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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (187 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1209 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 237)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Comptes Rendus Mécanique
  [SJR: 0.633]   [H-I: 32]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1631-0721
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Stochastic model reduction for robust dynamical characterization of
           structures with random parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Martin Ghienne, Claude Blanzé, Luc Laurent
      In this paper, we characterize random eigenspaces with a non-intrusive method based on the decoupling of random eigenvalues from their corresponding random eigenvectors. This method allows us to estimate the first statistical moments of the random eigenvalues of the system with a reduced number of deterministic finite element computations. The originality of this work is to adapt the method used to estimate each random eigenvalue depending on a global accuracy requirement. This allows us to ensure a minimal computational cost. The stochastic model of the structure is thus reduced by exploiting specific properties of random eigenvectors associated with the random eigenfrequencies being sought. An indicator with no additional computation cost is proposed to identify when the method needs to be enhanced. Finally, a simple three-beam frame and an industrial structure illustrate the proposed approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • A constitutive model accounting for strain ageing effects on
           work-hardening. Application to a C–Mn steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Sicong Ren, Matthieu Mazière, Samuel Forest, Thilo F. Morgeneyer, Gilles Rousselier
      One of the most successful models for describing the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect in engineering applications is the Kubin–Estrin–McCormick model (KEMC). In the present work, the influence of dynamic strain ageing on dynamic recovery due to dislocation annihilation is introduced in order to improve the KEMC model. This modification accounts for additional strain hardening rate due to limited dislocation annihilation by the diffusion of solute atoms and dislocation pinning at low strain rate and/or high temperature. The parameters associated with this novel formulation are identified based on tensile tests for a C–Mn steel at seven temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 350 °C. The validity of the model and the improvement compared to existing models are tested using 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect in tension.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • Mathematical justification of a viscoelastic elliptic membrane problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Gonzalo Castiñeira, Ángel Rodríguez-Arós
      We consider a family of linearly viscoelastic elliptic shells, and we use asymptotic analysis to justify that what we have identified as the two-dimensional viscoelastic elliptic membrane problem is an accurate approximation when the thickness of the shell tends to zero. Most noticeable is that the limit problem includes a long-term memory that takes into account the previous history of deformations. We provide convergence results which justify our asymptotic approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • Discrete element analysis of the mechanical properties of deep-sea methane
           hydrate-bearing soils considering interparticle bond thickness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Mingjing Jiang, Jie He, Jianfeng Wang, Yaping Zhou, Fangyuan Zhu
      Due to increasing global energy demands, research is being conducted on the mechanical properties of methane hydrate-bearing soils (MHBSs), from which methane hydrate (MH) will be explored. This paper presents a numerical approach to study the mechanical properties of MHBSs. The relationship between the level of MH saturation and the interparticle bond thickness is first obtained by analyzing the scanning electron microscope images of MHBS samples, in which is the bridge connecting the micromechanical behavior captured by the DEM with the macroscopic properties of MHBSs. A simplified thermal-hydromechanical (THM) bond model that considers the different bond thicknesses is then proposed to describe the contact behavior between the soil particles and those incorporated into the discrete element method (DEM). Finally, a series of biaxial compression tests are carried out with different MH saturations under different effective confining pressures to analyze the mechanical properties of deep-sea MHBSs. The results of the DEM numerical simulation are also compared with the findings from triaxial compression tests. The results show that the macromechanical properties of deep-sea MHBSs can be qualitatively captured by the proposed DEM. The shear strength, cohesion, and volumetric contraction of deep-sea MHBSs increase with increasing MH saturation, although its influence on the internal friction angle is obscure. The shear strength and volumetric contraction increase with increasing effective confining pressure. The peak shear strength and the dilation of MHBSs increase as the critical bond thickness increases, while the residual deviator stress largely remains the same at a larger axial strain. With increasing the axial strain, the percentage of broken bonds increases, along with the expansion of the shear band.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • Acoustical scattering identification with local impedance through a
           spectral approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 5
      Author(s): Mohamed Amine Ben Souf, Ahmed Kessentini, Olivier Bareille, Mohamed Taktak, Mohamed N. Ichchou, Mohamed Haddar
      Acoustical scattering in waveguides is studied in this paper. The Wave Finite Element (WFE) approach is mainly used, since it allows the reduction of problems dealing with periodic waveguides. The paper deals with guided acoustical propagation, that is, propagation in a main direction is privileged. The scattering by a locally reacting lining is first studied. The liner can be characterised by its local impedance in this case. The equivalent surface impedance is therefore calculated. Then, scattering by a porous layer is considered. A full three-dimensional modelling of the lining is preferred since porous materials are bulk reacting. The scattering matrix of the lined part is computed, and acoustical scattering of high-order modes and conversion between modes are highlighted. The acoustic power attenuation is further evaluated. The response of ducts subjected to constraining boundary conditions is also calculated. Numerical results are presented and compared to those obtained with conventional approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • Modeling of failure characteristics of rectangular hard rock influenced by
           sample height-to-width ratios: A finite/discrete element approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 5
      Author(s): Fan Feng, Xibing Li, Diyuan Li
      In the present study, a combined finite/element approach is used to analyze failure characteristics of a rectangular hard rock with different sample height-to-width ratios based on the uniaxial compression test. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the transitional mechanisms from shear fracture to extension failure of brittle rocks and the occurrence conditions of surface-parallel slabbing. Numerical results show that failure modes have experienced the shear, tension with shear and surface-parallel slabbing failure with the decrease of sample height-to-width ratios. It is seen from the simulation results that the shear band in larger height-to-width ratios is composed of an amount of extension meso-cracks that are parallel to the loading direction, and the slabbing failure tends to be the result of the accessible propagation of extension meso-cracks due to short sample height, which validate the essence of extension failure in hard rocks. The good agreement between simulation and laboratory testing also shows the practicability and advancement of a combined finite/discrete element approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T10:40:33Z
       
