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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
  [SJR: 1.599]   [H-I: 113]   [175 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3041 journals]
  • Effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of injection
           molded short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): M. Kawai, H. Takeuchi, I. Taketa, A. Tsuchiya
      The effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite have been examined. Static tension and compression tests are carried out at room temperature (RT), 50°C and 70°C, respectively. For each of these temperatures, constant amplitude fatigue tests are performed at different stress ratios. Experimental results show that the temperature dependence of static strength can be described by a single equation of the Arrhenius type in the range higher than room temperature for each of tension and compression. The tensile strength turns to be smaller than the compressive strength at high temperature. The effect of temperature on fatigue life can approximately be removed by normalization of fatigue stress with respect to static strength, regardless of stress ratio. The asymmetry and nonlinearity in constant fatigue life diagram turns to be more significant with increasing temperature, and they can adequately be modeled by means of the anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram. The temperature-dependent anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram approach is also tested. It is demonstrated that this method allows adequately predicting the S-N curves for any stress ratios as well as the constant fatigue life curves for the whole range of mean stress at any temperature in a range that includes the test temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Enhanced through-plane thermal conductivity of boron nitride/epoxy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Cuiping Yu, Jun Zhang, Zhuo Li, Wei Tian, Liangjie Wang, Jie Luo, Qiulong Li, Xiaodong Fan, Yagang Yao
      A facile strategy was reported to fabricate vertically oriented and densely packed hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/epoxy (EP) composites via vacuum filtration followed by slicing up. This route is simple and high-efficient without special treatment and/or chemical modification. A high through-plane thermal conductivity of 9W/mK was obtained at a h-BN loading of 44vol% in the composites. Laser flash thermal analyzer (LFA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated that the through-plane thermal conductivity of the composites increased with the fraction of the fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests indicated that h-BN microplatelets were mainly vertically oriented in the composites. In addition, as-made composites showed good mechanical strength. Therefore, it has great potential as thermal interface materials, which is very important in the thermal management of electronics, especially in electronic packages where electrical insulation is required.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Impact of interfacial adhesion on the microstructure and property
           variations of biocarbons reinforced nylon 6 biocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Emmanuel O. Ogunsona, Manjusri Misra, Amar K. Mohanty
      This work systematically demonstrates the effect of biocarbon surface chemistry on the properties of nylon-biocarbon biocomposites and that they can be designed for specific applications by engineering the biocarbon surface through pyrolysis. Miscanthus fibers pyrolyzed at ∼500°C (B1) and ∼900°C (B2) were used to reinforce nylon 6 at 20 wt.% loading. The composite containing B1 (NB1) exhibited increased tensile and flexural strengths by 19.5% and 31% respectively while the composite containing B2 (NB2) exhibited significantly lower aforementioned properties than those of NB1. The impact strength of NB2 was unchanged while that of NB1 was diminished by 32%. The property variations of the composites were attributed to the difference in interfacial adhesion between the biocarbons and nylon due to the biocarbons’ different surface functionalities. Complex and shear-viscosities showed greater restriction of the nylon chains in NB1 stemming from stronger interaction between B1 and nylon.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Influence of off-axis in-plane yarns on the mechanical properties of 3D
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, Yang Liu, Dmytro Vasiukov, Damien Soulat, Stéphane Panier
      In the current paper, investigations have been carried out on in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties of 3D multiaxial woven composites keeping in view three different architectures. The first two architectures constitute of additional bias yarns oriented at +θ° and −θ° along with 0° and 90°, whereas the third comprises of yarns directed at 0° and 90° only. Composites in which the bias yarns accompany the 0° and 90° yarns have improved mechanical properties in comparison to classical 3D orthogonal woven textile composites. In order to demonstrate the influence of off-axis yarns on the mechanical properties, uniaxial tensile (loading-unloading) and short beam shear (SBS) tests were conducted. To measure strain field and record the visual analysis of the cracking processes and de-bonding, all mechanical tests were equipped with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system. It was concluded based on the experimental results that 3D multiaxial woven composites exhibit enhanced interlaminar shear strength compare to classical 3D-orthogonal composites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Ballistic performance of hybrid thermoplastic composite armors reinforced
