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Showing 1401 - 1205 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Transportmetrica A : Transport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Trends in Applied Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tribology in Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tribology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Tribology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tribology Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Trilogía     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Türkiye Arazi Yönetimi Dergisi     Open Access  
Türkiye Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Türkiye Fotogrametri Dergisi     Open Access  
Türkiye İnsansız Hava Araçları Dergisi     Open Access  
U.Porto Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
UKH Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Ultramicroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Uludağ University Journal of The Faculty of Engineering     Open Access  
Uluslararası Mühendislik ve Teknoloji Araştırmaları Dergisi / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Research     Open Access  
Universal Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Usak University Journal of Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Utilities Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vacuum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Vestnik of Don State Technical University     Open Access  
Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Virtual and Physical Prototyping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Visualization in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Waste and Biomass Valorization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Waste Management Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Waves in Random and Complex Media     Hybrid Journal  
Waves, Wavelets and Fractals - Advanced Analysis     Open Access  
Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Welding in the World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World Electric Vehicle Journal     Open Access  
World Journal of Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
World Pumps     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
World Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Yugra State University Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ZDM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zede Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift fur Energiewirtschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Вісник Приазовського Державного Технічного Університету. Серія: Технічні науки     Open Access  

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Welding in the World
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.533
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0043-2288 - ISSN (Online) 1878-6669
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Thermo-mechanical simulation of overlaid layers made with wire + arc
           additive manufacturing and GMAW-cold metal transfer
    • Abstract: Abstract A thermo-mechanical simulation of the wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is presented in this work. The simulation consists in the deposition of 5 successive layers of 316 L stainless steel on a 316 L base plate. The thermo-mechanical analysis is solved in two dimensions under plane stress assumption. Nonetheless, the metal addition is taking into account in this numerical analysis. An increment of material is added at each time step. This numerical approach allows reducing the computational time. The temperature and residual stress fields are computed at each time step. Two patterns of deposition strategy are also investigated. It is shown that the longitudinal stress varies mainly along the vertical axis. A sample with 5 overlaid layers has been scanned with neutron diffraction technique in order to measure the final residual stresses. Both numerical and measured residual stresses are in good agreement. The Aster finite element software is employed for the numerical analysis.
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
  • Electron beam welding behavior of a 5083-H15 alloy containing Zr and Sc
    • Abstract: Abstract This study discusses the effects of the addition of Sc and Zr on the microstructure, and mechanical and corrosion properties of an electron beam welded 5083-H15 alloy. The results show that the addition of Sc and Zr to a 5083 alloy exerted a remarkable effect on grain refinement resulting in an enhancement of the mechanical properties. Moreover, the addition of Sc and Zr prompted precipitation of Al3 (Sc, Zr) precipitate in the heat-affected zone during the electron beam welding, thereby hindering the movement of dislocations and inhibiting recrystallization, effectively improving the tensile strength, joint efficiency, and hardness of the welded joint. Combined additions of Sc and Zr to a 5083 alloy led to a remarkable enhancement in the resistance to intergranular corrosion at the weld joints as determined via nitric acid mass loss tests for a reduction from 9.72 to 3.61 mg/cm2. The main reason for the improvement in corrosion resistance is the addition of Sc and Zr. Recrystallization at the welded joint was inhibited by the formation of the Al3 (Sc, Zr) phase during the electron beam welding which acted to suppress the formation of the β phase along the grain boundaries in the welded zone.
