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Journal Cover Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8507
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Radioprotective and immunomodulatory effects of Mesua ferrea (Linn.) from
           Western Ghats of India., in irradiated Swiss albino mice and splenic

    • Authors: Syed Murthuza; Bukkambudhi Krishnaswamy Manjunatha
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 1
      Author(s): Syed Murthuza, Bukkambudhi Krishnaswamy Manjunatha
      The present study reports the efficacy of Mesua ferrea (Linn.) extract in mitigating radiation induced toxicity along with immunomodulatory property. Swiss albino mice, splenic lymphocytes and plasmid pBR322 DNA were used to evaluate the radioprotective effect by exposing them to 6Gy EBR or 4 Gy gamma radiation. In this study, Mesua ferrea methanolic (MfM) or aqueous extracts (MfA) significantly protected pBR322 DNA against radiation induced strand breaks. Both the extracts significantly offered protection against radiation-induced apoptosis as indicated by propidium iodide staining and DNA ladder assay. MfM or MfA significantly scavenged radiation derived free radicals indicating their antioxidant potential. MfM or MfA were orally administered to Swiss albino mice at 250 or200 mg/kg body weight respectively for 7 days. The study showed significant increase in the levels of glutathione, and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase & catalase. Administration of MfA or MfM to mice significantly reduced electron beam radiation (EBR; 6Gy) induced increase in MDA levels. Immunomodulatory efficacy of MfM and MfA was evaluated using concanavalin-A (Con-A) induced proliferation of CFSE labelled splenic lymphocytes. Both the extracts significantly reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, MfM or MfA treatment prevented EBR induced histopathological changes in jejunum, spleen, liver and kidney. This demonstrates that the plant Mesua ferrea has promising antioxidant, radioprotective and immunomodulatory activity which may be attributed to the active constituents present in it.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.09.001
  • Evolution of Robot-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy systems

    • Authors: Mustafa Z. Mahmoud; Mohammed Aslam; Mohammed Alsaadi; Maram A. Fagiri; Batil Alonazi
      Pages: 89 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mustafa Z. Mahmoud, Mohammed Aslam, Mohammed Alsaadi, Maram A. Fagiri, Batil Alonazi
      Robot-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy combines ultrasound (US) imaging with a robotic system for medical interventions. This study was designed to provide a literature review of a robotic US-guided breast biopsy system to delineate its efficacious impact on current medical practice. In addition, the strengths and limitations of this approach were also addressed. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2016 were appraised in this review. A wide range of systems that bind robotics with US imaging and guided breast biopsy were examined in this article. The fundamental safety and real-time imaging capabilities of US, together with the accuracy and maneuverability of robotic devices, is clearly an effective association with unmatched capabilities. Numerous experimental systems have obvious benefits over old-fashioned techniques, and the future of robot-assisted US-guided breast biopsy will be characterized by increasing levels of automation, and they hold tremendous possibility to impact doctor achievement, patient recovery, and clinical management.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.11.005
  • Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol and cuprous oxide (PVA/Cu2O) films for
           radiation detection and personal dosimeter based on optical properties

    • Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Ali Omer; Emadeldin Abdeljabar Ali Bashir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mohammed Ahmed Ali Omer, Emadeldin Abdeljabar Ali Bashir
      The aim of the current study was to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol Cuprous Oxide composite films (PVA/Cu2O) for radiation detection depending on optical changes. The method adapted from solving of 5% PVA in hot (80 °C) stirred water and after cooling to ambient temperature a 0.5 g of Cu2O dissolved and stirred for 2 h. The films were made by casting in petri dishes contained 20 ml/each. The pealed films were enveloped after drying and receiving radiation doses of 1, 2, 4, 6 … 12 Gy. The analysis revealed a gradient change in color of films from light pink to dark brown with absorption peaks at 215 and 415 nm through entire doses which were increase as dose increment. The optical density of films increases linearly and significantly (R2 = 0.9) as the dose increases from 0.06 (arb. unit) at 1 Gy to 0.4 (a u) at 12 Gy with sensitivity at 0.06 mGy. The energy band gap of the film decreased as the radiation dose increases from 3 × 10−12 to 2 × 10−12 eV. Conclusively; the feasibility of utilizing PVA/Cu2O composite films as radiation detector and personal dosimeter would be applicable in rural sectors and low economic countries.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T14:09:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.03.001
  • Determination of dose delivery accuracy and image quality in full - Field
           digital mammography

    • Authors: E.K. Sosu; M. Boadu; S.Y. Mensah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): E.K. Sosu, M. Boadu, S.Y. Mensah
      Accuracy of dose delivered, image quality and some technical parameters of the Fujifilm – Amuletf full field digital mammography X-ray equipment has been undertaken. The study was conducted to review the overall condition of the first full – field digital mammography equipment in Ghana with the aim of optimizing mammography practice. Quality control assessment and Mean glandular dose estimation was performed using the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Health Series 2 and 17 protocol and the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Quantitative image analysis was performed with ImageJ software using the “Rose Model”. The results from the quality control test performed indicates that the system is functioning well. Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise values determined from images shows that the images are of standard quality. With the exception of 9.00 mm breast thickness which recorded a displayed Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) of 7.17 mGy, all other MGD calculated or displayed were well within the acceptable level. The percentage difference between the calculated and console displayed MGD was within the acceptable difference level of 50%. The phantom dose values obtained can be used as baseline data for future studies which can assist in setting optimization activities. The mammography X-ray equipment at the Korle-Bu teaching Hospital, Accra – Ghana is functioning under optimized conditions. It is therefore recommended for further usage.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.02.002
  • Radiation exposure to dwellers due to naturally occurring radionuclides
           found in selected commercial building materials sold in Nigeria

    • Authors: O. Maxwell; O.O. Adewoyin; E.S. Joel; C.O. Ehi-Eromosele; S.A. Akinwumi; M.R. Usikalu; C.P. Emenike; Z. Embong; M. Hassaina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): O. Maxwell, O.O. Adewoyin, E.S. Joel, C.O. Ehi-Eromesele, S.A. Akinwumi, M.R. Usikalu, C.P. Emeike, Z. Embong, M. Hassaina
      The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K was measured in commonly building materials used in Nigeria from commercial supplier using High Purity Germanium Gamma (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations in the samples were found to be 51.5 ± 9.3, 72.46 ± 17.65 and 217.05 ± 44.31 Bqkg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K respectively. The highest radium equivalent (Raeq) of 273.9 Bqkg−1 was noted in Perfect Superfix White Cement (Nigeria) but found to be < 370 Bqkg−1 as the recommended dose limiting safe value for bulk media as presumed, the highest value of internal hazard index (Hin) and external hazard index (Hex) of 0.894 and 0.744 respectively were also < 1. The absorbed dose rate (DR) with a value of 122.52 nGyh−1 noted in ceramic tile sample is higher than the weighted population world average value of 80 nGyh−1 by a factor of 1.53. The highest annual effective dose rate (AEDR) of 0.601 mSvy−1 reported in PNT ceramics but was found to be less < 1 mSvy−1. The investigated materials have the values of Hin, Hex and AEDR greater than 0.5 but less than1, showing that the dose impact exceeds the exemption dose level of 0.3 mSvy−1 for AEDR but complies to the upper limit of dose principle of 1 mSvy−1.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:42:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.007
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:42:16Z
  • Effects of gestational hypertension in the pulsatility index of the middle
           cerebral and umbilical artery, cerebro-placental ratio, and associated
           adverse perinatal outcomes