           with Kevlar and basalt fabrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Aswani Kumar Bandaru, Suhail Ahmad, Naresh Bhatnagar
      Ballistic performance of hybrid thermoplastic composite armors reinforced with Kevlar and basalt fabrics of 2D plain woven (2D-P) and 3D angle interlock (3D-A) architectures was investigated through experiments and simulations. Two types of hybrid armors were manufactured with polypropylene (PP) as a matrix: one with a non-symmetric (H-1) stacking sequence and the other with a symmetric (H-2) stacking sequence. Ballistic impact tests were imparted with a 9mm full metal jacket (FMJ) projectile on the H-1 and H-2 armors. H-1 armor exhibited full perforations for the velocities between 365 and 395m/s, while the H-2 armor was able to confront successfully. The front face damage of the armor was not influenced by the stacking sequence. The ballistic limit was increased by 26.27% from H-1 armor to H-2 armor, indicating the influence of placing 3D-A fabrics on the front face. However, the overall stacking sequence showed a significant influence on the overall ballistic performance of composite armors.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Microstructural investigation of drilling induced damage in fibre metal
           laminates constituents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Khaled Giasin, Sabino Ayvar-Soberanis
      Fibre metal laminates (FMLs) are used in the upper fuselage of the Airbus A380 aircraft. Machining FMLs might cause various forms of damage around the hole either in the composite layers or the metallic sheets, all of which are known as drilling-induced damage which deteriorates the surface quality of the metal/composite. The current study investigates the effects of cutting parameters on the drilling-induced damage during drilling of GLARE FMLs at a microstructural level. This study extends the previous investigation of our study on dry drilling of GLARE laminates by incorporating two modern cooling technologies namely cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) to investigate their impact on drilling-induced damage in FMLs. The results showed that both cutting parameters had an impact on the drilling induced damage in the borehole, while using MQL and cryogenic coolants showed the ability to eliminate waste formation on the machined borehole surface.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • A comparison of IR- and UV-laser pretreatment to increase the bonding
           strength of adhesively joined aluminum/CFRP components
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Valentina Reitz, Dieter Meinhard, Simon Ruck, Harald Riegel, Volker Knoblauch
      In this work different CFRP laminates (called “A” and “B”) were pre-treated using IR- and UV-laser prior to adhesive bonding. The achieved surface conditions were characterized by optical methods and correlated with mechanical properties of adhesively bonded hybrid Al/CFRP single-lap joints. Two opposing effects could be detected on both CFRP laminates after IR-laser pre-treatment: strength increasing surface activation and reducing weakening of the fiber-matrix interface in near surface areas. However, using UV-radiation it was possible to activate the surface damage-free for A whereas B exhibited thermal induced damaging of the fiber-matrix adhesion comparable to IR laser treatment. Furthermore, it was shown that surface activation by laser pre-treatment strongly depends on the used CFRP laminate. IR- and UV-laser pre-treatment of A leads to a significant increase of shear strength, whereas for B even a slight reduction was observed compared to chemical cleaning with acetone which was the reference process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Process-microstructure-electrical conductivity relationships in
           injection-molded polypropylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposite foams
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): A. Ameli, Y. Kazemi, S. Wang, C.B. Park, P. Pötschke
      Foam injection molding experiments were conducted to establish the relationships between process, microstructure and electrical conductivity in polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites. The effects of injection flow rate, gas content, melt temperature, void fraction, and cavity location on the microstructure and conductivity were investigated. At optimum processing conditions, foams with cellular skin and core regions were obtained whose conductivity was 6 orders of magnitude higher than that in their solid counterparts. The conductivity was proportionally increased with the injection flow rate, while it was maximized at optimal values of gas content (0.3%), melt temperature (200°C), and void fraction (30%). Also, a consistently low conductivity was found near the gate location. The conductivity variations were explained in term of the changes that the processing conditions induced to the microstructure and cellular morphology of the skin and core regions. The results of this work find importance in the development of lightweight conductive materials.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Ultrahigh gas barrier poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite film filled with
