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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 265)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part B : Engineering
  [SJR: 2.125]   [H-I: 75]   [246 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-8368
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3176 journals]
  • Damage characterization of stiffened glass-epoxy laminates under tensile
           loading with acoustic emission monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 147
      Author(s): V. Arumugam, K. Saravanakumar, C. Santulli
      The design of composite components in the aerospace industry often includes structural discontinuities, such as cutouts, for functional requirements like ventilation, tunnel passage, maintenance and repair. The presence of cutout holes leads to complicated stress concentrations with a substantial reduction in structural stability and strength of the resulting composites. It is known that reinforcing with additional material at the cutout zones can extend the damage tolerance of a structure, therefore maintaining structural integrity and load carrying capacity. This study focuses on the experimental investigation of the tensile behavior and failure characteristics of stiffened glass/epoxy composite laminates, with cutouts, under acoustic emission monitoring. The progressive failure mechanisms of laminates with cutouts and the potential benefits of additionally dropped reinforcements are evaluated under tensile loading. The additional reinforcements were provided in either a step-like or as a simultaneous drop-off sequence between adjacent continuous plies. Results showed that adding ply drop reinforcements at the location of the cutout hole improves the stiffness, strength, and also prolongs the life of the composite laminates. It is also observed that step-like ply drop arrangements performed more effectively than simultaneously dropped configurations. The location and extent of damage identified by microscopic images correlated well with the acoustic emission results.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Effect of sonication on the mechanical response of graphene
           nanoplatelets/glass fabric/epoxy laminated nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 147
      Author(s): G.V. Seretis, I.D. Theodorakopoulos, D.E. Manolakos, C.G. Provatidis
      This study focuses on the effect of sonication process time on the morphological characteristics of the graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and the mechanical performance of the produced GNPs/glass fabric/epoxy nanocomposites. Specifically, three different times, 20, 40 and 60 min, were tested. The rest of the sonication process parameters were kept constant, i.e. 100 W and 28 kHz. Both a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used for the morphological investigation of the GNPs. Based on the microstructural investigations, the effect of the sonication time on the mechanical performance was explained and discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Smart coatings of epoxy based CNTs designed to meet practical expectations
           in aeronautics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 147
      Author(s): L. Vertuccio, L. Guadagno, G. Spinelli, P. Lamberti, M. Zarrelli, S. Russo, G. Iannuzzo
      A smart coating exhibiting self-diagnostic capability is designed to meet industrial requirements in aeronautics. The coating made of epoxy-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been applied on industrial Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) currently employed in aeronautics. The correlations between mechanical strain and electrical properties of coated CFRPs highlights the feasibility in manufacturing CFRPs having integrated high sensitivity in providing an effective real-time structural health monitoring. The reliability of the developed CFRPs, in the normal operational temperature range of aircrafts, opens new perspectives in the field of self-responsive structures in aeronautics. Self-responsive panels can simultaneously act as sensor and structural element.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Experimental investigation on the effect of mortar grade on the
           compressive behaviour of FRCM confined masonry columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Giovanni Minafò, Lidia La Mendola
      The use of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Mortar (FRCM) systems for structural retrofitting of masonry structures has become increasingly popular in the last years, due to the capability of this technique in overcoming some of the drawbacks related to the adoption of resin-based composites. Recent studies investigated on the effect of FRCM wraps on the compressive behaviour of concrete members and demonstrated as the application of mortar-based composites allows increasing the strength and, above all, the ductility of the column. The main difference with FRP confined columns is related to the different post-peak behaviour, characterized by a softening branch. Differently, few studies are actually available in the literature on the efficiency of FRCM confinement in enhancing the compressive behaviour of masonry columns. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effect of FRCM wraps on the compressive behaviour of calcarenite masonry columns. A preliminary study on the mechanical performances of the strengthening layer is performed by selecting three different mortar grades for the FRCM and testing these under flexure and compression. Moreover, tensile tests on the glass fibre fabric and on FRCM strips are performed to characterize the behaviour of the reinforcing system. Finally, eleven columns are tested under concentric compression, recording the axial strain, and discussion is made on modes of failure and gains of strength and ultimate strain.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Soft, hyper-elastic and highly-stable silicone-organo-clay dielectric
           elastomer for energy harvesting and actuation applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Gregorio Boccalero, Claire Jean-Mistral, Maila Castellano, Corrado Boragno
      A new type of soft composite is syntetized by the use of two grade of commercially available Pt-catalyzed silicone elastomers and organic nanoclays (montmorillonite). A complete characterization underlines their attractive performances: lower Young modulus, higher dielectric permittivity, but without compromising important properties such as low dielectric losses and lower viscous losses, higher dielectric breakdown strength, and thereby maintaining the mechanical integrity of the elastomers. A figure of merit is introduced to compare all the innovative synthesized soft composites, characterized by a bimodal network. These achievements can be exploited for both the actuation and the energy generation purposes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Mechanical and thermal performances of UHMWPE blended vitamin E reinforced
           carbon nanoparticle composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Latifa Melk, Nazanin Emami
      Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a known to be the material of choice for bearing components in joint arthroplasty. However, oxidation wear of UHMWPE components is considered to be a major drawback limiting the lifespan of implants. Vitamin E was considered as a promising antioxidant to prevent long-term oxidation and reduce the wear degradation of UHMWPE material. Nevertheless, there are limited results on the improvements of vitamin E on the mechanical and thermal properties of UHMWPE. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of 0.5–3 wt.% carbon nanoparticles: Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs), Graphene (GO) and Nanodiamonds (ND) on the mechanical and thermal properties of UHMWPE blended vitamin E (UHMWPE-E). Surface analysis of the composite powders showed well-dispersed carbon nanoparticles within the UHMWPE-E matrix. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the thermal behavior of the nanocomposites. It was found that the addition of GO, MWCNTs and ND improved the thermal stability of the nanocomposites compared to neat UHMWPE-E. However, the addition of carbon nanoparticles had no significant effect on the crystallization parameters of the composites. In addition, the incorporation of MWCNT and ND improved significantly the fracture toughness of the composites. The addition of 0.7 wt.% ND and 1 wt.% MWCNT increased the fracture toughness from 5.93 MPa m1/2 for neat UHMWPE-E to 7.38 and 9.19 MPa m1/2 respectively. The enhanced fracture toughness and thermal stability of the nanocomposites could be due to the successful powder processing technique where an optimized mixing and ball milling parameters were used.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • CFRP-to-steel bonded joints subjected to cyclic loading: An experimental