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 9
      Author(s): François Charru, Olivier Darrigol, Pierre Mounier-Kuhn, José E. Wesfreid


      PubDate: 2017-09-01T22:28:03Z
       
  • Debonded arc-shaped interface conducting rigid line inclusions in
           piezoelectric composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Xu Wang, Peter Schiavone
      We consider an arc-shaped conducting rigid line inclusion located at the interface between a circular piezoelectric inhomogeneity and an unbounded piezoelectric matrix subjected to remote uniform anti-plane shear stresses and in-plane electric fields. Moreover, one side of the rigid line inclusion has become fully debonded from the matrix or the inhomogeneity leading to the formation of an insulating crack. After the introduction of two sectionally holomorphic vector functions, the problem is reduced to a vector Riemann–Hilbert problem, which can be decoupled sequentially by repeated application of the orthogonality relations between the eigenvectors for two corresponding generalized eigenvalue problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T22:28:03Z
       
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 8
      Author(s): François Charru, Olivier Darrigol, Pierre Mounier-Kuhn, José E. Wesfreid


      PubDate: 2017-09-01T22:28:03Z
       
  • La mécanique des fluides à la Sorbonne entre les deux guerres
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 8
      Author(s): Claudine Fontanon
      World War I opened the way to a restructuring of research in the field of aviation sciences in France as abroad. Technical advances were made possible under the impulse of a new science: aerodynamics, notably owing to Gustave Eiffel's works. Nevertheless, the experimental approach that most marked this foundational period was replaced, after the Great War, with a much more theoretical approach of aerodynamic phenomena. And it is under the name “fluid mechanics” that both theoretical and experimental approaches were gathered together to constitute, with classical hydrodynamics, the basis of teaching and university research at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris. The patronage era that had anchored aeronautical teaching and research to the Faculty of Sciences in Paris was succeeded by an era when the government authorities directly intervened to institutionalize fluid mechanics and orientate it toward applications to aviation. In this article, we will analyse the steps and modalities of the emergence of this science, with the aim to determine how much the scientific policy deployed between the two wars by the public authorities influenced the evolution and the progress of aeronautical techniques, and met the expectations of its promoters.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T22:28:03Z
       
