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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Effect of Al 4 C 3 Particle Size Distribution in a Al–2.5C Master Alloy
           on the Refining Efficiency of the AZ31 Alloy
    • Authors: Yu-Zhen Zhao; Xiao-Teng Liu; Hai Hao
      Pages: 505 - 512
      Abstract: The Al–2.5C master alloy is prepared to investigate the effect of the Al4C3 particle size distribution on the refining efficiency of the AZ31 alloy. The results indicate that the Al4C3 particles are potent nucleation substrates for primary α-Mg grains. With 1.0 wt% master alloy addition, the grain size is reduced from 204 to 70 μm. The grain refining efficiency of the Al4C3 particles on the AZ31 alloy is calculated to be 0.04%–0.75%. Such low refining efficiency is mainly attributed to the size distribution of the Al4C3 particles. The particle sizes are in the range from 0.18 to 7.08 μm, and their distribution is well fitted by a log-normal function. The optimum particle size range for significant grain refinement is proposed to be around 5.0–7.08 μm in the present conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0556-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Shape Memory Effect Induced by Stress-induced α ′ Martensite in a
           Metastable Fe–Cr–Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
    • Authors: Yong-Ning Wang; Jie Chen; Hua-Bei Peng; Yu-Hua Wen
      Pages: 513 - 520
      Abstract: It is not clear whether a shape memory effect (SME) can be realized by stress-induced α′ martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels although the stress-induced ε martensite in these materials can result in the SME. To clarify this problem, the relationship between the shape recovery and the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite in a 304 stainless steel was investigated. The results show that the stress-induced α′ martensite can result in the SME when heating above 773 K. After deformation at 77 K and step heating or directly holding at 1073 K, two-stage shape recoveries below 440 K and above 773 K can be obtained due to the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε martensite and α′ martensite, respectively. After deformation at room temperature, the α′ martensite produced can result in the SME only when directly holding at 1073 K. The intrusion of more dislocations before the formation of the α′ martensite at room temperature than at 77 K is the reason that the α′martensite induced at room temperature cannot result in the SME in the case of slow heating. The recovered strains resulting from the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite are proportional to the amounts of their reverse transformation, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0571-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Magnetic Phase Separation in Diluted Magnetic System: Zn 1−x Fe x O
    • Authors: Archita Mondal; Sanchari Sarkar; Neepamala Giri; Souvik Chatterjee; Ruma Ray
      Pages: 521 - 527
      Abstract: Single-phase diluted magnetic systems Zn1−x Fe x O have been prepared by chemical route. Structural and spectroscopic (UV–Vis and Mössbauer) studies indicate the incorporation of Fe3+ ions in the lattice sites. The UV–Vis results point to a systematic increase in the band gap with increasing Fe doping. The room temperature magnetization of Zn1−x Fe x O indicates a paramagnetic behavior which is in accordance with the Mössbauer results, illustrating quadrupolar doublet. At low temperature, the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization shows a cusp and this temperature increases systematically with decreasing particle size. The weak exchange bias effect manifested by a M–H loop shift is observed for x = 0.03. This shift is accompanied by the enhancement of coercivity. The dc magnetization results suggest the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions for low doping of Fe, i.e., for x = 0.03.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0530-6
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Dendritic Growth, Eutectic Features and Their Effects on Hardness of a
           Ternary Sn–Zn–Cu Solder Alloy
    • Authors: Bismarck Luiz Silva; Rodrigo Valenzuela Reyes; Amauri Garcia; José Eduardo Spinelli
      Pages: 528 - 540
      Abstract: The present investigation is based on the results of a directionally solidified (DS) Sn–9 wt%Zn–2 wt%Cu alloy, including primary/secondary/tertiary dendrite arm spacings of the Sn-rich matrix, the morphologies of the eutectic mixture and the corresponding interphase spacing, the nature and proportion of the Cu–Zn intermetallic compound (IMC). The main purpose is to establish interrelations of these microstructure features with experimental solidification thermal parameters, such as cooling rates and growth rates (v), macrosegregation and hardness. Such interrelations are interesting for both industry and academy since they represent a tool permitting the preprogramming of final properties based on the design of the microstructure. In the case of Sn–Zn–Cu alloys, hardly anything is known about the combined effects of the length scale of the microstructure and fraction and distribution of the primary IMC on hardness. The alloy microstructure is composed of a β-Sn dendritic region, surrounded by a eutectic mixture of α-Zn and β-Sn phases and the γ-Cu5Zn8 IMC. The eutectic interphase spacing varies in the range 1.2–3.6 μm, with the α-Zn phase having a globular morphology for v > 0.5 mm/s and a needle-like morphology for v < 0.3 mm/s. A modified Hall–Petch-type experimental expression relating hardness to the interphase spacing is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0572-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Double Oxide Film Defects on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast
           C95800 Alloy
    • Authors: Xin-Yi Zhao; Zhi-Liang Ning; Fu-Yang Cao; Shan-Guang Liu; Yong-Jiang Huang; Jing-Shun Liu; Jian-Fei Sun
      Pages: 541 - 549
      Abstract: The morphology of double oxide film defects and their influence on the tensile mechanical properties of a commercial Cu–Al (C95800) alloy were investigated in this study. Plane castings were produced with two types of pouring systems, and their tensile properties were measured and then analyzed by means of Weibull statistics method. The fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. A large amount of double oxide film defects were observed on the tensile fractured specimens of the top-filled plane castings, and their chemical composition is identified to be Al2O3. Weibull statistics analyses showed that the double oxide film defects significantly reduce mechanical properties of the castings investigated. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength is more obviously deteriorated by double oxide film defects than elongation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0526-7
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Surface Modification of Titanium by Producing Ti/TiN Surface Composite
           Layers via FSP
    • Authors: Ali Shamsipur; Seyed-Farshid Kashani-Bozorg; Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki
      Pages: 550 - 557
      Abstract: In this paper, we report the use of blowing nitrogen gas for the successful fabrication of a composite layer composed of Ti/TiN on a substrate of commercially pure titanium (cp-2) using the friction stir processing technique. The prepared composite layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The maximum microhardness of the Ti/TiN composite reached 1024 HV, which is 6.4 times higher than that of the titanium substrate. The results of wear test indicated that the Ti/TiN composite layer possesses excellent abrasive and adhesive wear resistance because of the formation of the TiN and its high hardness.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0529-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • In Vitro Biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblast-like Cells on Arg-Gly-Asp
           Acid Peptides Immobilized Graphite-like Carbon Coating on Carbon/Carbon
           Composites
    • Authors: Sheng Cao; He-Jun Li; Ke-Zhi Li; Jin-Hua Lu; Lei-Lei Zhang
      Pages: 558 - 566
      Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were deposited with graphite-like carbon (GLC) coating, and then, Arg-Gly-Asp acid (RGD) peptides were successfully immobilized onto the functionalized GLC coating. GLC coating was utilized to prevent carbon particles releasing and create a uniform surface condition for C/C composites. RGD peptides were utilized to improve biocompatibility of GLC coating. Surface chemical characterizations of functionalized GLC coating were detected by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Optical morphology of GLC coatings was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro biological performance was determined using samples seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and cultured for 1 week. Surface characterizations and morphological analysis indicated that C/C composites were covered by a dense and uniform GLC coating. Contact angle of GLC coating was reduced to 27.2° when it was functionalized by H2O2 oxidation at 40 °C for 1 h. In vitro cytological test showed that the RGD peptides immobilized GLC coating had a significant improvement in biocompatibility. It was suggested that RGD peptides provided GLC coating with a bioactive surface to improve cell adhesion and proliferation on C/C composites.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0542-2
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Solid-/Liquid-Phase Flow
           Behavior of 9Cr18 Steel During Thixoforging
    • Authors: Yong-Jin Wang; Ren-Bo Song; Ya-Ping Li; Qiang Chen
      Pages: 567 - 575
      Abstract: A thixoforging process of the 9Cr18 steel was conducted in a designed setup, and a kind of multi-diameter component was fabricated. The effects of the forming temperature and the strain rate on the solid-/liquid-phase flow behavior were discussed. The results showed that functional gradient properties of the 9Cr18 steel could be obtained after thixoforging. Changes of microstructure along radial direction could be obtained. Solid austenite was retained after fast cooling, and the liquid film enriched in alloying elements was extruded outside to form a dendrite skin layer. As temperature increased, more molten liquid formed during thixoforging. A heterogeneous flow phenomenon was activated as free liquid channels were formed. The macro-separation of solid and liquid phases was critical for the formation of functional gradient properties. Above 1300 °C, full dendrite skin layer could be formed. The strain rate affected the thixotropic property via influencing the deformation time of thixoforging. In the presence of lower strain rates, there was more time for the flow of liquid metal, which was the key to the extension of the thixotropic stage. High temperatures and low strain rates contributed to the formation of full skin layer for the designed specimen. The average thickness of skin layer for current specimen could be over 1000 μm when thixoforged at 1340 °C and under a strain rate of 0.02 s−1.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0544-0
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Tribological Behaviors of Ni 3 Al Intermetallics with MoO 3 Multilayer
           Ribbon Crystal Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering
    • Authors: Wenzheng Zhai; Xiaoliang Shi; Kang Yang; Yuchun Huang; Liping Zhou; Wenlong Lu
      Pages: 576 - 584
      Abstract: This study reports that small amounts of MoO3 multilayer ribbon crystal (MoO3 MLRC) in Ni3Al intermetallics showed the decreased friction coefficients and improved wear resistance at different contact loads. Specifically, the friction coefficients (0.32–0.34) and wear rates [(2–4) × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1] are significantly reduced for Ni3Al at 2–8 N. A possible explanation for the friction and wear reduction is that MoO3 MLRC as a multilayer material shears easily in the tribo-layer during the sliding contact, and provides low friction. In addition, this MoO3 MLRC with excellent bending strength is found to dissipate shear stress and suppress severe plastic deformation under a cyclic stress, thus drastically improving wear resistance of Ni3Al.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0531-5
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Corrosion Behavior of a Low-Carbon Steel in Simulated Marine Splash Zone
    • Authors: Huan-Huan Wang; Min Du
      Pages: 585 - 593
      Abstract: Experiments were designed to simulate the corrosion of a low-carbon steel exposed to a marine splash zone. The composition and morphology of the rust were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion resistance of the rust films was demonstrated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The wettability of the steel surface was calculated from the data concerning the wetting degree and the conductivity. The results showed that, in the initial stage, the products of the outer rust layer were mainly made up of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, while the main component of the inner rust layer was magnetite. With an increase in the corrosion time, the inner rust layer continuously turned into the outer rust layer. In addition, both rust layers became dense, thus playing a protective role with respect to matrix. The existence of the rust layer significantly prolonged the residence time of the seawater on the sample surface, a result that tends to improve the cathodic protection effect for steel structures exposed to marine splash zones.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0535-1
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Inhibition of Zinc Corrosion by Fucoidan in Natural Sea water
    • Authors: Cui Wang; Jie Zhang; Xiao-Lin Chen; Bin Xiang; Ji-Zhou Duan; Bao-Rong Hou
      Pages: 594 - 600
      Abstract: Research on corrosion behaviour of zinc in natural sea water without and with fucoidan was carried out by potentiodynamic polarisation test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results revealed that fucoidan serves as a good inhibitor for zinc in sea water. Polarisation curves suggested that corrosion potential values shifted to the positive ones after adding inhibitor and fucoidan retards anodic reaction more. Thus, fucoidan can be acted as anodic inhibitor. EIS results showed two phenomena including a charge transfer and an adsorption film. The corrosion inhibition of fucoidan was further confirmed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm was found the appropriate adsorption model.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0524-9
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Multiferroic Consequence of Porous (BiFeO 3 ) x –(BiCrO 3 ) 1−x
           Composite Thin Films by Novel Sol–Gel Method
    • Authors: William Raja Victor; Marikani Arumugam; Thiruramanathan Pandirengan; Madhavan Durairaj; Raghavendra Reddy Varimalla
      Abstract: In this work, we have presented a spin-coating method to produce thin films started with pure BiCrO3 (BCO) and ended up with BiFeO3 (BFO) by increasing x values in the (BiFeO3) x –(BiCrO3)1−x composites. All the produced thin films have been crystallized at the annealing temperatures of 400 °C for 0.5 h. The XRD and EDAX spectrums give insight that the two crystal phases related to BCO and BFO stayed together within the thin film matrices. SEM analysis showed that the prepared composite had macroporous morphology with interconnected pores and its width (size) decreased with increasing x values. The strong correlations are observed among the microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic properties and Fe concentration. Among all composites, the composition of 0.75 shows an attractive magnetization, polarization, switching and improved dielectric behaviors at room temperature. Significant increase in the multiferroic characteristics of 0.75 composition is due to arise of lower leakage current by causing reduction in oxygen vacancy density, and enhancement of super-exchange magnetic interaction between Fe3+ and Cr3+ at BFO/BCO interface layers. Our result shows that the thin layer on Pt (111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate possesses simultaneously improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties which make an inaccessible potential application for nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0593-4
       
