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 Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.576 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 7      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• Fabrication of a Gradient Nano-/Micro-structured Surface Layer on an
Al–Si Casting Alloy by Means of Ultrasonic–Electropulsing Coupling
Rolling Process
• Authors: Xiao-Pei Li; Song-Zhu Kure-Chu; Toru Ogasawara; Hitoshi Yashiro; Hai-Bo Wang; Zi-Zhen Xu; Xiao-Hui Li; Guo-Lin Song; Guo-Yi Tang
Pages: 1258 - 1264
Abstract: By using a novel surface modification technique named ultrasonic–electropulsing coupling rolling (UECR) process on an Al–Si casting alloy rod, the surface of material was smoothened significantly. Meanwhile, a strengthened layer with a gradient change in hardness was obtained in the outer surface, corresponding to a homogeneous gradient nano-/micro-structure. The thickness of nanometer-thick laminated structures was at least 40 μm, which was much thicker than conventional ultrasonic rolling process. During UECR, the formation of the well-defined nanocrystalline structure was attributed to the high strain rate and simultaneous annealing process realized by ultrasonic impact and electropulsing treatment.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0736-2
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Enhanced Surface Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Evolution of
Commercial Pure Titanium Under Electropulsing-Assisted Ultrasonic Surface
Rolling Process
• Authors: Yong-Da Ye; Xiao-Pei Li; Zhi-Yan Sun; Hai-Bo Wang; Guo-Yi Tang
Pages: 1272 - 1280
Abstract: The effects of electropulsing-assisted ultrasonic surface rolling process on surface mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of commercial pure titanium were investigated. It was found that the surface mechanical properties were significantly enhanced compared to traditional ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP), leading to smaller surface roughness and smoother morphology with fewer cracks and defects. Moreover, surface strengthened layer was remarkably enhanced with deeper severe plastic deformation layer and higher surface hardness. Remarkable enhancements of surface mechanical properties may be related to the gradient refined microstructure, the enhanced severe plastic deformation layer and the accelerated formation of sub-boundaries and twins induced by coupling effects of USRP and electropulsing. The primary intrinsic reasons for these improvements may be attributed to the thermal and athermal effects caused by electropulsing treatment, which would accelerate dislocation mobility and atom diffusion.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0738-0
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Hot Tensile Behaviors and Microstructure Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium
Alloy Under Electropulsing
• Authors: Dong-Wei Ao; Xing-Rong Chu; Shu-Xia Lin; Yang Yang; Jun Gao
Pages: 1287 - 1296
Abstract: The effect of electropulsing on the mechanical behaviors and microstructures of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was investigated by an uniaxial tensile test. Compared to the value measured in cold tensile test, the alloy exhibits lower ultimate tensile strength when the tensile deformation is assisted by electropulsing. The tensile elongation is found to vary non-monotonically with increasing root mean square (RMS) current density. Though decreasing at first, the tensile elongation increases with current density once the value exceeds 8.1 A/mm2. Through applying current with RMS current density of 12.7 A/mm2, the tensile elongation at strain rate 0.001 s−1 can be improved by 94.1%. In addition, it is observed that more remarkable electroplastic effect is induced by the higher peak current density under similar thermal effect. Microstructure analysis reveals that the low plasticity at 8.1 A/mm2 is attributed to the micro-void easily formation near the tips of acicular β phases. The enhanced ductility at higher current densities, on the other hand, is attributed to the dynamic recrystallization.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0735-3
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Mathematical modeling of nanodispersed hardening of FCC materials
• Authors: Oleg Matvienko; Olga Daneyko; Tatyana Kovalevskaya
Pages: 1297 - 1304
Abstract: The plastic deformation of the pipe made of Cu-based alloy hardened by incoherent nanoparticles and subjected to the uniform internal pressure was investigated. The limits of elastic and plastic resistance are determined. The insignificant excess in the limit of the elastic resistance enables the plastic deformation in the most part of the pipe wall. The densities of shear-forming dislocations and prismatic dislocation loops are higher in alloys strengthened with coarse particles than in alloys strengthened with fine particles. At small distances between the strengthening particles, this effect is the most pronounced.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0754-0
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Features of Electroplastic Effect in Alloys with Martensite Transformation
Pages: 1305 - 1310
Abstract: Influence of different electric current modes (pulse and direct) on occurrence of the electroplastic effect under uniaxial tension in the coarse-grained alloys with martensite transformations is investigated. The materials are shape memory Ti49.3Ni50.7 alloy and metastable austenite transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. The paper contains experimental results of current impact on the “stress–strain” curves of the material. It has been taken an experimental measurement of the sample temperature during the test. It is shown that the shape of a stress–strain curves and type of the serrate plastic flow, connected with the martensitic transformation and electroplastic effect, depend on the current modes. Impact of pulse current and direct current suppresses shape memory and TRIP effect.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0747-z
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Structural Optimization of Electromagnetic Swirling Flow in Nozzle of Slab
Continuous Casting
• Authors: Xiao-Wei Zhu; De-Wei Li; Chun-Lei Wu; Katsukiyo Marukawa; Qiang Wang
Pages: 1317 - 1326