  • A novel method based on maximum likelihood estimation for the construction
           of seismic fragility curves using numerical simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Cong-Thuat Dang, Thien-Phu Le, Pascal Ray
      Seismic fragility curves presenting some probability of failure or of a damage state exceedance versus seismic intensity can be established by engineering judgment, empirical or numerical approaches. This paper focuses on the latter issue. In recent studies, three popular methods based on numerical simulations, comprising scaled seismic intensity, maximum likelihood estimation and probabilistic seismic demand/capacity models, have been studied and compared. The results obtained show that the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is in general better than other ones. However, previous publications also indicated the dependence of the MLE method on the ground excitation input. The objective of this paper is thus to propose a novel method improving the existing MLE one. Improvements are based on probabilistic ground motion information, which is taken into account in the proposed procedure. The validity of this new approach is verified by analytical tests and numerical examples.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:48:46Z
       
  • From the water wheel to turbines and hydroelectricity. Technological
           evolution and revolutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Pierre-Louis Viollet
      Since its appearance in the first century BC, the water wheel has developed with increasing pre-industrial activities, and has been at the origin of the industrial revolution for metallurgy, textile mills, and paper mills. Since the nineteenth century, the water wheel has become highly efficient. The reaction turbine appeared by 1825, and continued to undergo technological development. The impulsion turbine appeared for high chutes, by 1880. Other turbines for low-head chutes were further designed. Turbine development was associated, after 1890, with the use of hydropower to generate electricity, both for industrial activities, and for the benefits of cities. A model “one city + one plant” was followed in the twentieth century by more complex and efficient schemes when electrical interconnection developed, together with pumped plants for energy storage.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • The use of images in fluid mechanics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Marc Fermigier
      Still images, photographs and drawings, as well as movies are widely used in fluid mechanics and this has been true since the very early developments of this discipline. The intrinsic geometrical complexity of fluid flows, in particular when they are turbulent, explains this necessity of using visual representations to gain a physical understanding of the phenomena involved. The aesthetic appeal of images in fluid mechanics research is another reason why their use is more prevalent than in other fields of the physical sciences.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • Une histoire de l'Institut de mécanique des fluides de Toulouse de
           1913 à 1970
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): François Charru


      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • Paul Germain et la mécanique des fluides (1945–1970)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Gérard A. Maugin


      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • A century of wind tunnels since Eiffel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Bruno Chanetz
      Fly higher, faster, preserve the life of test pilots and passengers, many challenges faced by man since the dawn of the twentieth century, with aviation pioneers. Contemporary of the first aerial exploits, wind tunnels, artificially recreating conditions encountered during the flight, have powerfully contributed to the progress of aeronautics. But the use of wind tunnels is not limited to aviation. The research for better performance, coupled with concern for energy saving, encourages manufacturers of ground vehicles to perform aerodynamic tests. Buildings and bridge structures are also concerned. This article deals principally with the wind tunnels built at ONERA during the last century. Somme wind tunnels outside ONERA, even outside France, are also evocated when their characteristics do not exist at ONERA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • On the developments of Darcy's law to include inertial and slip effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Didier Lasseux, Francisco J. Valdés-Parada
      The empirical Darcy law describing flow in porous media, whose convincing theoretical justification was proposed almost 130 years after its original publication in 1856, has however been extended to account for particular flow conditions. This article reviews historical developments aimed at including inertial and slip effects (respectively, when the Reynolds and Knudsen numbers are not exceedingly small compared to unity). Despite the early empirical extensions to include inertia and slip effects, it is striking to observe that clear formal derivations of physical models to account for these effects were reported only recently.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • Numerical analysis of the effects induced by normal faults and dip angles
           on rock bursts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Lishuai Jiang, Pu Wang, Peipeng Zhang, Pengqiang Zheng, Bin Xu
      The study of mining effects under the influences of a normal fault and its dip angle is significant for the prediction and prevention of rock bursts. Based on the geological conditions of panel 2301N in a coalmine, the evolution laws of the strata behaviors of the working face affected by a fault and the instability of the fault induced by mining operations with the working face of the footwall and hanging wall advancing towards a normal fault are studied using UDEC numerical simulation. The mechanism that induces rock burst is revealed, and the influence characteristics of the fault dip angle are analyzed. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by conducting a case study regarding the microseismic events. The results of this study serve as a reference for the prediction of rock bursts and their classification into hazardous areas under similar conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 7
      Author(s): François Charru, Olivier Darrigol, Pierre Mounier-Kuhn, José E. Wesfreid