    • Authors: Hind H. Abdelwahid; Babiker A. Wahab; Mustafa Z. Mahmoud; Ahmed Abukonna; Elsir Ali Saeed Taha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Hind H. Abdelwahid, Babiker A. Wahab, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud, Ahmed Abukonna, Elsir Ali Saeed Taha
      This paper reports the effects of gestational hypertension in the pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), cerebro-placental ratio (CPR), and associated adverse perinatal outcomes, after 20 to 40 weeks’ gestation in singleton pregnancy. A total of 280 pregnant women, divided equally into control and gestational hypertension groups, were recruited prospectively. Alpinion Medical System ECUBE 7 ultrasound equipment was used to measure the UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR within the two groups. Data were analyzed to correlate the results with the presence of adverse perinatal outcomes. In gestational hypertension group, the UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes after adjustment for gestational age. The increase in risk for lower birth weight, higher incidence of elective Cesarean section delivery, and preterm birth were statistically significant for UA-PI, MCA-PI, and CPR. Study of pulsatility indices of placental and fetal circulation in singleton pregnancy developed gestational hypertension can provide important information regarding fetal well-being, yielding an opportunity to improve fetal outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.02.001
  • Nano-modification of polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis
           membranes by radiation grafting

    • Authors: M.B. El-Arnaouty; A.M. Abdel Ghaffar; M. Eid; Maysara E. Aboulfotouh; N.H. Taher; El-Sayed Soliman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M.B. El-Arnaouty, A.M. Abdel Ghaffar, M. Eid, Maysara E. Aboulfotouh, N.H. Taher, El-Sayed Soliman
      Radiation synthesis of reverse osmosis membranes were carried out by grafting of N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and ZnO nanoparticles incorporation onto polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membranes PA(TFC). The effect of monomer concentration, radiation time and concentration of ZnO nanoparticles on the grafting percent were investigated. The properties of the prepared grafted reverse osmosis membranes were characterized by using different analytical tools such as contact angles goniometer, Fourier transform IR (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The performance of the reverse osmosis process of the neat and the modified PA(TFC) membranes in terms of water flux and salt rejection (%) was investigated. The chlorine and biofouling resistance properties of the neat and the modified PA(TFC) membrane were evaluated. It is found that, the performance of the modified ZnO NPs/P(NIPAM)-g-PA(TFC) membrane is much better than the neat PA(TFC) membrane.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T21:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.005
  • Evaluation of the synergistic effect of gamma irradiated Steinernema
           scapterisci and soil depth in controlling Bactrocera zonata Saunders
           (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    • Authors: R.M. Sayed; N.F. Zahran; A.F. Hamza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): R.M. Sayed, N.F. Zahran, A.F. Hamza
      The Peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a serious devastating pest in Egypt. This pest spends in soil from full grown larvae till adult emergence. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the pathogenicity of Steinernema scapterisci against larvae and 1 day old pupae (at different soil depths), and to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on its virulence. The results revealed that adult emergence percentage decrease as the soil depth and S. scapterisci concentration increase. In contrast, the larval mortality increased with S. scapterisci concentration increased. In addition, this study showed that gamma irradiation of S. scapterisci juveniles with 2Gy increased its virulence against both larvae and pupae, which presented by lower LC50 values than unirradiated S. scapterisci. Subsequently, it could be concluded that 2Gy irradiated S. scapterisci can serve as a bio-tolerated control method for B. zonata.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T18:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.003
  • Pair production contribution effect on the calculation of gamma ray dose
           buildup factor for water and graphite in the energy range (4–10) MeV

    • Authors: Laith A. Al-Ani; Hanan Mohammed Jawad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Laith A. Al-Ani, Hanan Mohammed Jawad
      Gamma ray buildup factor for two shielding materials, water (Zeff = 7.42) and graphite (Z = 6) for isotropic plane source normally incident within the energy range 4–10 MeV and up to 5 thickness mean free path has been studied. This research has been achieved by writing a simulation computer program in (Visual Basic language version G) and applied depending on Monte Carlo simulation method. The contribution of annihilation effect on the calculation of gamma ray dose buildup factor has been studied for both graphite and water. The results indicated that the calculated values of dose buildup for plane source, when ignoring the contribution of pair production, is less in comparison with the case when the contribution of pair production is taken into consideration. However, the contribution of Compton effect is still more predominant than the effect of annihilation within the range of energy (4–10) MeV.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.001
  • Spectrophotometric properties of azo dye metal complex and its possible
           use as radiation dosimeter

    • Authors: S.M. Gafar; M.A. El-Kelany; S.R. El-Shawadfy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): S.M. Gafar, M.A. El-Kelany, S.R. El-Shawadfy
      The current work describes the physico-chemical studies of two dosimetry systems. Aqueous solution of 1, 5 diphenyl carbazone (DPC) incorporating with chromium (III) to form a colored azo dye metal complex in two methods liquid and gel. Under the effect of γ-irradiation, the colored complex undergoes visual color change from red to colorless. The prepared complex can be used as a dosimeter and applicable in dose range 0.2–6; 0.02–1 kGy for both dosimetry systems. Electrical conductivity was measured and reflecting its application as sensor. The dosimetric characteristics of this complex solution were investigated spectrophotometrically at גmax at 540 nm. Complex sensitivity for γ-radiation, pre and post-irradiation storage under different conditions were illustrated. Moreover, the applications of these results of metal uptake resembles to dosimeter.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.004
  • Radiological assessment of wastewater treatment processes based on the use
           of coal ashes as a filters

    • Authors: L. Taoufiq; A. Laamyem; A. Boukhair; E. Essediqi; M. Monkade; A. Zrabda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): L. Taoufiq, A. Laamyem, A. Boukhair, E. Essediqi, M. Monkade, A. Zrabda
      Coal Fly Ash and Coal Bottom Ash are a solid waste generated from coal combustion. Recently, the management of these wastes has become an important subject for environmental researchers. Due to their physical and chemical characteristics, coal ashes were used in different fields like building material, agriculture and wastewater treatment. In the present investigation, a radiological assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) based on the use of coal ashes as filters was performed. The WWTP under investigation uses four stages of treatment: Coal Fly Ash filtration, Coal Bottom Ash filtration and sand filtration. Radiation risk of coal ashes was evaluated by 2 techniques: Dosimetry alpha based on the use of LR115 detector and gamma ray spectrometer. The surface exhalation rate in coal ash samples were found to be below the world average 57600 mBq∙m−2 h−1 and most of the coal ash samples show the value of Raeq less than the allowed upper limit of 370 Bq kg−1. Moreover, the radon concentration of water samples during the treatment were evaluated for each stage in order to identify if there was any impact of coal ashes on the treated water. Radon activity of treated water remains in the standards with a average value of 196 ± 13 (Bq/m3) less far than the permissible limit (11100 Bq/m3). The obtained results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the treated water was not influenced by radiological characteristics of coal ashes. It be concluded that coal ashes from TAQA Morocco are a safe materials and did not present a significant radiological risk which make them a suitable material for wastewater treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.006
  • Study of the effect of irradiation (60Co) on M1 plants of common bean
           (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and determined of proper doses for
           mutation breeding

    • Authors: Kamile Ulukapi; Süleyman Fatih Ozmen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Kamile Ulukapi, Süleyman Fatih Ozmen
      The objective of this study is to determine the morphological changes and the proper dose of gamma irradiation for the mutation breeding program of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The effects of different doses (100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 Gy) of gamma irradiation (60Co) on seedling growth parameters and survival rates of the plants were investigated. In order to determine the proper dose and morphological changes; shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, stem diameter, leaf width, leaf length, chlorophyll index and number of survival plants of M1 plants were evaluated. It has been determined that the doses of gamma and the varieties used are significant on the number of surviving plants and plant growth parameters. It was determined that low doses gamma irradiation stimulatively effected on shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and root fresh weight. A negative correlation were obtained between all plant growth traits and stem diameter, and the stem diameters are thickened due to the increase in gamma doses. The applications of gamma rays were effected on survival plant rate considerably than the percentage of germination. Applicable proper dose for Efsane was determined as 318.22 Gy while appropriate dose for F16 was determined as 303.17 Gy.

