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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2269 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Hardware Materials in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell: A Review
    • Authors: Ling Chen; Chao-Yi Yuh
      Pages: 289 - 295
      Abstract: The high-temperature molten carbonate fuel cell is an ultra-clean and highly efficient power generator. It is operated at ~550–650 °C, which is considered optimal in facilitating fast fuel cell reaction kinetics, utilizing waste heat efficiently, and allowing use of commercial construction materials. Commercial MW-size (mega watt) power plants of FuelCell Energy products have already been deployed worldwide. Metallic hardware materials are extensively utilized and may experience high-temperature reducing and oxidizing atmospheres in the presence of molten alkali carbonate electrolyte. Material selections are founded on many decades of focused research and development and field experience. Results to date show that the baseline stack module materials meet 5-year life goal and BOP (balance of plant) construction materials meet 20-year life goal. Material durability is well understood, and solutions are available to further extend the durability. This paper will review hardware materials experience and development approaches that would further reduce cost and extend life.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0547-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Performance of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys in Concentrated Acids
    • Authors: Ajit Mishra
      Pages: 306 - 318
      Abstract: Nickel alloys containing optimum amounts of chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) are widely used in the chemical processing industries due to their tolerance to both oxidizing and reducing conditions. Unlike stainless steel (SS), Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys exhibit remarkably high uniform corrosion resistance in major concentrated acids, like hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). A higher uniform corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, compared to other alloys, in concentrated acids can be attributed to the formation of protective oxide film of Mo and W in reducing acids, and Cr oxide film in oxidizing solutions. The localized corrosion resistance of Ni–Cr–Mo (W) alloys, containing high amount Cr as well as Mo (or Mo + W), is also significantly higher than that of other commercially available alloys. The present study investigates the role of alloying elements, in nickel alloys, to uniform corrosion resistance in concentrated acids (HCl, HCl + oxidizing impurities and H2SO4) and localized corrosion performance in chloride-rich environments using ASTM G-48 test methodology. The corrosion tests were conducted on various alloys, and the results were analyzed using weight loss technique and electrochemical techniques, in conjunction with surface characterization tools.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0538-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Corrosion Behavior and Hardness of Al– M ( M : Mo, Si, Ti, Cr)
    • Authors: J. Esquivel; R. K. Gupta
      Pages: 333 - 341
      Abstract: The corrosion behavior of Al–5 at.% Cr, Al–5 at.% Si, Al–5 at.% Mo and Al–5 at.% Ti produced via casting and Al–5 at.% Cr produced by high-energy ball milling and subsequent consolidation by cold pressing was studied using potentiodynamic polarization and surface analysis following constant immersion tests. Alloys were characterized using a scanning electron microscope coupled with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Hardness, a representative of the strength, was also measured. The alloys produced by casting contained coarse intermetallics and therefore exhibited poor corrosion resistance. Al–5 at.% Cr alloy produced by high-energy ball milling exhibited a significantly improved corrosion resistance and hardness, which was attributed to the grain refinement to nanoscale and extended solid solubility of Cr in Al. The study indicated that the high-energy ball milling was capable of producing Al alloys with improved corrosion behavior and hardness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0550-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Galvanic Effect Between Galvanized Steel and Carbon Fiber Reinforced
    • Authors: Chi Zhang; Da-Jiang Zheng; Guang-Ling Song
      Pages: 342 - 351
      Abstract: The galvanic corrosion behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) GM-CFRP and Tepex-CFRP in contact with a Zn-coated DP590 steel in solution containing 0.9 wt% NaCl + 0.1 wt% CaCl2 + 0.075 wt% NaHCO3 was investigated. The results showed that the GM-CFRP/steel couple was initially more resistant to galvanic corrosion, but its galvanic corrosion activity gradually became higher than the Tepex-CFRP/steel couple. The different galvanic behaviors of these two couples were discussed based on the electrochemical performance of GM-CFRP, Tepex-CFRP and DP590 coupons in the testing solution.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0539-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Threshold Chloride Concentration for Passivity Breakdown of
           Mg–Zn–Gd–Nd–Zr Alloy (EV31A) in Basic Solution
    • Authors: Jakraphan Ninlachart; Krishnan S. Raja
      Pages: 352 - 366
