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Journal Cover Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8507
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Energy response and thermoluminescence properties of lithium potassium
           borate Glass co-doped with Cu and SnO2 nanoparticles

    • Authors: Haydar Aboud; Saad Saber; H. Wagiran; R. Hussin
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1
      Author(s): Haydar Aboud, Saad Saber, H. Wagiran, R. Hussin
      SnO2 nanoparticles doped lithium potassium borate with Cu-doped was prepared by melt-quenching technique. The field emission scanning electron microscope was used to examine morphology of samples. The TLD-Reader 4500 was used to measurement of thermoluminescence. The glow curves position of Cu-doped and co-doped SnO2 glass were recorded at about 205 °C and 215 °C respectively. The linear relationship of dose-TL intensity was observed for both samples. The TLD sensitivity shows that the co-doped SnO2 glass has almost 6 time higher sensitivity compared to Cu-doped glass. It was found that the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results for relative energy response. The activation energy and frequency factor of TL glow peak are determined by using the peak shape method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T13:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2014.12.009
  • Eco-friendly biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles
           using Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers and evaluate its antibacterial,
           antioxidant potential

    • Authors: Kandasamy Selvam; Chinnappan Sudhakar; Muthusamy Govarthanan; Periasamy Thiyagarajan; Arumugam Sengottaiyan; Balakrishnan Senthilkumar; Thangasamy Selvankumar
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kandasamy Selvam, Chinnappan Sudhakar, Muthusamy Govarthanan, Periasamy Thiyagarajan, Arumugam Sengottaiyan, Balakrishnan Senthilkumar, Thangasamy Selvankumar
      The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Tinospora cordifolia as a reducing and capping agent. The different factor such as silver nitrate (AgNO3) concentration, fresh weight of T. cordifolia leaf, incubation time, and pH affecting silver reduction was investigated using Response surface methodology based Box–Behnken design (BBD). The optimum conditions were AgNO3 (1.25 mM), incubation time (15 h), Temperature (45 °C) and pH (4.5). T. cordifolia leaf extract can reduces silver ions into AgNPs within 30 min after heating the reaction mixture (60 °C) as indicated by the developed reddish brown color. The UV-Vis spectrum of AgNPs revealed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 430 nm. AgNPs were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed their crystalline nature and their average size of nanoparticles was 30 nm as determined by using Scherrer's equation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy affirmed the role of T. cordifolia leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent of silver ions. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed spherical shaped and confirming presence of elemental silver. The synthesized AgNPs was found higher antioxidant activity than plant extract by dot plot assay. In addition, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus sp. (NCBI-Accession: KC688883.1) and Klebsiella sp. (NCBI-Accession: KF649832.1), showed maximum zone of inhibition of 13 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively, at 10 μg/mL of AgNPs. From the results it is suggested that the synthesized AgNPs showed higher antioxidant and antibacterial activity than the plant extract, thus signification of the present study is the production of biomedical products.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T13:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2016.02.005
  • Uranium and other heavy toxic elements distribution in the drinking water
           samples of SW-Punjab, India

    • Authors: B.S. Bajwa; Sanjeev Kumar; Surinder Singh; S.K. Sahoo; R.M. Tripathi
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1
      Author(s): B.S. Bajwa, Sanjeev Kumar, Surinder Singh, S.K. Sahoo, R.M. Tripathi
      In the present investigations, Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells of various depths from wide range of locations in the four districts of SW-Punjab, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of this region. Corresponding radiological and chemical risks have also been calculated for the uranium concentrations in ground water samples. Some other heavy elements have also been analysed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. In this region, uranium concentration in 498 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0.5–579 μgl−1with an average of 73.5 μgl−1. Data analysis revealed that 338 of 498 samples had uranium concentration higher than recommended safe limit of 30 μgl−1 (WHO, 2011) while 216 samples exceeded the threshold of 60 μgl−1 recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T13:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2015.01.002
  • 226Ra and 210Po concentration in drinking water of Cauvery river basin
           south interior Karnataka State, India

    • Authors: E. Kavitha; M.S. Chandrashekara; L. Paramesh
      Pages: 20 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 1
      Author(s): E. Kavitha, M.S. Chandrashekara, L. Paramesh
      Naturally occurring radionuclide 210Po which is an element of 238U decay series, contribute to the radiation that normally people are exposed. Drinking water samples collected from Cauvery river basin of south interior Karnataka State, India were analysed for the activity of 210Po using radiochemical analysis technique. The estimated concentration of 210Po in river water ranges from 0.86 to 4.49 mBq l−1, and its mean value is 2.67 ± 1.09 mBq l−1. The concentration of 210Po in bore well water ranges from 1.89 to 4.18 mBq l−1 and its mean value is 3.22 ± 0.67 mBq l−1. The dissolved radium concentration in river water varies from 9.09 mBq l−1 to 55.07 mBq l−1 with an average of 32.33 ± 14.16 mBq l−1. Total ingestion dose rate due to 226Ra and 210Po varies from 2.61 to 15.00 μSv y−1 with a mean value of 8.95 ± 3.74 μSv y−1, which is less than the recommended value by ICRP (International commission on radiological protection).

