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 Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)   [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1006-7191 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1289    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2329 journals]
• Effect of Al 4 C 3 Particle Size Distribution in a Al–2.5C Master Alloy
on the Refining Efficiency of the AZ31 Alloy
• Authors: Yu-Zhen Zhao; Xiao-Teng Liu; Hai Hao
Pages: 505 - 512
Abstract: The Al–2.5C master alloy is prepared to investigate the effect of the Al4C3 particle size distribution on the refining efficiency of the AZ31 alloy. The results indicate that the Al4C3 particles are potent nucleation substrates for primary α-Mg grains. With 1.0 wt% master alloy addition, the grain size is reduced from 204 to 70 μm. The grain refining efficiency of the Al4C3 particles on the AZ31 alloy is calculated to be 0.04%–0.75%. Such low refining efficiency is mainly attributed to the size distribution of the Al4C3 particles. The particle sizes are in the range from 0.18 to 7.08 μm, and their distribution is well fitted by a log-normal function. The optimum particle size range for significant grain refinement is proposed to be around 5.0–7.08 μm in the present conditions.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0556-9
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Shape Memory Effect Induced by Stress-induced α ′ Martensite in a
Metastable Fe–Cr–Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel
• Authors: Yong-Ning Wang; Jie Chen; Hua-Bei Peng; Yu-Hua Wen
Pages: 513 - 520
Abstract: It is not clear whether a shape memory effect (SME) can be realized by stress-induced α′ martensite in metastable austenitic stainless steels although the stress-induced ε martensite in these materials can result in the SME. To clarify this problem, the relationship between the shape recovery and the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite in a 304 stainless steel was investigated. The results show that the stress-induced α′ martensite can result in the SME when heating above 773 K. After deformation at 77 K and step heating or directly holding at 1073 K, two-stage shape recoveries below 440 K and above 773 K can be obtained due to the reverse transformation of the stress-induced ε martensite and α′ martensite, respectively. After deformation at room temperature, the α′ martensite produced can result in the SME only when directly holding at 1073 K. The intrusion of more dislocations before the formation of the α′ martensite at room temperature than at 77 K is the reason that the α′martensite induced at room temperature cannot result in the SME in the case of slow heating. The recovered strains resulting from the stress-induced ε and α′ martensite are proportional to the amounts of their reverse transformation, respectively.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0571-x
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Magnetic Phase Separation in Diluted Magnetic System: Zn 1−x Fe x O
• Authors: Archita Mondal; Sanchari Sarkar; Neepamala Giri; Souvik Chatterjee; Ruma Ray
Pages: 521 - 527
Abstract: Single-phase diluted magnetic systems Zn1−x Fe x O have been prepared by chemical route. Structural and spectroscopic (UV–Vis and Mössbauer) studies indicate the incorporation of Fe3+ ions in the lattice sites. The UV–Vis results point to a systematic increase in the band gap with increasing Fe doping. The room temperature magnetization of Zn1−x Fe x O indicates a paramagnetic behavior which is in accordance with the Mössbauer results, illustrating quadrupolar doublet. At low temperature, the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization shows a cusp and this temperature increases systematically with decreasing particle size. The weak exchange bias effect manifested by a M–H loop shift is observed for x = 0.03. This shift is accompanied by the enhancement of coercivity. The dc magnetization results suggest the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions for low doping of Fe, i.e., for x = 0.03.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0530-6
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Dendritic Growth, Eutectic Features and Their Effects on Hardness of a
Ternary Sn–Zn–Cu Solder Alloy
• Authors: Bismarck Luiz Silva; Rodrigo Valenzuela Reyes; Amauri Garcia; José Eduardo Spinelli
Pages: 528 - 540
Abstract: The present investigation is based on the results of a directionally solidified (DS) Sn–9 wt%Zn–2 wt%Cu alloy, including primary/secondary/tertiary dendrite arm spacings of the Sn-rich matrix, the morphologies of the eutectic mixture and the corresponding interphase spacing, the nature and proportion of the Cu–Zn intermetallic compound (IMC). The main purpose is to establish interrelations of these microstructure features with experimental solidification thermal parameters, such as cooling rates and growth rates (v), macrosegregation and hardness. Such interrelations are interesting for both industry and academy since they represent a tool permitting the preprogramming of final properties based on the design of the microstructure. In the case of Sn–Zn–Cu alloys, hardly anything is known about the combined effects of the length scale of the microstructure and fraction and distribution of the primary IMC on hardness. The alloy microstructure is composed of a β-Sn dendritic region, surrounded by a eutectic mixture of α-Zn and β-Sn phases and the γ-Cu5Zn8 IMC. The eutectic interphase spacing varies in the range 1.2–3.6 μm, with the α-Zn phase having a globular morphology for v > 0.5 mm/s and a needle-like morphology for v < 0.3 mm/s. A modified Hall–Petch-type experimental expression relating hardness to the interphase spacing is proposed.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0572-9
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Effect of Double Oxide Film Defects on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast
C95800 Alloy
• Authors: Xin-Yi Zhao; Zhi-Liang Ning; Fu-Yang Cao; Shan-Guang Liu; Yong-Jiang Huang; Jing-Shun Liu; Jian-Fei Sun
Pages: 541 - 549
Abstract: The morphology of double oxide film defects and their influence on the tensile mechanical properties of a commercial Cu–Al (C95800) alloy were investigated in this study. Plane castings were produced with two types of pouring systems, and their tensile properties were measured and then analyzed by means of Weibull statistics method. The fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. A large amount of double oxide film defects were observed on the tensile fractured specimens of the top-filled plane castings, and their chemical composition is identified to be Al2O3. Weibull statistics analyses showed that the double oxide film defects significantly reduce mechanical properties of the castings investigated. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength is more obviously deteriorated by double oxide film defects than elongation.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0526-7
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Surface Modification of Titanium by Producing Ti/TiN Surface Composite
Layers via FSP
• Authors: Ali Shamsipur; Seyed-Farshid Kashani-Bozorg; Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki
Pages: 550 - 557
Abstract: In this paper, we report the use of blowing nitrogen gas for the successful fabrication of a composite layer composed of Ti/TiN on a substrate of commercially pure titanium (cp-2) using the friction stir processing technique. The prepared composite layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The maximum microhardness of the Ti/TiN composite reached 1024 HV, which is 6.4 times higher than that of the titanium substrate. The results of wear test indicated that the Ti/TiN composite layer possesses excellent abrasive and adhesive wear resistance because of the formation of the TiN and its high hardness.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0529-z
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• In Vitro Biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblast-like Cells on Arg-Gly-Asp
Acid Peptides Immobilized Graphite-like Carbon Coating on Carbon/Carbon
Composites
• Authors: Sheng Cao; He-Jun Li; Ke-Zhi Li; Jin-Hua Lu; Lei-Lei Zhang
Pages: 558 - 566
Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were deposited with graphite-like carbon (GLC) coating, and then, Arg-Gly-Asp acid (RGD) peptides were successfully immobilized onto the functionalized GLC coating. GLC coating was utilized to prevent carbon particles releasing and create a uniform surface condition for C/C composites. RGD peptides were utilized to improve biocompatibility of GLC coating. Surface chemical characterizations of functionalized GLC coating were detected by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Optical morphology of GLC coatings was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro biological performance was determined using samples seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and cultured for 1 week. Surface characterizations and morphological analysis indicated that C/C composites were covered by a dense and uniform GLC coating. Contact angle of GLC coating was reduced to 27.2° when it was functionalized by H2O2 oxidation at 40 °C for 1 h. In vitro cytological test showed that the RGD peptides immobilized GLC coating had a significant improvement in biocompatibility. It was suggested that RGD peptides provided GLC coating with a bioactive surface to improve cell adhesion and proliferation on C/C composites.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0542-2
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Solid-/Liquid-Phase Flow
Behavior of 9Cr18 Steel During Thixoforging
• Authors: Yong-Jin Wang; Ren-Bo Song; Ya-Ping Li; Qiang Chen
Pages: 567 - 575
Abstract: A thixoforging process of the 9Cr18 steel was conducted in a designed setup, and a kind of multi-diameter component was fabricated. The effects of the forming temperature and the strain rate on the solid-/liquid-phase flow behavior were discussed. The results showed that functional gradient properties of the 9Cr18 steel could be obtained after thixoforging. Changes of microstructure along radial direction could be obtained. Solid austenite was retained after fast cooling, and the liquid film enriched in alloying elements was extruded outside to form a dendrite skin layer. As temperature increased, more molten liquid formed during thixoforging. A heterogeneous flow phenomenon was activated as free liquid channels were formed. The macro-separation of solid and liquid phases was critical for the formation of functional gradient properties. Above 1300 °C, full dendrite skin layer could be formed. The strain rate affected the thixotropic property via influencing the deformation time of thixoforging. In the presence of lower strain rates, there was more time for the flow of liquid metal, which was the key to the extension of the thixotropic stage. High temperatures and low strain rates contributed to the formation of full skin layer for the designed specimen. The average thickness of skin layer for current specimen could be over 1000 μm when thixoforged at 1340 °C and under a strain rate of 0.02 s−1.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0544-0
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Tribological Behaviors of Ni 3 Al Intermetallics with MoO 3 Multilayer
Ribbon Crystal Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering
• Authors: Wenzheng Zhai; Xiaoliang Shi; Kang Yang; Yuchun Huang; Liping Zhou; Wenlong Lu
Pages: 576 - 584
Abstract: This study reports that small amounts of MoO3 multilayer ribbon crystal (MoO3 MLRC) in Ni3Al intermetallics showed the decreased friction coefficients and improved wear resistance at different contact loads. Specifically, the friction coefficients (0.32–0.34) and wear rates [(2–4) × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1] are significantly reduced for Ni3Al at 2–8 N. A possible explanation for the friction and wear reduction is that MoO3 MLRC as a multilayer material shears easily in the tribo-layer during the sliding contact, and provides low friction. In addition, this MoO3 MLRC with excellent bending strength is found to dissipate shear stress and suppress severe plastic deformation under a cyclic stress, thus drastically improving wear resistance of Ni3Al.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0531-5
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Corrosion Behavior of a Low-Carbon Steel in Simulated Marine Splash Zone
• Authors: Huan-Huan Wang; Min Du
Pages: 585 - 593
Abstract: Experiments were designed to simulate the corrosion of a low-carbon steel exposed to a marine splash zone. The composition and morphology of the rust were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion resistance of the rust films was demonstrated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The wettability of the steel surface was calculated from the data concerning the wetting degree and the conductivity. The results showed that, in the initial stage, the products of the outer rust layer were mainly made up of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, while the main component of the inner rust layer was magnetite. With an increase in the corrosion time, the inner rust layer continuously turned into the outer rust layer. In addition, both rust layers became dense, thus playing a protective role with respect to matrix. The existence of the rust layer significantly prolonged the residence time of the seawater on the sample surface, a result that tends to improve the cathodic protection effect for steel structures exposed to marine splash zones.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0535-1
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Inhibition of Zinc Corrosion by Fucoidan in Natural Sea water
• Authors: Cui Wang; Jie Zhang; Xiao-Lin Chen; Bin Xiang; Ji-Zhou Duan; Bao-Rong Hou
Pages: 594 - 600
Abstract: Research on corrosion behaviour of zinc in natural sea water without and with fucoidan was carried out by potentiodynamic polarisation test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results revealed that fucoidan serves as a good inhibitor for zinc in sea water. Polarisation curves suggested that corrosion potential values shifted to the positive ones after adding inhibitor and fucoidan retards anodic reaction more. Thus, fucoidan can be acted as anodic inhibitor. EIS results showed two phenomena including a charge transfer and an adsorption film. The corrosion inhibition of fucoidan was further confirmed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm was found the appropriate adsorption model.
PubDate: 2017-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-016-0524-9
Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 6 (2017)