Abstract: During the slab continuous casting process, the flow field of molten steel in the mold plays a decisive role in the quality of the slab. In this paper, electromagnetic swirling flow in nozzle technology is proposed to control the flow field in mold. This technology can drive molten steel to rotate inside the submerged entry nozzle by electromagnetic force, thereby controlling the flow field. This research shows that it can reduce the impact of molten steel on the bottom of nozzle and partly reduce the negative pressure at the upper part of nozzle outlet which is even eliminated by optimizing the structure and angle of nozzle. The area of heat flux of the mold wall becomes larger, and the crest value of heat flux gets lower than that without swirling in nozzle and any nozzle optimization. The meniscus fluctuates smoothly, and the flow velocity at the top surface is within a reasonable range. The temperature field distribution in the mold is uniform which was beneficial to the growth of equiaxed crystal and decreased element segregation.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0808-3
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Intermetallic Evolution of Al–Si-Coated Hot Stamping Steel During
Modified Electrically Assisted Rapid Heating
• Authors: Kieu-Anh Dinh; Sung-Tae Hong; Tien Viet Luu; Moon-Jo Kim; Heung Nam Han
Pages: 1327 - 1333
Abstract: Modified electrically assisted (EA) rapid heating of Al–Si-coated hot stamping steel is suggested, and the intermetallic evolution in the coating during heating is experimentally investigated. In the modified EA rapid heating, a continuous electric current for a suitable duration is applied to a specimen to heat it to a temperature slightly below the melting temperature of the coating. The temperature of the specimen is then kept constant for a specified dwell time. The result of the microstructural analysis shows that the modified EA rapid heating could effectively increase the thickness of the intermetallic layer between the coating and steel substrate much faster than conventional furnace heating and induction heating. The effectiveness of EA rapid heating may be due to the athermal effect of the electric current on the mobility of atoms, in addition to the well-known resistance heating effect. EA rapid heating also provides a technical advantage in that partial austenization can be easily achieved by properly placing the electrodes, as demonstrated in the present study.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0740-6
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Improving the Solidified Structure by Optimization of Coil Configuration
in Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation
• Authors: Jing Zhao; Ji-Hao Yu; Ke Han; Hong-Gang Zhong; Ren-Xing Li; Qi-Jie Zhai
Pages: 1334 - 1344
Abstract: Using both numerical and experimental methods, we studied the effect of coil configuration of pulsed magneto-oscillation (PMO) on distribution of electromagnetic field, flow field and solidification structure with the same pulse current parameters in Al ingots. We designed and constructed three types of coils: surface pulsed magneto-oscillation, hot-top pulsed magneto-oscillation (HPMO) and combined pulsed magneto-oscillation (CPMO). PMO treatment refined the solidification structure in all the ingots. The configuration of the PMO, however, introduced differences in magnetic field intensity, electromagnetic force, Joule heat, flow field, equiaxed grain zone, grain size and growth direction of columnar grains. The largest equiaxed grain zone was found in CPMO treated ingot, and the smallest grain size was found in both HPMO and CPMO treated ingots. Numerical simulation indicated that difference in electromagnetic field and flow field resulted in differences in solidification structure. HPMO is more advantageous over others for large ingot production.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0799-0
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Influence of Joint EMSFN and M-EMS on Fluid Flow in the Mold During
Continuous Casting
• Authors: Oleksandr Tretiak; Qiang Wang; De-Wei Li; Xiao-Wei Zhu; Chun-Lei Wu; Ming He
Pages: 1345 - 1355
Abstract: Homogenization of physical properties and the chemical composition through the control of liquid metal flow is essential during the continuous casting production of billets. This work was aimed at obtaining improved finished products via continuous casting that implements two magnetic fields. These fields were realized via two electromagnetic stirring processes implemented in a single process: one in the nozzle and one in the mold. The qualitative effects of applying double electromagnetic stirring (EMS) were verified through numerical simulation of 178 mm × 178 mm square billets exposed to double electromagnetic fields during the continuous casting process. The accuracy of the numerical calculations was verified via physical experiments. In addition, the final simulation results were compared with the intermediate results, to determine the true effects of different EMS on the metal flow in the mold. The results revealed that casting using EMS with different directions of magnetic field in the mold and the nozzle has the best effect on the distribution of the fluid flow and minimal influence on the stability of the meniscus and yields the minimum metal-jet penetration into the mold.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0800-y
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Stages and Fracture Mechanisms of Lamellar Pearlite of 100-m-Long
Differentially Hardened Rails Under Long-Term Operation Conditions
• Authors: A. A. Yuriev; V. E. Gromov; V. A. Grishunin; Yu. F. Ivanov; R. S. Qin; A. P. Semin
Pages: 1356 - 1360
Abstract: Using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, the carbide phase evolution in surface layers of the differentially quenched rails is studied after the passed tonnage of 691.8 million tons at the depth up to 10 mm along the central axis and fillet of rail head. The action of two mutual supplement mechanisms of steel carbide phase transformation in surface layers at rail operation is established: (1) cutting mechanism of cementite particles with the following departure in the volume of ferrite grains or plates (in pearlite structure); (2) cutting mechanism and following dissolution of cementite particles, transfer of carbon atoms on dislocations (in Cottrell atmospheres and dislocation cores), transfer of carbon atoms by moving dislocations into ferrite grains volume (or plates) with the following repeated formation of nanosized cementite particles. The first mechanism is accompanied by the change in linear sizes and morphology of carbide particles. Cementite element composition change is not essential. Carbide structure change can take place during the second mechanism.
PubDate: 2018-12-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0810-9
Issue No: Vol. 31, No. 12 (2018)