      PubDate: 2018-01-14T19:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.12.004
  • Exploitation of Parthenium hysterophorous biomass as low-cost substrate
           for cellulase and xylanase production under solid-state fermentation using
           Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687

    • Authors: Amit Kumar Bharti; Amit Kumar; Alok Kumar; Dharm Dutt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Amit Kumar Bharti, Amit Kumar, Alok Kumar, Dharm Dutt
      To make the enzyme production process appreciably inexpensive in respect of SSF, use of economical substrates is of great interest. Out of total eight employed solid substrate, Parthenium hysterophorous biomass exhibited its potential and displayed maximum endoglucanase (30 IU/gds), xylanase (582 IU/gds) and FPase (2.86 FPU/gds) activities. During optimization of cultural parameters, Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687 produced maximum endoglucanase (53.3 IU/gds), FPase (4.51 FPU/gds) and β-glucosidase (62.6 IU/gds) at temperature (30 °C), incubation time (5th day), pH (6.0) and moisture content (80%) with the supplementation of peptone as the nitrogen source and Tween-80 as the surfactant under SSF conditions. During the process of optimization different enzyme activities viz. endoglucanase, xylanase, FPase and β-glucosidase were enhanced by approximately 2.0, 1.54, 2.0 and 2.7 fold respectively compared to their respective controls. Talaromyces stipitatus MTCC 12687 enzymes hydrolysed untreated and organosolve pretreated P. hysterophorous biomass to release 93 ± 3.87 and734 ± 17 mg/g of reducing sugars respectively after hydrolysis time of 48 h.

      PubDate: 2018-01-14T19:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.003
  • Depleted uranium residues, NORMs and 137Cs in the coastal zone soil of
           Musandam Peninsula, Hurmuz strait region, Sultanate of Oman

    • Authors: Ibrahim H. Saleh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Ibrahim H. Saleh
      Musandam peninsula located at one of the most important marine strait overlooking the Arabian/Parisian Gulf. Environmentally, this area is characterized by its primitivistic status and vulnerable to any natural or manmade disturbances. This work presents the second phase of a comprehensive radiation measurement in Musandam Peninsula environment amid to investigating the presences of depleted uranium (DU) residues and assessing the current levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs in surface soil of coastal area. For this purpose, thirty representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for 235U using gamma rays spectrometry and for total U using ICP-OES techniques. Results revealed that the range of isotopic abundance of 235U was (0.70%–0.77%) with an average of 0.72%, confirming the detected uranium is naturally originated from the geological formations of investigated soil. Additionally, the values of Th/U ratios were calculated to be ranged from 0.37 to 1.95 with an average of 1.5 indicating the dominant geological formations are metamorphic sedimentary rocks that contain low levels of Th. The averages of radioactivity levels of NORMs indicated 16.02 Bqkg−1, 7.83 Bqkg−1 and 174.03 Bqkg−1 for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K respectively. The average of areal concentrations for 137Cs was 2481.5 Bqm−2 ranges from 1040 Bq/m2 to 9225 Bqm−2. The total external annual effective dose from all measured radionuclides was 23 μSv 237Cs contribution is 1% while 238U, 232Th series and 40K radionuclides contributions are 32%, 28% and 39% respectively. Radium equivalent, external, and internal radiation hazard indices indicate no radiological anomaly.

      PubDate: 2018-01-14T19:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2018.01.002
  • Preparation of La2Zr2O7 ceramic from Egyptian black sand

    • Authors: Mohammed Y. Elkady; Ashraf A. Mohmed; A.M.E. Daher; Wafaa H. Saleh; S. Negm; H. Mashaal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mohammed Y. Elkady, Ashraf A. Mohmed, A.M.E. Daher, Wafaa H. Saleh, S. Negm, H. Mashaal
      Lanthanum zirconates has been suggested as a thermal barrier coating for many high temperature applications. This work is focusing on the possibility of La2Zr2O7 from economic natural resources using Egyptian monazite and zircon. For this purpose, the prepared product of monazite REEs concentrate was subjected to Ce separation by its oxidation and precipitation as Ce (IV) at pH 3 with contact time 15 min and 30% excess amount of KMnO4. The REE-cake almost free from Ce (IV) was passing through Dowex50X8 cation exchange resin for the separation of pure product of La2O3. A homogeneous single phase compound of La2Zr2O7 has been formed at 3 h sintering time with sintering temperature 1100 °C and ZrO2/La2O3 ratio 50% this confirmed with XRD (X-ray diffraction), Raman and EDX analysis techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.005
  • Alloying effect on K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and yields in
           Ti-Ni based shape memory alloys

    • Authors: Bünyamin Alım; İbrahim Han; Lütfü Demir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Bünyamin Alım, İbrahim Han, Lütfü Demir
      K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections (σ Kα , σ Kβ and σ K ), and K shell fluorescence yields (ω K ) of Ti, Ni both in pure metals and in different alloy compositions (TixNi1-x; x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) were measured by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The samples were excited by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi Cd-109 radioactive point source and K X rays emitted by samples were counted by a high resolution Si(Li) solid-state detector coupled to a 4 K multichannel analyzer (MCA). The alloying effects on the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) parameters of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. It is clearly observed that alloying effect causes to change in K shell XRF parameter values in Ti-Ni based SMAs for different compositions of x. Also, the present investigation makes it possible to perform reliable interpretation of experimental σ Kα , σ Kβ and ω K values for Ti and Ni in SMAs and can also provide quantitative information about the changes of K shell X-ray fluorescence cross sections and fluorescence yields of these metals with alloy composition.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.12.002
  • Investigation of alloying effects on XRF parameters of 3d transition
           metals in Permendur49, Kovar and Ti50Co50 alloys

    • Authors: Bünyamin Alım; Mine Uğurlu; İbrahim Han; Lütfü Demir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Bünyamin Alım, Mine Uğurlu, İbrahim Han, Lütfü Demir
      The alloying effects on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) parameters such as K shell fluorescence cross-sections (σ Kα , σ Kβ and σ K ), K shell average fluorescence yields (ω K ) and K to L shell vacancy transfer probabilities (η KL ) of V, Ti, Fe, Co and Ni 3d transition metals in Permendur49 (Fe49Co49V2), Kovar (Fe54Ni29Co17) and Ti50Co50 alloys have been carried out by X-ray fluorescence studies. K X-ray intensity ratios of these 3d transition metals in both pure form and present alloys have been measured following excitation by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi 109Cd radioactive point source. The characteristic K-X-ray spectra from samples were detected by a high-resolution Si(Li) solid-state detector. The investigated fluorescence parameters of present 3d transition elements in alloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. Consequently, the observed change of the investigated fluorescence parameters can be attributed to the delocalization and charge transfer phenomena between the 3d elements in alloys.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.12.003
  • Evaluation of radon related parameters in environmental samples from Jazan
           city, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: M. Abo-Elmagd; Ahmed Saleh; G. Afifi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M. Abo-Elmagd, Ahmed Saleh, G. Afifi
      Environmental samples like soil, building materials and decorative materials are the major source of indoor radon. The contribution of these environmental materials toward indoor radon level depend upon the radium content and radon exhalation rates and can be used as a primary index for radon levels in the dwellings. Sealed cup technique was used to determine the radon exhalation rates and the effective radium content in different environmental samples collected from Jazan city, Saudi Arabia. Back diffusion is the main removal processes of radon from its sealed cup which leads to underestimate the measured parameters. To assure the quality of the measurements, the results were corrected for back diffusion effect and checked for the effect of sample mass on the measured parameters. The combined uncertainty was also calculated taking into consideration the possible sources of uncertainty. The overall weighted mean of areal exhalation rate (EA) and effective Radium content (Raeff) for soil samples collected from different 10 districts in Jazan city is 17.02 ± 2.06 Bq m−2d−1, 3.01 ± 0.37 Bq kg−1 respectively. For 20 Building materials samples, EA = 1.989 ± 1.056 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.351 ± 0.186 Bq kg−1. Finally, for decorative materials (23 samples), EA = 1.225 ± 0.136 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.427 ± 0.031 Bq kg−1. The maximum values of the measured parameters are found in the soil of scheme 5 and 6 district, red sand (building material) and gypsum (decorative material). As the mass of the sample increase, more and more radon diffused back into the sample and the measured effective radium content is reduced. After correcting the results for back diffusion effect, all masses approximately get the same value of effective radium content and then reduced the uncertainty in the weighted mean.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.12.001
  • Investigation of awareness levels about the radiation safety of personnel
           working in the imaging units of the hospitals in Agri, Turkey