  • Influence of Deformation Degree and Cooling Rate on Microstructure and
           Phase Transformation Temperature of B1500HS Steel
    • Authors: Hui-Ping Li; Rui Jiang; Lian-Fang He; Hui Yang; Cheng Wang; Chun-Zhi Zhang
      Abstract: To study the effects of the deformation degree and cooling rate on the microstructure and phase transformation temperature for the B1500HS steel, the samples were heated at 900 °C for 5 min, compressed by 10, 20, 30 and 40% at the strain rate of 0.1 s−1, and then cooled down at the rates of 50, 40, 25, 20 and 15 °C/s by the thermo-mechanical simulator, respectively. The start and finish temperatures of the phase transformation were determined by the tangent method, and the volume fraction of the phase transformation was ascertained by the level principle according to the dilatometric curves. The volume fraction of the retained austenite was determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the volume fraction of the bainite rises with an increase in the deformation degree as the cooling rate is lower than the critical rate. At the same cooling rate, the phase transformation temperature rises with an increase in the deformation degree, and the sizes of both the martensite and bainite phases reduce due to the austenite grain refinement induced by the deformation. The volume fraction of the retained austenite reduces as the deformation degree increases. The critical cooling rate of the un-deformed samples is approximately 25 °C/s and the critical cooling rate rises as the deformation degree increases.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0594-3
       
