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Journal Cover
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.127
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8507
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Determination of uranium and thorium concentration and gross alpha and
           beta activity measurement in top soil samples from Richards Bay, South
           Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Felix B. Masok, Paulus L. Masiteng, Risimati D. Mavunda, Peane P. Maleka, Hartmut Winkler
       
  • Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and honey extracts significantly reduce
           inflammatory cytokines and liver function enzymes in experimental rats fed
           on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohamad T. Abdelrahman, Esther N. Maina, Hany A. Elshemy Liver is the key organ (detoxifier) that gets injured by reactive oxygen species (ROS) which deplete the body's stores of anti-oxidants. ROS is present in all chronic liver diseases leading to oxidative stress. Consumption of foods high in anti-oxidants replenishes and supplies the body with important anti-oxidants which break down ROS lowering inflammatory responses and preventing liver damage. In this work, clove and honey, which are known to be rich in anti-oxidants extracts were evaluated for their potential to breakdown ROS, Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and lower oxidative stress in rats. Purified extracts were tested in vitro for ROS scavenging by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and in vivo using CCl4-induced liver injury model. A total of 50 experimental rats were assigned to 5 groups each consisting of 10 animals and treated as follows; 1. CCl4 group: fed on CCl4 in olive oil 2. honey group: fed CCl4 then honey extract, 3. clove group: CCl4 then clove extract, 4. double negative control group: rats fed on standard diet and 5 Negative control: fed olive oil, At 10 weeks, liver histopathology was done and sera collected for liver and kidney function tests. CCl4 -only treated rats showed fibroblastic cells proliferation and inflammatory cells infiltration which was absent in the control animals. Clove extract did not exhibit fibroblastic cells proliferation at all. Both clove and honey significantly reduced cytokines (TGF-β, TNF-α and EGF) and liver function enzymes'(ALT, AST and GGT) activity (58.5,56; 119,121 and 6.1; 6.3) compared to the CCl4 group (97; 191 and 10.1). Clove highly inhibited DPPH (77.2%) compared to honey (6.5%) and conferred better liver protection against CCl4. These findings indicate that clove and honey contain compounds that have anti-oxidant activity with the ability to reverse liver fibrosis. Frequent consumption of these foods may lower liver damage and prevent development of some liver diseases. Public health education on nutritional benefits of these foods is strongly encouraged.
       
  • Impact of certain additives to diet on the biological and biochemical
           characteristics of peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): N.F. Zahran, A.F. Hamza, W.A.A. Sayed To improve the mass rearing of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata different concentrations of Cacao, Curcuma and Selenium were added to the larval diet. The effects of these additives on the biological characteristics were evaluated. The pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, adult survival, pupal production and adult flight ability were studied to evaluate the mass rearing quantity and quality. In addition, the elements compositions of adult stage were carried out as a monitor for B. zonata vitality. The results indicated that the concentrations of 1.0 gm/kg Cacao, 1.5 gm/kg Curcuma and (0.01 and 0.02 gm/kg) of Selenium were the most pronounced promising concentration to the insect fitness as compared to the other concentrations. In these concentrations, the pupal productions, pupal weights and flight ability of adult flies were clearly higher than the control treatments. Also, the major and trace elements P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mg and Zn of male and female flies previously fed as larvae on selected concentrations of additives were analysed. Addition of 1.5 gm of Curcuma and 1.0 of Cacao increased the Cl of both male and female flies, while addition to both 0.01 and 0.02 gm/kg of Selenium increased the P and Mg contents of the both sexes. Also, some values of tested elements are varied by the different additives; these differences could play an important role in the insect vitality and sex maturation.
       
  • Evaluation of mean glandular dose and assessment of the risk of radiation
           induced carcinogenesis in women following screening mammography in a low
           resource setting

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): William O. Chijoke, Adenike T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Norbert N. Jibiri
       
  • Physico-chemical study of new ruthenium(III), Pd(II) and Co(II) complexes,
           DNA binding of Pd(II) complex and biological applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Samar A. Aly New series of ruthenium(III), Pd(II) and Co(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone ligands were prepared and characterized. It has been inferred method of bonding and general geometry of the complexes through FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopic studies, molar conductivity, magnetic, thermal and elemental analysis. On the basis of the above studies, it has suggested that the tetrahedral geometry for Ru(III), Co(II) complexes and square planar geometry for Pd(II)complex. Fluorescence binding of palladium complex(4) with DNA molecules showed no fluorescence quenching capability when compared with the complex(4) as a quencher. Also the ligand and complexes have been tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria. The activity data exhibit that most of the tested ligand and metal complexes reveal that remarkable antibacterial activity against these organisms.
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Prevalence and sequence of aminoglycosides modifying enzymes genes among
           E.coli and Klebsiella species isolated from Egyptian hospitals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mervat Aly Mohamed Abo-State, Youssry El-Sayed Saleh, Hazem Mahmmoud Ghareeb The WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. Associated with the rise in antibiotic resistance is the lack of new antimicrobials. Bacteria have developed many ways by which they become resistant to antimicrobials among those are enzymes. Aminoglycosides play an important role in treatment of serious infections that threat human life caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). In our study, clinical bacterial isolates(210) were collected from different Egyptian hospitals. Eight aminoglycoside antibiotics were used in the present study. The most prevalent pathogen were E. coli (36.66%),E.coli-ESBL(5.23%),Klebsiella spp. (25.33%), Klebsiella spp.–ESBL (1.90%),Pseudomonas spp.(17.61%), Acinetobacter spp. (8.09%),Proteus spp. (2.85%),Enterobacter spp.(1.42%) and (0.47%) for both of Citrobacter sp. and Morganella sp. The most efficiency aminoglycoside antibiotic was Amikin(AK) and the resistance pattern increased over the last years in Egypt. The results of AME-genes indicated that non of aac(3′)-Ia and Rmt(55) genes were detected in any of the thirty Klebsiella spp. and E. coli of Egyptian isolates. The most prevalent AME-genes were aac(3′)-IIa(40%),aac(6′)-Ib (30%) followed by aph(3′)-Ia(23.3%),ant(2″)-Ia(20.0%),aph(3′)-VI(13.3%),and aac(3′)-Ih(6.6%). Also, the results revealed that isolate Klebsiella sp. MAM-16 acquired five AME genes aac(3′)-IIa (accession no. MF495896); acc(3′)-Ih (accession no. MF 495898); aph(3′)-VI(accession no. MF495899); ant(2″)-Ia (accession no. MF495901) and aph(3′)-Ia (accession no. MF495903). E. coli MAM-24 also acquired five AME-genes aac(3′)-IIa (accession no. MF495897); aph(3′)-VI(accession no. MF495900); ant(2″)-Ia (accession no. MF495902); aph(3′)-Ia(accession no. MF495904) and acc(6′)-Ib (accession no. MF495905).
       