    • Authors: Ebru Senemtaşi Ünal; Kadir Geliş; Pınar Baykan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Ebru Senemtaşi Ünal, Kadir Geliş, Pınar Baykan
      Radiation treatments, which are frequent and hidden hazards in imaging centers in hospitals, seriously affect employee health. In general, people think that there will be nothing to them because they do not know the damage of the radiation. It is not possible to stay away from radiation in some professions. For example, the radiology officials, their job is to identify the disease in people with radiographic method has no chance of dealing with radiation. That's why we need to do our job by getting enough information about radiation and its hazards, and by protecting ourselves and our environment from the dangers of radiation. Therefore, our study aimed to determine the level of information about employee safety of the health personnel working in public and private hospitals in Agri city centrum. Data was collected through a questionnaire by answering the questions of the personnel under observation in the imaging centers of hospitals. All official permits required for our work have been obtained from the necessary authorities. Results showed the inadequacy of knowledge related to ionizing radiation of the personnel, and the necessity of the implementation of radiological examinations by planning training for the safe use.

      PubDate: 2017-12-21T19:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.009
  • The delayed appearance of haploid and homozygous diploid Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae yeast cells of wild-type and radiosensitive mutants surviving
           after exposure to gamma rays and alpha particles

    • Authors: Ekaterina S. Evstratova; Vladislav G. Petin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Ekaterina S. Evstratova, Vladislav G. Petin
      The aim of this paper is experimental investigations of the delayed appearance of haploid and homozygous diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells of wild-type and radiosensitive mutants surviving after exposure to gamma rays and alpha particles. Delayed appearance of colonies exemplifying genetic instability are presented for cells surviving after radiation exposure to 60Co γ-rays and 239Pu α-particles. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of densely ionizing radiation was shown to be practically identical both for cell survival and the delayed appearance of clones. The RBE values are determined by cell ability to recover from radiation damage. These findings are not new for cell survival, while they are fundamentally new for genetic instability. The degree of genetic instability is mainly determined by cell ploidy: both resistant and radiosensitive diploid strains in contrast to haploids demonstrate large extent of the delayed appearance of clones surviving after irradiation (100% vs. 20%). The primary conclusion may be formulated as follows: the delayed appearance of clones by cells surviving after radiation is mainly determined by cell ploidy rather than the sigmoidal shape of survival curve and ability of cells to recover from radiation damage as it is traditionally assumed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. It may be expected that the genetic instability would be more expressed for diploid somatic cells than for haploid sex cells if these patterns can be retained for the higher eukaryotes also.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T16:06:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.11.006
  • Comparative modeling results for ridge waveguide MQW and hybrid Si/III-V

    • Authors: Caglar Duman; Bulent Cakmak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Caglar Duman, Bulent Cakmak
      In this study, 1550 nm ridge waveguide multi quantum well (MQW) and hybrid Si/III-V lasers are simulated and the results are studied in a comparative setting. InGaAsP active layers with a ridge waveguide length of 500 μm and width of 5 μm with six quantum wells are chosen for both MQW and hybrid Si/III-V lasers. The hybrid Si/III-V laser structure is obtained by integration of a ridge waveguide MQW semiconductor laser with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip. The proposed structure allows laser mode to experience maximal gain available in the III-V region while maintaining a high coupling efficiency to Si-waveguide. The results demonstrate that the optical power generated by MQW active layer can be transferred to the silicon waveguide of the hybrid Si/III-V laser. In addition, an increase in the threshold current and degeneration in the frequency response of the hybrid laser are observed compared to the MQW one. The results also indicate that there is not a big difference between the ridge waveguide MQW and the hybrid Si/III-V lasers in terms of spectrum and spontaneous emission characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T15:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.11.004
  • Evaluation of advanced medical imaging services at Governmental
           Hospitals-Gaza Governorates, Palestine

    • Authors: K.M. Abushab; M.D. Suleiman; Y.S.M. Alajerami; S.I. Alagha; M. ALnahal; A. Najim; M. Naser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): K.M. Abushab, M.D. Suleiman, Y.S.M. Alajerami, S.I. Alagha, M. ALnahal, A. Najim, M. Naser
      Medical imaging services are the key tool to diagnose many diseases and have an important role in monitoring treatment and predicting outcome. The current study conducted to evaluate advanced medical imaging services (CT and MRI) at Governmental Hospitals-Gaza Governorates, Palestine. Triangulated study design was used (checklist, questionnaire and key informant interview). The researcher used arbitrated checklist to evaluate medical imaging facilities. Census study conducted on all Radiologic Technologists and medical imaging departments at three main governmental hospitals in the Gaza Strip, which offered advanced medical imaging. In addition, three key informant interviews with Radiologic Technologists manager were conducted. Researcher have directly interviewed 20 participants (75% Males; 80% older than 30; 90% bachelor and master degrees and 80% more than 10 years' experience). Researcher have directly interviewed 20 participants (75% Males; 80% older than 30; 90% bachelor and master degrees and 80% more than 10 years' experience). Each RT at European Gaza hospital is expected to perform 25 cases in the morning shift against 6 and 13 cases at Indonesia and Al-Shifa Hospital, respectively. Both of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging departments showed that “60%, 78% and 91%” and “86%, 100% and 90%” followed standard regarding to their structures, occupational safety and essential supplies, respectively. An observable shortage in number of radiographic machines and Radiologic Technologists at all advanced medical imaging departments. All departments showed clear defect in structure, design and essential supplies. Critical readings were observed respecting to insufficient radiation protection tools and holding of Thermoluminescence Dosimeters.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T15:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.007
  • Inverted planar perovskite solar cells based on Al doped ZnO substrate

    • Authors: A. Baltakesmez; M. Biber; S. Tüzemen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): A. Baltakesmez, M. Biber, S. Tüzemen
      In this study, we present an inverted hybrid perovskite solar cell using Al doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) transparent metal oxide as substrate and anode electrode. Obtained results revealed that the AZO substrates prepared by RF magnetron sputtering with the optimal growth parameters have electrical and optical properties similar to properties of commercial Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), resistivity around 0.5 mΩcm and transparency around 85%. Hybrid perovskite thin films were coated onto the PEDOT:PSS/AZO and PEDOT:PSS/ITO substrates. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the perovskite films were comparatively studied by SEM, XRD, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Besides, inverted planar perovskite solar cells were fabricated on AZO and on ITO substrates by single solution coating. The champion cell exhibited short-circuit current of 22.26 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, and a fill factor of 0.51, led to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) 9.88% which is obtained by cell based on AZO substrate. The PCE value is comparable to efficiency of cell based on ITO,12.82%.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T15:16:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.11.002
  • Single floating cell irradiation technique with an X-ray microbeam