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Yongming Yang, Manuel A.G. Silva, Hugo Biscaia, Carlos Chastre
      Pseudo-cyclic and cyclic loading were applied to CFRP-to-steel bonded joints built with two different CFRP laminates. In this paper, the strength capacity and bond-slip curves are presented and compared. The modes of failure are also described and associated with the types of material used, and the observed performances are correlated. The analysis of the results showed a threshold value for loading and amplitude level, below which the cyclic loading caused no detectable damage. For cycles above that limit, the region of the joints around the loaded end presented degradation reflected on the bond-slip stiffness and on the increase of residual deformation. It was found that the normalized dissipated energies either obtained from the bond-slip relationship or from the load-slip response had the same trend. The experimental data allowed also to establish a relationship between the damage developed within the interface and the normalized slip. A preliminary estimate of fatigue limit based on those data is suggested.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • A mathematical framework for modelling 3D coupled THM phenomena within
           saturated porous media undergoing finite strains
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): V.A. Salomoni
      A mathematical formulation of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model for saturated porous media undergoing finite deformations is presented. The model, developed by unifying some of the most relevant works on poromechanics, introduces a reformulation of the stored energy function, the inclusion of thermo-osmotic effects as well as the adoption of a permeability tensor depending on deformation. Analytical solutions are derived to qualitatively evidence the features of the proposed approach, showing a good agreement with similar results reported in literature. Different thermal osmosis scenarios are additionally evaluated, particularly referring to negative thermal osmosis, positive thermal osmosis and no osmosis, so predicting the relevance of such a parameter when analysing water transport and mechanical deformation of porous media.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation of adhesively bonded single lap
           and thick adherents joints between pultruded GFRP composite profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Dragoș Ungureanu, Nicolae Țăranu, Vlad Lupășteanu, Dorina Nicolina Isopescu, Gabriel Oprișan, Petru Mihai
      This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental and numerical study performed on epoxy bonded single lap joints (SLJs) and thick adherents' joints (TAJs) between glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite flat profiles. For the experimental program, 30 specimens were prepared by varying the type of connection (SLJ, TAJ), the bond length (70, 100, 150 mm), the type of adhesives and their thicknesses (1, 2, 3 mm); they were then loaded in axial tension up to failure. The main issues that were investigated based on the experimental results are the specific failure modes, load-displacement behavior, stress-strain variation, bond-slip relations and the strain distribution along the bond length at different loading stages. The numerical simulations, based on 3D FEM analysis, provided results in good agreement with the experimental ones for both stress-strain behavior and strain distributions along the bond length.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Influence of SiO2 nanoparticles on the microstructure and mechanical
           properties of Al matrix nanocomposites fabricated by spark plasma
           sintering
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Pasquale Cavaliere, Farhad Jahantigh, Ali Shabani, Behzad Sadeghi
      Al-SiO2 nanocomposite was produced using mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. In this research, the effects of ceramic nano size reinforcement on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-SiO2 nanocomposite were investigated. Using electron microscopy, the microstructures of the primary powder and the produced composites were studied. Microhardness and tensile tests were also employed to study the mechanical properties of the composites. The results revealed a reduction in porosity as increasing the nanoparticles percentage up to 3 wt%. For higher reinforcing percentages the material's density reached the minimum (86% of the density of the composite with 3 wt% of reinforcing particles). EBSD was employed to study the microstructural evolution of the produced materials.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Experimental fatigue behavior of pultruded glass fibre reinforced polymer
           composite materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Priscilla Rocha Vieira, Eliane Maria Lopes Carvalho, Janine Domingos Vieira, Romildo Dias Toledo Filho
      The aim of this research is to investigate the behavior of pultruded Glass-fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite materials subjected to fatigue loads. Static tests were performed to estimate the material strength and modulus of elasticity. Constant-amplitude axial tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted with a cyclic stress ratio of R = 0.1 and a frequency of 4Hz in order to establish fatigue life characteristics (S-N curve) and identify damage evolution and failure modes for the composite material. Generally, the damages developed in fatigue tests were characterized primarily by cracks in the matrix, followed by possible delamination of the material layers and finally the fiber failure and the specimen rupture. Tomography images were used to better understand the architecture of the composite material. It was observed that the layers of the fibers are not perfectly aligned and uniform and there is a substantial quantity of voids resulting in a very heterogeneous material which can explain the scatter of the experimental results.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Quantifying effects of graphene nanoplatelets on slowing down combustion
           of epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Qiangjun Zhang, Yong C. Wang, Colin G. Bailey, Richard K.K. Yuen, Joshua Parkin, Wei Yang, Cristina Valles
      This paper investigates the effects of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) on combustion behaviour of epoxy resin (ER). In particular it presents, for the first time, a numerical modelling methodology that quantifies the effects of GNP in reducing the peak rate of heat release of epoxy resin with different amounts and types of GNP. Five different GNP/ER composites were prepared via the solution mixing method. Geometric characteristics and dispersion state of GNP in epoxy resin were characterized by three-dimensional (3D) X-ray CT scan. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were carried out on pure epoxy and GNP/ER composites in N2. Bench-scale cone calorimeter tests were used to obtain combustion properties of the prepared nanocomposites. These test results provide input data for validating the modelling methodology. The cone calorimeter tests found significantly lower peak heat release rate (PHRR) for GNP/ER composites than pure epoxy. For example, at 3 wt% GNP loading, the PHRR was reduced by 47%. This drastic reduction in PHRR due to GNP is attributed to two principal contributions of GNP: reduced permeability to slow down movement of volatiles to the surface to cause combustion, and reduced radiant conductivity of GNP/ER at high temperatures owing to GNP being able to promote the formation of a continuous and compact char layer, which decreases temperatures and hence slows down chemical reactions. This paper provides a new method, through numerical pyrolysis modelling, to quantify these two contributions and their effects in reducing PHRR of GNP/ER. A comparison between numerical simulation results and test results confirms assumptions of this quantitative method. This simulation model has the potential to improve material design process of graphene based composites and predict the fire behaviour of such composites in realistic fire conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Mechanical properties and abrasive wear of white/brown coir epoxy
           composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Petr Valášek, Roberto D'Amato, Miroslav Müller, Alessandro Ruggiero
      A substitution of synthetic fillers by natural fillers decreases an environmental burden, namely both in terms of saving fossil sources, and of a minimization of energy demands on a preparation of a reinforcement for composite systems. Last but not least the natural fibres are available and so they decrease a price of a final product. Performed experiment describes strength characteristics of white and brown coir fibres and biocomposites with the synthetic matrix and these fibres prepared by a vacuum infusion. Water solution of NaOH (6%, 12 h) was used for treating of the fibre surface. The strength characteristics of the fibres differ depending on time of their harvesting – the tensile strength of previously harvested white fibres reached 115 MPa, the tensile strength of brown coir fibres harvested in a full maturity of the coconuts reached 123 MPa. The chemical treatment of the fibres led to roughening of the surface and to an improvement of an interfacial interaction. The chemical treatment of the fibres also led to the increase of their tensile strength up of 58 MPa (brown fibres) and the modulus was increased of 1.87 GPa on average. Globular formations on the surface of the fibres were removed due to the alkali acting. Layers of lignin were reduced which led to an improvement of the interaction with used epoxy resin. The inclusion of chemically treated brown fibres increased the matrix strength of 28.64 MPa, the inclusion of white fibres of 20.22 MPa.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Effect of silane functionalization on properties of polypropylene/clay
           nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Marya Raji, Mohamed El Mehdi Mekhzoum, Denis Rodrigue, Abou el kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid
      Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding with different grafted clay, such as montmorillonite, halloysite and sepiolite. These clays organically modified by grafting of two organosilanes namely 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) were used as nanofillers for PP at different concentration (1–5 wt%). The physico-chemical properties of organosilane-modified clay-type were examined by various structural, thermal and morphological analysis routs. According to experimental data, all clays were successfully intercalaced using the silane molecules approved by the decline of the clay nano-particules size, modification of their chemical composition and the increase of their d-spacing. The efficiency of the silylation process as a good way to improve the matrix-fillers interaction was demonstrated by comparing the mechanical characteristics of the clays nanocomposites before and after grafting with organosilanes. Morphological and rheological properties of the PP/clay nanocomposites were also investigated in detail. In conclusion, it was found that the addition of the nano-organoclay allows improving the proprieties of silane grafted clays nanocomposites, which can endorse better interfacial adhesion between the organoclay and the polypropylene and their great spatial dispersion-distribution. The resulting PP/organosilane-grafted clay nanocomposites could be used by industry, or possible fields of application including automotive and construction industries.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Numerical and experimental investigations of low velocity impact on glass
           fiber-reinforced polyamide
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): J. Mars, E. Chebbi, M. Wali, F. Dammak
      A numerical study was carried out to investigate the low velocity impact behavior of polyamide (PA) as matrix reinforced by a glass fiber. The assessment of the impact behavior requires tensile tests to determine the elastic-viscoplastic behavior of the composites. The numerical results are confirmed by experimental dropping weight impact tests. The material model is implemented in a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) for the commercial finite element code ABAQUS to predict the numerical response of circular plate of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide subjected to low velocity impact. The effects of glass fiber volume fraction and incidental impact energy on the impact response of the composite circular plates are investigated. The impact analysis of the glass fiber-reinforced polyamide showed that the impactor velocity has considerable effects on the impact response of the composite plates. Also, the contact force changes proportionally with the impactor velocity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Adhesive hybrid nanocomposites for potential applications in moulding
           sands technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Angelika Kmita, Dariusz Drożyński, Agnieszka Roczniak, Marta Gajewska, Marianna Marciszko, Kamil Górecki, Andrzej Baczmański
      The results of investigations concerning the production of nanocomposite based on phenol-formaldehyde resin, resol type, with organophilic montmorillonite MMT Na (ogranophilic MMT Na), for applications in the moulding sands technology, are presented in the hereby paper. This composite with mass fractions of: 0.75; 1.5 or 3 mas.% of nanofiller constituted the point of departure for investigating: X-Ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), physical-chemical properties (η viscosity), strength (tensile strength Rm u; flexural strength Rg) and abrasive wear investigations of moulding sands. The performed investigations indicate that the produced nanocomposite has an intercalated structure and its viscosity increases with an increase of the nanofiller fraction. The optimal nanofiller fraction in a binder, above which mechanical properties in the system binder-mineral matrix are getting worse, was found. Thermal degradation behavior cured binder used in foundry process were studied using a convectional dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and (differential scanning calorimetry) DSC.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • A new type of (TiZrNbTaHf)N/MoN nanocomposite coating: Microstructure and
           properties depending on energy of incident ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): A.A. Bagdasaryan, A.V. Pshyk, L.E. Coy, P. Konarski, M. Misnik, V.I. Ivashchenko, M. Kempiński, N.R. Mediukh, A.D. Pogrebnjak, V.M. Beresnev, S. Jurga
      A novel (TiZrNbTaHf)N/MoN nanocomposite coatings, which consist of the nitride of the high-entropy alloy and the binary nitride, were synthesized by vacuum-arc deposition at various substrate biases. The elemental composition, chemical bonding state, phase structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were studied by high-resolution experimental methods: SIMS, GDMS, XPS, XRD, HR-TEM and nano-indentation. It was found that the chemical state of the (TiZrNbTaHf)N/MoN coatings has a complex nature, which consist of a mixture of nitrides of constituting elements. It was also shown that the coatings are based on B1 NaCl-structured γ-Mo2N-phase with a mixture of crystallographic orientations (111), (200), (220) and (311) together with the B1 NaCl-structured (TiZrNbTaHf)N solid-solution phase. First-principles calculations demonstrated that the metal sub-lattice of the (TiZrNbTaHf)N solid solution can be based on Ti1-xHfyTa1-x-y, Zr1-xHfyTa1-x-y, Zr0.25Ti0.25Ta0.5 ternary alloys, which have the lowest mixing energy. The HR-TEM results showed that the nanocomposite nitride coatings have nano-scale multilayer structure with modulation periods ranged from 20 nm to 25 nm. The maximum hardness of approximately 29 GPa demonstrated the coating deposited at a higher energy condition (−200 V) with the thinnest modulation period of bilayer of 20 nm (15 nm of (TiZrNbTaHf)N and 5 nm of Mo2N).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • The effects of silane coupling agents on the mechanical properties of
           basalt fiber reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Cagrialp Arslan, Mehmet Dogan