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T13:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2015.08.001
  • Bio-degradation of Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAb1 isolated
           from effluent of thermal paper industry: Kinetic modeling and process

    • Authors: V. Vijayalakshmi; P. Senthilkumar; K. Mophin-Kani; S. Sivamani; N. Sivarajasekar; S. Vasantharaj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): V. Vijayalakshmi, P. Senthilkumar, K. Mophin-Kani, S. Sivamani, N. Sivarajasekar, S. Vasantharaj
      A bacterium isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAb1) based on 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis which could grow on basal mineral salt medium upon bisphenol A, which functions as an exclusive carbon source. Physicochemical variables of thermal paper industry effluent noted were significantly greater than the typical limit due to pollution of the acquiring water systems. The mathematic kinetic models like Monod, Moser and Tesier models were applied for batch fermentation of bisphenol A degradation in basal salt medium and the half saturation coefficient (KS) and the regression coefficient R2 using Monad, Moser and Tesier kinetic models registered as 9.947  g/L, 12.46 g/L and 14.14 g/L and 0.91, 0.94 and 0.84 respectively. Besides, the utmost specific growth rate μmax was witnessed as 0.841 h−1 for the P. aeruginosa (PAb1) regarding BPA degradation. Metabolic intermediates like phenol, acetophenone, and hydroquinone and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were also determined through the degradation process by GC-MS. The metabolic pathway of BPA degradation by the bacterial isolates was also designed in today's analysis. A probabilistic statistical model originated using Box-Behnken response surface methodology and process variables were optimized by nonlinear optimization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T10:03:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.003
  • Natural radioelement concentrations in fertilizers and the soil of
           the Mila region of Algeria

    • Authors: Amina Bramki; Mourad Ramdhane; Fatima Benrachi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Amina Bramki, Mourad Ramdhane, Fatima Benrachi
      The addition of inorganic fertilizers to treat crop soil and increase its production has become a necessity and a tool used around the world. These fertilizers contain different quantities of uranium and thorium. Therefore, tons of radionuclides from natural radioactive series U 238 , U 235 and T 232 h are dispersed in the environment due to a high use of fertilizer in agriculture. In this work, the radioactivity levels were determined in two fertilizers and in fertilized and unfertilized soil samples collected at various depths from the Algerian agricultural region of El-Athmania Mila, using high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of R 226 a , T 232 h and K 40 for fertilized and unfertilized soil samples were found unchanged as a function of depth and ranged from 23.72 ± 2.37 to 65.47 ± 5.06 B q . K g − 1 ; 32.48 ± 9.84 to 49.83 ± 5.31 B q . K g − 1 for 226Ra, from 26.45 ± 0.78 to 27.10 ± 0.80 B q . K g − 1 ; 27.56 ± 0.75 to 28.70 ± 0.90 B q . K g − 1 for T 232 h and from 220.80 ± 10.01 to 260.70 ± 8.24 B q . K g − 1 ; 283.50 ± 8.41 to 290.10 ± 10.50 B q . K g − 1 for K 40 respectively. The presence of C 137 s is found in all measured samples and its average activity for all soil samples was 3.12 ± 0.13 B q . K g − 1 . To assess the radiological hazard, the radiation equivalent activity ( R a e q ), the representative level index ( I γ r ), the external hazard ( H e x ), the internal hazard ( H i n ) and the absorbed dose rate due to three primordial radionuclides for soil samples were calculated. The measured values were compared with the published data in different countries and were found to be safe for the public and the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T08:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.002
  • A review on the status and future trends of radiation processing in Iran

    • Authors: S.R. Rafiee; E. Eftekhari-Zadeh; Y. Gholami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): S.R. Rafiee, E. Eftekhari-Zadeh, Y. Gholami
      A comprehensive review on the status of radiation processing and its future in Iran is presented since 32 years ago up to now to show the development of Iran's irradiation industry. Additionally, annual throughput of treated materials with their types and names are also given and also all of the radiation facilities both in service and under construction as well as the plans and estimations for establishing the new facilities are outlined. Our investigations show that the trend of radiation processing industry in Iran is growing rapidly.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T08:12:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.004
  • An overview of radon concentration in Malaysia

    • Authors: Nisar Ahmad; Ihsan Ullah Khan; Jalil ur Rehman; Tabassum Nasir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Nisar Ahmad, Ihsan Ullah Khan, Jalil ur Rehman, Tabassum Nasir
      It is known that the inhalation and ingestion of radon gas could lead to the primary health risks for lung and stomach cancers. Besides the health hazards of radon gas, it has different geological applications. In this context, numerous studies have been reported all over the world. Different research groups in Malaysia have also conducted and reported numerous studies since several decades. However, these studies are scattered and need to be compiled for future studies in Malaysia. The main emphasis is to overview and compiles these articles that will work as baseline data for the level of radon gas in Malaysia.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.001
  • Uranium(VI) recovery from acidic leach liquor by Ambersep 920U SO4 resin:
           Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Cheira; Bahig M. Atia; Mohamed N. Kouraim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mohamed F. Cheira, Bahig M. Atia, Mohamed N. Kouraim
      The kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic characteristics of U(VI) recovery by the strong base anion exchange resin Ambersep 920U SO4 from Gabal Gattar sulfate leach liquor have been determined. Batch sorption experiments are performed to evaluate the optimum conditions at pH2, 200 mg resin dose for 120 min contact time at room temperature. The maximum sorption capacity reaches to 58 mg/g at 298 K. The kinetics data are well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at different uranium concentrations. The experimental results obtained at various temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on the studied resin has followed Langmuir isotherm model. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters (free energy change ΔG, enthalpy change ΔS, entropy change ΔH, activation energy Ea and sticking probability S*) indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous in nature, endothermic, randomness and chemisorptions. Uranium(VI) can be completely desorbed from the loaded resin using 0.5 M HNO3 solution. Finally, the optimized factors have been carried out for uranium(VI) recovery from G. Gattar leach liquor.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.005
  • A solution for 40K interference from K internal to the human body, in an
           underground high sensitivity whole body counter at the Waste Isolation
           Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA

    • Authors: I. Pillalamarri; P. Jagam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): I. Pillalamarri, P. Jagam
      The objective of the present work is to find a solution for the interference arising from 1461 keV photons emitted by 40K in natural K internal to the human body in the detection of 241Am and 210Pb activities at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi). The response of a broad energy Ge (BEGe) reference crystal to 1461 keV photons was simulated using GEANT4 code. Simulations were performed for a point source without and with shielding, as well as for a Bottle Manikin Absorption (BOMAB) phantom in the shielded whole-body counting chamber (WBC). The WBC facility is located underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA. The simulation results were discussed with regards to the interference in detecting the 241Am and 210 Pb at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi). The specific conclusion is that the interference counts from 40K activity at the natural levels present in the human body in typical clinical settings were found to be greater than the 210Pb and 241Am signal counts from 37 mBq (1 pCi), when a 38.1 mm diameter, 25.4 mm thick BEGe reference crystal was used. Our solution for minimizing the interference to the desired precision at the specified levels was found by sacrificing the broad energy response of the counting system.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T23:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.004
  • Assessment of natural radionuclide distribution in shore sediment samples
           collected from the North Dune beach, Henties Bay, Namibia

    • Authors: Sylvanus A. Onjefu; Simeon H. Taole; Nnenesi A. Kgabi; Charles Grant; Johann Antoine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Sylvanus A. Onjefu, Simeon H. Taole, Nnenesi A. Kgabi, Charles Grant, Johann Antoine
      The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and their radiological hazards are presented in this study for shore sediment samples from the North Dune beach of Henties Bay, Namibia. The activity concentrations were found to range from 25.32 ± 1.24−1 to 232.33 ± 0.62−1 with an average value of 175.59 ± 0.92 −1 for 238U, BDL to 77.99 ± 45−1 with an average value of 40.17 ± 27−1 for 232Th and 222.39 ± 8−1 to 482.16 ± 10 - 1 with an average value of 349.66 ± 8−1 for 40K. In order to assess the radiological hazard of the shore sediment samples, the radiological hazard indices such as absorbed dose rates (ADR), radium equivalent (Req) annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the hazard indices (Hex and Hin), and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated. The values obtained in the present study were compared with world acceptable limits and it was found that the average values of radium equivalent (Req) and external hazard index (Hex) were below the world allowable limits. However, the average values of absorbed dose rates (ADR), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) (outdoor and indoor), internal hazard index (Hin) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) exceeded the world acceptable limits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.003
  • Dosimetric impact of indoor radon gas on the population from the commune
           of Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    • Authors: G.R. Nonka; T.P.A. Dali; A.A. Koua; H.L.D. Gogon; G.A. Monnehan; K. Djagouri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): G.R. Nonka, T.P.A. Dali, A.A. Koua, H.L.D. Gogon, G.A. Monnehan, K. Djagouri
      Radon gas is the main natural source of exposure of the population to ionizing rays. Because of its impact on the health, this radioactive gas has become a great concern worldwide. In this study, radon concentrations in the air of some dwellings in Yopougon, one of the commune with the highest population rate of the district of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), are reported using Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTD) LR 115 type 2. The concentration values found vary from 26.3 to 173.3 Bq.m−3 with an average of 93.04 Bq.m−3. This mean value is inferior to the world minimum level (100 Bq.m−3). The corresponding annual effective doses obtained vary from 0.66 to 4.37 mSv.y−1. The mean value calculated which is 2.35 mSv.y−1 is higher than the action level (1 mSv.y−1) prescribed by ICRP 103, and also to the limits recommended by the WHO and the International Research on Cancer Center (IRCC). In this view, the Excess lung Cancer Risk (ECR) for the population living in the commune of Yopougon is evaluated. The values of ECR found associated to the average radon concentration are between 46 and 204 according to EPA and UNSCEAR standards.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.001
  • Evaluation of mean glandular dose and assessment of the risk of radiation
           induced carcinogenesis in women following screening mammography in a low
           resource setting

    • Authors: William O. Chijoke; Adenike T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe; Norbert N. Jibiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): William O. Chijoke, Adenike T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Norbert N. Jibiri

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.002
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T20:20:12Z
  • Effect of gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of PVC/ZnO
           polymer nanocomposite

    • Authors: Abdullah Al Naim; Nisrin Alnaim; Sobhy S. Ibrahim; S.M. Metwally
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Abdullah Al Naim, Nisrin Alnaim, Sobhy S. Ibrahim, S.M. Metwally
      Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) based nanocomposite with different weight ratios of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by using a gel-like technique. The weight-ratio of ZnO nanoparticles, in a range of 2.5–10 wt%, is used to prepare nanocomposites' in the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. The as-prepared samples are exposed to gamma (γ) radiation at different doses in a range of 5–40 kGy. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples are compared to that of unirradiated samples. For unirradiated samples, the elasticity is found to increase with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the plastic region of the stress-strain curve gets slightly affected on increasing the concentration of ZnO. Additionally, the elastic modulus is noticed to drop exponentially with ZnO concentration. For pure PVC, a slight dependence of stress-strain curves on the gamma irradiation doses has also been detected. Further, the gamma irradiation dose results in a detectable decrease of elastic modulus for pure and low weight-ratio ZnO nanoparticles. However, the irradiation dose does not have any effect on the elastic modulus for the 10 wt %, which is the highest weight ratio used in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T19:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.03.004
  • Measurements of natural radioactivity level in black sand and sediment
           samples of the Temsah Lake beach in Suez Canal region in Egypt