• Effect of δ Phase on Microstructure and Hardness of Heat-Affected Zone in
TIG-Welded GH4169 Superalloy
• Authors: Tian-Fu Wang; Xin-Jie Di; Cheng-Ning Li; Jia-Mei Wang; Dong-Po Wang
Abstract: The GH4169 superalloy with different content of δ-Ni3Nb phase was welded by tungsten inert gas welding. A detailed study of microstructure and hardness of heat-affected zone (HAZ) was performed in both as-welded and aged state. The results show that the precipitation of δ phase, especially the intergranular δ phase, can lead to the enrichment of Nb and Mo elements, which promote the formation of γ/Laves eutectic constituent at grain boundaries in HAZ. In as-welded state, the hardness decreases first and then increases (exhibiting a “V” shape) with distance away from fusion line in HAZ, which is governed by grain size. After aging treatment, however, the γ″ phase plays a key role in hardness and leads to the “Λ” shape profiles of hardness in HAZ.
PubDate: 2018-12-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0861-y

• Corrosion of New Zirconium Claddings in 500 °C/10.3 MPa Steam: Effects
of Alloying and Metallography
• Authors: Jing-Jing Liao; Zhong-Bo Yang; Shao-Yu Qiu; Qian Peng; Zheng-Cao Li; Ming-Sheng Zhou; Hong Liu
Abstract: With the aim of improving corrosion resistance of rod cladding for in-service and accident conditions, six new zirconium alloys (named N1–N6) have been designed. The contents of Sn and Nb were optimized for better behavior at high-temperature pressurized water, and Fe, Cr, V, Cu or Mo elements were added to the alloys to adjust the corrosion behavior. The current work focused on the rapid corrosion behavior in 500 °C/10.3 MPa steam for up to 1960 h, aiming to test the corrosion resistance at high temperature. The structure of matrix and properties of second-phase particles (SPPs) were characterized to find the main differences among these alloys. All the six alloys exhibited better corrosion resistance than N36, and N1 was shown to have the best performance. A careful analysis of the corrosion kinetics curves revealed that Cr was beneficial for severe condition. Elements Fe, Cr, V, Cu or Mo aggregated into SPPs with different concentrations and structures. This was demonstrated to be the main reason for different corrosion resistance. Due to good processing control, all alloys had a uniform structure and a uniform distribution of SPPs. As for N4, N6 and N36, the existing of large-size SPPs (450 nm) might be a contributing factor of the relatively poor corrosion resistance.
PubDate: 2018-12-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0857-7

