer for buck, boost and buck–boost converters in synchronous and asynchronous configurations. The unified observer speeds up the design, tuning and the implementation, and requires a memory cheaper code, easier to certify. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the approach in different scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T12:59:26Z
  • Corner-based estimation of tire forces and vehicle velocities robust to
           road conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ehsan Hashemi, Mohamamd Pirani, Amir Khajepour, Alireza Kasaiezadeh, Shih-Ken Chen, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
      Recent developments in vehicle stability control and active safety systems have led to an interest in reliable vehicle state estimation on various road conditions. This paper presents a novel method for tire force and velocity estimation at each corner to monitor tire capacities individually. This is entailed for more demanding advanced vehicle stability systems and especially in full autonomous driving in harsh maneuvers. By integrating the lumped LuGre tire model and the vehicle kinematics, it is shown that the proposed corner-based estimator does not require knowledge of the road friction and is robust to model uncertainties. The stability of the time-varying longitudinal and lateral velocity estimators is explored. The proposed method is experimentally validated in several maneuvers on different road surface frictions. The experimental results confirm the accuracy and robustness of the state estimators.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T12:59:26Z
  • A Voronoi-diagram-based dynamic path-planning system for underactuated
           marine vessels
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Mauro Candeloro, Anastasios M. Lekkas, Asgeir J. Sørensen
      The main contribution of this paper is the development of a rapid, dynamic path-planning system for 3-DOF marine surface vessels navigating in environments where other marine vehicles might be operating too. The method is based on the Voronoi diagram and generates the initial path while ensuring that clearance constraints are satisfied with respect to both land and shallow waters. Fermat's Spiral (FS) segments are used to connect successive straight lines, hence, resulting in curvature-continuous paths that are rapidly computed. When a ship is detected, the range of its position during a given time frame is estimated, and the path-planning system produces in real time a new safe and smooth path. The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) are taken into account in the replanning procedure. An indirect adaptive Line-Of-Sight (LOS) guidance algorithm from the existing literature is implemented to ensure the underactuated vessel will counteract the effects of unknown environmental forces, such as ocean currents, while converging to the safe path. Simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T12:59:26Z
  • Robust adaptive speed regulator with self-tuning law for surfaced-mounted
           permanent magnet synchronous motor
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Seok-Kyoon Kim
      This study exhibits a self-tuning speed control scheme for the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) against the parameter variations through the multivariable approach. The proposed method has two novelties. The first one is to combine the adaptive controller with the self-tuning algorithm so as to make the decay ratio of the tracking errors higher in the transient period. The second one is to provide a systematical way to find a robust stabilizing control gain corresponding the speed and current tracking errors by solving an optimization problem. The efficacy of the proposed method was experimentally investigated using a 3-kW SPMSM.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T12:59:26Z
  • Angle tracking of a pneumatic muscle actuator mechanism under varying load
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Control Engineering Practice, Volume 61
      Author(s): Hongjiu Yang, Yang Yu, Jinhui Zhang
      In this paper, an active disturbance rejection control approach is proposed for a pneumatic muscle actuator mechanism to achieve angle tracking precisely under varying load conditions. The varying load conditions are treated as external disturbances which are estimated by a linear extended state observer. An active disturbance rejection controller is presented to compensate negative impacts induced by the varying loads. Moreover, stabilization of the closed-loop system are performed for the pneumatic muscle actuator mechanism. Finally, experimental results show the effectiveness of the developed technique in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T12:44:04Z
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