           congregated and oriented Fe3O4@GO sheets induced by magnetic-field
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Peng-Gang Ren, Huan Wang, Ding-Xiang Yan, Hua-Dong Huang, Hao-Bin Wang, Zeng-Ping Zhang, Ling Xu, Zhong-Ming Li
      Graphene oxide nanosheets coated with magnetic ferroferric oxide nano-particles (Fe3O4@GO) were firstly in-situ synthesized and then employed as fillers to prepare a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite film with ultrahigh gas barrier property under magnetic field. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed that the magnetic Fe3O4 particles were homogenously absorbed onto the surface of GO sheets. Polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) results proved that the PVA composite film containing congregated and oriented Fe3O4@GO nanosheets was facilely manufactured aided by the magnetic field. Due to dramatic decline of gas permeable areas along parallel direction of film, an unprecedented improvement on gas barrier property of PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposite film was achieved. With the addition of only 0.072vol% Fe3O4@GO, the oxygen permeability (PO2) of PVA film decreased from 21.17×10−15 to 0.2126×10−15 cm3 cm/(cm2 sPa), showing about 99.0% improvement of gas barrier performance. The modified Bharadwaj model introduces a proportionality coefficient (k), giving better prediction of the PO2 of PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposites. In addition, the prepared PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposite film exhibited excellent tensile strength and Young’s modulus. This congregated and oriented nanocomposite film with unprecedentedly excellent barrier performance could be perceived as a satisfying alternative for the traditional aluminum films applied in food and medicine packaging.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Comparison between temperature and pyrolysis dependent models to evaluate
           the lightning strike damage of carbon fiber composite laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yunli Guo, Qi Dong, Jingliang Chen, Xueling Yao, Xiaosu Yi, Yuxi Jia
      Both temperature dependent model and pyrolysis dependent model were proposed to investigate the lightning strike damage of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates, where lightning in-plane and in-depth damages were evaluated by the two models, respectively. Firstly, the simulated results were compared with the experimental data of IM600/133 composites to determine the feasibility of the models. The results affirmed that lightning in-plane damage evaluated by temperature dependent model had a good agreement with experimental results while the lightning in-depth damage evaluated by pyrolysis dependent model matched well with experimental results. Then the proposed models and methods were confirmed by the simulation of the lightning strike damage of TR50S15L/YPH-308 laminates and the comparison between the simulated and experimental results. The appropriate models and methods to evaluate lightning in-plane and in-depth damages are helpful for the research of lightning damage behaviors, mechanisms and anti-lightning optimizations of CFRP.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Characterization of 3D fabric permeability with skew terms
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Minyoung Yun, Hatice Sas, Pavel Simacek, Suresh G. Advani
      Flow simulations can predict resin flow behavior and void formation locations in a preform. One important parameter for simulation is the preform permeability. For thick parts with distribution media on the surface, resin flow is three dimensional and through the thickness permeability is required for simulation. If the fabric is a 3D preform or unbalanced, the through the thickness (Kzz) and two skew components (Kxz and Kyz) must be characterized. The skew terms influence the flow behavior and hence the void formation. In this study, we present a measurement station that provides all six independent components of the permeability tensor from one experiment. The methodology uses the location data of the flow front with time and then couples it to an optimization algorithm and our flow simulation tool, LIMS (Liquid Injection Molding Simulation). The process is automated and experimental results are superimposed on the simulation results to confirm fidelity of the values determined.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Phosphorus-containing diacid and its application in jute/poly(lactic acid)
           composites: Mechanical, thermal and flammability properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Tao Yu, Tuerdi Tuerhongjiang, Cong Sheng, Yan Li