    • Authors: Fuminobu Sato; Kikuo Shimizu; Isao Murata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Fuminobu Sato, Kikuo Shimizu, Isao Murata
      A single floating cell irradiation technique with X-ray microbeam has been developed for the microscopic research of radiation effects on floating cells in a liquid medium. This technique is a combination of X-ray microbeam and laser technologies. A preliminary experiment on the survival of budding cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RAD52) was performed with the X-ray microbeam system. Micro-pits were fabricated on the bottom of a culture dish in a liquid medium, using green laser beams. The yeast cells were put into the micro-pits one by one by using focused infrared laser beams. A 50-kV X-ray microbeam 12 μm (FWHM) in diameter was propagated into the targeted yeast cell. The maximum dose rate on the targeted cell was estimated to be 0.09 Gy/s from the results of beam profile measurements and photon-electron transport calculations. The X-ray irradiation effect on the cell lethality was clearly observed for the cell exposed to X-rays of 100 Gy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T12:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.11.001
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T12:46:22Z
  • Numerical analysis with experimental comparison in duct flow using
           optimized heat sinks

    • Authors: Kumru Güreşçi; Faruk Yeşildal; Altuğ Karabey; Rıdvan Yakut; Kenan Yakut
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Kumru Güreşçi, Faruk Yeşildal, Altuğ Karabey, Rıdvan Yakut, Kenan Yakut
      In many industrial applications, heat must be transferred in the form of either an energy input into the system or removal of energy produced in the system. In this study, heat transfer and flow characteristics of hexagonal finned heat sinks which optimized according to the Taguchi experimental L18(21*37) design method in channel flow was analyzed numerically. Ansys-Fluent Icepak module was used in CFD analysis. The analysis carried out for two hexagonal finned optimized heat sinks in 3 different fin heights and 5 different flow velocities. Nusselt number increased with increasing Reynolds number for OH-1 and OH-2 heat sinks with all fin heights. Also, results showed that the friction factor decreased with increasing Reynolds number for all fin heights. According to CFD results, Nu-Re and f-Re variations were obtained and compared with experimental results. The experimental results and the numerical results were quite consistent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T09:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.008
  • Measurement of radioactivity concentration in soil samples around
           phosphate rock storage facility in Richards Bay, South Africa

    • Authors: F.B. Masok; P.L. Masiteng; R.D. Mavunda; P.P. Maleka; H. Winkler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): F.B. Masok, P.L. Masiteng, R.D. Mavunda, P.P. Maleka, H. Winkler
      Mining, mineral processing and industrial activities have long been linked to increased levels of radioanuclides in soil in their vicinity. In this work, concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples collected around a rock phosphate storage facility in Richards Bay in South Africa were determined. A total of 90 soil samples were collected and analyzed for 238U and 232Th using neutron activation analysis and 226Ra and 4 K using a HPGe detector. The results revealed the average radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 4 K in soil samples collected around the rock phosphate storage area were 28.26 ± 11.40, 29.64 ± 11.50, 32.18 ± 11.50 and 146.77 ± 63.30 Bq. kg−1, respectively, which are higher than the corresponding values of 22.26 ± 8.60, 23.09 ± 9.80, 26.52 ± 11.50 and 117.82 ± 10.04 Bq. kg−1 in soil samples from the control area about 2.0 km–4.5 km away from the rock phosphate storage facility. Furthermore, the all radiological hazard parameters (i.e annual effective dose equivalent, annual gonadal dose equivalent, the absorbed dose rate in air, the radium equivalent activity and the external Hazard Index) investigated in this study were below the maximum recommended safety limit. The observed 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 4 K levels indicate contributions from anthropogenic activities with no significant health risks to humans or to the environment. Hence, in terms of terrestrial gamma radiation from soil, rock phosphate storage within this area does not pose any significant radiation hazard to the workers and dwellers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T09:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.006
  • Risk assessment of radon in the South Dayi District of the Volta Region,

    • Authors: Charles Y. Ansre; Michael K. Miyittah; Aba B. Andam; Daniel E. Dodor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Charles Y. Ansre, Michael K. Miyittah, Aba B. Andam, Daniel E. Dodor
      Radon is a globally present and known radioactive gas with its ability to cause lung cancer as its major health implication. Ghana currently lacks national policies on radon gas and substantive radon vulnerability map largely due to lack of adequate baseline radon concentration data for the entire country. LR115 type II detectors were deployed in 30 sites/homes within the South-Dayi District. The detectors were retrieved after specified periods and analyzed for the radon concentration at the Nuclear Track Detection Laboratory of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. From the results, indoor radon concentration was found to range from 11.60 to 111.07 Bq/m3 with the mean value for the district being 34.90 ± 20.18 Bq/m3, a value lower than the mean global indoor concentration of 40 Bq/m3. The values of 0.44 mS/yr, 8.80 mSv/yr and 1.01 mSv/yr were the mean annual; absorbed dose, equivalent dose and effective dose to lungs respectively for the populace of the district. The mean soil radon concentration for the district was 1.76 ± 0.91 kBq/m3 with values ranging from 0.38 to 3.93 kBq/m3. Correlation and T-test analysis was performed to establish strength of the linear relationship between indoor radon concentration and the soil radon concentration, indoor radon concentration on altitude and soil radon concentration on altitude.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T09:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.002
  • Dosimetric evaluation of scattered and attenuated radiation due to dental
           restorations in head and neck radiotherapy

    • Authors: Mona Azizi; Ali Asghar Mowlavi; Mahdi Ghorbani; Behnam Azadegan; Fatemeh Akbari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mona Azizi, Ali Asghar Mowlavi, Mahdi Ghorbani, Behnam Azadegan, Fatemeh Akbari
      In radiotherapy of head and neck cancer, the presence of high density materials modifies photon dose distribution near these high density materials during treatment. The aim of this study is to calculate the backscatter and attenuation effects of a healthy tooth, Amalgam, Ni-Cr alloy and Ceramco on the normal tissues before and after these materials irradiated by 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. All measurements were carried out in a water phantom with dimension of 50 × 50 × 50 cm3with an ionization chamber detector. Two points before and four points after the dental sample were considered to score the photon dose. The depth dose on the central beam axis was explored in a water phantom for source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm in a 10 × 10 cm2 field size. The percentage dose change was obtained relative to the dose in water versus depth of water, tooth, Amalgam, Ni-Cr alloy and Ceramco for the photon beams. The absolute dose (cGy) was measured by prescription of 100 cGy dose in the water phantom at depth of 2.0 and 3.1 cm for 6 and 15 MV photons, respectively. At depth of 0.6 cm, the maximum percentage dose increase was observed with values of 6.99% and 9.43%for Ni-Cr and lowest percentage dose increase of 1.49% and 2.63% are related to the healthy tooth in 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The maximum absolute dose of 95.58 cGy and 93.64 cGy were observed at depth of 0.6 cm in presence of Ni-Cr alloy for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The presence of dental restorations can cause backscattering dose during head and neck radiation therapy. Introduction of compositions and electron density of high density materials can improve the accuracy of dosimetric calculations in treatment planning systems to deliver the relevant dose to target organ and reduce the backscattering dose in healthy tissues in the surrounding of tooth.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T07:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.004
  • Biodegradation of naphthalene by Bordetella avium isolated from petroleum
           refinery wastewater in Egypt and its pathway