• Multiferroic Consequence of Porous (BiFeO 3 ) x –(BiCrO 3 ) 1−x
Composite Thin Films by Novel Sol–Gel Method
• Authors: William Raja Victor; Marikani Arumugam; Thiruramanathan Pandirengan; Madhavan Durairaj; Raghavendra Reddy Varimalla
Abstract: In this work, we have presented a spin-coating method to produce thin films started with pure BiCrO3 (BCO) and ended up with BiFeO3 (BFO) by increasing x values in the (BiFeO3) x –(BiCrO3)1−x composites. All the produced thin films have been crystallized at the annealing temperatures of 400 °C for 0.5 h. The XRD and EDAX spectrums give insight that the two crystal phases related to BCO and BFO stayed together within the thin film matrices. SEM analysis showed that the prepared composite had macroporous morphology with interconnected pores and its width (size) decreased with increasing x values. The strong correlations are observed among the microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic properties and Fe concentration. Among all composites, the composition of 0.75 shows an attractive magnetization, polarization, switching and improved dielectric behaviors at room temperature. Significant increase in the multiferroic characteristics of 0.75 composition is due to arise of lower leakage current by causing reduction in oxygen vacancy density, and enhancement of super-exchange magnetic interaction between Fe3+ and Cr3+ at BFO/BCO interface layers. Our result shows that the thin layer on Pt (111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate possesses simultaneously improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties which make an inaccessible potential application for nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.
PubDate: 2017-05-20
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0593-4