• Effect of Deep Sea Pressures on the Corrosion Behavior of X65 Steel in the
Artificial Seawater
• Authors: Qiu-Shi Li; Shun-Zhong Luo; Xu-Teng Xing; Jing Yuan; Xin Liu; Ji-Hui Wang; Wen-Bin Hu
Abstract: The corrosion behaviors of X65 steel in the artificial seawater at different hydrostatic pressures are investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and weight loss measurements. The corroded morphologies and the corrosion products are also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman analysis. The results show that the corrosion current increases as the hydrostatic pressure increases. The charge transfer resistance decreases as the hydrostatic pressure increases. The corrosion products are mainly composed of γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4 at the atmospheric pressure, while the main components are γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4, and γ-Fe2O3 at the high pressure. The hydrostatic pressure accelerates the corrosion of X65 steel due to its effect on the chemical and physical properties of corrosion products, including the promoted reduction of γ-FeOOH and the wider and deeper cracks on the corrosion products layer.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0856-8

• Mechanical Relaxation of a Ti 36.2 Zr 30.3 Cu 8.3 Fe 4 Be 21.2 Bulk
Metallic Glass: Experiments and Theoretical Analysis
• Authors: J. C. Qiao; Y. H. Chen; G. J. Lyu; K. K. Song; J. M. Pelletier; Y. Yao
Abstract: The dynamic mechanical relaxation behavior of Ti36.2Zr30.3Cu8.3Fe4Be21.2 bulk metallic glass with good glass-forming ability was investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. The mechanical relaxation behavior was analyzed in the framework of quasi-point defects model. The experimental results demonstrate that the atomic mobility of the metallic glass is closely associated with the correlation factor χ. The physical aging below the glass transition temperature Tg shows a non-Debye relaxation behavior, which could be well described by stretched Kohlrausch exponential equation. The Kohlrausch exponent $$\beta_{\text{aging}}$$ reflects the dynamic heterogeneities of the metallic glass. Both concentration of “defects” and atomic mobility decrease caused by the in situ successive heating during the mechanical spectroscopy experiments.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0860-z

• Synergistic Effect of NaCl and SO 2 on the Initial Atmospheric Corrosion
of Zinc Under Wet–Dry Cyclic Conditions
• Authors: Qi Yin; Zhen-Yao Wang; Miao-Ran Liu; Chen Pan
Abstract: The synergistic effect of NaCl and SO2 on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been studied at equivalent total but different ratios of molar deposition rate under wet–dry cyclic conditions. The results show that the corrosion rates, corrosion morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products are strongly influenced by the molar deposition rate ratio of NaCl and SO2 (NaCl/SO2). The corrosivity of NaCl and SO2 toward zinc increases in order of SO2 < 1:3 < 3:1 < NaCl < 1:1. The corrosion morphology is patchy corrosion for Group 1:1, while it is pocking corrosion for the other four experimental groups. The corrosion product containing sulfur and chlorine detected on zinc is Gordaite (NaZn4SO4(OH)6Cl·6H2O), which has quite porous structure and was supposed to cause the patchy corrosion tendency of zinc in Group 1:1. In addition, soluble zinc corrosion products, which can inhibit the atmospheric corrosion process of zinc, were found on zinc samples in Groups 1:3 and SO2 and connected to the lower corrosion rates of zinc in these two groups.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0863-9

• Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg–RE–TM Cast Alloys
Containing Long Period Stacking Ordered Phases: A Review
• Authors: Huan Liu; He Huang; Jia-Peng Sun; Ce Wang; Jing Bai; Ai-Bin Ma; Xian-Hua Chen
Abstract: Casting magnesium alloys hold the greatest share of magnesium application products due to their short processing period, low cost and near net shape forming. Compared with conventional commercial magnesium alloys or other Mg–RE-based alloys, the novel Mg–RE–TM cast alloys with long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases usually possess a higher strength and are promising candidates for aluminum alloy applications. Up to now, two ways: alloying design and casting process control (including subsequent heat treatments), have been predominantly employed to further improve the mechanical properties of these alloys. Alloying with other elements or ceramic particles could alter the solidification pattern of alloys, change the morphology of LPSO phases and refine the microstructures. Different casting techniques (conventional casting, rapidly solidification, directional solidification, etc.) introduce various microstructure characteristics, such as dendritic structure, nanocrystalline, metastable phase, anisotropy. Further heat treatments could activate the transformation of various LPSO structures and precipitation of diverse precipitates. All these evolutions exert great impacts on the mechanical properties of the LPSO-containing alloys. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain a subject of debate. Therefore, this review mainly provides the state of the art of the casting magnesium alloys research and the accompanying challenges and summarizes some topics that merit future investigation for developing high-performance Mg–RE–TM cast alloys.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0862-x