      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:16:13Z
       
  • Intermittency as a transition to turbulence in pipes: A long tradition
           from Reynolds to the 21st century
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Christophe Letellier
      Intermittencies are commonly observed in fluid mechanics, and particularly, in pipe flows. Initially observed by Reynolds (1883), it took one century for reaching a rather full understanding of this phenomenon whose irregular dynamics (apparently stochastic) puzzled hydrodynamicists for decades. In this brief (non-exhaustive) review, mostly focused on the experimental characterization of this transition between laminar and turbulent regimes, we present some key contributions for evidencing the two concomittant and antagonist processes that are involved in this complex transition and were suggested by Reynolds. It is also shown that a clear explicative model was provided, based on the nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the experimental observations in fluid mechanics only providing an applied example, due to its obvious generic nature.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T23:41:41Z
       
  • Asymptotic behavior of the spectrum of an elliptic problem in a domain
           with aperiodically distributed concentrated masses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Gregory A. Chechkin, Tatiana P. Chechkina
      In this paper, we consider a spectral problem with singular perturbation of density located near the boundary of the domain, depending on a small parameter. We prove the compactness theorem and study the behavior of eigenelements to the given problem, as the small parameter tends to zero.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • Turbulence from 1870 to 1920: The birth of a noun and of a concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Francois G. Schmitt
      We consider here the works of French, British, and German researchers in fluid mechanics from 1870 to the beginning of the twentieth century. Our aim is to understand how the term “turbulence” introduced by William Thomson in 1887, which was not used by the main researchers of the time, including Joseph Boussinesq, Osborne Reynolds, Lord Rayleigh, Horace Lamb in the first editions of his book, became classical in the 1920s. We trace the first introductions of the terms “turbulence”, “turbulent flow” in the works of relatively unknown researchers between 1889 and 1903, until it reaches the vocabulary of mainstream researchers in fluid mechanics and physics. Our result is that the shift was in 1906–1908, when the term was used in the 1906 edition of the book of Horace Lamb, and in Lanchester's book, followed by a series of papers of German researchers before the First World War. The use of the word “turbulence”, a word used for a long time for crowds or for children, in a scientific context, corresponds to the introduction of a new concept, a new understanding of a scientific phenomenon clearly identified as being different from laminar motion. The study of the use of this term is also the study of the diffusion of a new concept among researchers of the time.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • Horace Lamb… and how he found his way back to Manchester
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Brian Launder
      The paper examines aspects of the career of Professor Sir Horace Lamb, FRS, a highly regarded classical fluid mechanicist, who, over a period of some thirty-five years at Manchester, made notable contributions in research, in education and in wise administration at both national and university levels. The article reveals the unusual sequence of events that led to his removing from Adelaide, South Australia, where he had served for nine years as the Elder Professor of Mathematics, to Manchester where he frequently interacted (sometimes rather coolly) with Manchester's other outstanding fluid mechanicist of the period, Osborne Reynolds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • Boundary layer separation and asymptotics from 1904 to 1969
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Pierre-Yves Lagrée
      The aim of this Note is to follow the spreading of the idea of asymptotic analysis in fluid mechanics (more precisely the laminar boundary layer). We will focus on the actors who worked on the problem of boundary layer separation from 1904 to 1969. This correspond to the invention of the “boundary layer” concept by Prandtl in 1904 and the invention of the “triple deck” in three different papers in 1969. The rationalization of the methods by the GALCIT group allowed one to solve, with exactly the same tools, problems at small and large Reynolds number (or problems with a small parameter). This story starts in Göttingen and goes to California before coming to London and Moscow.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • L'héritage de Craya, pour une approche statistique à points multiples de
           la turbulence homogène anisotrope
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Claude Cambon