      Phosphorous-based flame retardant was demonstrated excellent fire resistance for polymers and their composites, but the mechanical properties were always deteriorated. In this work, a phosphorous-containing diacid derivative (DOPO-MA) was synthesized by the reaction between 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and maleic acid (MA). The chemical structure of DOPO-MA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DOPO-MA had been incorporated into short jute/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites to study the influence of DOPO-MA on the mechanical, thermal and flammability properties of jute/PLA composites. Compared to DOPO, slight enhancements in tensile, flexural and impact strength were observed with DOPO-MA loading. The thermal degradation behaviour and flammability of the composites with different DOPO and DOPO-MA loading were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UL94 test, limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurements and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC). The results showed that DOPO-MA imparted the better flame retardancy to the composites than DOPO.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • An infiltration method to synthesize thermoplastic polyurethane composites
           based on size-controlled graphene foams
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yanbei Hou, Lijin Duan, Zhou Gui, Yuan Hu
      Graphene foams (GFs) with different sizes were prepared and applied to design thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/GF nanocomposites by infiltration method. Size-controlled GFs were successfully synthesized with variable concentration of graphene oxide (GO). Stable framework of GFs contributed to uniformity of composites and endowed them preferable thermal and mechanics performance. Results of TGA and MCC manifested that thermostability and flame retardancy of composites were superior to pure polymer, which was contributed to laminar barrier effect of GFs. Compression modulus of composite reached up to 2041.29kPa, which was much higher than GFs. Due to porous structure, both GFs and TPU/GF composites exhibited quite low value of thermal conductivity. Char residue of TPU/GF composites not only remained original shape, but withstood certain pressure, which decreased potential fire risk. Polymeric materials design, based on GFs, is a feasible scheme to obtain composite with good integrated performance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Investigation of dielectric and thermal conductive properties of epoxy
           resins modified by core-shell structured PS@SiO2
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jun Zhou, Yingye Jiang, Gaoqing Wu, Weijian Wu, Yang Wang, Kai Wu, Yonghong Cheng
      In this study, the core-shell structured polystyrene@SiO2 (PS@SiO2) microspheres were successfully synthesized by tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis method. The synthesized PS@SiO2 microspheres were subsequently characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and TEM respectively. The results indicated that the particle size of PS@SiO2 microspheres is about 2μm, and the PS microsphere is uniformly coated by amorphous SiO2 shell. PS@SiO2/cyanate ester (CE)/epoxy resin (ER) composite films were prepared with PS@SiO2 microspheres as fillers and morphology of the films was inspected by AFM. The images showed that the PS@SiO2 microspheres were well-distributed in epoxy matrix. Thermal conductivity of PS@SiO2/CE/ER composite increases 131% by adding 1.0wt% of PS@SiO2 microspheres. The volume resistivity of composites decreased with increasing of the loading of PS@SiO2 fillers and still keeping an excellent insulating performance. In addition, the dielectric constant as well as the dielectric loss of composites increased with the increased the content of PS@SiO2 microspheres.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Individual fibre segmentation from 3D X-ray computed tomography for
           characterising the fibre orientation in unidirectional composite materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Monica J. Emerson, Kristine M. Jespersen, Anders B. Dahl, Knut Conradsen, Lars P. Mikkelsen
      The aim of this paper is to characterise the fibre orientation in unidirectional fibre reinforced polymers, namely glass and carbon fibre composites. The compression strength of the composite is related to the orientation of the fibres. Thus the orientation is essential when designing materials for wind turbine blades. The calculation of the fibre orientation distribution is based on segmenting the individual fibres from volumes that have been acquired through X-ray tomography. The segmentation method presented in this study can accurately extract individual fibres from low contrast X-ray scans of composites with high fibre volume fraction. From the individual fibre orientations, it is possible to obtain results which are independent of the scanning quality. The compression strength for both composites is estimated from the average fibre orientations and is found to be of the same order of magnitude as the measured values.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Combined acoustic emission and multiple lead potential drop measurements
           in detailed examination of crack initiation and growth during interlaminar