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
  • Correction to: The impact of production-dependent geometric properties on
           fatigue-relevant stresses in aser-welded corrugated core steel sandwich
    • Abstract: The publication of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Table 8 of Appendix B was not correct; please see the updated table below.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Simulation on Ti-based filler and vacuum brazing for TA15 alloy
    • Abstract: Abstract A model was established for four-element material with HCP structure by EET. The filler of TiZrCuNi was analyzed by the model. It was found that Ni element is beneficial for the strength of the filler but Cu element is beneficial for the ductility of the filler. It showed that controlling the amount of Cu and Ni with the proper distribution of them was important. Compared with the filler Ti-13Zr-22Cu-9Ni wt%, the designed Ti-(10~11)Zr-(10~12)Cu-(9~10)Ni wt% with lowering the amount of Cu and Ni to 19 wt% also has strong strength and good ductility. The TA15 joint by vacuum brazing was conducted with the designed filler metal—Ti-(10~11)Zr-(10~12)Cu-(9~10)Ni wt%. The interface without IMC was achieved and the homogeneous Widmanstätten microstructure was attributed to the high strength of the joints. And all the fracture occurred in the base.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • On the distortion and warping of cantilever beams with hollow section
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with the stress analysis of a cantilever box beam subjected to static or fluctuating torsional moment loading. Such beams may have multiple critical locations from the strength point of view; one interesting detail is the cross section where the loading is imposed. However, such details can be typically designed to possess smooth shapes, resulting in moderate stress concentrations, which mean that fatigue failures can be avoided. However, the distortional deformation of the cross section induces transverse bending stresses, which may be detrimental, particularly in welded box beams. In addition, the fixing location where the beam is typically welded to an end plate may become a critical point. This paper presents an analytical approach for calculating the longitudinal stresses due to the warping of the cross section as well as the distortion-induced transverse and longitudinal stresses in rectangular hollow sections. Finite element analyses (FEAs) are carried out to verify the analytical approach to shed light on the critical points in the end plate details with different degrees of weld penetration using the effective notch stress (ENS) concept and to suggest design proposals for an efficient structural detailing of diaphragm plates to decrease the warping behavior.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Effect of increased yield strength, R-ratio, and plate thickness on the
           fatigue resistance of high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI)–treated
           steel joints
    • Abstract: Abstract In 2016, the International Institute of Welding (IIW) published a recommendation for high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints. Since the publication of the HFMI recommendations, numerous of studies have been published with a considerable amount of new fatigue test data focusing on various aspects of the improvement; influence of base material yield strength, and loading and thickness effects. Since the data was scarce covering some of the aspects when the recommendation was published, re-evaluating the recommendation with these new test data, presented within this work, will further validate and extend the recommendations. The analysis reveals that the recommended improvement of fatigue classes based on the base material yield strength is well applicable. In addition, the reduction of fatigue classes for higher R-ratios up to the defined value of R = 0.52 is well considered. Finally, the practicability of the thickness correction factor is also confirmed by leading to a conservative fatigue assessment. The ratio of the statistically evaluated FAT class to the recommended value is shown to be conservative with a value of above one for almost every data set; however, even the ratio is below one in some minor cases, every single test data point in this study is assessed conservatively validating the applicability of the recommendation.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Effect of welding variables on GTAW arc stagnation pressure
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the influence of welding current, electrode-workpiece distance, electrode composition, electrode diameter, electrode tip angle, shielding gas composition, and pulsed current frequency over the arc stagnation pressure of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, arc application tests were carried out over a 1-mm diameter hole on a non-melting water-cooled copper plate. The hole was connected to a differential pressure sensor through an extension tube. As a result, the welding arc pressure was observed to be directly proportional to the square of the welding current and to the tungsten electrode diameter. Moreover, the pressure increases as the electrode-workpiece distance is reduced, and it is inversely proportional to the electrode tip angle, for angles greater than 45°. Also, the electrode composition, the pulsed current frequency, and the gas composition influence the welding arc stagnation pressure.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Residual stresses in thermite welded rails: significance of additional