• Influence of Deformation Degree and Cooling Rate on Microstructure and
Phase Transformation Temperature of B1500HS Steel
• Authors: Hui-Ping Li; Rui Jiang; Lian-Fang He; Hui Yang; Cheng Wang; Chun-Zhi Zhang
Abstract: To study the effects of the deformation degree and cooling rate on the microstructure and phase transformation temperature for the B1500HS steel, the samples were heated at 900 °C for 5 min, compressed by 10, 20, 30 and 40% at the strain rate of 0.1 s−1, and then cooled down at the rates of 50, 40, 25, 20 and 15 °C/s by the thermo-mechanical simulator, respectively. The start and finish temperatures of the phase transformation were determined by the tangent method, and the volume fraction of the phase transformation was ascertained by the level principle according to the dilatometric curves. The volume fraction of the retained austenite was determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that the volume fraction of the bainite rises with an increase in the deformation degree as the cooling rate is lower than the critical rate. At the same cooling rate, the phase transformation temperature rises with an increase in the deformation degree, and the sizes of both the martensite and bainite phases reduce due to the austenite grain refinement induced by the deformation. The volume fraction of the retained austenite reduces as the deformation degree increases. The critical cooling rate of the un-deformed samples is approximately 25 °C/s and the critical cooling rate rises as the deformation degree increases.
PubDate: 2017-05-19
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0594-3