  • Monte Carlo modelling of a neutron-induced gamma-ray sensor for landmine
           or explosive detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Nassreldeen A.A. Elsheikh Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model a thermal neutron-induced gamma-ray sensor for anti-personnel-landmine (APM) or explosive detection. This is done by employing the thermal neutron prompt gamma activation (TNPGA) technique. The neutron capture reaction on nitrogen 14N(n,γ)15N is analyzed to detect the subsequent characteristic 10.8 MeV gamma rays. This is done by modelling a suitable geometry consisting of a point 252Cf source placed inside a sphere of lead (Pb) which is contained in a cylinder of high density polyethylene (HDPE), together with a NaI (Tl) detector. The sensor geometry was optimized and the optimal configuration was selected to scan a plastic APM buried (2–10) cm. The Monte Carlo results obtained in terms of variations of the signal-to-background ratio, indicated the feasibility of employing 14N(n,γ)15N neutron capture reaction for landmine detection and the suitability of the proposed sensor for airport explosives as well.
       
  • Evaluation of effective dose during X-ray training in a radiological
           technology program in Korea

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Jongkyung Ko, Yongmin Kim The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential risks encountered during X-ray training in radiology education. 10 exposure scenarios were selected by interviewing the radiation experts who they are professors having roles in the X-ray training. Fourteen organ doses and 13 tissues (weighted per ICRP 103 Publication) were measured with glass dosimeters (GD-352M) and a Rando phantom. Of 270 total organ doses (27 tissues with 10 projection methods) measured, 162 organ doses (60%) were
       
  • A review of incorporating Nd:YAG laser cleaning principal in automotive
           industry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohammad Khairul Azhar Abdul Razab, An'amt Mohamed Noor, Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar, Nor Hakimin Abdullah, Fatanah Mohamad Suhaimi, Mazlan Mohamed, Noraina Adam, Nik Alnur Auli Nik Yusuf Laser cleaning has been identified as an ideal technology to replace conventional chemical techniques in the motorcar coating removal process to maintain the sustainability of our environment. This is due to the unique characteristics of this cleaning technique, such as being versatile, precise, controllable, lack of waste generation, and environmental friendly process. This laser technique can remove the coating layers without using chemical products and prevents the metal substrate surfaces from defect. This paper reviews the potential of incorporating pulsed Nd:YAG laser and its principals in coating removal for automotive industry with respect to these characteristics.
       
  • Estimation of natural radioactive and heavy metals concentration in
           underground water

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): F.A. Alseroury, T. Almeelbi, Aslam Khan, M.A. Barakata, J.H. Al-Zahrani, W. Alali Concentrations of natural nuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 4 K) and some heavy metals (Cu, Fe. Ni, Pb and As) were measured in groundwater collected from different locations in Makkah region in Saudi Arabia. In the radioactivity measurement, a high purity germanium detector system was used. In addition, chemical analysis was performed by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides 238U, 232Th and 4 K were 0.558, 0.204 and 4.581 BqL−1, respectively. The total annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water samples were 0.472 mSv for children and 0.169 mSv for adults. These results were lower than the recommended value (1.0 mSvy−1), as reported by WHO. The chemical analysis results showed that these water samples contain (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe. Ni, Pb and As) elements. The concentration values were evaluated and compared with the internationally verified values. This study provides essential information for consumers and authorities; those at exposure risk from mineral water intake.
       
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy: A review of current practice and
           future outlooks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Jalil ur Rehman, Zahra, Nisar Ahmad, Muhammad Khalid, H.M. Noor ul Huda Khan Asghar, Zaheer Abbas Gilani, Irfan Ullah, Gulfam Nasar, Malik Muhammad Akhtar, Muhammad Nauman Usmani Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is a modern type of external beam radiotherapy that conforms high radiation dose to the target with minimum dose to the organs at risk (OARs), making it an embellishment of every developed institution. The earlier publications didn't have much proofs of the clinical superiority of IMRT over other radiotherapy techniques. It was considered a complicated and expensive treatment technique but the advent of modern treatment and imaging modalities have made its rapid clinical implementation unquestionable. Now IMRT have grown up, it is not the technique in which non uniform beam intensities were generated just by metal compensators, now it has multileaf collimators (MLCs), rotational fan and cone beam delivery systems and robotic arm linear accelerators to cure the life threatening cancer diseases. IMRT with all its advances have some limitations including its high cost, increased staff work, increased time for its planning, and risks of marginal misses.
       
  • 234U/238U activity ratios in groundwaters from two aquifers in Saudi
           Arabia, and correlation with water chemistry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Ahmed M. El-Sharkawy The purpose of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of uranium isotopes (234U and 238U) and the 234U/238U activity ratios in groundwater wells from Saudi Arabia. These wells are located in two different regions and tapping different aquifers. The uranium isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometry. The uranium activity ratios (234U/238U) in the investigated samples had an average value of 1.38 and ranged from 1.0 to 2.17. The relationship between the activity concentrations of the combined uranium and the water chemical composition in the studied wells was also investigated. Good correlation was found with redox potential described by R2 value of 0.74. Also, a good negative correlation was observed between The TDS content of the groundwater samples and the uranium activities described by R2 value of 0.59. Finally, with twenty groundwater samples collected from two large areas, the presence of uranium isotopes in the Saq and Dammam aquifers can't be easy to judge but within the framework of this study, it can be concluded that the distribution of 238U and 234U in these two aquifers is more dependent on the mineralogical composition of the aquifer matrix and by the geochemical/hydrochemical conditions present.
       
  • Estimation of indoor radon levels using etched track detector

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Basma A. El-Badry, Tayseer I. Al-Naggar In this investigation, the activity levels of Indoor Radon-222, effective radium contents, exhalation rate of radon, and annual effective dose are reported for different indoor locations (Offices, Laboratories, Meeting rooms, and Storerooms) at two students divisions (boys, and girls) in science college, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear tracks detector was distributed to radon gas survey. The obtained results indicate normal levels of indoor radon concentration and effective radium content in all locations of the studied area. A strong correlation (R2 = 1) has been observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. There is a slight increase in the values of exhalation rate at all locations. The average values of annual effective dose for boys division are 1.26, 1.51, 2.02, and 2.38 mSvy−1 for meeting rooms, offices, storerooms, and laboratories, respectively. For girls division, the average values of annual effective dose are 0.86, 0.95, 1.53, 0.78 mSvy−1 for meeting rooms, offices, storerooms, and laboratories, respectively.
       