    • Abstract: Abstract The aluminothermic welding (ATW) process is the most commonly used welding process for welding rails (track) in the field. The large amount of weld metal added in the ATW process may result in a wide uneven surface zone on the rail head, which may, in rare cases, lead to irregularities in wear and plastic deformation due to high dynamic wheel-rail forces as wheels pass. The present paper studies the introduction of additional forging to the ATW process, intended to reduce the width of the zone affected by the heat input, while not creating a more detrimental residual stress field. Simulations using a novel thermo-mechanical FE model of the ATW process show that addition of a forging pressure leads to a somewhat smaller width of the zone affected by heat. This is also found in a metallurgical examination, showing that this zone (weld metal and heat-affected zone) is fully pearlitic. Only marginal differences are found in the residual stress field when additional forging is applied. In both cases, large tensile residual stresses are found in the rail web at the weld. Additional forging may increase the risk of hot cracking due to an increase in plastic strains within the welded area.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Comparison of effect of shot-peening with HFMI treatment or use of LTT
           consumables on fatigue strength of 1300 MPa yield strength steel
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, T-joint samples in a 1300 MPa yield strength steel were produced using conventional or low transformation temperature (LTT) type consumables. The welded samples were either subjected to high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment or to shot-peening. Fatigue testing was performed under fully reversed, constant amplitude bending load. Shot-peening gave a significant increase in fatigue strength for more than around 50,000 cycles. Shot-peened LTT welds had the highest fatigue strength, with conventional welds being shot-peened having slightly lower fatigue strength. HFMI treatment of conventional and LTT welds improved the fatigue strength also, but to a lesser extent, keeping the slope in the SN diagram close to three, while shot-peened samples had a slope of 5–7. Significant differences in compressive residual stress were seen between the different welds, with the most compressive stress found in the shot-peened samples. This was probably one of the main reasons for the improved fatigue life of shot-peened samples.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Detailed investigation of adhesive fillet tubular T-joint of laminated FRP
           composite tube under axial compressive load
    • Abstract: Abstract Composite structures have wide applications in mechanical fields. Such structures consist of several joints, which may run a risk of eventually weakening a structure in case of excessive weight. It is, therefore, necessary to strengthen a structure so as to reduce the chance of failure. The present study was undertaken with a model of tubular T-joint having adhesive fillet. It also focussed on three-dimensional stress analysis on adhesive fillet. The model was made of laminated fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite tubes with adhesive triangular fillet, subjected to axial compressive loading. The modelling and analysis were carried out by using finite element method (FEM) for three different joints with different geometrical parameters. The model was validated by using the available finite element model results. Based on the present finite element model results, the axial stress (σz) at brace-fillet intersection, circumferential stress (σφ) and circumferential-axial stress (τφr) at chord-fillet intersection were found to have greater effect as compared with other stress components. The maximum value of stress component could be noticed in between the brace and the chord joint region, which could eventually cause failures. The effect of adhesive fillet on deflection was studied in details by using ANSYS 18.1, and results showed that deflection of adhesive fillet model could be reduced by 12.36% as compared with non-fillet condition. Based on the present research findings, the presence of adhesive fillet was found to significantly reduce deflection effect as well as improve joint strength and stability of the structure.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Fatigue strength of transverse attachment steel joints with single-sided
           arc weld using low transformation temperature welding consumable
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the applicability of low transformation temperature (LTT) arc welding consumables to improve fatigue strength against weld root failure. Transverse attachment joints formed by single-sided welding, similar to rib-to-deck connections in orthotropic steel bridge decks, were fabricated using an LTT welding consumable and conventional welding consumable. Fatigue tests were performed with out-of-plane bending loads using a vibration-type fatigue testing machine. The test results indicated that higher fatigue strength can be achieved in the joint with an LTT consumable compared with a conventional one. In addition, residual stresses around the weld bead were clarified by X-ray diffraction measurements and finite element analyses. The results revealed that the LTT consumable weld metal can reduce residual stress around the weld and also introduce compressive residual stress to the weld root, which can contribute to improved fatigue strength.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Physical background and simulation of creep in steels
    • Abstract: Abstract The simulative accelerated creep test (ACT) was developed as a response to an overall need of gaining in a short time useful physical data for determining long-term behaviour of materials exposed to operation under stress at elevated temperatures in power generation and chemical processing industries. Additionally, the recently frequent power plant shut-downs due to adding solar/wind power to the net call for creep-fatigue data which standard creep tests cannot provide. In response to these needs, a thermal-mechanical fatigue procedure ACT was designed, taking into account physical phenomena causing microstructure transformation during creep, in particular generation of dislocation substructures, their role in nucleation of voids and cracks, intensification of carbide precipitation and decay of mechanical properties during long-time exposure to elevated temperatures. The actual ACT procedure generates adequate data for calculating true lifetime of the tested creep resisting material for a nominal stress.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Influence of mill scale on weld bead geometry and thermal cycle during GTA