    • Authors: M.A.M. Abo-State; B.Y. Riad; A.A. Bakr; M.F. Abdel Aziz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): M.A.M. Abo-State, B.Y. Riad, A.A. Bakr, M.F. Abdel Aziz
      Wastewater and Sludge samples polluted with petroleum oil from Cairo Oil Refining Company (CORC), Mostorod, El-Qalyubiah, Cairo, Egypt. were used for isolation of indigenous bacterial communities. The isolation of bacterial strains followed four steps of adaptation and enrichment technique for selection of the most Naphthalene tolerant bacterial strains. Screening on four Naphthalene concentrations to determine the most potent strains having the abilities to use Naphthalene as a sole carbon and energy source have been conducted. The most potent bacterial isolates were MAM-P9, MAM-P14, MAM-P22, MAM-P25 and MAM-P26. The abilities of the five most potent bacterial isolates to grow on BSM amended with 4,5,6 and 7 mM Naphthalene have been determined by recording their growth (O.D) and secretion of extracellular protein after zero time (initial), 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,14 and 21 days spectrophotometrically. The degradation of Naph. have been determined quantitatively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and qualitatively by GC/MS to determine the Intermediates resulted from degradation. The results revealed that isolate MAM-P22 was the best Naphthalene degrader. It degraded 95% of the highest concentration 7 mM. The best Naphthalene degrader bacterial Isolate MAM-22 was identified by 16S-rRNA showed a similarity of 98% to Bordetella avium strain with accession No. 041769.1. The results of GC/MS analysis revealed that Bordetella avium MAM-P22 degraded Naphthalene to give six intermediate compounds, These compounds were 1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, Butyl-2,4-dimethyl-2-nitro-4-pentenoate, 1-Nonen-3-ol, Eicosane, Nonacosane.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T03:55:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.10.001
  • Determination of radioactivity concentrations in soil samples and dose
           assessment for Rize Province, Turkey

    • Authors: Ayşe Durusoy; Meryem Yildirim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Ayşe Durusoy, Meryem Yildirim
      In this study, the activity concentrations of naturally occurring 40K, 238U, and 232Th radionuclides and of the artificial, Chernobyl accident-induced 137Cs radionuclide were measured in soil samples collected from Rize Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Rize is a city located in the Northeastern District of Turkey, which was significantly affected by the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in Ukraine, and the effects have continued to today. Tea is the main production plant of the region, and was contaminated by the artificial radioactivity. Therefore, measurements of residual 137Cs contamination in soil are critical for monitoring the potential impacts on human health. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 24 soil samples from the study area were measured by means of gamma spectrometry with a Nal(TI) detector. The activity concentrations in soil samples varied in the range of 7.4–79.8 Bq kg−1 for 238U, 9.5–170.8 Bq kg−1 for 232Th, 35.7–913.8 Bq kg−1 for 40K, and 0.6–154.3 Bq kg−1 for 137Cs. The gamma absorbed dose rates in air were in the range of 10.7–156.4 nGy h−1, with an arithmetic mean of 56.9 nGy h−1, while the annual effective dose rates were determined to be in the range of 13.1–191.8 μSv y−1. The calculated values of external hazard index (Hex) for the soil samples in the study area were in the range of 0.12–0.94. The average value of radium equivalent activity was 125.0 Bq kg−1. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000) and previous studies on the area.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T23:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.09.005
  • Efficiency of energy conversion and growth of gamma irradiated embryos and
           young seedlings of Triticum monococcum L. cultivar Einkorn

    • Authors: Eben von; Well Annabel Fossey Booyse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Eben von Well, Annabel Fossey, Mardé Booyse
      The study was conducted to determine whether the efficiency of energy conversion into growth can be used as an indicator for the determination of the optimal gamma irradiation dosage for mutation breeding. To meet this objective, embryo growth, shoot growth, root growth, mobilization of food reserves, respiration and energy conversion were studied in gamma-irradiated wheat Triticum monococcum L. cultivar Einkorn kernels. Kernels were exposed to 50, 150, 250 and 350 Gy and germinated. Kernels were collected 12 h after onset of imbibition and then every 12 h until 168 h. Irradiated seed demonstrated retardation in all parameters, which increased as the gamma irradiation dosage increased. For the most, dosage and time, as well as dosage by time interaction were highly significant. Root growth appeared to be the most sensitive to gamma irradiation, followed by shoot growth, mobilization of food reserves and efficiency of energy conversion. Full recovery of the efficiency of energy conversion took place at 50 Gy, with an increase in inefficiency with an increase in dosage. The point where full recovery of efficiency of energy conversion into growth gives way to incomplete recovery (100 Gy) is in line with the suggested dosages for practical mutation breeding in Triticum monococcum L. by the FAO/IAEA and is therefore an ideal indicator for predicting the dosage that will be optimal for plant mutation breeding.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T22:48:54Z
  • Inherited influence of low dose gamma radiation on the reproductive
           potential and spermiogenesis of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus
           maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    • Authors: Hatem A. Ibrahim; Shams Fawki; Marah M. Abd El-Bar; Mohamed A. Abdou; Dalia M. Mahmoud; El-Gohary E. El-Gohary
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Hatem A. Ibrahim, Shams Fawki, Marah M. Abd El-Bar, Mohamed A. Abdou, Dalia M. Mahmoud, El-Gohary E. El-Gohary
      The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) is a severe agriculture pest worldwide. In the current work, newly emerged adult males of C. maculatus have been irradiated with a low dose of 20Gy gamma radiation. The inherited deleterious effects on the fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, and the sterility percent were recorded for the progenies F1 and F2 of the irradiated parental males. The fecundity, hatched larvae, the number of males and females were reduced in both F1 and F2. The sterility percent was high in F1 (70.8%) and increased in the F2 (88.3%) generation. Histopathological effects were also documented in the testes of F1 and F2 progenies. The spermatids and sperms have exhibited a variety of abnormalities. In the early spermatids, the nebenkern outer cell membrane was ruptured. The spermatid nucleus loses its homogeneous texture and has multiple foci of dense chromatin, as well as, profiles range has little dense material. In some groups, the nucleus had a peculiar ring of chromatin. The sperms had shown a variety of aberrations. The sperms irregularity distributed in lysed cysts by unusual manner. Also, some sperms had remarkably enlarged axoneme and small rounded nucleus. Many of the sperm cells were observed with two axonemes, abnormal mitochondria derivatives, and more than two accessory bodies. These results indicate that the low dose of 20 Gy induces semi-sterility in C. maculatus through generations. The same technique would help to improve using of sterile insect technique for other agriculture pests.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:02:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.09.003
  • Control of imipenem resistant-Klebsiella pneumoniae pulmonary infection by
           oral treatment using a combination of mycosynthesized Ag-nanoparticles and

    • Authors: Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz; Mohamed Yosri; Basma H. Amin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Yosri, Basma H. Amin
      Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) a common cause of pneumonia leads to intense lung injury and mortality that are correlated with infective exacerbations. A significant increase in the prevalence of imipenem resistant K. pneumoniae (IRKP) has been observed in common human pathogens. The rapid emergence of IRKP has limited the availability of anti-bacterial treatment options. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with imipenem in order to improve its antibacterial action. Fifteen fungal species were screened for mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), only eight fungal species were found to reduce the silver salt into silver nanoparticles which was characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometric analysis, Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with characterized silver nanoparticles, mycosynthesized AgNPs by Verticillium albo-atrum (RCMB 039001) was found the higher in concentration (as detected by UV–visible spectrophotometric analysis) and the least in size (as detected by TEM analysis) so, it was chosen for further studies such as in vitro antibacterial activity against Imipenem resistant K. pneumonia (IRKP), MIC, FIC measurements and in vivo study. In this work a strong synergistic antibacterial effect between AgNPs and imipenem was detected in vitro (with FIC Index 0.07) and in vivo against IRKP strain. These results suggested that sliver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial action on bacterial count, histopathology as well as protective immune response in an IRKP rat model.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:02:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.09.002
  • Bio-degradation of Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAb1 isolated
           from effluent of thermal paper industry: Kinetic modeling and process