      In the current study, the effects of three different silane coupling agents, namely (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (AP), (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GP) and (3-trimethoxysilyl) propylmethacrylate (MA) are investigated on the mechanical properties of the basalt fiber (BF) reinforced poly (butyleneterefthalate) (PBT) composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, thermomechanical and morphological properties of the composites are investigated. According to the test results, the remarkable increase in tensile strenght and elastic modulus is observed, whereas slight improvement in flexural strenght and no change in impact properties is observed. According to flexural strength and elastic modulus values, the effectiveness of the silane coupling agents can be ranked as follow: GP > AP > MA. It is clearly shown that the increase in mechanical properties arises from improvement in interfacial adhesion between BF and PBT. It is concluded that the covalent bond formation causes the highest improvement in mechanical properties including tensile and flexural strenght and elastic modulus.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • LPCVD-based SiO2/SiC multi-layers coating on graphite for improved
           anti-oxidation at wide-ranged temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Yang Li, Wu Liang, Yuan Shi, Wei Zhou
      A novel SiO2/SiC multilayer coating was prepared on graphite by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with the aim of enhancing oxidation resistance at wide-ranged elevated temperatures. The anti-oxidation tests were performed at 1000 °C and 1500 °C in ambient air. The results showed that oxidation of SiO2/SiC multilayer coating was a continuous weight gain process, compared to the fast weight-loss of single SiC coated specimens. The final weight gains of SiO2/SiC coated specimens after oxidation at 1000 °C and 1500 °C for 120 h in ambient air are 0.116 mg/cm2 and 0.225 mg/cm2, respectively. The superior anti-oxidation performance of SiO2/SiC multilayer coating is ascribed to the intact combination between layers and excellent self-healing ability of SiO2 at elevated temperature.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Lightweight hemp/bio-epoxy grid structure manufactured by a new continuous
           process
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Luca Boccarusso, Massimo Durante, Antonio Langella
      This paper investigates the mechanical properties in terms of tensile, flexural, compression, and Charpy impact strength of a new lightweight grid structure in bio-composite material based on woven hemp fabric and bio-epoxy resin. The main intent was the manufacturing of bio-composite with high specific mechanical properties produced through a new process that can be easily implemented in industrial production, and that can produce low density composites in a continuous way with a good level of repeatability. This was done by using two hemp fabric types, that mainly differ in the fabric mesh size. Several hemp/bio-epoxy resin grid structures with different density (in the range of 0.47–0.80 g/cm3) and thickness (in the range of 4.3–12.3 mm) were obtained and their properties were widely investigated. The results showed interesting mechanical properties possessed by the bio-composites so manufactured, highlighting their possible use as core for sandwich composite structures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Bending of FGM plates under thermal load: Classical thermoelasticity
           analysis by a meshless method
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Ladislav Sator, Vladimir Sladek, Jan Sladek
      Thermal stresses, especially at the interface between two different materials, often play an important role in the failure of laminated composite structures. Thus, it is a strong motivation to replace laminated plate structures by FGM ones if possible. The functional gradation of material coefficients, however, yields new coupling effects between the in-plane deformation and bending modes. Therefore the study of behaviour of FGM plates under thermal loadings has become important. In this paper, the bending of thin and/or thick FGM plates under thermal load is considered within the classical theory of thermoelasticity. The variable material properties of plate (such as the Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, etc.) are allowed to be continuous functions of the position. The governing equations which are given by the 4th order partial differential equations (PDE) are decomposed into the 2nd order PDEs in order to overcome the inaccuracy of approximation of high order derivatives of field variables. The strong form meshless formulations for solution of thin plate bending problem is developed in combination with Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation scheme. The attention is paid to the study of the influence of various parameters of gradations of material coefficients on bending of plates.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Multiscale modeling of liquid storage laminated composite cylindrical tank
           under seismic load
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): E. Kormanikova, K. Kotrasova
      This paper presents the seismic response of laminated composite cylindrical tank in the framework of the first-order shear deformation theory. A random microstructure of composite material results in transversely isotropic properties at the meso-scale. The analysis of composites with random microstructure is done by using of a fictitious hexagonal microstructure. The laminated representative volume element is assumed for obtaining the effective material properties of the laminated composite. Seismic analysis of liquid storage laminated composite tank is different from the analysis of typical structures. The fluid exerts hydrodynamic impulsive and hydrodynamic convective pressures together with hydrostatic pressure on tank walls and bottom of the ground-supported fluid filling container during an earthquake. The knowledge of pressures and forces acting onto walls and bottom of the container and total hydrodynamic effects of liquid on storage tank during earthquake loading plays fundamental role in the design of an earthquake resistance of fluid filling container. The seismic response of a fluid filling laminated composite container was solved for Slovakia region respecting recommendations of Eurocode 8 Part. 4. We considered only horizontal seismic load by using the elastic response spectrum.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Vibration and stability analysis of functionally graded sandwich beams by
           a multi-layer finite element
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Volkan Kahya, Muhittin Turan
      This paper presents a finite element model based on the first-order shear deformation theory for free vibration and buckling analyses of functionally graded (FG) sandwich beams. The present element has 3 N + 7 degrees-of-freedom for an N-layer beam. Lagrange's equations are employed for derivation of the equations of motion. Two types of FG sandwich beams are considered: (a) Type A with FG faces and homogeneous ceramic core, and (b) Type B with homogeneous ceramic and metal faces and FG core. Natural frequencies and buckling loads are calculated numerically for different boundary conditions, power-law indices, and span-to-height ratios. Accuracy of the present element is demonstrated by comparisons with the results available, and discussions are made on the results given in graphs and tables for the sandwich beams considered.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Measurements of the effects of pure and salt water absorption on the
           rate-dependent response of an epoxy matrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 146
      Author(s): Gustavo Quino, Antonio Pellegrino, Vito L. Tagarielli, Nik Petrinic
      The study reports the measured effects of water absorption on an epoxy resin. Epoxy samples were exposed to wet conditioning environments including pure water, NaCl-water solution, and pure water at boiling temperature, measuring absorption as a function of time. Vickers hardness and indentation creep tests were performed and the mechanical response of the material to uniaxial stress was also measured in both compression and tension, at imposed strain rates in the range 0.001–2500 s−1. It was found that the absorption of both pure and salt water caused decrease of stiffness, yield stress and hardness, but only mildly affected the sensitivity of the response to the imposed strain rate and the tensile ductility. Mechanical testing after re-drying of the samples revealed the permanent effects of water absorption.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Vibration characteristics of functionally graded graphene reinforced
           porous nanocomposite cylindrical shells with spinning motion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Y.H. Dong, Y.H. Li, D. Chen, J. Yang