           testing of ceramic matrix composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yogesh P. Singh, Rabih Mansour, Gregory N. Morscher
      This article presents a novel approach in which the methods of acoustic emission and direct current potential drop are utilized as complimentary techniques to monitor crack initiation and growth in interlaminar testing of ceramic matrix composites. The method presented here can be used in localizing cracks, monitoring of crack growth, and has potential to reveal the nature of damage. It is argued that using the first derivative of time dependent electrical resistance/potential drop provides information on individual events during the failure of a ceramic matrix composite under different types of loading. The results discussed here pertain to a particular method of testing for interlaminar properties of ceramic matrix composites. However, the use of presented approach can be extended to other testing methods and materials.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Thermally stable, conductive and flame-retardant nylon 612 composites
           created by adding two-dimensional alumina platelets
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Pingan Song, Cong Wang, Lei Chen, Yiqi Zheng, Lina Liu, Qiang Wu, Guobo Huang, Youming Yu, Hao Wang
      With growingly demands for better performances in electronic-related applications, further improving thermal and fire safety of nylon 612 (PA612) becomes extremely pressing. In this work, we have reported the fabrication of flame retardant and thermally stable and conductive PA612 composites by using two-dimensional alumina platelets. Alumina platelets are observed being uniformly dispersed within the PA612 matrix. Thermal analysis demonstrates that addition of alumina platelets noticeably increases thermal stability and conductivity of PA612. Cone calorimetry results show that 40wt% of alumina platelets addition decreases the peak heat release rate (pHRR) and total smoke production of PA612 by 54% and 29%, respectively, indicating largely enhanced flame resistance. Rheology tests demonstrate that there exists a nearly qualitative correlation between the flammability (pHRR) and viscoelastic behaviors (storage modulus). This work offers a new approach for creating advanced polymer composites with enhanced thermal and flame retardancy properties by using alumina platelets as multifunctional filler.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Fabrication and characterization of Nylon 6/cellulose nanofibrils
           melt-spun nanocomposite filaments
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Rui Zhu, Vikram Yadama, Hang Liu, Richard J.T. Lin, David P. Harper
      Nylon 6/cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) melt-spun nanocomposite filaments were melt spun using a capillary rheometer to explore their capacity as textile materials with potentially improved fabric comfort. The effects of CNF loading level (0–10wt%) on the morphological structures, mechanical and physical properties of the nanocomposite filaments were evaluated. The nanocomposite filaments have much rougher surfaces and non-uniform diameters compared to neat Nylon 6 filaments. Nanoindentation test on the cross-section of the filaments revealed that there was no significant agglomeration of CNFs. As the CNF loading level was increased, the complex viscosity and storage modulus of the nanocomposite filaments were increased, whereas thermal stability was retained. Tenacity and initial modulus of the nanocomposite filaments were improved due to excellent mechanical properties of CNFs. The incorporation of CNFs also increased the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite filaments, which could have positive implications for textiles as it could potentially improve the perceived comfort.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites
           reinforced with nano-SiO2 functionalized graphene oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jun Bian, Zheng Jun Wang, Hai Lan Lin, Xing Zhou, Wen Qiang Xiao, Xin Wei Zhao
      In this paper, a novel PP nanocomposites containing graphene/SiO2 hybrid (GOS) was fabricated via melt blending. It showed that GO has been chemically functionalized by selective monomers. Due to the existence of “heterogeneous nucleation effect”, the melting temperatures and thermal properties were improved, as verified by thermal analysis. GOS has been dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix due to the “barrier effects” between SiO2 and graphene sheets. Tensile tests showed that GOS filler provided substantially greater mechanical property enhancement when embedded into PP matrix. When the GOSfiller loading was 0.25wt.%, the tensile and impact strength of PP nanocomposite increased by 13.8% and 41% compared with those of pure PP and by 27.95% and 43.87% respectively, compared with those of PP nanocomposites that filled with GO alone, indicating that the combination of graphene and nano-SiO2 demonstrated a synergistic effect for the property enhancement of PP.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • A new test method for the characterization of the bending behavior of
           textile prepregs
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Hassan Alshahrani, Mehdi Hojjati