    • Authors: Fares
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): S. Fares
      The level of natural radioactivity in 20 black sand and 20 sediment samples collected from Temsah Lake beaches of Suez Canal district, Egypt was investigated. The gamma-ray spectrometry system with hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector has been used to determined radioactivity concentrations. Mathematical model is used to estimate the activity concentrations of 222Rn in the air with the activities of 226Ra. The activity concentrations of the sediment and black sand samples range from 4.29 ± 1.66 to 30.06 ± 8.80 and 4.29 ± 0.68 to 18.52 ± 5.22 Bq/kg) for 226Ra. The ranges of radioactivity concentration of 232Th vary from 6.69 ± 1.54 to 39.24 ± 9.80 and 4.56 ± 1.07 to 18.65 ± 5.27 Bq/kg. The effective annual dose rate in the samples under study varies from 0.01 to 0.05 mSv/y for sediment samples and from 0.01 to 0.05 mSv/y for black sand samples. The concentrations of radon gas in the air were determined as well as the activity concentrations of 226Ra. Radon 222Rn doses from gas inhalation for humans were estimated to be in the range of 0.13–13.09 μsv/y for all samples. The activity concentrations of all samples, which were measured in the present work, were compared with the values in other countries in the world, and it was found they were within the permissible limits, which indicates that the study area was radiologically safe for humans.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T17:11:16Z
  • Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of
           Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    • Authors: G.M. Shilpa; B.N. Anandaram; T.L. Mohankumari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): G.M. Shilpa, B.N. Anandaram, T.L. Mohankumari
      The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T09:37:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.007
  • An investigation on gamma attenuation of soil and oil-soil samples

    • Authors: Ali H. Taqi; Hero J. Khalil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Ali H. Taqi, Hero J. Khalil
      In this work, the gamma mass attenuation coefficient is investigated experimentally and theoretically for soil and oil-soil samples have been collected from different locations of Kirkuk city of Iraq. The oil-soil samples have been collected from some oil stations in Kirkuk oil field. The experimental measurements have been performed to obtain mass attenuation coefficients, using gamma spectrometer contains shielded NaI (Tl) detector at the energies of 59.5, 356.5, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Theoretically, the simulation results of mass attenuation coefficient using XCOM and Geant4 codes have been compared with experimental results and good agreement has been observed especially for Monte Carlo simulations code Geant4.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T19:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.008
  • Estimation of indoor radon and thoron in dwellings of Palakkad, Kerala,
           India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    • Authors: M. Ramsiya; Antony Joseph; P.J. Jojo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M. Ramsiya, Antony Joseph, P.J. Jojo
      Radon, thoron and their short lived progenies have a significant contribution to natural background radiation. Long term exposure of such radiation increases the probability of occurrence of cancer at low to moderate levels. The present study covers 25 dwellings in Pirayiri region of the Palakkad district, Kerala, India, using twin cup based dosimeter. The data analysis shows that geometric mean of radon gas concentration (25.52 Bqm−3) and thoron concentration (14.58 Bqm−3) are slightly higher than the nation wide average value. However, the radon gas concentration range is within the limit of UNSCEAR East Asian values. Annual Effective Inhalation Dose limit is less than the action level limit (3 mSv/y), recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T19:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.004
  • The determination of the inhalable fraction of 40K activity in marijuana
           (Cannabis sativa L.) buds by instrumental neutron activation analysis and
           the effective dose to the body

    • Authors: Johann M.R. Antoine; Charles N. Grant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Johann M.R. Antoine, Charles N. Grant
      Total potassium in marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) buds was determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mass fraction of 40K and its activity were derived using the natural isotopic ratios of potassium. The total potassium in the marijuana buds ranged from 0.84% to 3.15% with a mean mass fraction of 1.93%. The activity concentrations of 40K in the samples of marijuana ranged from 253 to 946 Bq kg−1 with a mean activity concentration of 581 Bq kg−1. The effective dose to the body from smoking marijuana is lower than that for comparable tobacco smoking. Simulated smoking experiments show that over 90% of 40K is retained in the cigarette ash. Accepted methods of determining effective dose to the body from 40K inhalation are likely overestimations for both marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T19:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.06.001
  • Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and associated dose rates in
           soil samples from historical city Panipat, India

    • Authors: Amanjeet; Ajay Kumar; Suneel Kumar; Joga Singh; Parminder Singh; B.S. Bajwa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Amanjeet, Ajay Kumar, Suneel Kumar, Joga Singh, Parminder Singh, B.S. Bajwa
      The natural radioactivity levels have been determined by means of gamma ray spectroscopy in surface soil samples collected from the historical city Panipat and its surrounding areas. The activity concentrations are estimated for 238U (range from 14.82 ± 0.26 to 42.82 ± 0.84 Bq/kg), 232Th (from 12.94 ± 0.32 to 43.48 ± 0.96 Bq/kg) and 40K (from 238.05 ± 0.28 to 348.50 ± 0.95 Bq/kg). Radium equivalent activities are calculated to be in the range of 82.24–108.49 Bq/kg with an average value of 92.21 Bq/kg. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors are measured in the range of 32.01–56.47 nGy/h with an average value of 44.16 nGy/h. The corresponding effective dose rates (indoor and outdoor) are calculated to be in the range of 0.09–0.158 mSv/y and 0.039–0.069 mSv/y respectively. The internal and external hazard index varies from 0.234 to 0.339 and 0.207 to 0.286 respectively. The activities of radium equivalent in all the soil samples are lesser than the limit (370 Bq/kg) recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report and the annual effective dose was within the safe limit of 1 mSv/y.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T18:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.006
  • Modeling of indoor 222Rn distribution in ventilated room and resulting
           radiation doses measured in the respiratory tract