• Microstructure and Tensile Properties of a Nb–Mo Microalloyed 6.5Mn

• Authors: Ming-Hui Cai; Hong-Shou Huang; Hai-Jun Pan; Sheng-Hui Sun; Hua Ding; Peter Hodgson
Abstract: The transformation behavior, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties were compared in a cold-rolled Nb–Mo microalloyed 6.5Mn alloy after intercritical annealing (IA) and quenching and partitioning (Q & P), respectively. The thermodynamic calculation and theoretical analysis were used to determine the optimal heat treatment parameters. The Q & P samples exhibited relatively higher strength with relatively low ductility, mainly due to the hard martensite matrix, which resulted in continuous yielding behavior upon loading, whereas the IA samples showed the significantly improved ductility, which benefited from the more sufficient transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effects and the softer ultrafine ferrite matrix. The dependence of yield point elongation (YPE) of IA samples on grain size demonstrated that the YPE value was in the reverse proportional relationship to the average grain size, which agreed well with theoretical analysis.
PubDate: 2017-05-19
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0597-0

• Formation Mechanism of Lamellar M 23 C 6 Carbide in a Cobalt-Base
Superalloy During Thermal Exposure at 1000 °C
• Authors: Wei-Min Gui; Hong-Yu Zhang; Hai-Bo Long; Tao Jin; Xiao-Feng Sun; Qi Zheng
Abstract: The precipitation of the lamellar-shaped M 23C6 carbide within the dendritic matrix of a cobalt-base superalloy during thermal exposure at 1000 °C has been investigated. Such a precipitation is not commonly observed in cobalt-base superalloys. It is found that M 23C6 particles nucleate preferentially at stacking faults (SFs) in the dendritic matrix and grow along the SFs to develop a lamellar character. Additionally, a Cr depletion zone is observed in the vicinity of the lamellar M 23C6 carbide, which strongly supports the presence of Suzuki segregation.
PubDate: 2017-05-18
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0596-1

• Effects of Titanium and Silicon on the Swelling Behavior of 15–15Ti
• Authors: Ai-Bing Du; Wei Feng; Hai-Liang Ma; Tian Liang; Da-Qing Yuan; Ping Fan; Qiao-Li Zhang; Chen Huang
Abstract: The swelling behavior of 20% cold-worked 15–15Ti steels with (0.23–0.40) wt% titanium and (0.42–0.81) wt% silicon content after heavy-ion beam irradiation has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that 15–15Ti steel with higher titanium content displays lower swelling. As silicon content increases, the cavity size and the swelling of the 15–15Ti steels decrease obviously. Titanium and silicon may play important roles in suppressing the cavity nucleation and growth in 15–15Ti steel.
PubDate: 2017-05-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0581-8