  • Estimating natural radiation exposure from building materials used in Sri
           Lanka

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): P.A.R.P. Kumara, Prasad Mahakumara, Anuruddha Jayalath, C.P. Jayalath In this work, the natural radioactivity levels of several building materials used in Sri Lanka, were determined in terms of Bq kg−1, and to calculate the radiological effects caused by this radioactivity. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in eighteen samples of manufactured building materials were measured using gamma spectroscopy based on high purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 48% at 1332.5 keV. The measurement of the activity concentration in building materials is required to estimate the excess dose to public dwelling in such buildings. BEGe detector is a well-chosen equipment for this purpose. The activity concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from the selected building materials ranged from (5.0 ± 0.5 to 45.2 ± 2.9 Bq kg−1), (7.1 ± 0.6 to 68 ± 5.9 Bq kg−1) and (42.8 ± 3.8 to 1773 ± 54 Bq kg−1) respectively. Radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, the value of external hazard indexes and alpha indexes were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. The average value of indoor annual effective doses of Sri Lankan building materials was 0.22 mSv. Also the average value of outdoor annual effective doses of Sri Lankan building material was 0.05 mSv. It has been noted that the values of annual effective dose of Sri Lankan building materials were below the world average value of terrestrial annual radiation exposure which was 0.48 mSv. Therefore, the types used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials.
       
  • Evaluation of metallic implant artifact on photon beam calculation
           algorithms using a CIRS thorax phantom

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): George Felix Acquah, Philip Oppong Kyeremeh, Francis Hasford, Mary Boadu, Edem Kwablah Sosu, Samuel Inkoom The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metallic artifact on radiation dose calculations for patients with metallic implants and to find ways in reducing the errors associated with actual dose delivered. The error margin in dose calculations using two different treatment planning system (TPS), Collapsed Cone (CC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculation algorithms and dose measurements in a CIRS (Model 002LFC) IMRT thorax phantom with a metal insert in the spine was assessed for two different computed tomography (CT) window settings. A 3-dimensioanl (3D) anterior-posterior (APPA) treatment plans was done for 2 Gy to a target volume with the CC and PB calculation algorithms. Doses to selected point of interest in the phantom were measured and compared with the TPS calculations. Average discrepancies of 2.4% and 5.2% (for 6 MV), and 4.0% and 4.5% (for 15 MV) were observed for collapsed cone and pencil beam algorithms respectively. Correcting for metal artifact by overriding densities in CT sets during planning gave a discrepancy of 16%. This suggests that caution should be exercised when using only corrected metal artifact CT scans for dose calculations in TPS as it only gives superior isodose coverage but not the actual dose to selected point of interest.
       
  • Heat production rate from radioactive elements of granite rocks in north
           and southeastern Arabian shield Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Adel G.E. Abbady, A.H. Al-Ghamdi Determining the temperature distribution within the lithosphere requires the knowledge of the radiogenic heat production (RHP) distribution within the crust and the lithospheric mantle. RHP of crustal rocks varies considerably at different scales as a result of the petrogenetic processes responsible for their formation and therefore RHP depends on the considered lithologies. Radioactive heat-production data of granites in north and south-eastern Arabian shield Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are presented. Radium-equivalent uranium (RaeU), thorium (eTh), and potassium (eK) were determined by sealed-can gamma-ray spectrometry on 600 g of coarsely crushed sample. A total of 253 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. Southeastern granite shows higher Heat Production HP (2.19–8.04 μW m-3) and total Heat Generation Unit (0.76–19.07 HGU) than northeastern granite (HP 1.82–4.12 μWm-3, 4.31–10.35 HGU). North and Southeastern granite locations shows higher average value of total Heat Generation Unit (6.7 HGU and 7.16 HGU) than the average value of 3.8 HGU for the continental crust. The contribution due to U is about 45%, that from Th is 37.7% and 17.3% from K. The corresponding values in north-eastern are 49.1%, 37.8% and 13.1%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas. These data can be used to discuss the effects of the lateral variation of the RHP rate on the heat flux and the temperature fields in the upper crust.
       
  • New approach for antimicrobial activity and bio-control of various
           pathogens by biosynthesized copper nanoparticles using endophytic
           actinomycetes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Saad EL-Din Hassan, Salem S. Salem, Amr Fouda, Mohamed A. Awad, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal, Abdullah M. Abdo The biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms especially endophytic species isolated from medicinal plant are the prime concern of researchers. In the present study, a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly copper nanoparticles was biosynthesized by endophytic actinomycetes isolate Ca-1 and optimization processes have been endeavored. The endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces capillispiralis Ca-1, was isolated from healthy medicinal plant (Convolvulus arvensis) (L.) collected from Bahariya Oasis - Giza Governorate – Egypt. The isolate was identified by morphological, cultural and molecular identification techniques. The biosynthesis of CuNPs is confirmed by gradual change of biomass filtrate color from light blue into greenish brown color and characterized by an observation of a characteristic absorption peak by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 600 nm. Also, a spherical-monodispersed shaped CuNPs with particle size of 3.6–59 nm were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) exhibited pattern peaks corresponding to 110, 111, 200, 220, 311 and 222 planes, respectively that assigned to face centered cubic forms of metallic copper (JCPDS 04–0836). While FTIR results confirmed the occurrence of bioactive functional groups that are responsible for formation of CuNPs. Moreover, the biosynthesized CuNPs showed various biomedical applications against infectious microorganisms, biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi and health nasty insects that represent the hopeful uses of copper nanoparticles to be applied as a unique approach to manage these healths threatening problems.
       