           welding of high-strength steels
    • Abstract: Abstract High-strength steel heavy plates are usually covered with a mill scale after production. Morphology, structure, and chemical composition are determined by several factors, e.g., rolling parameters, cooling rate, quenching method, and alloying elements. As the mill scale might cause pore formation and process instability, it is preferably removed prior to welding. In welding practice, the removal of scale is in many cases insufficient and can lead to welding defects. In this paper, the influence of a scale layer on the weld bead geometry and thermal cycle during GTA welding is analyzed. Several high-strength steels with different chemical compositions and plate thicknesses have been used for bead-on-plate welding. The influence of mill scale on penetration depth and cooling time is analyzed and a connection to the varying fluid flow in the weld pool is drawn.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Microstructure investigation of duplex stainless steel welds using arc
           heat treatment technique
    • Abstract: Abstract A heat treatment technique was applied on standard duplex stainless steel welds in order to investigate the influence of thermal treatments, e.g., multi-pass welding, on the microstructure. By using a stationary arc, a spatial steady-state temperature field ranging from liquidus to room temperature evolves within a single sample and results in a graded microstructure. The arc heat treatment was applied for 10 and 60 min respectively, and the experimental results were compared against thermodynamic calculations. Metallographic investigations revealed the formation of secondary phases within distinct zones. For the 10 min arc heat treated sample, the formation of sigma phase was observed in a temperature range of 730–1000 °C and chi phase was found above 700 °C. For the 60 min sample, sigma phase formed between 675 and 1025 °C, while chi phase formed above 600 °C. In both samples, transformation of chi phase to sigma phase as well as the formation of secondary austenite at 575–1100 °C was observed. Hardness measurements identified brittle regions, which correlated with the regions enriched in sigma phase and decomposition of ferrite. Compared to the initial microstructure, regions with secondary phases showed increased sensitization to local corrosion, when tested according to ASTM A262-Practice A.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Laser transmission welding of absorber-free semi-crystalline polypropylene
           by using a quasi-simultaneous irradiation strategy
    • Abstract: Abstract Unlike other joining techniques, laser transmission welding offers unique advantages such as selective and contactless energy deposition. This enables the fabrication of flexible seam geometries at low mechanical and thermal stresses. However, the use of absorbing additives for the lower joining partner such as carbon black is crucial as most polymers are transparent in the spectral range of typical beam sources (800–1100 nm). A novel approach is the application of beam sources emitting radiation within the polymeric intrinsic absorption bands between 1500 and 2000 nm. This enables absorber-free laser welding of transparent polymers for medical or microfluidic applications such as Lab-on-a-Chip devices. The main drawback on the other hand is the large heat affected zone (HAZ) due to the volume absorption which is extending over the entire cross section. A possible way to overcome this disadvantage is a quasi-simultaneous irradiation strategy. It could be proved in the past that the HAZ of polycarbonate (PC) can be reduced in the vertical direction by up to 30% compared with contour welding. Since the effects of light scattering on the absorber-free quasi-simultaneous irradiation strategy are still unknown, the beam propagation was simulated in polypropylene (PP). Based on the results, a thermal simulation of the welding process was carried out using the finite element method (FEM). The simulation model was then evaluated by comparing the results with experimental trials.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • EBSD analysis of microstructures and mechanical properties of softened
           zones in X60 reeled-pipeline welded joint after cyclic plastic deformation
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microstructural evolution of softened zones after cyclic plastic deformation (CPD) and the effect of CPD on the mechanical properties of X60 reeled-pipeline welded joints. The results showed that the existence of softened zone caused the deformation to be mainly concentrated in this area during CPD process. The minimum hardness of softened zone was 18 HV less than the base metal (BM). As the global strain of the welded joints increased from the initial state without CPD to 5% strain, the kernel average misorientation of inter-critical HAZ related to the geometrically necessary dislocation slightly increased from 0.66° to 0.87°, resulting in a slight rise in hardness. Despite the presence of softened zones in HAZ, the location of tensile fracture was at BM, which was attributed to the combined effect of the work-hardening effect in softened zones, the groove type, and the constraining effect of the welded joint, regardless of the CPD strain levels. The decrease in ductility of welded joints was due to the stress concentration caused by dislocation pile-ups during the CPD process and then leading to the early formation of microvoids.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Numerical investigation of CTOD estimation methods for laser welds