    • Authors: V. Vijayalakshmi; P. Senthilkumar; K. Mophin-Kani; S. Sivamani; N. Sivarajasekar; S. Vasantharaj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): V. Vijayalakshmi, P. Senthilkumar, K. Mophin-Kani, S. Sivamani, N. Sivarajasekar, S. Vasantharaj
      A bacterium isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAb1) based on 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis which could grow on basal mineral salt medium upon bisphenol A, which functions as an exclusive carbon source. Physicochemical variables of thermal paper industry effluent noted were significantly greater than the typical limit due to pollution of the acquiring water systems. The mathematic kinetic models like Monod, Moser and Tesier models were applied for batch fermentation of bisphenol A degradation in basal salt medium and the half saturation coefficient (KS) and the regression coefficient R2 using Monad, Moser and Tesier kinetic models registered as 9.947  g/L, 12.46 g/L and 14.14 g/L and 0.91, 0.94 and 0.84 respectively. Besides, the utmost specific growth rate μmax was witnessed as 0.841 h−1 for the P. aeruginosa (PAb1) regarding BPA degradation. Metabolic intermediates like phenol, acetophenone, and hydroquinone and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were also determined through the degradation process by GC-MS. The metabolic pathway of BPA degradation by the bacterial isolates was also designed in today's analysis. A probabilistic statistical model originated using Box-Behnken response surface methodology and process variables were optimized by nonlinear optimization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T10:03:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.003
  • Natural radioelement concentrations in fertilizers and the soil of
           the Mila region of Algeria

    • Authors: Amina Bramki; Mourad Ramdhane; Fatima Benrachi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Amina Bramki, Mourad Ramdhane, Fatima Benrachi
      The addition of inorganic fertilizers to treat crop soil and increase its production has become a necessity and a tool used around the world. These fertilizers contain different quantities of uranium and thorium. Therefore, tons of radionuclides from natural radioactive series U 238 , U 235 and T 232 h are dispersed in the environment due to a high use of fertilizer in agriculture. In this work, the radioactivity levels were determined in two fertilizers and in fertilized and unfertilized soil samples collected at various depths from the Algerian agricultural region of El-Athmania Mila, using high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of R 226 a , T 232 h and K 40 for fertilized and unfertilized soil samples were found unchanged as a function of depth and ranged from 23.72 ± 2.37 to 65.47 ± 5.06 B q . K g − 1 ; 32.48 ± 9.84 to 49.83 ± 5.31 B q . K g − 1 for 226Ra, from 26.45 ± 0.78 to 27.10 ± 0.80 B q . K g − 1 ; 27.56 ± 0.75 to 28.70 ± 0.90 B q . K g − 1 for T 232 h and from 220.80 ± 10.01 to 260.70 ± 8.24 B q . K g − 1 ; 283.50 ± 8.41 to 290.10 ± 10.50 B q . K g − 1 for K 40 respectively. The presence of C 137 s is found in all measured samples and its average activity for all soil samples was 3.12 ± 0.13 B q . K g − 1 . To assess the radiological hazard, the radiation equivalent activity ( R a e q ), the representative level index ( I γ r ), the external hazard ( H e x ), the internal hazard ( H i n ) and the absorbed dose rate due to three primordial radionuclides for soil samples were calculated. The measured values were compared with the published data in different countries and were found to be safe for the public and the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T08:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.002
  • A review on the status and future trends of radiation processing in Iran

    • Authors: S.R. Rafiee; E. Eftekhari-Zadeh; Y. Gholami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): S.R. Rafiee, E. Eftekhari-Zadeh, Y. Gholami
      A comprehensive review on the status of radiation processing and its future in Iran is presented since 32 years ago up to now to show the development of Iran's irradiation industry. Additionally, annual throughput of treated materials with their types and names are also given and also all of the radiation facilities both in service and under construction as well as the plans and estimations for establishing the new facilities are outlined. Our investigations show that the trend of radiation processing industry in Iran is growing rapidly.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T08:12:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.004
  • An overview of radon concentration in Malaysia

    • Authors: Nisar Ahmad; Ihsan Ullah Khan; Jalil ur Rehman; Tabassum Nasir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Nisar Ahmad, Ihsan Ullah Khan, Jalil ur Rehman, Tabassum Nasir
      It is known that the inhalation and ingestion of radon gas could lead to the primary health risks for lung and stomach cancers. Besides the health hazards of radon gas, it has different geological applications. In this context, numerous studies have been reported all over the world. Different research groups in Malaysia have also conducted and reported numerous studies since several decades. However, these studies are scattered and need to be compiled for future studies in Malaysia. The main emphasis is to overview and compiles these articles that will work as baseline data for the level of radon gas in Malaysia.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.08.001
  • Uranium(VI) recovery from acidic leach liquor by Ambersep 920U SO4 resin:
           Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Cheira; Bahig M. Atia; Mohamed N. Kouraim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mohamed F. Cheira, Bahig M. Atia, Mohamed N. Kouraim
      The kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic characteristics of U(VI) recovery by the strong base anion exchange resin Ambersep 920U SO4 from Gabal Gattar sulfate leach liquor have been determined. Batch sorption experiments are performed to evaluate the optimum conditions at pH2, 200 mg resin dose for 120 min contact time at room temperature. The maximum sorption capacity reaches to 58 mg/g at 298 K. The kinetics data are well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at different uranium concentrations. The experimental results obtained at various temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on the studied resin has followed Langmuir isotherm model. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters (free energy change ΔG, enthalpy change ΔS, entropy change ΔH, activation energy Ea and sticking probability S*) indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous in nature, endothermic, randomness and chemisorptions. Uranium(VI) can be completely desorbed from the loaded resin using 0.5 M HNO3 solution. Finally, the optimized factors have been carried out for uranium(VI) recovery from G. Gattar leach liquor.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.005
  • A solution for 40K interference from K internal to the human body, in an
           underground high sensitivity whole body counter at the Waste Isolation
           Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA

    • Authors: I. Pillalamarri; P. Jagam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): I. Pillalamarri, P. Jagam
      The objective of the present work is to find a solution for the interference arising from 1461 keV photons emitted by 40K in natural K internal to the human body in the detection of 241Am and 210Pb activities at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi). The response of a broad energy Ge (BEGe) reference crystal to 1461 keV photons was simulated using GEANT4 code. Simulations were performed for a point source without and with shielding, as well as for a Bottle Manikin Absorption (BOMAB) phantom in the shielded whole-body counting chamber (WBC). The WBC facility is located underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM, USA. The simulation results were discussed with regards to the interference in detecting the 241Am and 210 Pb at the level of 37 mBq (1 pCi). The specific conclusion is that the interference counts from 40K activity at the natural levels present in the human body in typical clinical settings were found to be greater than the 210Pb and 241Am signal counts from 37 mBq (1 pCi), when a 38.1 mm diameter, 25.4 mm thick BEGe reference crystal was used. Our solution for minimizing the interference to the desired precision at the specified levels was found by sacrificing the broad energy response of the counting system.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T23:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.004
  • Assessment of natural radionuclide distribution in shore sediment samples
           collected from the North Dune beach, Henties Bay, Namibia