      Some elements are given on the very multiform career of Antoine Craya. In addition to a strong involvement in applied hydraulics in Grenoble, he was very influential on the research of his colleagues: to give only a few examples of well-known scientists in the Lyon–Grenoble area, he inspired the doctoral work on wall-jets by Jean Mathieu, the doctoral work on channel flow by Geneviève Comte-Bellot, and the dominant research area of René Moreau on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The main part of this article is devoted to the legacy of Antoine Craya, from his own doctoral dissertation (1957). Inspired by G.I. Taylor probably more than by G. Batchelor, he contributed to establish the concept of HAT (Homogeneous Anisotropic Turbulence), as a useful intermediate step between HIT (Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence) and fully statistically inhomogeneous turbulent flows. For this purpose, a mean flow with space-uniform velocity gradient can inject energy and anisotropy to a fluctuating flow, and statistical homogeneity is restricted to fluctuations. Complete equations for two-point second-order and three-point third-order velocity correlations were written, both in physical space and in Fourier space, in order to exactly solve mixed pressure–velocity correlations thanks to the incompressibility constraint. Antoine Craya is well known for the use of the eponymous frame of reference, thanks to Jacks Herring (1974). Later recognized as a spectral counterpart of a general decomposition in terms of toroidal/poloidal/dilatational modes, this frame leads to expressing the spectral tensors of correlation with a minimal number of scalar (or pseudo-scalar) descriptors, without loss of information and for arbitrary anisotropy. Craya provided us with a special angle of attack of the so-called RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) and triadic closures, even if he did not work directly on them. Accordingly, this paper is also an opportunity to come back on the long history of RDT, including the Spectral Linear Theory as a better nomenclature, especially for recent studies. As far as possible, historical milestones are recalled throughout this article, and one recovers the Lagrangian formalism of Cauchy, emphasized by Uriel Frisch as well, with the use of a ‘Cauchy matrix’ in connection with linear theory. Finally, it is shown how the legacy of Craya is present in new (not addressed by him) domains, such as stratified turbulence and MHD turbulence. We discuss how further (past 1957) approaches, by Keith Moffatt (spectral linear theory, 1967), and Steven Orszag (triadic closure for HIT, as EDQNM, Eddy Damped Quasi-Normal Approximation, 1970) can be integrated in a general approach to anisotropic turbulence, which still benefits from Craya's legacy. A synoptic scheme for the description of multipoint statistics is re-discussed on this occasion. More incidentally, connections with Kraichnan theories and with the formalism of Kármán–Howarth–Monin equation(s) are touched upon.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • Henri Bénard: Thermal convection and vortex shedding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): José Eduardo Wesfreid
      We present in this article the work of Henri Bénard (1874–1939), a French physicist who began the systematic experimental study of two hydrodynamic systems: the thermal convection of fluids heated from below (the Rayleigh–Bénard convection and the Bénard–Marangoni convection) and the periodical vortex shedding behind a bluff body in a flow (the Bénard–Kármán vortex street). Across his scientific biography, we review the interplay between experiments and theory in these two major subjects of fluid mechanics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T21:45:30Z
       
  • A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo
           method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Mohamed Nejlaoui, Ajmi Houidi, Zouhaier Affi, Lotfi Romdhane
      This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T19:30:11Z
       
  • Joseph Kampé de Fériet et la mécanique des fluides en France durant
           l'entre-deux-guerres
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Antonietta Demuro
      Up until the twentieth century, fluid mechanics was characterised by a strong division between theory and practice. The formulas of mathematicians and physicists were difficult to apply experimentally and their relevance was neither well accepted nor well understood by engineers. In France, where priority was given to the theoretical aspects of this subject, the creation of several centres of fluid mechanics in the 1930s (Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse) represented an attempt at a rapprochement between fluid mechanics, experimental aerodynamics, and hydrodynamics. The aim was to re-establish France's international profile, which had been lost after 1918. In Lille, the leadership of the “Institut de mécanique des fluides” (IMFL) was entrusted to Jospeh Kampé de Fériet, who was able to address questions of both theoretical and experimental nature in the context of his work at the IMFL and at the “Commission de la turbulence atmosphérique”. On the one hand, Kampé de Fériet used a probabilistic approach to give greater mathematical rigour to the statistical theory of turbulence due to Taylor–von Kármán. On the other hand, he played an active part in his group's experimental research on atmospheric turbulence. This paper aims to show in what way Kampé de Fériet's approach to fluid mechanics enabled him to contribute to the international development of the statistical theory of turbulence during the interwar period.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T17:45:29Z
       