  • Larvicidal potential of irradiated myco-insecticide from Metarhizium
           anisopliae and larvicidal synergistic effect with its mycosynthesized
           titanium nanoparticles (TiNPs)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohamed Yosri, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, R.M. Sayed This work was undertaken to investigate the effect of different dose levels of gamma irradiation ranged from 0.2 to 1 kGy on Metarhizium anisopliae lipase, protease, amylase and nitrate reductase activities. The optimum results obtained with a dose level 0.4 kGy which stimulated the maximum enzymatic activities. Titanium nanoparticles (TiNPs) were mycosynthesized using unirradiated and irradiated (0.4 KGy) M. anisopliae and characterized using UV–Vis spectrophotometry, electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDX). In addition, the difference between the growing of unirradiated and irradiated M. anisopliae on larval cuticle was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In Insecticidal activity of unirradiated and irradiated M. anisopliae with and without their mycosynthesized TiNPs were also examined against Galleria mellonella larvae and the highest larvicidal activity was obtained from the combination of irradiated M. anisopliae with its mycosynthesized TiNPs and that may be due to the higher fungal enzymatic activities, higher TiNPs concentration and lower TiNPs size. The synergistic studies revealed that there is a synergistic larvicidal relationship between irradiated M. anisopliae cells and their mycosynthesized TiNPs with a synergistic factor (SF) of 1.6 and 4.2 for LC50 and LC90, respectively. This study provided the first report of the synergistic effect between irradiated M. anisopliae and their mycosynthesized TiNPs. Such a combination could represent an effective approach for reducing the likelihood of increased insect resistance to entomopathogenic fungi.
       
  • Validation of a NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) detector's models via measurements
           and Monte Carlo simulations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): I. Mouhti, A. Elanique, M.Y. Messous, B. Belhorma, A. Benahmed This work relates to the study and characterization of the response function of two scintillation detectors with similar size: 2″×2″ NaI(Tl) and 2″×2″ LaBr3(Ce). The photon detection efficiency and energy resolution curve were measured for the NaI(Tl) detector in the gamma energy range from 60 keV to 1408 keV. A precise mathematical model of the two scintillators was developed using the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP. Comparison of the efficiency data with MCNP simulations showed good agreement enabling the validation of the computational models for both NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) detectors.
       
  • Effect of inclusion irradiated olive pulp in laying quail diets on
           biological performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): N.S. Ibrahim, E.M. Sabic, A.M. Abu-Taleb A feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of replacing yellow corn ingredient as the major energy source in laying Japanese quail diets by 0, 5 and 10% each irradiated Olive Pulp (IOP) or un-irradiated Olive Pulp (OP). A total of 216 laying Japanese quail, 12 weeks-old were randomly divided into six equal treatments (36 birds/treatment) with three replicates (8 female, 4 male in each). The experiment was lasted for six weeks to evaluate OP or IOP as a source of nutrients. The results obtained could be summarized as follows: 1). There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in egg production, egg weight and feed efficiency, fertility, hatching percentage and hatching weight when IOP was fed at levels up to 10%. 2). There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in blood heamalotogical parameters when IOP was fed at levels up to 10%. 3). OP had no significant effect on egg quality measurements, except for yolk weight % and yolk colour values, they recorded significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in diets including IOP up to 60 g/kg. 4). It seems that replacing of IOP up to 10% in layers diets had the highest relative economic efficiency. Therefore, it could be concluded that IOP can be used in laying quail diets at levels up to 10% on the expense of dietary yellow corn without detrimental effects on their biological performance.
       
  • Natural radioactivity levels and evaluation of radiological hazards in
           some Egyptian ornamental stones

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): A.M. Shohda, W.M. Draz, F.A. Ali, M.A. Yassien Geological materials usually contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus of great attention. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some ornamental stones in Egypt, were measured using a high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The natural radionuclide contents, (Ra) equivalent activities and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. It was found that none of the results exceed the recommended limit value. All samples under investigation are within the recommended safety limit and do not pose significant radiation hazards.
       
  • Design, fabrication and performance test of a fixed bed batch type
           pyrolysis plant with scrap tire in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohammad Abdul Aziz, M.A. Rahman, Halim Molla This paper presents the design and construction of a fixed bed batch pyrolysis reactor. The reactor is further used for the production of pyro oil from scrap tire. The result shows that reactor yields a maximum pyro oil of 42 wt% at the temperature of 400 °C with a feed size of 15 cm3. The produced pyro oil has a higher viscosity of 4.5 cSt and heating value of 42.5 MJ/kg. Thus pyro oil cannot be used directly in engine operation but as a furnace oil or fuel in boiler operation. The char is potential for using as a fertilizer, production of conveyor belt and footwear.
       
  • Radiological risks assessment of 238U, 232Th and 40K in fish feeds and
           catfish samples from selected fish farms in Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): K.P. Fasae, M.O. Isinkaye Fish is one of the major sources of protein in the diet of the vast majority of people living in Ekiti State and Nigeria in general. This study was carried out to ascertain the possibilities of radionuclides pollution due to catfish consumption in the study area. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined in catfish and fish feeds using gamma spectrometry method. Committed effective doses were inferred for adults and children of age 10 from the activity concentrations of 40K, 238U and 232Th in catfish. The results show that the annual committed effective doses for adults and children were all lower than the recommended 1.0 mSv y−1 limit for memebers of the public. This shows that the radiation dose incurred from the ingestion of the fresh catfish samples pose no significant health risks to the population from a radiological point of view.
       
  • Deterministic evaluation of safety parameters and neutron flux spectra in
           the MNSR research reactor using DRAGON-4 code

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Jamal Al Zain, O. El Hajjaji, T. El Bardouni, H. Boukhal Comparative studies for conversion of the fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) in the reactor (MNSR) were performed using DRAGON code deterministic. In this work the HEU fuel (UAl4-Al, 90% enriched with Al-clad) and LEU (12.6% UO2 enriched with zircaloy-4 alloy clad) cores were analyzed. This model was utilized in this work to calculate the neutron energy flux spectrum in the first inner and outer irradiation sites of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). The continuous energy neutron cross sections has been evaluated from ENDF/B-VII library. The neutron fluxes has been calculated using 69 energy groups. The neutron energy flux for every group has been calculated dividing the neutron flux by the width of every energy group. As well, the neutron flux spectrum per unit lethargy has been calculated by multiplying the neutron energy flux spectra for every energy group by the average energy of every group. The thermal neutron flux was calculated by summing the neutron fluxes from (0.0–0.625) eV, the fast neutron flux was calculated by summing the neutron fluxes from (0.5–10) MeV for the existing HEU and potential LEU fuels. In this work, the effective multiplication factor (keff), excess reactivity (Pex), Shut- Down Margin (SDM), Control Rod Worth (CRW), Safety Reactivity Factor (SRF) and neutron energy flux spectrum for every group was calculated by dividing the neutron flux by the width of every energy group. In final, the results showed that the safety parameters and the neutron fluxes in the irradiation tubes of the LEU fuels have been good agreements with the HEU results, compare with Monte Carlo MCNP4C code measured. Therefore, the LEU fuel has been validated as an appropriate option for fuel conversion of the MNSR in the future.
       