  • Microstructure and Tensile Properties of a Nb–Mo Microalloyed 6.5Mn
           
    • Authors: Ming-Hui Cai; Hong-Shou Huang; Hai-Jun Pan; Sheng-Hui Sun; Hua Ding; Peter Hodgson
      Abstract: The transformation behavior, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties were compared in a cold-rolled Nb–Mo microalloyed 6.5Mn alloy after intercritical annealing (IA) and quenching and partitioning (Q & P), respectively. The thermodynamic calculation and theoretical analysis were used to determine the optimal heat treatment parameters. The Q & P samples exhibited relatively higher strength with relatively low ductility, mainly due to the hard martensite matrix, which resulted in continuous yielding behavior upon loading, whereas the IA samples showed the significantly improved ductility, which benefited from the more sufficient transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effects and the softer ultrafine ferrite matrix. The dependence of yield point elongation (YPE) of IA samples on grain size demonstrated that the YPE value was in the reverse proportional relationship to the average grain size, which agreed well with theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0597-0
       
  • Formation Mechanism of Lamellar M 23 C 6 Carbide in a Cobalt-Base
           Superalloy During Thermal Exposure at 1000 °C
    • Authors: Wei-Min Gui; Hong-Yu Zhang; Hai-Bo Long; Tao Jin; Xiao-Feng Sun; Qi Zheng
      Abstract: The precipitation of the lamellar-shaped M 23C6 carbide within the dendritic matrix of a cobalt-base superalloy during thermal exposure at 1000 °C has been investigated. Such a precipitation is not commonly observed in cobalt-base superalloys. It is found that M 23C6 particles nucleate preferentially at stacking faults (SFs) in the dendritic matrix and grow along the SFs to develop a lamellar character. Additionally, a Cr depletion zone is observed in the vicinity of the lamellar M 23C6 carbide, which strongly supports the presence of Suzuki segregation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0596-1
       
  • Effects of Titanium and Silicon on the Swelling Behavior of 15–15Ti
           Steels by Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation
    • Authors: Ai-Bing Du; Wei Feng; Hai-Liang Ma; Tian Liang; Da-Qing Yuan; Ping Fan; Qiao-Li Zhang; Chen Huang
      Abstract: The swelling behavior of 20% cold-worked 15–15Ti steels with (0.23–0.40) wt% titanium and (0.42–0.81) wt% silicon content after heavy-ion beam irradiation has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that 15–15Ti steel with higher titanium content displays lower swelling. As silicon content increases, the cavity size and the swelling of the 15–15Ti steels decrease obviously. Titanium and silicon may play important roles in suppressing the cavity nucleation and growth in 15–15Ti steel.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0581-8
       