      To improve forming simulation outcomes for composite prepregs and predict wrinkle formation, the bending behavior of prepreg materials must be correctly characterized. This paper proposes a new loading-rate control bending test in which the sample deflection and applied rate are controlled by a linear actuator while the load required to achieve this deflection is recorded by a miniature-load cell. An investigation of out-of-plane bending behavior as well as viscoelastic behavior at the forming process conditions of woven fabric out-of-autoclave prepregs was undertaken using this method. The experimental results show that the proposed bending test provides sufficient control of the deflection shape, testing rates, and processing temperatures within the range of thermosetting resin. Furthermore, the bending results reveal the rate dependency and viscoelastic nature of the materials. A method is developed to derive the bending stiffness from the nonlinear relationship between bending moment and curvature.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Ultralight graphene aerogel enhanced with transformed micro-structure led
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Bin Liu, Jinhuan Li, Lufang Wang, Jiahui Ren, Yanfang Xu
      By a simple one-step reduction self-assembly process, a three-dimensional composite material graphene/polypyrrole aerogel (GPA) has been fabricated. The polypyrrole nanorods (PNRs) not only act as a spacer to avoid the graphene sheets aggregation and enhance mechanical strength but also effectively adjust the permittivity of GPAs to gain expected microwave absorption (MA) performance. Compared with pure graphene aerogel (GA), these aerogels with the ultralow density of around 0.020g/cm3 show improved MA performance that the maximum reflection loss (RL) can reach −51.12dB at the frequency of 6.4GHz, and the effective absorption bandwidth (RL<−10dB) was 5.88GHz (10.48–16.36GHz) corresponding to an absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Such outstanding MA performances are attributed to the polarization and relaxation process that is correlated with the transformed microstructure of GPAs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Experimental evaluation of anisotropy in injection molded
           polypropylene/wood fiber biocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Farhan Ansari, Luis A. Granda, Roberts Joffe, Lars A Berglund, Fabiola Vilaseca
      Although the anisotropy of wood fibers is reasonably well established, the anisotropy of injection molded wood fiber composites is not well understood. This work focuses on chemo-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. A kinetic mixer (Gelimat) is used for compounding CTMP/PP composites, followed by injection molding. Effects from processing induced orientation on mechanical properties are investigated. For this purpose, a film gate mold was designed to inject composites in the shape of plates so that specimens in different directions to the flow could be evaluated. Observations from tensile tests were complemented by performing flexural tests (in different directions) on discs cut from the injected plates. SEM was used to qualitatively observe the fiber orientation in the composites. At high fiber content, both modulus and tensile strength could differ by as much as 40% along the flow and transverse to the flow. The fiber orientation was strongly increased at the highest fiber content, as concluded from theoretical analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T12:44:20Z
  • Biopolymer composite fibres composed of calcium alginate reinforced with
           nanocrystalline cellulose
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Xiaomei Ma, Rui Li, Xihui Zhao, Quan Ji, Yacheng Xing, Jaka Sunarso, Yanzhi Xia
      To improve the mechanical performance of alginate fibres, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and its oxidized derivative (OCNC) were employed separately as the reinforcing nanofillers to prepare complete polysaccharide-based biocomposite fibres. Comparative studies indicate that both CNC and OCNC can effectively improve the mechanical performance of calcium alginate fibre at a lower content than 3.0wt.% with an optimum effect observed at 0.5wt.% loading. Both of them can enhance the water absorbency of calcium alginate fibre. CNC is more effective than OCNC to improve the mechanical property and water absorbency. Although a minor reduction in the flame retardancy of the resultant fibres was observed, in particular by the addition of CNC, the nanocomposite fibres still display good flame retardant properties, with the limiting oxygen index beyond 30. The good mechanical performance, water absorbency, and satisfactory flame retardancy of the resultant nanocomposite fibres is advantageous for their applications in different occasions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T12:44:20Z
  • Balanced strength and ductility in CNT/Al composites achieved by flake
           powder metallurgy via shift-speed ball milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Run Xu, Zhanqiu Tan, Dingbang Xiong, Genlian Fan, Qiang Guo, Jie Zhang, Yishi Su, Zhiqiang Li, Di Zhang