  • Radiation awareness among physicians about the hazards of radiological
           examinations on the health of workers and their patients in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohammed K. Saeed, Hussein Al-shaari, Mohammed M.S. Almarzooq, Saeed A. Alsareii, Shakir A. Aljerdah, Mohammed S. Al-ayed This study aims to estimate the knowledge and awareness of physicians about the hazards of radiological examinations on their health and on their patients. 466 questionnaires administered through a Google spreadsheet were answered by physicians from the 20 cities of Saudi Arabia. The sample included 167 radiologists, 106 neonatologists, 19 oncologists, 45 surgeons and 18 orthopaedists, 11 paediatricians and 100 physicians on different specialities. Only 133 of the physicians had received a radiation protection course in the workplace. A total of 73% from participants revealed many gaps in knowledge. For example, 51% of the respondents were unable to classify mammography as ionizing radiation and 69.3% did not know the recommended annual dose limit to the whole body of a radiation worker. The overall knowledge score ranged from 0% to 16.5% (mean 5.3%), with a low score among surgeons and orthopaedists. These results clearly indicate the heterogeneous knowledge for the physicians’ and needs to be improved by implementation of pre-employment orientation courses or adding a subject in the under or postgraduate curricula.
       
  • First trial of SiC/SiC tube fabrication for tungsten monoblock armor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Waleed.A. Mohrez, Ahmad Abdelkareem, Hany Gamal, Gamal.M. Rashed This article is reporting the practical steps of the first trial fabrication of SiC/SiC tube with tungsten mono block armor which it is applicable for fusion reactors actively cooling system, where the proceeding to fabricate actively cooling system during the fusion reaction is very important; to decrease the large amount of heat flux produced from neutron irradiation, so the FEEMA project inside Muroran institute of technology has taken an anticipated trial to fabricate this mock up to contribute actively towards the future fusion reactors. The facilities which have been used during the experimental work representing on the infiltration machines to produce both of prepreg sheets and preform by Nano-powder Infiltration and Transient Eutectoid (NITE) process, and warm isostatic press (WIP), as well as hot isostatic process (HIP). this works recorded the positives and drawback of the produced tube of SiC/SiC regarding to its durability, as well, its microstructure evolution. The optimum conditions of WIP for the SiC/SiC tube was the key element to produce high durable SiC/SiC tube in HIP stage. the results showed that; WIP conditions; of applied pressure; 6.5 Mpa, temperature 80 °C, and holding time 6 h, such conditions showed that the resulted SiC/SiC tube after HIP recorded maximum tensile strength up to 286 Mpa.
       
  • Morphological characterization and distribution of antennal sensilla of
           irradiated female mosquito, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) with gamma
           radiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Hatem A.M. Ibrahim, S.G. Sawires, A.F. Hamza Culex pipiens mosquito is considered as one of the most dangerous insect pests that affect humans and animals worldwide as they transmit epidemic and fatal diseases. Antennal structure of the normal and irradiated female mosquito, Culex pipiens was examined using scanning electron microscopy to study the changes in the antennal segments and associated sensilla when 1–2 days old pupae were irradiated at low dose (20Gy), moderate (40Gy) and high (80Gy). The antenna of the female C. pipiens is filamentous in shape and consisted of scape (S), pedicel (P) and flagellum (F) which has 13 flagellomeres. Various types of sensilla with distinct morphological characters and morphometric features were recorded. Sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla observed, with other types like sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica (grooved peg), sensilla coeloconica and sensilla ampullaceal. Morphological changes were recorded to the antennal segments and their associated sensilla due to the doses of gamma radiation (20, 40 and 80Gy) such as shrinkage, curved of sensilla into different directions, irregularity in shape, swollen in some parts and some sensilla gathered into dense collections. These changes were obviously demonstrated at 80Gy and 40Gy doses whereas little malformations were observed when the pupae irradiated with 20Gy dose. The antenna has lost most of different types of sensilla and some of its segments became transparent with high and moderate doses. These changes also recorded in the distal 13th flagellomeres segments with the three used doses of gamma radiation compared to control ones.
       
  • Numerical analysis with experimental comparison in duct flow using
           optimized heat sinks

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Kumru Güreşçi, Faruk Yeşildal, Altuğ Karabey, Rıdvan Yakut, Kenan Yakut In many industrial applications, heat must be transferred in the form of either an energy input into the system or removal of energy produced in the system. In this study, heat transfer and flow characteristics of hexagonal finned heat sinks which optimized according to the Taguchi experimental L18(21*37) design method in channel flow was analyzed numerically. Ansys-Fluent Icepak module was used in CFD analysis. The analysis carried out for two hexagonal finned optimized heat sinks in 3 different fin heights and 5 different flow velocities. Nusselt number increased with increasing Reynolds number for OH-1 and OH-2 heat sinks with all fin heights. Also, results showed that the friction factor decreased with increasing Reynolds number for all fin heights. According to CFD results, Nu-Re and f-Re variations were obtained and compared with experimental results. The experimental results and the numerical results were quite consistent.
       
  • Investigation of awareness levels about the radiation safety of personnel
           working in the imaging units of the hospitals in Agri, Turkey

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Ebru Senemtaşi Ünal, Kadir Geliş, Pınar Baykan Radiation treatments, which are frequent and hidden hazards in imaging centers in hospitals, seriously affect employee health. In general, people think that there will be nothing to them because they do not know the damage of the radiation. It is not possible to stay away from radiation in some professions. For example, the radiology officials, their job is to identify the disease in people with radiographic method has no chance of dealing with radiation. That's why we need to do our job by getting enough information about radiation and its hazards, and by protecting ourselves and our environment from the dangers of radiation. Therefore, our study aimed to determine the level of information about employee safety of the health personnel working in public and private hospitals in Agri city centrum. Data was collected through a questionnaire by answering the questions of the personnel under observation in the imaging centers of hospitals. All official permits required for our work have been obtained from the necessary authorities. Results showed the inadequacy of knowledge related to ionizing radiation of the personnel, and the necessity of the implementation of radiological examinations by planning training for the safe use.
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Study of the effect of irradiation (60Co) on M1 plants of common bean
           (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and determined of proper doses for
           mutation breeding