      This paper is concerned with free vibration characteristics of the functionally graded graphene reinforced porous nanocomposite cylindrical shell with spinning motion. It is assumed that the graphene platelet (GPL) nanofillers and internal pores are randomly oriented and uniformly dispersed in each concentric cylindrical shell, and both the GPL weight fraction and the porosity coefficient vary continuously along the thickness direction. Effective material properties of the nanocomposite which are position-dependent are derived employing the modified Halpin-Tsai model and the rule of mixture. Three types of the GPL patterns and four types of the porosity distributions are considered. Frequencies of forward and backward travelling waves and critical spinning speeds are derived from the equations of motion which are established based on the first order shear deformation theory and the Hamilton's principle. Detailed parametric studies on dimensionless natural frequencies and critical spinning speeds of the GPL reinforced porous nanocomposite cylindrical shell are carried out, especially, effect of initial hoop tension on vibration characteristics of the spinning cylindrical shell is numerically discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Hybridisation of man-made cellulose and glass reinforcement in short-fibre
           composites for injection moulding – Effects on mechanical performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): P. Franciszczak, K. Kalniņš, A.K. Błędzki
      This experimental research aims to determine the influence of reinforcement hybridisation onto basic mechanical properties of misaligned short-fibre composites. For this purpose different short-fibre hybrid polypropylene composites with E-glass and cellulose reinforcements, which are characterised by different stress-strain characteristics were compounded and injection moulded. The volumetric fractions of reinforcement and compatibiliser contents were maintained at the proportional volumetric levels to enable correlation of filling ratios and reinforcement geometry with mechanical performance of the manufactured hybrids. This research helps to foresee mechanical performance of the newly developed hybrids and gives clues to effective hybridisation by showing the basic dependencies. It was found that especially flexural strength can be boosted by the addition of a second filler to short-fibres owing to its better response to compressive stresses during 3-point bending of the bar, as long as its Young's modulus is in the range or higher than that of fibres, has similar stress-strain characteristics and its good bonding with matrix is provided. The hybridisation of short-fibres with microfillers also reduces void content and fibre damage upon processing.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • TiO2/graphene and TiO2/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic
           applications: A computer modeling and experimental study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): P.M. Martins, C.G. Ferreira, A.R. Silva, B. Magalhães, M.M. Alves, L. Pereira, P.A.A.P. Marques, M. Melle-Franco, S. Lanceros-Méndez
      This work reports a computational study, focused on graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) interfaces with titanium dioxide (TiO2), and an experimental assay on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/G and TiO2/GO nanocomposites in the degradation of two different pollutants: methylene blue and ciprofloxacin. Both carbon nanostructures were compared due to their different chemical structure: GO is a G derivative with oxygen functional groups which should promote a closer chemical interaction with TiO2 nanoparticles. Computational models of the fundamental properties of the composites indicated potentially improved photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2, namely lower band gaps and charge carrier segregation at the interfaces. These fundamental properties match qualitatively experimental results on methylene blue, which was more effectively degraded by TiO2/G and TiO2/GO nanocomposites than by pure TiO2 under UV light. In contrast, the same nanocomposites were found to be less efficient to degrade ciprofloxacin than pure TiO2 under visible and UV light. Therefore, this work showcases the relevance of an efficient matching between the catalyst and the molecular properties and structure of the pollutant.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • On crashing behaviors of aluminium/CFRP tubes subjected to axial and
           oblique loading: An experimental study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Guangyong Sun, Shunfeng Li, Guangyao Li, Qing Li
      Thin-walled energy-absorbing structures rarely experience in pure axial loading in real crash events, but rather a combination of axial and off-axial loads. In this perspective, it is critical to understand the oblique crushing process of thin-walled structures. To address this issue, circular aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) tubes were experimentally investigated for characterizing their crashworthiness subject to quasi-static axial and oblique compression in this study. The tests were conducted at five different loading angles (θ) of 0°, 5°, 10°, 20° and 30° to the tubal axis. Five sets of specific fixtures were fabricated to apply the desired axial and off-axial loads onto the aluminum and CFRP specimens, respectively. The failure modes, load-displacement curves, crushing force and energy absorption of all the specimens were analyzed; and the effects of loading angle were explored. It is found from the experiments that with the increase in loading angle, aluminum tubes were more prone to collapse in an irregular diamond mode ( I d ) instead of axisymmetric concertina mode ( A c ), while the CFRP tubes collapsed in much more complex failure modes which included splaying mode ( S p ), tearing mode ( T e ), socking mode ( S o ), micro-fragmentation mode ( M f ) and catastrophic failure ( C f ). As for the energy absorption characteristics, the loading angle (θ) ranged from 0° to 10° had little impact on the energy absorption for the both aluminum and CFRP tubes, nevertheless, the energy absorption of the CFRP tubes decreased more significant from θ = 10° to 30°, while that of aluminum tubes declined fairly steadily.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • In situ synthesis of TiC nano-reinforcements in aluminum matrix composites
           during mechanical alloying
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Vladimir A. Popov, Manfred Burghammer, Martin Rosenthal, Anton Kotov
      In this paper the possibility of fabrication of titanium carbide reinforcing nanoparticles inside an aluminum matrix by in situ synthesis during mechanical alloying will be discussed. The application of nanodiamond particles as carbon precursor for synthesis allowed obtaining TiC particles in nanosized form due to the size of initial nanodiamond particle of 4–6 nm. The developed composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Stress-driven two-phase integral elasticity for torsion of nano-beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): R. Barretta, S. Ali Faghidian, R. Luciano, C.M. Medaglia, R. Penna
      Size-dependent structural behavior of nano-beams under torsion is investigated by two-phase integral elasticity. An effective torsional model is proposed by convexly combining the purely nonlocal integral stress-driven relation with a local phase. Unlike Eringen's strain-driven mixture, the projected model does not exhibit singular behaviors and leads to well-posed elastostatic problems in all cases of technical interest. The new theory is illustrated by studying torsional responses of cantilever and doubly-clamped nano-beams under simple loading conditions. Specifically, the integral convolution of the two-phase mixture is done by considering the special bi-exponential kernel. With this choice, the stress-driven two-phase model is shown to be equivalent to a differential problem equipped with higher-order constitutive boundary conditions. Exact solutions are established and comparisons with pertinent results obtained by the Eringen strain-driven two-phase mixture and by the strain gradient theory of elasticity are carried out. The outcomes could be useful for the design and optimization of nano-devices and provide new benchmarks for numerical analyses.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • A model for functionally graded materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Xiao-Jian Xu, Jun-Miao Meng