      Abstract: Mg–Zn–Gd–Nd–Zr alloy (EV31A) is a heat-treatable magnesium (Mg) cast alloy that can be used up to 200 °C for automobile and aerospace applications. This alloy has excellent mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength: 280 MPa at room temperature, and ~230 MPa at 200 °C) and improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted on this alloy under different heat treatment conditions in 0.1 M NaOH solution with the addition of 0–1000 ppm of chloride. The alloy showed excellent passivity in the 0.1 M NaOH solution. The passive potential range typically extended to more than 1.2 VAg/AgCl. The transpassive potential was observed to be dependent on heat treatment condition of the alloy. More than 80 ppm of chloride was required to induce passivity breakdown in any heat treatment condition. Peak aging at 200 °C for 16 h imparted better resistance for localized corrosion than other heat-treated conditions. The alloy in the as-received condition showed the highest passivation kinetics due to its smaller grain size that possibly increased the diffusion of reactive elements to form protective oxide. The passive film of the EV31A alloy showed n-type semiconductivity with a charge carrier density of ~2 × 1021 cm−3 with no chloride addition. The charge carrier density increased with chloride addition in the electrolyte which could be correlated with the susceptibility to localized corrosion.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0548-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Threshold Chloride Concentrations and Passivity Breakdown of Rebar Steel
           in Real Concrete Solution at Different pH Conditions with the Addition of
    • Authors: Robert Blair; Batric Pesic; Jacob Kline; Ian Ehrsam; Krishnan Raja
      Pages: 376 - 389
      Abstract: Addition of glycerol as a viscosity modifier in concrete is proposed to decrease the permeability of corrosion-inducing ions such as chloride and sulfate. In addition to controlling the permeability of concrete, glycerol could perform as an inhibitor of corrosion of rebar steel. Cyclic polarization studies were carried out on metallographically polished rebar steel specimens in actual concrete solutions at two different pH conditions (pH 12.5 and 9.0) and different chloride concentrations. The threshold concentration of chloride for passivity breakdown at pH 12.5 was greater than 50 × 10−3 mol/L in the absence of glycerol addition. The threshold increased to 81 × 10−3 mol/L upon addition of 2 wt% glycerol. The threshold chloride concentration for passivity breakdown in pH 9.0 cement solution was 0.2 × 10−3 mol/L without glycerol addition. No beneficial effect of glycerol was observed in the low pH condition. However, glycerol enhanced the passivation kinetics of the rebar steel in saturated cement solution, but did not affect the electronic properties of the passive layer. The passive layers exhibited n-type semiconductivity with a charge carrier density in the range of 2–7.5 × 1020 cm−3. Polarization of the specimens to potentials is higher than oxygen evolution potential, resulted in transition top-type semiconducting character due to an accumulation of holes. This phenomenon could be related to the passivity breakdown.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0532-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Corrosion Resistance of Transmission Pipeline Steel Coated with Five Types
           of Enamels
    • Authors: Liang Fan; Fujian Tang; Signo T. Reis; Genda Chen; Michael L. Koenigstein
      Pages: 390 - 398
      Abstract: Corrosion is one of the main causes of incidents occurred in hazardous liquid and gas transmission pipelines in the USA, resulting in a loss of over $12 billion per year. In this study, the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel coated with five types of enamel was investigated in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution with linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. Steel coupons were cut from API 5L X65 pipeline steel and coated with five types of enamels using the wet process. The microstructures of all enamel samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that all enamel coatings increase the corrosion resistance of pipeline steel, and pure enamel PE2, mixed enamels ME1 and ME2 have higher corrosion resistances than pure enamel PE1 and mixed enamel ME3.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0554-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors Influencing the Direct Electrochemical Reduction of Nb 2 O 5
           Pellets to Nb Metal in Molten Chloride Salts
    • Authors: D. Sri Maha Vishnu; N. Sanil; K. S. Mohandas; K. Nagarajan
      Pages: 218 - 227
      Abstract: Powder compacted and sintered Nb2O5 pellets were cathodically polarised against graphite anode in calcium chloride melt at 1173 K to study the influence of various factors on the electrochemical reduction of the oxide. The parameters were; duration and temperature of electrolysis, open porosity of pellets, nature of anode, mode of electrolysis and configuration of the oxide cathode. The experiments were also conducted in KCl, KCl-25 mol% CaCl2 and NaCl melts to understand the effect of melt composition on the electroreduction. Different Ca–Nb–O and Nb–O intermediates were found in the pellets electrolysed for different durations of time in CaCl2 melt which eventually reduced to Nb. The current efficiency of the process decreased with increasing duration of electrolysis. Decrease in electrolysis temperature from 1173 to 1073 K led to the decrease in the rate of reduction of the oxide pellets. Pellets with high open porosity reduced faster. Carbon contamination of the melt was relatively less when pyrolytic graphite was used as anode. Of all the melts studied, the reduction was found to be better in calcium chloride melt, that too when alumina crucible was used as container of the melt.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0503-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2017)