    • Authors: R. Rabi; L. Oufni; M. Amrane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): R. Rabi, L. Oufni, M. Amrane
      Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is therefore important to understanding the distribution of radon and their progeny in indoor environment helps in calculating the inhalation doses due to them. This paper focuses on effects of exhalation from different sources (wall, floor and ceiling) and the ventilation profile on distribution of the concentrations of radon and their progeny indoor. The radon exhalation rate from walls, floor and ceiling, and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study and are used as input in Finite Volume Method (FVM) simulation. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling). Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. It has also been found that the distributions of unattached and attached fraction of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Po radionuclides are similar to that of 222Rn. In addition, equilibrium fraction F and the unattached fraction (  f j )   of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Po radionuclides for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. The committed equivalent doses due to 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of workers from the inhalation of indoor air.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T18:42:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.003
  • Estimation of natural radioactivity in local and imported polished granite
           used as building materials in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: J.H. Al-Zahrani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): J.H. Al-Zahrani
      Measurements of natural radioactivity in local and imported samples of commercial granites used in Saudi Arabia were carried out by using gamma-ray spectroscopy with hyper-pure germanium detector. The activity concentrations measured of granite samples were determined for 226Ra(from 1.53 to 77.16 Bq kg−1), 232Th (from 0.51 to 89.82 Bq kg−1) and 40K (from 19.47 to 1632.37 Bq kg−1). The corresponding average activity concentrations for 226Ra,232Th and 40K were 28.82, 34.83 and 665.08 Bq kg−1, respectively. The radiological hazard parameters (radium equivalent, gamma index, external index, internal index, absorbed dose and annual effective dose) were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with granite samples. The obtained results are lower than the recommended limits. The results were compared with the published data of other countries. The measurements will help in the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T17:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.001
  • Determination for levels of uranium and thorium in water along Oum
           Er-Rabia river using alpha track detectors

    • Authors: M. Amrane; L. Oufni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M. Amrane, L. Oufni
      Different river water samples have been collected and analyzed from different locations along Oum Er-Rbia River in Morocco. The uranium and thorium concentrations were investigated in the studied river and dam water samples. Mean activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in water were found to be between 12 and 37 Bq.m−3 and 2–10 Bq.m−3, respectively. The pH measured at all river water simples was slightly alkaline and ranged from 7.5 to 8.75. The electrical conductivity ranged from 2790 to 794 μS cm−1. It was found that uranium and thorium concentrations were correlated with some chemical parameters in Oum Er-Rabia River water. Uranium and thorium measurements in this river are important for monitoring environmental radioactivity and to know the geochemical behaviour of these radionuclides in the surficial water bearing environments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T14:43:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.05.002
  • The ameliorative effect of gallic acid on pancreas lesions induced by
           2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) in young rats

    • Authors: Senay Topsakal; Ozlem Ozmen; Ekrem Cicek; Selcuk Comlekci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Senay Topsakal, Ozlem Ozmen, Ekrem Cicek, Selcuk Comlekci
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the pancreas tissue of young rats and the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid (GA). Six-week-old, 48 male rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham group, EMR group (2.45 GHz), EMR (2.45 GHz)+GA group (30 mg/kg/daily) orally and GA group (30 mg/kg/daily). After 30 days, serum and pancreatic tissue samples were harvested for biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum amylase, lipase, glucose, and tissue malondialdehyde, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were increased, whereas total antioxidant status decreased in the EMR group. The histopathological examination of the pancreases indicated slight degenerative changes in some pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltrations in the EMR group. At the immunohistochemical examination, marked increase was observed in calcitonin gene related protein and Prostaglandin E2 expressions in pancreatic cells in this group. There were no changes in interleukin-6 expirations. GA ameliorated biochemical and pathological findings in the EMR+GA group. These findings clearly demonstrate that EMR can cause degenerative changes in both endocrine and exocrine pancreas cells in rats during the developmental period and GA has an ameliorative effect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T11:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.009
  • Radiosensitizing activity of novel small molecule BRCA1 and DNA-PK
           inhibitors in lung and colon carcinoma

    • Authors: Suraj Radhamani; Rejitha Suraj; Terri Meehan-Andrews; Jasim Al-Rawi; Christopher Bradley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Suraj Radhamani, Rejitha Suraj, Terri Meehan-Andrews, Jasim Al-Rawi, Christopher Bradley
      The DNA dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK) enzyme plays a major part in the repair of double stranded breaks induced by radiation and hence in the radio-resistance of tumour cells. Inhibitors of DNA-PK have been tested successfully in the past for their ability to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of radiation. Here we present two novel benzoxazines (LTU28 and LTU31) and analyse their ability to cause sensitization of cancer cells to radiation. There was a significant reduction in survival rate, increase in apoptosis and inhibition in autophosphorylation of DNA-PK and AKT1 after treating them with LTU28 concomitantly with radiation. The mechanism of action by LTU28 appears to be through inhibition of DNA-PK leading to delayed DNA repair and promotion of apoptosis. LTU31 showed an inhibition in the phosphorylation of BRCA1, thereby blocking DNA repair by homologous recombination.