      Modelling the mechanical properties of functionally gradient materials (FGMs) is central for engineers to accurately predict their mechanical behaviors. Beam models for FGMs with regular polygonal cross-sections are developed. It is assumed that material properties of the inner core are constant, and the outer shell gradually change by a power-law throughout the height of the regular polygonal cross-section. The analytical solutions of bending, buckling and free vibration behaviors of proposed FG beams modelled by the Euler‒Bernoulli beam theory and refined Timoshenko beam theory are obtained. In addition, the effects of aspect ratio, Young's modulus ratio, power-law index and topology number on the mechanical behaviors of the FG beams are investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • On the graphene nanoplatelets reinforcement of extruded high density
           polyethylene
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): G.V. Seretis, D.E. Manolakos, C.G. Provatidis
      The present paper is dealing with the reinforcement of high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix using pre-dried graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Nanocomposites of three different wt GNPs contents, i.e. 1%, 2% and 3%, were produced. The so-obtained extruded GNPs/HDPE nanocomposites underwent both tensile and three-point bending tests. Ultimate tensile strength was not affected by the GNPs content. However, the response on plastic deformation under tensile loading differed in each case, depending on the microstructure of the produced nanocomposites. Due to the weak Van der Waals forces that bond the graphene layers into a GNP, these layers are allowed to slip in the in-plane level and they were observed dislocated after tensile loading. Pores with high GNPs concentration were detected for GNPs contents greater than 1%. The flexural response was enhanced and flexural strength values were also correlated with the dimensions of the pores formed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Experimental and theoretical study on piezoresistive properties of a
           structural resin reinforced with carbon nanotubes for strain sensing and
           damage monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Giovanni Spinelli, Patrizia Lamberti, Vincenzo Tucci, Luigi Vertuccio, Liberata Guadagno
      The development of embedded sensors based on a structural thermosetting epoxy resin reinforced with 0.3 wt% of multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for real-time structural health monitoring is presented. The storage modulus of the composites is higher than 2000 MPa in a wide temperature range confirming their reliability as structural parts, especially for aeronautical applications. The piezoresistive properties are studied on specimens subjected to both tension and flexural stresses. The yield strength evaluated with the same approach adopted for metallic materials and alloys compares successfully with the information provided by the electrical characterization. Different levels of damages are revealed by the changes in the piezoresistive properties due to the morphological modifications in the conductive network of CNTs within the resin. The analysis of an empirical law is proposed for predicting the strain-dependence of the electrical and mechanical properties of material when the samples are subjected to stretch-release cycles. The average CNTs interparticle distances as function of bending is also estimated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Fabrication of open-cell thermoelectric polymer nanocomposites by
           template-assisted multi-walled carbon nanotubes coating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Mohammadmehdi Aghelinejad, Siu N. Leung
      In this work, open-cell polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) templates were employed to assist the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) network in polymer matrices. The continuous network of MWCNT coating and the macro-porosity helped to simultaneously promote the electrical conductivity and suppress the effective thermal conductivity of organic thermoelectric (TE) materials, and thereby enhance their TE conversion efficiencies. In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole during the template-assisted nanotube coating process also promoted the Seebeck coefficient of the polymer nanocomposites by two-fold, while suppressing their electrical conductivity. An optimum ZT value of 1.4 × 10−5 was achieved for PVDF/MWCNT nanocomposite foams with loaded 24.9 wt% MWCNT. A series of parametric experiments were performed in this study to investigate the effects of open-cell morphology, nanotubes content, and polypyrrole-nanotube interfaces on TE properties of organic materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Strength and failure mechanisms of cnt-reinforced copper nanocomposite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Bruno Faria, Cátia Guarda, Nuno Silvestre, José N.C. Lopes, Diogo Galhofo
      This paper presents a study on the mechanical behaviour of copper (Cu) nanocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using Molecular Dynamics (MD). Tensile and compressive loadings are applied to two limit boundary conditions of CNT: (i) case A – loading applied to the Cu matrix (the embedded CNT is not loaded) and (ii) case B – loading applied to both Cu matrix and embedded CNT. The reference case (Cu matrix without CNT) is also considered. Curves of energy and stress vs. strain are presented and mechanical properties (Young's modulus, yield stresses and strains) are calculated. In the first case, the CNT has an overall detrimental effect to the CNT-Cu nanocomposite, reducing yield strains and stresses, while showing residual effect to the Young's modulus. In the second case, the Young's modulus and strengths (tensile and compressive) increase reasonably while the yield strains decrease fairly. This study shows that the CNT might increase the stiffness and strength of the nanocomposite, but also decrease its ductility. Additionally, this work also reports atomic stress distributions, dislocation patterns and crystalline structures of the loaded CNT-Cu nanocomposite, which explain not only the failure mechanisms but also the differences between compressive and tensile behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Potential repair techniques for automotive composites: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Venkateswaran Santhanakrishnan Balakrishnan, Holger Seidlitz
      Composite materials have gained popularity in automotive industries due to its lightweight potential, good damping behaviour as well as high strength and stiffness properties. Based on the increase in usage of composites, there is a growing interest for a repair technique in the automotive industry. Along with these raise in demand there comes a need for an all-inclusive review article and the objective of this article is to address this need. Two repair techniques, namely scarfing repair and injection repair, have the potential to be used in automotive industry. This paper compiles the various research work done in this field of repairing along with various processing steps associated with it. Further this paper reviews the non-destructive technique that can be used for damage identification and repair assessment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Structure-property relationships of basalt fibers for high performance
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Felix Bauer, Manuel Kempf, Frank Weiland, Peter Middendorf
      Continuous basalt fibers present a unique combination of good mechanical and functional properties at an attractive cost level. These characteristics can be useful in high performance polymer matrix composites where cost orientation and function integration are becoming priority objectives. The present work examines a currently unresolved problem of basalt fibers regarding high performance applications: the variation of fiber structural and mechanical properties due to inhomogeneity of the natural raw material and the spinning process. Commercial basalt fibers from seven different manufacturers were investigated regarding their fiber chemistry, diameter distribution and occurrence of defects and crystallites. In a second step, structure-property relations on different scales were established with single fiber, impregnated roving and composite tensile test results.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Microstructure and properties of plain-weave carbon fabric reinforced
           ceramic composites containing Cu-Si alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Yang Li, Peng Xiao, Wei Zhou, Heng Luo, Zhuan Li