  • Influences of Cooling Rate After Solution Treatment on Microstructural
           Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Superalloy Rene 80
    • Authors: Shuang Gao; Jie-Shan Hou; Kai-Xin Dong; Lan-Zhang Zhou
      Pages: 261 - 271
      Abstract: Influences of the cooling rate after solution treatment on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Rene 80 nickel-based superalloy were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and mechanical test. Results showed that the high cooling rate decreased the size of secondary γ′ particles in the supersaturated matrix, but led to a high coarsening rate of γ′ particles during subsequent aging treatment. Despite various coarsening rates, the size and morphology of γ′ particles in the final microstructures of all samples were close due to the long enough holding time to an equilibrium state. During the aging of 870 °C/2 h, primary MC started to decompose with the carbide reaction: MC + γ → M 6C or M 23C6 + γ′. And a number of observations showed that the coarsening of γ′ particles on grain boundaries resulted in the depletion of γ′ during aging treatment. The test results indicated that high cooling rate resulted in the presence of quench crack, and the air cooling method following solution treatment was an optimum heat treatment method for Rene 80.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0500-4
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 3 (2017)
  • Tribological Characterization of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Processed
           by Powder Metallurgy
    • Authors: M. Megahed; M. A. Attia; M. Abdelhameed; A. G. El-Shafei
      Abstract: Aluminum (Al)-based aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles hybrid metal matrix composites were processed by powder metallurgy technique, followed by sintering at 500 °C and then hot extrusion. The tribological properties of these composites with different weight fractions of Al2O3 and SiC were investigated; extrusion process significantly reduces the extent of porosity after cold compaction and sintering processes. Hybridization of the two reinforcements improved hardness and wear resistance of the composites. With an increase in SiC content, hardness was increased and consequently the wear resistance was enhanced also. Scanning electron microscopy observations show a better interfacial bond between matrix and reinforcements and a better distribution of the reinforcements.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0568-5
  • Effect of Al 4 C 3 Particle Size Distribution in a Al–2.5C Master Alloy
           on the Refining Efficiency of the AZ31 Alloy
    • Authors: Yu-Zhen Zhao; Xiao-Teng Liu; Hai Hao
      Abstract: The Al–2.5C master alloy is prepared to investigate the effect of the Al4C3 particle size distribution on the refining efficiency of the AZ31 alloy. The results indicate that the Al4C3 particles are potent nucleation substrates for primary α-Mg grains. With 1.0 wt% master alloy addition, the grain size is reduced from 204 to 70 μm. The grain refining efficiency of the Al4C3 particles on the AZ31 alloy is calculated to be 0.04%–0.75%. Such low refining efficiency is mainly attributed to the size distribution of the Al4C3 particles. The particle sizes are in the range from 0.18 to 7.08 μm, and their distribution is well fitted by a log-normal function. The optimum particle size range for significant grain refinement is proposed to be around 5.0–7.08 μm in the present conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0556-9
  • Experiment and Simulation for Rolling of Diamond–Cu Composites
    • Authors: Yun-Long Wang; Kai-Kun Wang; Yu-Wei Wang; Guang-Chen Li
      Abstract: We demonstrate an innovative preparation approach of diamond/Cu composites by powder-in-tube technique and rolling. A small copper tube was loaded with Ti- and Cu-coated diamond particles, and then the diamond particles were combined with Cu matrix by composite rolling. The morphology and element distribution of the interface between diamond and Cu were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer. Finite element method (FEM) simulation was used to analyze the rolling process associated with experiment by DEFORM-3D. The final experimental results showed that homogeneous distribution of diamond particles could be observed in the center layer of the composites. According to the contrast experiments, the sample, whose diamond particle size is 0.12–0.15 mm and thickness of pre-rolling is 1.2 mm, showed relatively complete morphologies and homogeneous distribution. Experimental results indicated a poor efficacy of excessive rolling reduction. The thermal conductivity of the composites is about 453 W (m K)−1 by theoretical calculation. For FEM simulation, rolling strain and temperature field of the composites were simulated by DEFORM-3D. Simulation results were interpreted, and numerical results verified the reliability of the model. The simulation predicted that the local area of large strain, indicative of the strain along the thickness direction, could be intensified by adding diamond particles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0561-z