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T10:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.008
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2017-05-04T10:59:04Z
  • Numerical studies of radiofrequency of the electromagnetic radiation power
           absorption in paediatrics undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging

    • Authors: C. Subaar; J.K. Amoako; A. Owusu; J.J. Fletcher; J. Suurbaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): C. Subaar, J.K. Amoako, A. Owusu, J.J. Fletcher, J. Suurbaar
      Magnetic resonance imaging current operating frequencies are above 100 kHz which is converted to heat through resistive tissue losses during imaging. The imaging is coupled with a concurring increase in temperature in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has seen a rising clinical request during diagnosis and therefore become imperative that its safety issues be assessed. This study modelled Pennes' classical bio-heat equation using Finite Difference Method (FDM) approach and with the help of MATLAB programming language, predicted three dimensional steady state temperature distributions in patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-four paediatric patients' referred for (head) brain magnetic resonance imaging scan at 37 Military Hospital and the Diagnostic Center Limited, Ghana, pre-scan and post-scan temperatures were measured at the right tympanic. The numerically steady state temperature distribution during magnetic resonance imaging shows that there is excessive temperature elevation at the skin surface of the patients. The resulting skin heating during magnetic resonance imaging can reach dangerous level which suggests that the ohmic heating of tissue is greatest at the surface and minimal at the center of the patient's brain. Though the experimental results show that patients brain temperature increase after imaging, all measured temperatures were within acceptable safe levels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.006
  • Kβ/Kα X-ray intensity ratios for some elements in the atomic number
           range 28≤Z≤39 at 16.896 keV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): R. Yılmaz
      The K shell intensity ratios ( K β / K α ) have been experimentally determined for some elements in the atomic number range 28 ≤ Z ≤ 39 by using secondary excitation method. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si (Li) detector with 160 eV resolutions at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with the theoretical and experimental values. In general, the values obtained are in good agreement with the calculated values.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
  • Assessment of patients X-ray doses at three government hospitals in Duhok
           city lacking requirements of effective quality control

    • Authors: Haval Y. Yacoob; Hariwan A. Mohammed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Haval Y. Yacoob, Hariwan A. Mohammed
      Purpose The research presented in this article aimed at evaluating patient doses including entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) in government hospitals that lack the requirements of quality control standards. Materials and methods Three major government hospitals with 409 patients in Duhok were involved in the study. The X-ray diagnostics included five routine radiographic examinations. ESD was determined indirectly by measuring the entrance surface air kerma with a solid state dosimeter. E was calculated from the tissue weighting factor and the equivalent dose. Results and conclusion s: Significant variations between exposure factors recorded in this study and those recommended in the context of quality criteria and standards were shown. The results have also shown that about twenty percent of the patient doses (ESD and E) were equal or below the recommended values of the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). For abdomen, pelvis and skull examinations, the ESD values were slightly above the diagnostic reference levels. For chest and cervical the ESD values were much higher than diagnostic reference levels. These values were more reasonable only in one hospital. High ESD values can be attributed to the slightly higher tube voltages and lower mAs values that were used. The high patient dose values suggest that any adequate change of the exposure parameters that aims at the reduction of dose must be done without compromising the image quality. This study recommends a quick action toward implementing a quality control program and employing special staff of medical physicists in the evaluated hospitals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.005
  • Study the impact of gamma irradiation on the vitellogenin gene in Galleria
           mellonella females by using the comparative CT method

    • Authors: Y.S. Zaghloul; R.M. Sayed; R.S. Abdallah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Y.S. Zaghloul, R.M. Sayed, R.S. Abdallah
      The eggs deposited by oviparous organisms contain large amounts of vitellus, or yolk, which are utilized by the growing embryo. Vitellogenesis is the process of vitellus accumulation involves massive heterosynthetic synthesis of the protein vitellogenin (Vg) and its deposition in the oocyte. Vg levels are indicative for the efficiency of the oogenesis process. This work summarizes data on Vg levels in Galleria mellonella females exposed to various doses of gamma radiation. The results stated that vitellogenin was affected by irradiation. The decreased levels of Vg was dose dependent reaching an undetermined level at 160Gy which is the sterileing dose for G. mellonella female that suppress the egg production by them.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.002
  • Sonographic measurement of renal size in normal high altitude populations

    • Authors: Mustafa J. Musa; Ahmed Abukonna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mustafa J. Musa, Ahmed Abukonna
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal sonographic measurement of the kidney in people reside at high altitude (2200 m). Length, width and thickness were measured in stratified random group of 125 volunteers with different age and sex. Their age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. Renal volumes were calculated and correlate with age, height, weight, body mass index and sex. Median renal lengths were 10.7 cm on the left side and 9.76 cm on the right side. These measurements were found to be lower than the length in low altitude. Median renal volumes were 106.08 cm on the left side and 94.25 cm on the right side. Renal size decreases with increased age because of parenchyma reduction, but it was increased with increasing body mass index. Renal length correlates with body height. Renal volume was larger in males than in females. The median cortical size was found 1.8 cm on both sides.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.004
  • Physico-chemical study of new ruthenium(III), Pd(II) and Co(II) complexes,
           DNA binding of Pd(II) complex and biological applications