  • D'Alembert's paradox, 1900–1914: Levi-Civita and his Italian and
           French followers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Rossana Tazzioli
      Before the First World War, Tullio Levi-Civita (1873–1941) was already a well-known mathematician in Italy and abroad, in particular in France. Professor at the University of Padua since 1898, he had published important contributions to tensor calculus, theory of relativity, differential geometry, hydrodynamics, and the three-body problem. In 1918, when he moved to the University of Rome, he created an international school of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on d'Alembert's paradox to which Levi-Civita and some of his Italian and French followers contributed remarkable solutions. This case-study is used to illustrate Levi-Civita's approach to hydrodynamics and its influence in Italy and France, especially in the period 1910–1914.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T17:45:29Z
       
  • Joseph Boussinesq's legacy in fluid mechanics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Olivier Darrigol
      Joseph Boussinesq was the most prolific of all French contributors to nineteenth-century fluid mechanics. His scientific production included a novel theory of solitary waves, the KdV equation for finite deformations of the water surface in an open channel, a systematic study of open channel and pipe flow based on the concept of effective viscosity, pioneering derivations of boundary layers and entrance effects, new exact solutions of the Navier–Stokes equation under geometrically simple boundary conditions, and the ‘Boussinesq approximation’ for heat convection in a moving fluid under gravity. Although his extraordinary skills were quickly recognized and rewarded, other experts in the field were often unaware even of his most important results and they ended up rediscovering some of them. Boussinesq's unusual background and the resulting peculiarities of his style explain this problematic diffusion. They also account for the richness of his legacy.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T16:25:13Z
       
  • Modélisation de la turbulence en déclin avec rotation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Zouaoui Jihene, Hamed Marzougui, Taieb Lili
      The study presented in the present paper deals with the modeling of the rotation effects on a homogeneous turbulence evolving without a mean velocity gradient. The developed model results from a modification of the second order model of Haworth and Pope. This modification is expressed as a function of the rotation rate, of the component of the Reynolds tensor and of the characteristic length scale in the direction of the rotation axis. The obtained results have evidenced the great capacity of the present model to describe the rotation effects on the time evolution of the homogeneous decaying turbulence.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T16:25:13Z
       
  • Optimal streaks in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body and
           their influence on vortex shedding
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Volume 345, Issue 6
      Author(s): Mathieu Marant, Carlo Cossu, Grégory Pujals
      We compute the optimal perturbations of azimuthal wavenumber m THAT maximize the spatial energy growth in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. Optimal perturbations with m ≠ 0 lead to the amplification of streamwise streaks in the wake. When forced with finite amplitude m ≠ 1 , optimal perturbations have a stabilizing effect on large-scale unsteady vortex shedding in the wake. We show that m ≥ 2 modes, which are forced with zero mass flux, can significantly reduce the amplitude of the unsteady lift force exerted on the body. When combined with low levels of base bleed, these perturbations can completely suppress the unsteadiness in the wake with reduced levels of mass injection in the flow.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T16:25:13Z
       
  • Ludwig Prandtl and the growth of fluid mechanics in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Michael Eckert
      Ludwig Prandtl (1875–1953) has been called the father of modern aerodynamics. His name is associated most famously with the boundary layer concept, but also with several other topics in 20th-century fluid mechanics, particularly turbulence (Prandtl's mixing length). Among his disciples are pioneers of modern fluid mechanics like Heinrich Blasius, Theodore von Kármán, and Walter Tollmien. Furthermore, Prandtl founded the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Strömungsforschung in Göttingen, nuclei for the growth of fluid mechanics in Germany. In this article I trace this development on the basis of my recent biography of Prandtl.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T15:37:02Z
       