      Aiming to improve the physical properties, the soft Cu3Si phase was successfully introduced into C/C-SiC composites to partially replace SiC and residual Si via a simultaneously infiltration of Si and Cu. The microstructure and physical properties of the as-prepared C/C-SiC-Cu3Si composites (CSCS) were investigated in comparison to the C/C-SiC composites with same fiber architecture. The results indicated that the thermal diffusivity of CSCS is improved from 8.32 to 11.02 mm2/s, while both SiC and Si content in CSCS composites were obviously reduced to 23.2 wt% and 10.8 wt%, respectively. Moreover, compared to the C/C-SiC, the flexural strength which is fiber-dependent is significantly enhanced, while the compressive strength which is matrix-dependent is slight decreased in CSCS. The microstructural investigations revealed that fibers with less aggressiveness by liquid silicon and lower capacity to uniformly deformation of matrix in CSCS are main reasons for higher flexural strength and lower compressive strength, respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Mechanical properties of graphene oxide reinforced aluminium matrix
           composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Bhagya Lakshmi Dasari, Muhammad Morshed, Jamshid M. Nouri, Dermot Brabazon, Sumsun Naher
      In this paper, the properties of powder metallurgy produced samples of GO reinforced aluminium composites were examined. Discs of 20 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness were made from pure Al powder of 35 μm particle size and with GO reinforcement at different GO wt% (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2). The mixture of Al/GO powders prepared through liquid infiltration were cold compacted and then sintered. The GO reinforced Al matrix composites were characterised using the scanning electron microscope with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) for investigation of the homogeneous dispersion of GO into the matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for crystallographic phase and micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the phases inside the composite matrix after the sintering process. Micro hardness and the strength values from the produced Al/GO composites were recorded. It is evident from the results obtained that where uniform mixing is achieved, GO reinforced Al composites can be produced with similar hardness values as for those produced from rGO reinforced Al composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Impact behavior of carbon fiber/epoxy composite tubes reinforced with
           multi-walled carbon nanotubes at cryogenic environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Memduh Kara, Muhammed Kırıcı, Ahmet Caner Tatar, Ahmet Avcı
      This paper investigates the impact behaviors of filament wound carbon fiber/epoxy (CFRP) nanocomposite tubes at cryogenic temperatures. As nanofiller, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were introduced to epoxy resin. (±55°)4 carbon fiber/epoxy nanocomposite specimens were manufactured using the filament winding method. Low velocity impact tests at 15 J energy level were performed on the neat and MWCNT added CFRP tubes at different temperatures (23 °C, 0 °C, −50 °C, −100 °C, −196 °C). The contact force-time, contact force-displacement histories and absorbed energy values by the specimens were obtained from the low velocity impact tests for each test samples. The effects of temperature change to impact response of neat and MWCNT added CFRP tubes were evaluated. Damage zones on the specimens were also examined in detail. It was observed that damages on the specimens increased when the temperature decreased for all test samples. Furthermore, the addition of nanoparticles to the specimens resulted in higher contact force values for the same temperature and less damage in the sample sections.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Improving flexural strength and toughness of geopolymer mortars through
           additively manufactured metallic rebars
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ilenia Farina, Mariano Modano, Giulio Zuccaro, Russell Goodall, Francesco Colangelo
      This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the flexural reinforcement of a geopolymer mortar through additively manufactured metallic rebars. A mortar employing a geopolymer binder with low calcium content fly ash is reinforced with Ti6Al4V rebars additively manufactured though electron beam melting. The effectiveness of reinforcements realized with rebars featuring either smooth or rough surface profiles is studied through three-point bending tests and post-test microscopy analysis. The given experimental results highlight micro and macroscale pullout failure mechanisms in specimens reinforced with rebars showing cylindrical embossments on the lateral surface, which remarkably improve the flexural strength and the interfacial bond strength of the analyzed mortar. The role played by the surface roughness of the reinforced elements on the bond-slip response of the matrix-rebar interface is highlighted, while drawing comparisons with available literature results on cement mortars.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Additive layer manufacturing of poly (ether ether ketone) via FDM
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Marianna Rinaldi, Tommaso Ghidini, Federico Cecchini, Ana Brandao, Francesca Nanni
      The present paper concerns the additive layer manufacturing of polyether-ether–ketone (PEEK) by means of fused deposition modelling (FDM). PEEK is a high-performance polymer (outstanding mechanical properties, high thermal stability and chemical resistance), suitable for space applications, that, however, due to its semicrystalline nature is difficult to process; moreover, only very few FDM printers suitable for PEEK are currently available on the market. In this paper the results of mechanical (tensile tests), thermal (DSC), microstructural (XRD) and morphological (OM and CT-scans) testing of FDM printed PEEK samples are reported, and some of them compared with that of the extruded filament prior to printing. The results evidence the effect of the process on the printed parts in terms of thermal and mechanical properties including fracture mechanism. Moreover, the impact of printing parameters (as infill and filament deposition pattern) on the final mechanical performance is evidenced too, as it is linked to the resisting cross section.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Multi-scale analysis of the effect of loading conditions on monotonic and
           fatigue behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
           composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): P. Zuo, R.C. Benevides, M.A. Laribi, J. Fitoussi, M. Shirinbayan, F. Bakir, A. Tcharkhtchi
      In this paper, two kinds of PPS/GF composite samples (PPS-0°, PPS-90°) were prepared with two different fiber main orientations related to the injection direction. A wide range of their properties were discussed. Using DMTA analysis, it was shown that the PPS/GF composite under study obeyed the time-temperature equivalence principle. Moreover, Perez model was verified and gave a good estimation of the viscoelastic properties of the PPS/GF. Monotonic and fatigue behaviors and fatigue life of PPS/GF were investigated. Fiber's orientation, applied amplitude and loading frequency effects were emphasized. Self-heating effect on fatigue strength was also analyzed. SEM fracture surface observations allowed analyzing, at the local scale, the main deformation mechanisms occurring during mechanical loading. No evident damage development was observed for both monotonic and fatigue loading. PPS matrix plasticity appeared to be the predominant deformation mechanism until a semi-ductile or semi-brittle final failure depending on the loading conditions and local microstructure.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Preparation and characterization of natural rubber composites highly
           filled with brewers' spent grain/ground tire rubber hybrid reinforcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Łukasz Zedler, Xavier Colom, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Krzysztof Formela