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes an estimation method for crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) in laser welds. The theoretical model for CTOD estimation developed by Dugdale and Bilby et al. (DBCS model) was used for laser-welded plates. The yield stress of the laser weld metal and narrow hard zone width affected the CTOD, and the correction of yield stress by using the DBCS model to obtain a suitable CTOD estimation was investigated. To apply the DBCS model to CTOD estimation for laser welds, an equivalent yield stress concept was proposed. The equivalent yield stress was affected by the strength mismatch ratio and hard zone width, because the yield stress of the laser weld metal decreases with the constraint loss caused by the plastic deformation that occurred in the base metal. The predicted CTOD from the value of applied load obtained using the proposed estimation method agrees well with experimental critical CTODs for laser welds of both 780 and 520 MPa class structural steel.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
  • Evaluation of tandem controlled short-circuit GMAW for improved deposition
    • Abstract: Abstract Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) technology provides opportunities for innovative product design and potential for a more cost effective to additive manufacture than alternative processes. The economics of the technology rely on the deposition rate of the process used. In the past the controlled short-circuit process, known as cold metal transfer (CMT), has been demonstrated to be an effective means of achieving reasonable deposition rates and component integrity. A development of CMT, known as CMT Twin, uses a two-wire, tandem arrangement to further improve deposition rate. The current investigation evaluated the comparative benefits and performance of CMT and CMT Twin for the additive manufacture of Nickel Aluminium Bronze (NAB) components for naval applications. The results indicate the potential for increased productivity for large components but the need to control inter-run cooling. The feasibility of in situ alloying with two wires of similar composition has also been demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
  • Investigation of fatigue and fracture characteristics for low-temperature
           metals considering the effects of various alloying components
    • Abstract: Abstract In the past few decades, low-temperature metals such as SUS304L, nickel alloys, and high-manganese steels have been widely used for liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks to satisfy the structural integrity requirements at low temperature. Many researchers have conducted studies to characterize the fatigue and fracture performance of low-temperature metals. However, only a limited number of studies have considered the effects of various welding processes and consumables. This study addresses the fatigue and fracture performance of low-temperature metals while considering the effects of various alloying components. Moreover, we investigated the fatigue and fracture performance of various welding processes. Flux core arc welding (FCAW) was employed for both SUS304L and 9 wt.% nickel alloy steel, while tungsten inert gas (TIG) and shield metal arc welding (SMAW) were applied to SUS304L and 9 wt.% nickel alloy steel, respectively. Submerged arc welding (SAW) was employed for high-manganese steel. Fatigue and fracture tests were conducted according to ASTM E647 and BS 7448. The mechanical properties of the weld metals were systematically analyzed. SUS304L with FCAW exhibited excellent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). We also observed the microstructure of weld metals and discuss the mechanisms related to the fatigue and fracture performance in the parent and weld metals.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
  • Effects of residual stress by EB welds on assessment of crack arrest
           temperature (CAT)
    • Abstract: Abstract The concept of brittle crack arrest has recently become an internationally focused issue for container ships. The International Association of Classification Society (IACS) also prescribed the unified requirement (UR) for brittle crack arrest design, and brittle crack arrest design has been internationally authorized. As one of the methods to evaluate brittle crack arrestability, the crack arrest temperature (CAT) concept, by isothermal crack arrest test, has been proposed since the 1990s. The concept has been applied mainly for tank design. However, no standard has been specified to describe the detailed evaluation procedure. This means that only limited organizations can evaluate CAT and it is considered to be a problem when arrest evaluation is mandated as an international standard. In the background of such circumstances, Japanese research groups including the Japan Welding Engineering Society (JWES) and Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK) started the standardization for CAT test in 2016. In the research programme, various aspects of control factors have been investigated based on the test results from many experiments and numerical calculations. The CAT test shall include the embrittled zone to initiate a brittle crack. Either electron beam (EB) line remelting or a local temperature gradient (LTG) can be applied to the embrittled zone. Even if we focus on EB welding only, welding defects in the embrittled zone can be an influencing factor. In this report, we investigate the effects of residual stress by EB welding on the crack driving force, which is quantified as the K value using a 3D finite element method (FEM). As a result, we confirmed the existence of the residual stress which cannot be ignored that is formed on the surface of the EB-welded portion; however, the influence of that on the K value is considered to be small if the CAT test conditions can sufficiently secure the arrest crack length. This result shows that the driving force at the arrested point in the CAT test can be simply evaluated by the LEFM formula without consideration of the residual stress of the EB weld for embrittlement.
      PubDate: 2020-06-03
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