  • Stochastic modeling and generation of random fields of elasticity tensors:
           A unified information-theoretic approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Brian Staber, Johann Guilleminot
      In this Note, we present a unified approach to the information-theoretic modeling and simulation of a class of elasticity random fields, for all physical symmetry classes. The new stochastic representation builds upon a Walpole tensor decomposition, which allows the maximum entropy constraints to be decoupled in accordance with the tensor (sub)algebras associated with the class under consideration. In contrast to previous works where the construction was carried out on the scalar-valued Walpole coordinates, the proposed strategy involves both matrix-valued and scalar-valued random fields. This enables, in particular, the construction of a generation algorithm based on a memoryless transformation, hence improving the computational efficiency of the framework. Two applications involving weak symmetries and sampling over spherical and cylindrical geometries are subsequently provided. These numerical experiments are relevant to the modeling of elastic interphases in nanocomposites, as well as to the simulation of spatially dependent wood properties for instance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T14:53:00Z
       
  • A new apparatus for testing the delayed mechanical behaviour of
           interfaces: The Shearing Interfaces Creep box (SInC box)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Eleni Stavropoulou, Matthieu Briffaut, Frédéric Dufour, Guillaume Camps, Marc Boulon
      A new experimental apparatus is presented for testing the time-dependent behaviour of interfaces, including in particular interfaces of geomaterials, under constant loading. This apparatus allows the application of two orthogonal loads normal and tangential to the mean plane of the interface, as well as the measurement of the axial and tangential relative displacements. The sample is moulded inside two half shear boxes and the system is designed in such a way that the shear force is applied along the mean plane of the interface. Some preliminary testing was carried out on a clay rock/concrete interface, under a controlled temperature environment. Preliminary results are presented, showing the evolution of the delayed displacements.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:38:56Z
       
  • An inverse Hölder inequality and its application in lower bound
           estimates for blow-up time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Bin Guo
      This paper deals with the lower bound for blow-up solutions to a nonlinear viscoelastic hyperbolic equation. An inverse Hölder inequality with the correction constant is employed to overcome the difficulty caused by the failure of the embedding inequality W 0 1 , r ( Ω ) ↪ L 2 α − 2 ( Ω ) ( r ⁎ + 2 2 < α < r ⁎ = N r N − r ) and the lack of a version of the Gagliardo–Nirenberg inequality. Moreover, a lower bound for blow-up time is obtained by establishing a first-order differential inequality. This result is a continuation of an earlier work [1].

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T11:29:21Z
       
  • On the identifiability of the Hill-1948 model with one uniaxial tensile
           test
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Morgan Bertin, François Hild, Stéphane Roux
      A uniaxial experiment is performed on an ultra-thin specimen made of 17-7 precipitation hardened stainless steel. An anti-wrinkling setup allows for the characterization of the mechanical behavior with Integrated Digital Image Correlation (IDIC). The result shows that a single uniaxial experiment investigated via IDIC possesses enough data (and even more) to characterize a complete anisotropic elastoplastic model.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T10:11:45Z
       
  • Identification of nonlinear anti-vibration isolator properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Comptes Rendus Mécanique
      Author(s): Fares Mezghani, Alfonso Fernández Del Rincón, Mohamed Amine Ben Souf, Pablo García Fernandez, Fakher Chaari, Fernando Viadero Rueda, Mohamed Haddar
      Vibrations are classified among the major problems for engineering structures. Anti-vibration isolators are used to absorb vibration energy and minimise transmitted force which can cause damage. The isolator is modelled as a parallel combination of stiffness and damping elements. The main purpose of the model is to enable designers to predict the dynamic response of systems under different structural excitations and boundary conditions. A nonlinear identification method, discussed in this paper, aims to provide a tool for engineers to extract information about the nonlinear dynamic behaviour using measured data from experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated and validated with numerical simulations. Thus, this technique is applied to determine the nonlinear parameters of a commercial metal mesh isolator. Nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping can decrease with the increase in the amplitude of the base excitation. The softening behaviour of the mesh isolator is clearly visible.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:56:52Z
       
 
 
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