    • Authors: Sylvanus A. Onjefu; Simeon H. Taole; Nnenesi A. Kgabi; Charles Grant; Johann Antoine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Sylvanus A. Onjefu, Simeon H. Taole, Nnenesi A. Kgabi, Charles Grant, Johann Antoine
      The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and their radiological hazards are presented in this study for shore sediment samples from the North Dune beach of Henties Bay, Namibia. The activity concentrations were found to range from 25.32 ± 1.24−1 to 232.33 ± 0.62−1 with an average value of 175.59 ± 0.92 −1 for 238U, BDL to 77.99 ± 45−1 with an average value of 40.17 ± 27−1 for 232Th and 222.39 ± 8−1 to 482.16 ± 10 - 1 with an average value of 349.66 ± 8−1 for 40K. In order to assess the radiological hazard of the shore sediment samples, the radiological hazard indices such as absorbed dose rates (ADR), radium equivalent (Req) annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the hazard indices (Hex and Hin), and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated. The values obtained in the present study were compared with world acceptable limits and it was found that the average values of radium equivalent (Req) and external hazard index (Hex) were below the world allowable limits. However, the average values of absorbed dose rates (ADR), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) (outdoor and indoor), internal hazard index (Hin) and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) exceeded the world acceptable limits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.003
  • Dosimetric impact of indoor radon gas on the population from the commune
           of Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    • Authors: G.R. Nonka; T.P.A. Dali; A.A. Koua; H.L.D. Gogon; G.A. Monnehan; K. Djagouri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): G.R. Nonka, T.P.A. Dali, A.A. Koua, H.L.D. Gogon, G.A. Monnehan, K. Djagouri
      Radon gas is the main natural source of exposure of the population to ionizing rays. Because of its impact on the health, this radioactive gas has become a great concern worldwide. In this study, radon concentrations in the air of some dwellings in Yopougon, one of the commune with the highest population rate of the district of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), are reported using Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTD) LR 115 type 2. The concentration values found vary from 26.3 to 173.3 Bq.m−3 with an average of 93.04 Bq.m−3. This mean value is inferior to the world minimum level (100 Bq.m−3). The corresponding annual effective doses obtained vary from 0.66 to 4.37 mSv.y−1. The mean value calculated which is 2.35 mSv.y−1 is higher than the action level (1 mSv.y−1) prescribed by ICRP 103, and also to the limits recommended by the WHO and the International Research on Cancer Center (IRCC). In this view, the Excess lung Cancer Risk (ECR) for the population living in the commune of Yopougon is evaluated. The values of ECR found associated to the average radon concentration are between 46 and 204 according to EPA and UNSCEAR standards.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.001
  • Evaluation of mean glandular dose and assessment of the risk of radiation
           induced carcinogenesis in women following screening mammography in a low
           resource setting

    • Authors: William O. Chijoke; Adenike T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe; Norbert N. Jibiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): William O. Chijoke, Adenike T. Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Norbert N. Jibiri

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T21:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.07.002
  • IFC - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 10, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T20:20:12Z
  • Effect of gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of PVC/ZnO
           polymer nanocomposite

    • Authors: Abdullah Al Naim; Nisrin Alnaim; Sobhy S. Ibrahim; S.M. Metwally
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Abdullah Al Naim, Nisrin Alnaim, Sobhy S. Ibrahim, S.M. Metwally
      Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) based nanocomposite with different weight ratios of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is prepared by using a gel-like technique. The weight-ratio of ZnO nanoparticles, in a range of 2.5–10 wt%, is used to prepare nanocomposites' in the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. The as-prepared samples are exposed to gamma (γ) radiation at different doses in a range of 5–40 kGy. The mechanical properties of irradiated samples are compared to that of unirradiated samples. For unirradiated samples, the elasticity is found to increase with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the plastic region of the stress-strain curve gets slightly affected on increasing the concentration of ZnO. Additionally, the elastic modulus is noticed to drop exponentially with ZnO concentration. For pure PVC, a slight dependence of stress-strain curves on the gamma irradiation doses has also been detected. Further, the gamma irradiation dose results in a detectable decrease of elastic modulus for pure and low weight-ratio ZnO nanoparticles. However, the irradiation dose does not have any effect on the elastic modulus for the 10 wt %, which is the highest weight ratio used in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T19:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.03.004
  • Numerical studies of radiofrequency of the electromagnetic radiation power
           absorption in paediatrics undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging

    • Authors: C. Subaar; J.K. Amoako; A. Owusu; J.J. Fletcher; J. Suurbaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): C. Subaar, J.K. Amoako, A. Owusu, J.J. Fletcher, J. Suurbaar
      Magnetic resonance imaging current operating frequencies are above 100 kHz which is converted to heat through resistive tissue losses during imaging. The imaging is coupled with a concurring increase in temperature in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has seen a rising clinical request during diagnosis and therefore become imperative that its safety issues be assessed. This study modelled Pennes' classical bio-heat equation using Finite Difference Method (FDM) approach and with the help of MATLAB programming language, predicted three dimensional steady state temperature distributions in patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-four paediatric patients' referred for (head) brain magnetic resonance imaging scan at 37 Military Hospital and the Diagnostic Center Limited, Ghana, pre-scan and post-scan temperatures were measured at the right tympanic. The numerically steady state temperature distribution during magnetic resonance imaging shows that there is excessive temperature elevation at the skin surface of the patients. The resulting skin heating during magnetic resonance imaging can reach dangerous level which suggests that the ohmic heating of tissue is greatest at the surface and minimal at the center of the patient's brain. Though the experimental results show that patients brain temperature increase after imaging, all measured temperatures were within acceptable safe levels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.006
  • Kβ/Kα X-ray intensity ratios for some elements in the atomic number
           range 28≤Z≤39 at 16.896 keV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): R. Yılmaz
      The K shell intensity ratios ( K β / K α ) have been experimentally determined for some elements in the atomic number range 28 ≤ Z ≤ 39 by using secondary excitation method. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si (Li) detector with 160 eV resolutions at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with the theoretical and experimental values. In general, the values obtained are in good agreement with the calculated values.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
  • Assessment of patients X-ray doses at three government hospitals in Duhok
           city lacking requirements of effective quality control

    • Authors: Haval Y. Yacoob; Hariwan A. Mohammed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Haval Y. Yacoob, Hariwan A. Mohammed
      Purpose The research presented in this article aimed at evaluating patient doses including entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) in government hospitals that lack the requirements of quality control standards. Materials and methods Three major government hospitals with 409 patients in Duhok were involved in the study. The X-ray diagnostics included five routine radiographic examinations. ESD was determined indirectly by measuring the entrance surface air kerma with a solid state dosimeter. E was calculated from the tissue weighting factor and the equivalent dose. Results and conclusion s: Significant variations between exposure factors recorded in this study and those recommended in the context of quality criteria and standards were shown. The results have also shown that about twenty percent of the patient doses (ESD and E) were equal or below the recommended values of the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). For abdomen, pelvis and skull examinations, the ESD values were slightly above the diagnostic reference levels. For chest and cervical the ESD values were much higher than diagnostic reference levels. These values were more reasonable only in one hospital. High ESD values can be attributed to the slightly higher tube voltages and lower mAs values that were used. The high patient dose values suggest that any adequate change of the exposure parameters that aims at the reduction of dose must be done without compromising the image quality. This study recommends a quick action toward implementing a quality control program and employing special staff of medical physicists in the evaluated hospitals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T08:31:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.005
  • Sonographic measurement of renal size in normal high altitude populations

    • Authors: Mustafa J. Musa; Ahmed Abukonna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences
      Author(s): Mustafa J. Musa, Ahmed Abukonna
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal sonographic measurement of the kidney in people reside at high altitude (2200 m). Length, width and thickness were measured in stratified random group of 125 volunteers with different age and sex. Their age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. Renal volumes were calculated and correlate with age, height, weight, body mass index and sex. Median renal lengths were 10.7 cm on the left side and 9.76 cm on the right side. These measurements were found to be lower than the length in low altitude. Median renal volumes were 106.08 cm on the left side and 94.25 cm on the right side. Renal size decreases with increased age because of parenchyma reduction, but it was increased with increasing body mass index. Renal length correlates with body height. Renal volume was larger in males than in females. The median cortical size was found 1.8 cm on both sides.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T05:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2017.04.004
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