    • Authors: Samar A. Aly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Samar A. Aly
      New series of ruthenium(III), Pd(II) and Co(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone ligands were prepared and characterized. It has been inferred method of bonding and general geometry of the complexes through FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopic studies, molar conductivity, magnetic, thermal and elemental analysis. On the basis of the above studies, it has suggested that the tetrahedral geometry for Ru(III), Co(II) complexes and square planar geometry for Pd(II)complex. Fluorescence binding of palladium complex(4) with DNA molecules showed no fluorescence quenching capability when compared with the complex(4) as a quencher. Also the ligand and complexes have been tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria. The activity data exhibit that most of the tested ligand and metal complexes reveal that remarkable antibacterial activity against these organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.001
  • Characterization of ethno-medicinal plant resources of karamar valley
           Swabi, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Khalid; Muhammad Bilal; Danial Hassani; Shah Zaman; Danfeng Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Bilal, Danial Hassani, Shah Zaman, Danfeng Huang
      Summary An ethno-medicinal survey was conducted in District Swabi, Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and local inhabitants by conducting personal interviews and questionnaires. Information about 63 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families was recorded. Some plants including Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Cuscuta reflexa L. (Cuscutaceae), Fagonia arabica L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Apiaceae), Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Tamarix aphylla L. (Tamaricaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) and Zingiber officinale L. (Zingiberaceae) were found to be of great pharmacological interest for novel compounds and substitute for the antibiotics. Industrial relevance Medicinal plants are still widely used for the treatment of different ailments in the area of Swabi, therefore survey of medicinal flora should be carried out to explore and bring up-to-date the catalogue of existing natural plant resources of the area especially in agricultural country like Pakistan. Small scale government processing units of agroforestry should be implemented to reduce the overuse and motivate the cultivation of valuable medicinal plants. Majority of the people use various formulations of medicinal plants for different ailments treatment. The phytochemicals greatly varied in medicinal plants and cause a marvelous effect on human illnesses. The objective of the present study was to document the information of folk medicines, its identification, collection of samples, study of its chemical constituents and uses by the local people of District Swabi, Pakistan.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.03.005
  • Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of
           Covilhã's county, Portugal

    • Authors: M. Inácio; S. Soares; P. Almeida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M. Inácio, S. Soares, P. Almeida
      Radon, the heaviest of the noble gases on the periodic table of elements, is a natural radioactive element that can be found on water, soils and rocks. The main goal of this work is to present an evaluation of radon concentration on samples of water, used for human consumption, collected on uranium-rich granitic rock areas. Once the geological features of the sampling region evidence the presence of this natural radionuclides, their slow dissolution steadily increases concentration in ground water. Although, the most important contribution of natural radiation, for most populations, is from inhaled radon (generic term used commonly to refer to the isotope 222Rn), in some circumstances, exposure to natural radionuclides, through drinking water, could exceed acceptable levels, and also present a hazard. Despite the fact that radon can be reduced if the water is boiled, this gas, dissolved in ground water, can be released into the air during household activities such as showering, dishwashing and laundry. So, the short lived radon decay products will contribute to increase the number of those which are present in particles suspended in the indoor air and can be accumulated up to dangerous concentrations. Once the radon progeny emits highly ionizing alpha-radiation, they may cause substantial health damage after long-term exposure. Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 B q / L , being that 1690 B q / L was the highest measured value.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:39:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.002
  • Spectrochemical study the effect of high energetic ionization radiation on
           Ru(III), Pd(II) and Hg(II) complexes

    • Authors: Samar A. Aly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Samar A. Aly
      Complexes of Ru(III), Pd(II) and Hg(II) of hydrazone ligand have been prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, elemental analyses, electronic spectra, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis(DTA/TGA) before and after γ-irradiation. The result of 1H NMR before and after γ-irradiation confirms that the intensity of the peaks after γ-irradiation is larger than before γ-irradiation. Meanwhile, results of infrared spectra proved that γ-ray enhanced the stability of irradiated compounds as compared to non-irradiated compounds. Thermal studies of these chelates before and after γ-irradiation stable that the complexes of Ru(III) and Pd (II) after γ-irradiation are more thermal show than Hg(II) complexes before and after γ-irradiation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2016.12.001
  • Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process:
           Optimization of process variable

    • Authors: M.A. Rahman; M.A. Aziz; Rami Ali Al-khulaidi; Nazmus Sakib; Maidul Islam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M.A. Rahman, M.A. Aziz, Rami Ali Al-khulaidi, Nazmus Sakib, Maidul Islam
      Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV) from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt%) H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1%) and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt%) KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.004
  • Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and
           vitamins of albino rats

    • Authors: Benedict C. Eke; Norbert N. Jibiri; Evelyn N. Bede; Bede C. Anusionwu; Chikwendu E. Orji; Chinwe S. Alisi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Benedict C. Eke, Norbert N. Jibiri, Evelyn N. Bede, Bede C. Anusionwu, Chikwendu E. Orji, Chinwe S. Alisi
      The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32) male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D) of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days) and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A). Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.03.001
  • Studies on natural radioactivity in rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka
           state, India