  • Effect of Surface Polishing Treatment on the Fatigue Performance of
           Shot-Peened Ti–6Al–4V Alloy
    • Authors: Z. G. Liu; T. I. Wong; W. Huang; N. Sridhar; S. J. Wang
      Abstract: In this study, shot peening is applied to the titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V, and the surface treatment effect on fatigue life of shot-peened specimens under high cycle loading is investigated. The induced residual stress is measured by using the orbital hole-drilling method. Surface profilometer and optical microscopy are employed to characterize the surface roughness and morphology. The deformed microstructure layers of the shot-peened specimens are investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Experiments reveal that the fatigue life of Ti–6Al–4V is improved by the shot peening process, and the surface pre-peening polishing. The combination of pre- and post-peening polishing treatments further improves fatigue life of Ti–6Al–4V specimens. The present work provides useful guidelines for developing more efficient shot peening strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0555-x
  • Interpenetrated Magnesium–Tricalcium Phosphate Composite: Manufacture,
           Characterization and In Vitro Degradation Test
    • Authors: Mariano Casas-Luna; Serhii Tkachenko; Miroslava Horynová; Lenka Klakurková; Pavel Gejdos; Sebastian Diaz-de-la-Torre; Ladislav Celko; Jozef Kaiser; Edgar B. Montufar
      Abstract: Magnesium and calcium phosphates composites are promising biomaterials to create biodegradable load-bearing implants for bone regeneration. The present investigation is focused on the design of an interpenetrated magnesium–tricalcium phosphate (Mg–TCP) composite and its evaluation under immersion test. In the study, TCP porous preforms were fabricated by robocasting to have a prefect control of porosity and pore size and later infiltrated with pure commercial Mg through current-assisted metal infiltration (CAMI) technique. The microstructure, composition, distribution of phases and degradation of the composite under physiological simulated conditions were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, elemental chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that robocast TCP preforms were full infiltrated by magnesium through CAMI, even small pores below 2 μm have been filled with Mg, giving to the composite a good interpenetration. The degradation rate of the Mg–TCP composite displays lower value compared to the one of pure Mg during the first 24 h of immersion test.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0560-0
  • Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties of Nickel-Based Superalloys Processed by
           High-Gradient Directional Solidification
    • Authors: Z. D. Fan; D. Wang; C. Liu; G. Zhang; J. Shen; L. H. Lou; J. Zhang
      Abstract: The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of DD10 (single-crystal) and DZ53 (columnar-grained) superalloys solidified by liquid–metal cooling (LMC) and high-rate solidification (HRS) processes have been systematically investigated. It was found that the LCF life of DZ53 solidified by LMC was obviously better than that solidified by HRS. In contrast, for DD10, LMC showed no remarkable influences on LCF properties at high temperature and only improved LCF properties at intermediate temperature. Microstructure examination showed that the cracks generally initiated at micropores in the subsurface at intermediate temperature. However, the cracks occurred on the surface due to oxidation, or persistent slip bands near script-MC at high temperature. Therefore, the benefits of LMC technique can be attributed to both of the reduced casting defects which significantly affect the LCF properties at intermediate temperature and the improved microstructural homogeneity which was strongly correlated to the LCF properties of alloys at high temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0563-x
  • Corrosion Study of Base Material and Welds of a
           Ni–Cr–Mo–W Alloy
    • Authors: Ajit Mishra
      Abstract: Alloys containing chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo), as the major alloying elements, are widely used in various industries where the material experiences corrosive environments. Chromium (Cr), when added in an optimum amount, forms a Cr2O3 passive film which protects the underlying metal in aggressive solutions. Molybdenum (Mo) forms its oxides in the low pH solutions, thus, enhances the uniform corrosion resistance of an alloy in reducing acids and assists in inhibition to localized corrosion. Minor alloying elements, like tungsten (W) and copper (Cu), also improve the overall corrosion resistance of an alloy in specific solutions. In the present study, corrosion resistance behavior of commercial iron-based alloys (316L SS, 254 SMO and 20Cb3) and nickel-based alloys (Monel 400, Alloy 625 and C-276) was studied in the acidic solutions. While the corrosion behavior of wrought alloys has been widely studied, there is little to no information on the corrosion performance of their welds, typically being the weak regions for corrosion initiation and propagation. Therefore, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the uniform and localized corrosion performance of base metal, simulated heat-affected zone and all-weld-metal samples of a Ni–Cr–Mo–W alloy, C-276. The study was conducted in aggressive acidic solutions. Various corrosion and surface analytical techniques were utilized to analyze the results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0559-6