      Brewers' spent grain (BSG) and ground tire rubber (GTR) were applied as low-cost hybrid reinforcement natural rubber (NR). The impact of BSG/GTR ratio (in range: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 phr) on processing and performance properties of highly filled natural rubber composites was evaluated by oscillating disc rheometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, swelling behavior, tensile tests and impedance tube measurements. It was found that increasing content of GTR in NR/BSG/GTR composites accelerate cross-linking reactions during their preparation, which resulted in decrease of scorch time and optimal cure time. Simultaneously, higher content of GTR filler in NR/BSG/GTR composites significantly improved their physico-mechanical, thermal, morphological and acoustical properties. This indicates better compatibility between natural rubber matrix and GTR than with BSG, which is related to correlation between two factors. First factor is obvious differences in particles size and polarity of GTR and BSG, which affected physical interactions into phase boundary between NR matrix and BSG/GTR hybrid reinforcement. Second factor is possible migration of unreacted curing additives and carbon black particles from GTR filler to NR matrix, which played a significant role on processing and final properties of NR/BSG/GTR composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of notch effect and ply number on mechanical
           behavior of interply hybrid laminates (glass/carbon/epoxy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Leila Belgacem, Djamel Ouinas, Jaime Aurelio Viña Olay, Antonio Argüelles Amado
      The great advantages of hybrid composite materials reside in the synergistic effect of their constituent materials and that make them very attractive for advanced applications. Nevertheless, the interactive effect of the intrinsic properties of each element further complicates understanding of their behavior. In this study, an experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of interply hybrid laminates (glass/carbon/epoxy) and the estimation of the hybridization effect with respect to mono-reinforced laminates were carried out. It has been found that the incorporation of 25% carbon fibers in the glass/epoxy laminates contributes significantly to improving their tensile mechanical properties but they degrade as the number of glass plies increase. In addition, investigations were carried out on the sensitivity of these materials to geometric imperfections. To this end, the influence of a circular notch has been highlighted. From the results obtained, it was found that the greatest loss of properties is recorded for the hybrid materials; however, they remain the most resistant.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Characterizing nonlinear vibration behavior of bilayer graphene thin films
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Yang Zhang, K.M. Liew, David Hui
      Double layered graphene sheets (DLGSs) have attracted increasing attention due to its unique excellent properties. The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear vibration behavior of DLGSs using von Kármán plate model incorporated with nonlocal elasticity theory accounting for the small scale effect. The element-free kp-Ritz method is then employed to solve the obtained coupled partial differential equations. The effectiveness of the present nonlocal element-free kp-Ritz method is verified through comparison with the published results. The influence of side length, boundary condition, aspect ratio and nonlocal parameter on the geometrically nonlinear vibration behavior of DLGSs are investigated. Ultimately, it is found that the effect of boundary conditions, side length, aspect ratio and nonlocal parameter can approximately be neglected, when compared with that of vdW interaction which exists between adjacent layers of DLGSs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Effect of laser cleaning in Laser Assisted Joining of CFRP and PC sheets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): S. Genna, F. Lambiase, C. Leone
      The present paper investigates the influence of laser cleaning of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) surface when joining CFRP to Polycarbonate (PC) sheet by means of laser assisted Joining. Experimental tests were conducted to perform polycarbonate-CFRP (with epoxy matrix) joints. The laser cleaning treatment was carried out on CFRP laminate adopting a 30 W Q-switched Yb:YAG fibre laser. Laser assisted joining was performed adopting a continuous wave 200 W diode laser. Untreated samples were adopted as reference. Morphological analysis and single lap shear tests were conducted to characterize the joints. Infrared thermography (IRT) was carried out to determine the temperature distribution and variation during the joining process. ANalysis Of VAriance was applied to investigate the effect of the process parameters, (laser power, energy, and treatment) on the extension of the bonded area and the mechanical properties. The results show that laser pre-treatment enables a significant increase of the joint strength which is, under the optimal conditions, more than double than the reference samples: However, considering the apparent shear strength, the laser pre-treatment does not produce a significant advantage, as it mainly resulted in the enlargement of the bonded area.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Biocomposites of different lignocellulosic wastes for sustainable food
           packaging applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Estefanía Lidón Sánchez-Safont, Abdulaziz Aldureid, José María Lagarón, José Gámez-Pérez, Luis Cabedo
      The suitability of three local lignocellulosic wastes i.e. almond shell (AS), rice husk (RH) and seagrass (SG) as fillers in PHB/Fiber composites applications has been studied. PHB/Fiber composites with 10 phr and 20 phr fiber content were prepared by melt blending. The influence of the fiber type (size, morphology and origin) and content on the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the as obtained composites has been assessed. To evaluate the potential use in food packaging applications, the barrier performance to water, thermoforming ability and disintegration in controlled composting conditions of the composites were also studied. All the fibers have demonstrated to be apt for their use as fillers in PHB/Fiber composites, showing a reinforcing effect without affecting the crystallinity and the disintegration rate of PHB. The thermal stability and the water barrier performance of the composites were reduced by the presence of the fibers. Nevertheless, the addition of AS resulted in the best balance of properties, in terms of permeability and mechanical properties, finding an enhancement of the thermoforming ability of PHB when 10 phr of AS was added.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Buckling of shear deformable polymer/clay nanocomposite columns with
           uncertain material properties by multiscale modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ahmet Sinan Oktem, Sarp Adali
      Buckling of shear deformable columns is studied taking the variations in the material properties into account. The material of the column is specified as a polymer/clay nanocomposite and the properties of the components, i.e., elastic constants of the polymer and clay platelets, are taken as uncertain-but-bounded. The elastic constants of the nanocomposite are determined via a micromechanical approach. The uncertainties in the matrix and the reinforcement propagate to the bending and shear stiffnesses which, in turn, lead to an uncertain buckling load expression. The least favorable value of the buckling load is obtained via convex modeling corresponding to the worst case material properties. The effects of the uncertain material parameters of the polymer/clay nanocomposite on the buckling load are investigated numerically.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
  • Three-dimensional poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/thermally reduced graphene
           oxide composite as a binder-free electrode for high-performance
           supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 145
      Author(s): Adam Moyseowicz, Zoraida González, Rosa Menéndez, Grażyna Gryglewicz
      Three-dimensional poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/thermally reduced graphene oxide (PAP/TRGO) composites with different amounts of TRGO have been fabricated via an oxidative polymerization method. The three-dimensional composite containing 20 wt% TRGO exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance as an electrode active material in supercapacitors in terms of its high specific capacitance value (287 F g−1 at 0.2 A g−1) and good rate capability (205 F g−1 at 20 A g−1). The assembled symmetric supercapacitor based on the PAP/TRGO20 composite shows excellent cyclic stability with a capacitance retention of 103% after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles. These results represent a significant progress in the design of suitable binder-free electrode materials as electrochemical energy storage devices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:38:48Z
       
 
 
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