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Kamile Ulukapi, Süleyman Fatih Ozmen The objective of this study is to determine the morphological changes and the proper dose of gamma irradiation for the mutation breeding program of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The effects of different doses (100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 Gy) of gamma irradiation (60Co) on seedling growth parameters and survival rates of the plants were investigated. In order to determine the proper dose and morphological changes; shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, stem diameter, leaf width, leaf length, chlorophyll index and number of survival plants of M1 plants were evaluated. It has been determined that the doses of gamma and the varieties used are significant on the number of surviving plants and plant growth parameters. It was determined that low doses gamma irradiation stimulatively effected on shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and root fresh weight. A negative correlation were obtained between all plant growth traits and stem diameter, and the stem diameters are thickened due to the increase in gamma doses. The applications of gamma rays were effected on survival plant rate considerably than the percentage of germination. Applicable proper dose for Efsane was determined as 318.22 Gy while appropriate dose for F16 was determined as 303.17 Gy.
       
  • Investigation of alloying effects on XRF parameters of 3d transition
           metals in Permendur49, Kovar and Ti50Co50 alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Bünyamin Alım, Mine Uğurlu, İbrahim Han, Lütfü Demir The alloying effects on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) parameters such as K shell fluorescence cross-sections (σKα, σKβ and σK), K shell average fluorescence yields (ωK) and K to L shell vacancy transfer probabilities (ηKL) of V, Ti, Fe, Co and Ni 3d transition metals in Permendur49 (Fe49Co49V2), Kovar (Fe54Ni29Co17) and Ti50Co50 alloys have been carried out by X-ray fluorescence studies. K X-ray intensity ratios of these 3d transition metals in both pure form and present alloys have been measured following excitation by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi 109Cd radioactive point source. The characteristic K-X-ray spectra from samples were detected by a high-resolution Si(Li) solid-state detector. The investigated fluorescence parameters of present 3d transition elements in alloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. Consequently, the observed change of the investigated fluorescence parameters can be attributed to the delocalization and charge transfer phenomena between the 3d elements in alloys.
       
  • Comparative modeling results for ridge waveguide MQW and hybrid Si/III-V
           lasers

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Caglar Duman, Bulent Cakmak In this study, 1550 nm ridge waveguide multi quantum well (MQW) and hybrid Si/III-V lasers are simulated and the results are studied in a comparative setting. InGaAsP active layers with a ridge waveguide length of 500 μm and width of 5 μm with six quantum wells are chosen for both MQW and hybrid Si/III-V lasers. The hybrid Si/III-V laser structure is obtained by integration of a ridge waveguide MQW semiconductor laser with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip. The proposed structure allows laser mode to experience maximal gain available in the III-V region while maintaining a high coupling efficiency to Si-waveguide. The results demonstrate that the optical power generated by MQW active layer can be transferred to the silicon waveguide of the hybrid Si/III-V laser. In addition, an increase in the threshold current and degeneration in the frequency response of the hybrid laser are observed compared to the MQW one. The results also indicate that there is not a big difference between the ridge waveguide MQW and the hybrid Si/III-V lasers in terms of spectrum and spontaneous emission characteristics.
       
  • Alloying effect on K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and yields in
           Ti-Ni based shape memory alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): Bünyamin Alım, İbrahim Han, Lütfü Demir K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections (σKα, σKβ and σK), and K shell fluorescence yields (ωK) of Ti, Ni both in pure metals and in different alloy compositions (TixNi1-x; x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) were measured by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The samples were excited by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi Cd-109 radioactive point source and K X rays emitted by samples were counted by a high resolution Si(Li) solid-state detector coupled to a 4 K multichannel analyzer (MCA). The alloying effects on the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) parameters of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. It is clearly observed that alloying effect causes to change in K shell XRF parameter values in Ti-Ni based SMAs for different compositions of x. Also, the present investigation makes it possible to perform reliable interpretation of experimental σKα, σKβ and ωK values for Ti and Ni in SMAs and can also provide quantitative information about the changes of K shell X-ray fluorescence cross sections and fluorescence yields of these metals with alloy composition.
       
  • Inverted planar perovskite solar cells based on Al doped ZnO substrate

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2Author(s): A. Baltakesmez, M. Biber, S. Tüzemen In this study, we present an inverted hybrid perovskite solar cell using Al doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) transparent metal oxide as substrate and anode electrode. Obtained results revealed that the AZO substrates prepared by RF magnetron sputtering with the optimal growth parameters have electrical and optical properties similar to properties of commercial Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), resistivity around 0.5 mΩcm and transparency around 85%. Hybrid perovskite thin films were coated onto the PEDOT:PSS/AZO and PEDOT:PSS/ITO substrates. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the perovskite films were comparatively studied by SEM, XRD, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Besides, inverted planar perovskite solar cells were fabricated on AZO and on ITO substrates by single solution coating. The champion cell exhibited short-circuit current of 22.26 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, and a fill factor of 0.51, led to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) 9.88% which is obtained by cell based on AZO substrate. The PCE value is comparable to efficiency of cell based on ITO,12.82%.
       
  • Determination of a beam quality conversion factor from 60Co to
           192Ir

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Luciana Tourinho Campos, Luis Alexandre Gonçalves Magalhães, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de Almeida Radiation dosimetry is an integral part of the radiation therapy process. The ultimate goal of radiation dosimetry is to determine the dose delivered to the tumor and to the normal tissues in a patient undergoing radiotherapy. The importance of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy as the main mode of treatment calls for an accurate dosimetry standard. A dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of absolute dose to water in 192Ir sources is not available.The AAPM TG-43, along with its update, constitutes the accepted protocol for dose to water determination based on an air kerma strength Sk,air measurement. The air kerma strength of the radioactive source is converted to dose to water via dose rate constant Λ (a calculated absolute quantify) and several relative correction factors accounting for scatter attenuation and anisotropy of the dose distribution among other effects.In this work, we proposed an absorbed dose conversion by determination of a beam quality factor (kQ) with an ionization chamber. Ideally, the kQ should be measured directly for each chamber at the same quality as the user beam. However, this is not achievable in most standards laboratories. When no experimental data are available, or it is difficult to measure kQ directly to realistic beams, in many cases the correction factors can be calculated theoretically with Monte Carlo method. The geometric design and material details of the source was provided by the manufacturer and was used to define the Monte Carlo geometry. To validate the source geometry, a few dosimetry parameters had to be calculated according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism. The dosimetry studies included the calculation of the air kerma strength Sk, collision kerma in water along the transverse axis with an unbounded phantom, dose rate constant and radial dose function. The Monte Carlo code system that was used was EGSnrc with a new cavity code, which is a part of EGS++ that allows calculating the radial dose function around the source. The XCOM photon cross-section library was used in subsequent simulations. Consequently, the photoelectric effect, pair production, Rayleigh scattering and bound Compton scattering were included in the simulation. Variance reduction techniques were also used in the simulations to speed up the calculation. The obtained radial dose function and dose rate constant of the Gammamed Plus 192Ir source in this work were compared with those obtained by Ballester et al. and Taylor &Rogers et al.A value of 1.109 ± 0.003 for the dose to the chamber to dose to water ratio was determined for PTW 30013 ionization chamber. The agreement between the EGSnrc calculated and TRS-398 reported result is encouragingly similar. The beam quality correction factor, kQ, was obtained at 2 cm. This ratio corresponds to the beam quality conversion factor from 60Co to 192Ir. With this kQ it is possible measure the absorbed dose to water at any point for HDR 192Ir source.
       
  • Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol and cuprous oxide (PVA/Cu2O) films for
           radiation detection and personal dosimeter based on optical properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Mohammed Ahmed Ali Omer, Emadeldin Abdeljabar Ali Bashir The aim of the current study was to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol Cuprous Oxide composite films (PVA/Cu2O) for radiation detection depending on optical changes. The method adapted from solving of 5% PVA in hot (80 °C) stirred water and after cooling to ambient temperature a 0.5 g of Cu2O dissolved and stirred for 2 h. The films were made by casting in petri dishes contained 20 ml/each. The pealed films were enveloped after drying and receiving radiation doses of 1, 2, 4, 6 … 12 Gy. The analysis revealed a gradient change in color of films from light pink to dark brown with absorption peaks at 215 and 415 nm through entire doses which were increase as dose increment. The optical density of films increases linearly and significantly (R2 = 0.9) as the dose increases from 0.06 (arb. unit) at 1 Gy to 0.4 (a u) at 12 Gy with sensitivity at 0.06 mGy. The energy band gap of the film decreased as the radiation dose increases from 3 × 10−12 to 2 × 10−12 eV. Conclusively; the feasibility of utilizing PVA/Cu2O composite films as radiation detector and personal dosimeter would be applicable in rural sectors and low economic countries.
       
  • Determination of dose delivery accuracy and image quality in full - Field
           digital mammography

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): E.K. Sosu, M. Boadu, S.Y. Mensah Accuracy of dose delivered, image quality and some technical parameters of the Fujifilm – Amuletf full field digital mammography X-ray equipment has been undertaken. The study was conducted to review the overall condition of the first full – field digital mammography equipment in Ghana with the aim of optimizing mammography practice. Quality control assessment and Mean glandular dose estimation was performed using the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Health Series 2 and 17 protocol and the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Quantitative image analysis was performed with ImageJ software using the “Rose Model”. The results from the quality control test performed indicates that the system is functioning well. Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise values determined from images shows that the images are of standard quality. With the exception of 9.00 mm breast thickness which recorded a displayed Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) of 7.17 mGy, all other MGD calculated or displayed were well within the acceptable level. The percentage difference between the calculated and console displayed MGD was within the acceptable difference level of 50%. The phantom dose values obtained can be used as baseline data for future studies which can assist in setting optimization activities. The mammography X-ray equipment at the Korle-Bu teaching Hospital, Accra – Ghana is functioning under optimized conditions. It is therefore recommended for further usage.
       
  • Radiation exposure to dwellers due to naturally occurring radionuclides
           found in selected commercial building materials sold in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): O. Maxwell, O.O. Adewoyin, E.S. Joel, C.O. Ehi-Eromosele, S.A. Akinwumi, M.R. Usikalu, C.P. Emenike, Z. Embong, M. Hassaina The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K was measured in commonly building materials used in Nigeria from commercial supplier using High Purity Germanium Gamma (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations in the samples were found to be 51.5 ± 9.3, 72.46 ± 17.65 and 217.05 ± 44.31 Bqkg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K respectively. The highest radium equivalent (Raeq) of 273.9 Bqkg−1 was noted in Perfect Superfix White Cement (Nigeria) but found to be 
       
  • Effects of gestational hypertension in the pulsatility index of the middle
           cerebral and umbilical artery, cerebro-placental ratio, and associated
           adverse perinatal outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Hind H. Abdelwahid, Babiker A. Wahab, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud, Ahmed Abukonna, Elsir Ali Saeed Taha This paper reports the effects of gestational hypertension in the pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), cerebro-placental ratio (CPR), and associated adverse perinatal outcomes, after 20 to 40 weeks’ gestation in singleton pregnancy. A total of 280 pregnant women, divided equally into control and gestational hypertension groups, were recruited prospectively. Alpinion Medical System ECUBE 7 ultrasound equipment was used to measure the UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR within the two groups. Data were analyzed to correlate the results with the presence of adverse perinatal outcomes. In gestational hypertension group, the UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes after adjustment for gestational age. The increase in risk for lower birth weight, higher incidence of elective Cesarean section delivery, and preterm birth were statistically significant for UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR. Study of pulsatility indices of placental and fetal circulation in singleton pregnancy developed gestational hypertension can provide important information regarding fetal well-being, yielding an opportunity to improve fetal outcome.
       
  • Nano-modification of polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis
           membranes by radiation grafting

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): M.B. El-Arnaouty, A.M. Abdel Ghaffar, M. Eid, Maysara E. Aboulfotouh, N.H. Taher, El-Sayed Soliman Radiation synthesis of reverse osmosis membranes were carried out by grafting of N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and ZnO nanoparticles incorporation onto polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membranes PA(TFC). The effect of monomer concentration, radiation time and concentration of ZnO nanoparticles on the grafting percent were investigated. The properties of the prepared grafted reverse osmosis membranes were characterized by using different analytical tools such as contact angles goniometer, Fourier transform IR (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The performance of the reverse osmosis process of the neat and the modified PA(TFC) membranes in terms of water flux and salt rejection (%) was investigated. The chlorine and biofouling resistance properties of the neat and the modified PA(TFC) membrane were evaluated. It is found that, the performance of the modified ZnO NPs/P(NIPAM)-g-PA(TFC) membrane is much better than the neat PA(TFC) membrane.
       