  • Tailoring Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Cold Deformed
           TiZrAlV Alloy by Thermal Treatment
    • Authors: Guo-Sheng Zhang; De-Feng Guo; Ming Li; Jing-Tao Li; Qian Zhang; Xiao-Hong Li; Xiang-Yi Zhang
      Abstract: Microstructure evolution and tribological properties of a new TiZrAlV alloy have been investigated in the present study. Various microstructures, i.e., equiaxed grain structure, dual-phase lamella structure, and heterogeneous lamellar structure, have been successfully prepared, and the effect of the microstructure on tribological properties was explored by means of cold severe plastic deformation combined with subsequent recrystallization annealing and aging treatments. The special heterogeneous lamellar-structured alloy exhibits a high ultimate tensile strength (~1545 MPa), reasonable ductility (~7.9%), and excellent wear resistance as compared with the equiaxed grain-structured and dual-phase lamella-structured alloy. The present study demonstrates an alternative route for enhancing the tribological properties of alloys with heterogeneous lamellar structure.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0558-7
  • Localized Corrosion Characteristics of Nickel Alloys: A Review
    • Authors: Helmuth Sarmiento Klapper; Natalia S. Zadorozne; Raul B. Rebak
      Abstract: There are a great variety of commercial nickel alloys mainly because nickel is able to dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while maintaining a single ductile austenitic phase. Nickel alloys are generally designed for and used in highly aggressive environments, for example, those where stainless steels may experience pitting corrosion or environmentally assisted cracking. While nickel alloys are generally resistant to pitting corrosion in chloride-containing environments, they may be prone to crevice corrosion attack. Addition of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten increases the localized corrosion resistance of nickel alloys. This review on the resistance to localized corrosion of nickel alloys includes specific environments such as those present in oil and gas upstream operations, in the chemical process industry and in seawater service.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0553-z
  • Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Highly Alkaline Environment
    • Authors: Somi Doja; Lukas Bichler; Simon Fan
      Abstract: Industrial components made with a magnesium–aluminum alloy AZ31 are often used in diverse engineering applications where component weight, strength, and durability are critical. Similarly as other Mg alloys, however, the AZ31 is susceptible to corrosion in alkaline environments. In this work, corrosion of commercial grade AZ31 alloy plate was examined in potassium hydroxide (KOH) using immersion and potentiodynamic studies. The results suggest that the concentration of Al and Mn in the alloy may govern the kinetics of micro-galvanic corrosion and the initiation of corrosion pits. Further, trace amounts of Ni in the AZ31 alloy were seen to enable formation of Ni(OH)2 surface layer, which may have further accelerated alloy corrosion due to its cracking and void coalescence. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 was studied with reference to Pourbaix diagrams.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0549-8
  • Long-term Field Corrosion Monitoring in Supporting Structures of China
           Xiamen Xiangan Subsea Tunnel
    • Authors: Chao-Yang Gong; Xiao-Yong He; Yong-Wei Li; Si-Zhe He; Xuan Cheng; Liu-Ying Huang; Ying Zhang; Jiu-Bin Chen; Shao-Hui Xu; Jian-Bin Zhang; Chao Zeng
      Abstract: Xiamen Xiangan Subsea Tunnel is the first undersea tunnel constructed in China. It has become the major undersea pathway connecting Xiamen Island and Xiangan District since its operation in 2010. The total length is 6.05 km with the undersea length of 4.2 km. In an effort to onsite-monitor reinforcement corrosion in concrete structures, the commercially available CorroWatch multiprobe sensors and ERE-20 reference electrodes were pre-embedded in the selected locations and positions of supporting structures during the tunnel constructions. The real-time data have been collected annually by onsite measurements for 6 years. In this paper, the feasibility of the onsite corrosion monitoring system and suitability of the measured parameters including corrosion current, potential and temperature are discussed based on the preliminary results. The measured typical cyclic-type variations in corrosion current and temperature with monitoring time might be related to the seasonal changes during the annual routine measurements. The widely scattered corrosion potentials that are fluctuated complicatedly reflected localized differences in the vicinity of rebar and concrete. These findings, along with the progressively ongoing research, will provide valuable information in structural durability for service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures exposed to marine environments.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0552-0
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