• Influence Factors of Aluminum–Slag Interfacial Reaction Under
Electric Field
• Authors: Xin-Yu Lv; An-Ping Dong; Jun Wang; Da Shu; Bao-De Sun
Abstract: The interfacial reaction between aluminum melt and molten slag under an electric field plays a significant role in aluminum electro-slag refining. Here we studied this interfacial reaction within 680 and 820 °C under an electric field between 0 and 9 V. The evolution of aluminum composition was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The dominant factor during the interfacial reaction was identified through orthogonal experiments, in which the slag-to-aluminum mass ratio, initial silicon concentration, electric voltage, reaction time, and temperature were selected as the influence factors. The greatest influence factor on the interfacial reaction was found to be the reaction time. Also, single-factor experiments revealed that the reaction kinetic processes largely obeyed an irreversible kinetic model, and the silicon removal efficiency was enhanced by increasing the voltage and slag/metal ratio.
PubDate: 2017-05-11
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0574-7

• Effect of Solution Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical
Properties of Sand-Cast Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.5Zr Alloy
• Authors: Jing-Li Li; Na Zhang; Xiao-Xuan Wang; Di Wu; Rong-Shi Chen
Abstract: Sand-cast Mg–9Gd–4Y–0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was solution-treated at 500–565 °C in the time range of 0.5–30 h in air or vacuum to investigate its microstructure evolution and mechanical properties. The results showed that solution treatment temperature had a significant influence on the dissolving rate of eutectic phase and grain growth. Taken both of them into consideration, 510–520 °C was considered to be the optimum solution treatment temperature range for this alloy. It should be noted that the trace (0.4–0.9 vol%) and insoluble cuboid-shaped phase precipitated during solution treatment was identified to be YH2, of which the hydrogen was thought to come from both the melting and solution heating process. In addition, the 3D morphology and dissolving process of Mg24(Gd,Y)5 eutectic phases in the as-cast alloy were also discussed via in-situ observation under X-ray tomography.
PubDate: 2017-05-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0591-6

• Solubility and Anisotropic Migration Behaviors of Helium in bcc Iron Under
Strain
• Authors: Yue Yu; Ben Xu; Hao Chen; Zhi-Gang Yang; Chi Zhang
Abstract: The different solution and migration behaviors of tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial helium in bcc iron have been investigated by using first principles calculations. We showed that the tetrahedral site has less charge transfer and less redistribution of the density of states but stronger bonding and a lower solution energy. This is due to the coupling between the symmetrical facts of the two interstitial atoms and the 3d orbitals of Fe atoms. The solution energies of both sites are not significantly influenced by applied normal strains of 2% and 4%. In contrast, the migration barriers have the reverse trends for different migration directions under strain, which can be explained by an anisotropic elastic energy change and charge transfer. The lower migration energy along certain directions under strain can facilitate the segregation of helium and the formation of helium bubbles.
PubDate: 2017-05-09
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0590-7

• Quantitative Phase Field Simulation of α Particle Dissolution in
Ti–6Al–4V Alloys Below β Transus Temperature
• Authors: Mei Yang; Gang Wang; Tao Liu; Wen-Juan Zhao; Dong-Sheng Xu
Abstract: A quantitative phase field method of multi-component diffusion-controlled phase transformations coupled with the Kim–Kim–Suzuki model was applied to study the effect of initial particle size distribution (PSD) in 3D and space distribution in 2D on dissolution of α particles in Ti–6Al–4V alloy below β transus temperature in real time and length scale. The thermodynamic and mobility data were obtained from Thermo-Calc and DICTRA softwares, respectively. The results show that the volume fractions of α particles decay with time as: $$f = f_{\text{eq}} + (f_{0} - f_{\text{eq}} )\exp ( - Kt^{n} )$$ for four cases of PSD. The sequence of dissolution kinetics from fast to slow is: uniform PSD, normal PSD, lognormal PSD and bimodal PSD. The space distribution is found to be a major factor affecting the dissolution kinetics and the microstructures. When the distance of the particles is less than critical value, the dissolution rates reduce with the decrease in distance. The Al and V concentration fields around the particles appear more obvious soft impingement.
PubDate: 2017-05-09
DOI: 10.1007/s40195-017-0562-y

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