    • Authors: M.M. Prakash; C.S. Kaliprasad; Y. Narayana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M.M. Prakash, C.S. Kaliprasad, Y. Narayana
      The paper deals with the study of natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg district, Karnataka state. The samples were analyzed by NaI(Tl) based gamma ray spectrometer. The activity of 232Th varies from 16.46 Bq kg−1 to 160.84 Bq kg−1 with mean value of 79.05 Bq kg−1. The activity of 40K varies from 96.72 Bq kg−1 to 933.68 Bq kg−1 and that of 226Ra was found to vary from BDL to 34.36 Bq kg−1. A correlation coefficient of R = 0.81 was found between 232Th activity and 40K activity. The correlation between 226Ra activity and 232Th activity is R = 0.59. The correlation between 40K and 226Ra is R = 0.51. The Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq) ranges from 46.78Bq kg−1 to 315.55Bq kg−1. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) ranges from 21.28 nGy h−1 to 141.45 nGy h−1, with an average of 73.37 nGy h−1. The radionuclides activity was compared with world average values. The external Hazard index (Hex) varies from 0.12 to 0.84. The internal hazard index (Hin) is in the range 0.15–0.89. The hazard indices were found to be within safety limits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:26:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.003
  • Multi-parameter optimization of a (3He-252Cf-3He) neutron backscattering
           sensor for landmine detection

    • Authors: Nassreldeen A.A. Elsheikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Nassreldeen A.A. Elsheikh
      Experimental measurements were carried out to optimize the performance of a (3He-252Cf-3He) assembly for plastic anti-personnel landmine detection in dry soils. This is done by employing a 252Cf source producing 0.7 × 104 n.s−1 and a pair of two identical 3He detectors. The Signal-to-background ratio due to the responses of the two 3He detectors is monitored and analyzed as a function of detector-detector distance, stand-off distance, mine depth and source position while scanning the mine. The laboratory measurements were followed by Monte Carlo simulations to explore the capabilities of the laboratory measurements in the presence of 252Cf sources producing 104n.s−1 and 106n.s−1. The optimal 252Cf source was selected and employed in further Monte Carlo simulations to study the impact of a multi-layer shield on the performance of the (3He-252Cf-3He) assembly.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.001
  • Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl) available in Nigeria for use
           as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    • Authors: Janet Ayobami Ademola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Janet Ayobami Ademola
      In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl) is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl) used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:01:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.01.003
  • Potential effects of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic
           activity of anticancer drug, doxorubicin

    • Authors: Fatmah M. Alshammari; Sonia M. Reda; Magdy M. Ghannam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Fatmah M. Alshammari, Sonia M. Reda, Magdy M. Ghannam
      Cancer therapy has progressed dramatically in recent years. In order to decrease the dose and side effects of the anticancer drug, the therapeutic options for patients with cancer include increasingly complex combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This combination may cause overlapping interaction between the two types of treatment and affect the stability of the anticancer drug. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the stability and therapeutic activity of one anticancer drug (Doxorubicin) was studied. For this purpose, doxorubicin drug characterized by two methods, at first, in-vitro study, before and after drug irradiation with different doses of gamma rays (2, 5, 20, 100 GY) which achieved through measuring the dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum of drug solution. Secondly, in-vivo studies, where the unirradiated and the drug, which later exposed to gamma rays, were injected respectively into 6 groups of mice (3 mice in each group). The dielectric relaxation and absorption spectrum were studded for hemoglobin of the injected mice. The results for the in-vitro study indicate that the values of dielectric parameters show unnoticeable change for drug molecules before and after irradiation as compared with the control. The results for in-vivo study indicated an increase in the values of relaxation time and Cole- Cole parameter, that may as a result of changes in the conformational structure in hemoglobin molecules which may affect their properties and hence RBC's physiological functions. The absorption spectra of hemoglobin molecules show an increase in the amplitude of the characteristic bands with irradiation dose indicate an increase of the oxygen binding capacity with hemoglobin. It was concluded that combination between the drugs and gamma irradiation can be used as a powerful conjunction that may give us the benefit chemo and radiotherapy treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T22:06:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.01.001
  • Microwave irradiation effects on vermicasts potency, and plant growth and
           antioxidant activity in seedlings of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp.

    • Authors: Lord Abbey; Chibuike Udenigwe; Aishwarya Mohan; Emmanuel Anom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Lord Abbey, Chibuike Udenigwe, Aishwarya Mohan, Emmanuel Anom
      Vermicasts is rich in beneficial microorganisms and plant growth factors. Unlike soils, the effect of microwave irradiation (MWI) on vermicasts potency has not been reported. This study investigated MWI effects on vermicasts potency, plant growth and biochemical activity in Chinese cabbage ‘Bilko’ seedlings. Fresh, moist vermicasts were microwaved at power output levels: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 800 Watts (W). Water loss, nutrients and total aerobic plate content were assessed. A complete randomized design greenhouse experiment was used to evaluate seedlings growth performance and tissue bioactivity. Water loss increased from 5 mg/g (0 W) to 215 mg/g (800 W). Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the vermicasts gradually increased with an increase in MWI power output level from 0 to 200 W. This was followed by a steep rise through treatment 300 W and a peak at 400 W. Total nitrogen and nitrate decreased, while ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen increased at higher power levels. Similarly, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, barium and molybdenum contents increased while sodium and barium remained fairly constant. However, MWI irradiation reduced total aerobic plate count by ≥50%. Plant growth and biomass were increased by the 400 W and 800 W MWI treatments. Antioxidant activity was highest in 200, 400 and 800 W treated plants. Collectively the finding indicated that the 400 W treatment increased the bioavailability of nutrients, and represents the best option for plant growth enhancement and improved antioxidant activity.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.01.002
  • Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in
           controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    • Authors: R.M. Sayed; Souad A. Shairra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): R.M. Sayed, Souad A. Shairra
      Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88) efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05) in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM) program in an agroecosystem.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T09:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2016.12.005
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