• Correlation Between Crystal Rotation and Redundant Shear Strain in Rolled
Single Crystals: A Crystal Plasticity FE Analysis
• Authors: Hui Wang; Cheng Lu; Kiet Tieu; Yu Liu; Rui Wang; Jintao Li
Abstract: The correlation between crystal rotation and redundant shear strain in rolled single crystals was investigated by using the crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model in this paper. The deformation in aluminium single crystals of four representative orientations (rotated-Cube, Goss, Copper, and Brass) after rolling and plain strain compression was simulated, and the predictions have been validated by the experimental observations. In the rotated-Cube and Goss, the redundant shear strain and crystal rotation were in the same pattern, alternating along the thickness, while the relation between them was not obvious for the Copper and Brass due to their asymmetrical distributions of activated slip systems. The relations between slip system activation, crystal rotation, and shear strain were investigated based on the CPFE model, and the correlation between shear strain and crystal rotation has been built.
PubDate: 2018-12-06
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0859-5

• Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Stress Rupture Properties
of a Ni–Mo–Cr–Fe Base Corrosion-Resistant Superalloy
• Authors: Tao Liu; Mei Yang; Jun-Song Wang; Jia-Sheng Dong; Li Wang; Lang-Hong Lou
Abstract: The influences of heat treatment and test condition on the microstructure and stress rupture properties of a Ni–Mo–Cr–Fe base corrosion-resistant superalloy have been investigated in this paper. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope were employed for the microstructure observation, and X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analyzer, and transmission electron microscope were used for phase determination. It was found that the grain size increased and the volume fractions of initial M6C carbides decreased along with the increase in solution treatment temperature. When tested at 650 °C/320 MPa, the stress rupture lives decreased with the increase in solution treatment temperature, but the stress rupture lives increased slightly at first and then decreased for the samples solution heat treated at 1220 °C when tested at 700 °C/240 MPa. The elongations showed the descendent trends under these two conditions. The stress rupture life and elongation for the aged samples all showed a noticeable improvement at 650 °C/320 MPa, but there was no noticeable improvement at 700 °C/240 MPa. The reasons can be attributed to the grain size, test conditions, and the initial and secondary carbides.
PubDate: 2018-12-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0837-y

• Influence of Island Scanning Strategy on Microstructures and Mechanical
Properties of Direct Laser-Deposited Ti–6Al–4V Structures
• Authors: Xiao Wang; Fei Lv; Li-Da Shen; Hui-Xin Liang; De-Qiao Xie; Zong-Jun Tian
Abstract: To investigate the influence of island scanning on the microstructures and mechanical properties of direct laser-deposited Ti–6Al–4V structures, two samples are prepared using island scanning and orthogonal successive scanning, respectively. The microstructures, relative density, and mechanical properties of the samples prepared using these two scanning strategies are compared. Each sample exhibits columnar β-grain morphology and basket-weave microstructure characterization. The grains of the sample prepared using island scanning are significantly finer than that prepared by orthogonal successive scanning due to faster cooling during deposition. However, the relative density of the sample prepared using island scanning was slightly smaller due to the concentration of lack-of-fusion pores at the overlap zone of the island. Tensile testing at room temperature indicates that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the sample prepared using island scanning is enhanced due to finer grains, while the ductility of the sample is weakened due to defects.
PubDate: 2018-12-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0858-6

• Electropulsing-Induced Microstructural Changes and Their Effects on
Electrical Conductivity of Thin Films of an Al-doped ZnO
• Authors: Y. H. Zhu; C. M. Luk
Abstract: Electropulsing-induced phase decompositions and microstructural changes in AZO-5 thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall effect measurement and photoluminescence (PL) measurement techniques. It was found that the electropulsing induced phase decomposition started with spinodal decomposition, which was accompanied by discontinuous precipitation in the AZO-5 thin films. Both circular phase decompositions and the crystal orientation occurred. Inappropriate electropulsing might damage zones, which resulted in tremendous decrease in electrical conductivity. Circular changes in both the peak position and the width of the PL wavelength were observed in the EPT AZO-5 thin films. Formation of zones favored reducing the roughness of the thin film.
PubDate: 2018-10-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-018-0809-2

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