  • Influence Factors of Aluminum–Slag Interfacial Reaction Under
           Electric Field
    • Authors: Xin-Yu Lv; An-Ping Dong; Jun Wang; Da Shu; Bao-De Sun
      Abstract: The interfacial reaction between aluminum melt and molten slag under an electric field plays a significant role in aluminum electro-slag refining. Here we studied this interfacial reaction within 680 and 820 °C under an electric field between 0 and 9 V. The evolution of aluminum composition was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The dominant factor during the interfacial reaction was identified through orthogonal experiments, in which the slag-to-aluminum mass ratio, initial silicon concentration, electric voltage, reaction time, and temperature were selected as the influence factors. The greatest influence factor on the interfacial reaction was found to be the reaction time. Also, single-factor experiments revealed that the reaction kinetic processes largely obeyed an irreversible kinetic model, and the silicon removal efficiency was enhanced by increasing the voltage and slag/metal ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0574-7
       
  • Effect of Solution Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical
           Properties of Sand-Cast Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.5Zr Alloy
    • Authors: Jing-Li Li; Na Zhang; Xiao-Xuan Wang; Di Wu; Rong-Shi Chen
      Abstract: Sand-cast Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was solution-treated at 500–565 °C in the time range of 0.5–30 h in air or vacuum to investigate its microstructure evolution and mechanical properties. The results showed that solution treatment temperature had a significant influence on the dissolving rate of eutectic phase and grain growth. Taken both of them into consideration, 510–520 °C was considered to be the optimum solution treatment temperature range for this alloy. It should be noted that the trace (0.4–0.9 vol%) and insoluble cuboid-shaped phase precipitated during solution treatment was identified to be YH2, of which the hydrogen was thought to come from both the melting and solution heating process. In addition, the 3D morphology and dissolving process of Mg24(Gd,Y)5 eutectic phases in the as-cast alloy were also discussed via in-situ observation under X-ray tomography.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0591-6
       
  • Solubility and Anisotropic Migration Behaviors of Helium in bcc Iron Under
           Strain
    • Authors: Yue Yu; Ben Xu; Hao Chen; Zhi-Gang Yang; Chi Zhang
      Abstract: The different solution and migration behaviors of tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial helium in bcc iron have been investigated by using first principles calculations. We showed that the tetrahedral site has less charge transfer and less redistribution of the density of states but stronger bonding and a lower solution energy. This is due to the coupling between the symmetrical facts of the two interstitial atoms and the 3d orbitals of Fe atoms. The solution energies of both sites are not significantly influenced by applied normal strains of 2% and 4%. In contrast, the migration barriers have the reverse trends for different migration directions under strain, which can be explained by an anisotropic elastic energy change and charge transfer. The lower migration energy along certain directions under strain can facilitate the segregation of helium and the formation of helium bubbles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0590-7
       
  • Quantitative Phase Field Simulation of α Particle Dissolution in
           Ti–6Al–4V Alloys Below β Transus Temperature
    • Authors: Mei Yang; Gang Wang; Tao Liu; Wen-Juan Zhao; Dong-Sheng Xu
      Abstract: A quantitative phase field method of multi-component diffusion-controlled phase transformations coupled with the Kim–Kim–Suzuki model was applied to study the effect of initial particle size distribution (PSD) in 3D and space distribution in 2D on dissolution of α particles in Ti–6Al–4V alloy below β transus temperature in real time and length scale. The thermodynamic and mobility data were obtained from Thermo-Calc and DICTRA softwares, respectively. The results show that the volume fractions of α particles decay with time as: \( f = f_{\text{eq}} + (f_{0} - f_{\text{eq}} )\exp ( - Kt^{n} ) \) for four cases of PSD. The sequence of dissolution kinetics from fast to slow is: uniform PSD, normal PSD, lognormal PSD and bimodal PSD. The space distribution is found to be a major factor affecting the dissolution kinetics and the microstructures. When the distance of the particles is less than critical value, the dissolution rates reduce with the decrease in distance. The Al and V concentration fields around the particles appear more obvious soft impingement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0562-y
       
 
 
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