  • Pair production contribution effect on the calculation of gamma ray dose
           buildup factor for water and graphite in the energy range (4–10) MeV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Laith A. Al-Ani, Hanan Mohammed Jawad Gamma ray buildup factor for two shielding materials, water (Zeff = 7.42) and graphite (Z = 6) for isotropic plane source normally incident within the energy range 4–10 MeV and up to 5 thickness mean free path has been studied. This research has been achieved by writing a simulation computer program in (Visual Basic language version G) and applied depending on Monte Carlo simulation method. The contribution of annihilation effect on the calculation of gamma ray dose buildup factor has been studied for both graphite and water. The results indicated that the calculated values of dose buildup for plane source, when ignoring the contribution of pair production, is less in comparison with the case when the contribution of pair production is taken into consideration. However, the contribution of Compton effect is still more predominant than the effect of annihilation within the range of energy (4–10) MeV.
       
  • Spectrophotometric properties of azo dye metal complex and its possible
           use as radiation dosimeter

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): S.M. Gafar, M.A. El-Kelany, S.R. El-Shawadfy The current work describes the physico-chemical studies of two dosimetry systems. Aqueous solution of 1, 5 diphenyl carbazone (DPC) incorporating with chromium (III) to form a colored azo dye metal complex in two methods liquid and gel. Under the effect of γ-irradiation, the colored complex undergoes visual color change from red to colorless. The prepared complex can be used as a dosimeter and applicable in dose range 0.2–6; 0.02–1 kGy for both dosimetry systems. Electrical conductivity was measured and reflecting its application as sensor. The dosimetric characteristics of this complex solution were investigated spectrophotometrically at גmax at 540 nm. Complex sensitivity for γ-radiation, pre and post-irradiation storage under different conditions were illustrated. Moreover, the applications of these results of metal uptake resembles to dosimeter.
       
  • Radiological assessment of wastewater treatment processes based on the use
           of coal ashes as a filters

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): L. Taoufiq, A. Laamyem, A. Boukhair, E. Essediqi, M. Monkade, A. Zrabda Coal Fly Ash and Coal Bottom Ash are a solid waste generated from coal combustion. Recently, the management of these wastes has become an important subject for environmental researchers. Due to their physical and chemical characteristics, coal ashes were used in different fields like building material, agriculture and wastewater treatment. In the present investigation, a radiological assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) based on the use of coal ashes as filters was performed. The WWTP under investigation uses four stages of treatment: Coal Fly Ash filtration, Coal Bottom Ash filtration and sand filtration. Radiation risk of coal ashes was evaluated by 2 techniques: Dosimetry alpha based on the use of LR115 detector and gamma ray spectrometer. The surface exhalation rate in coal ash samples were found to be below the world average 57600 mBq∙m−2 h−1 and most of the coal ash samples show the value of Raeq less than the allowed upper limit of 370 Bq kg−1. Moreover, the radon concentration of water samples during the treatment were evaluated for each stage in order to identify if there was any impact of coal ashes on the treated water. Radon activity of treated water remains in the standards with a average value of 196 ± 13 (Bq/m3) less far than the permissible limit (11100 Bq/m3). The obtained results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the treated water was not influenced by radiological characteristics of coal ashes. It be concluded that coal ashes from TAQA Morocco are a safe materials and did not present a significant radiological risk which make them a suitable material for wastewater treatment.
       
  • Exploitation of Parthenium hysterophorous biomass as low-cost substrate
           for cellulase and xylanase production under solid-state fermentation using
           Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Amit Kumar Bharti, Amit Kumar, Alok Kumar, Dharm Dutt To make the enzyme production process appreciably inexpensive in respect of SSF, use of economical substrates is of great interest. Out of total eight employed solid substrate, Parthenium hysterophorous biomass exhibited its potential and displayed maximum endoglucanase (30 IU/gds), xylanase (582 IU/gds) and FPase (2.86 FPU/gds) activities. During optimization of cultural parameters, Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687 produced maximum endoglucanase (53.3 IU/gds), FPase (4.51 FPU/gds) and β-glucosidase (62.6 IU/gds) at temperature (30 °C), incubation time (5th day), pH (6.0) and moisture content (80%) with the supplementation of peptone as the nitrogen source and Tween-80 as the surfactant under SSF conditions. During the process of optimization different enzyme activities viz. endoglucanase, xylanase, FPase and β-glucosidase were enhanced by approximately 2.0, 1.54, 2.0 and 2.7 fold respectively compared to their respective controls. Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687 enzymes hydrolysed untreated and organosolve pretreated P. hysterophorous biomass to release 93 ± 3.87 and734 ± 17 mg/g of reducing sugars respectively after hydrolysis time of 48 h.
       
  • Depleted uranium residues, NORMs and 137Cs in the coastal zone soil of
           Musandam Peninsula, Hurmuz strait region, Sultanate of Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018Source: Journal of Radiation Research and Applied SciencesAuthor(s): Ibrahim H. Saleh Musandam peninsula located at one of the most important marine strait overlooking the Arabian/Parisian Gulf. Environmentally, this area is characterized by its primitivistic status and vulnerable to any natural or manmade disturbances. This work presents the second phase of a comprehensive radiation measurement in Musandam Peninsula environment amid to investigating the presences of depleted uranium (DU) residues and assessing the current levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs in surface soil of coastal area. For this purpose, thirty representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for 235U using gamma rays spectrometry and for total U using ICP-OES techniques. Results revealed that the range of isotopic abundance of 235U was (0.70%–0.77%) with an average of 0.72%, confirming the detected uranium is naturally originated from the geological formations of investigated soil. Additionally, the values of Th/U ratios were calculated to be ranged from 0.37 to 1.95 with an average of 1.5 indicating the dominant geological formations are metamorphic sedimentary rocks that contain low levels of Th. The averages of radioactivity levels of NORMs indicated 16.02 Bqkg−1, 7.83 Bqkg−1 and 174.03 Bqkg−1 for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K respectively. The average of areal concentrations for 137Cs was 2481.5 Bqm−2 ranges from 1040 Bq/m2 to 9225 Bqm−2. The total external annual effective dose from all measured radionuclides was 23 μSv 237Cs contribution is 1% while 238U, 232Th series and 40K radionuclides contributions are 32%, 28% and 39% respectively. Radium equivalent, external, and internal radiation hazard indices indicate no radiological anomaly.
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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