      Flake powder metallurgy via shift-speed ball milling (SSBM) was proposed to combine the mechanisms of low-speed and high-speed ball milling (LSBM and HSBM) for carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced, strong and ductile aluminum composites. LSBM featured mild ball-to-powder collision and slow flattening of spherical Al powders into flakes, leaving enough time for CNTs to be uniformly dispersed on the surface of Al flakes and causing little damage to CNTs; HSBM featured much stronger collision and cold welding of Al flakes, leading to clustered CNTs within the welded Al particles with serious damage but better inter-flake bonding. Therefore, the coordination of CNT dispersion, integrity and interfacial bonding could be achieved by a smart powder processing of SSBM, namely a longer starting LSBM and a shorter following HSBM. As demonstrated, such SSBM resulted in comparable strength in 1.5wt.% CNT/Al composites but doubled and tripled ductility as those fabricated via LSBM and HSBM.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • A thermo-viscoelastic approach for the characterization and modeling of
           the bending behavior of thermoplastic composites – Part II
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Steffen Ropers, Ulrich Sachs, Marton Kardos, Tim A. Osswald
      A proper description of the bending behavior is crucial to obtain accurate forming simulations, especially for continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. These materials exhibit a highly temperature and bending-curvature dependent bending stiffness. These dependencies make the property challenging to characterize with conventional characterization methods, and therefore require novel techniques. The first part of the study has shown how Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and a rheometer-based method can be used to examine viscoelastic bending behavior. This subsequent part focuses on combining their advantages in a universal characterization method, which provides an accurate description of the bending behavior over a broad temperature range, including the phase transition of recrystallization. Dynamic isothermal experiments as well as dynamic experiments over defined temperature ranges were conducted. The aforementioned experiments were reconstructed in simulations, employing the non-linear viscoelastic material model from the first part of the study, to evaluate the characterization method and to further validate the model.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Mesoscale analysis of damage growth in woven composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Aurélien Doitrand, Christian Fagiano, François Hild, Vincent Chiaruttini, Anne Mavel, Martin Hirsekorn
      The characteristic damage mechanisms of a four-layer plain weave glass fiber/epoxy matrix composite are analyzed by means of optical microscope observations on the edge of a rectangular specimen under tensile loading. Digital image correlation is used to determine the size of transverse yarn cracks and yarn-yarn debonding around the crack tips. An algorithm based on Finite Fracture Mechanics is proposed to model crack and debond initiation and propagation in the composite, which takes into account possible couplings between the cracks. The predicted debond and crack densities are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Dispersion and network formation of graphene platelets in polystyrene
           composites and the resultant conductive properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Qi-qi Bai, Xiao Wei, Jing-hui Yang, Nan Zhang, Ting Huang, Yong Wang, Zuo-wan Zhou
      A small quantity of graphene platelets (GNPs) were introduced into polystyrene (PS) to prepare the PS/GNP composites through one-step process (solution compounding, PS/GNP-S) and two-step process (solution compounding and subsequent melt compounding, PS/GNP-SM). The dispersion states and microstructures of GNPs in the composites were comparatively investigated. The results demonstrated that the PS/GNP-S composites exhibited relatively poor dispersion of GNP particles but relatively high ability to form the percolated GNP network compared with the PS/GNP-SM composites. Apparently increased glass transition temperatures were achieved for the PS/GNP-S samples. Conductive properties measurements showed that the PS/GNP-S samples exhibited relatively low volume resistivity. Largely enhanced thermal conductivity was achieved for the PS/GNP-S samples, and the thermal conductivity exhibited nonlinear behavior with increasing GNP content, which was different from the linear behavior of the PS/GNP-SM samples. The conductive mechanisms of the composites were discussed using two different analytic models.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • A novel route towards tunable piezoresistive behavior in conductive
           polymer composites: Addition of insulating filler with different size and
           surface characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Yi Zhou, Yan Zhou, Hua Deng, Qiang Fu
      The morphology of conductive network and their interfacial interaction with polymer matrix is thought as the key influential issues for the pressure/strain sensing behavior of conductive polymer composites (CPCs). The surface characteristics and size of these secondary insulating fillers should significantly influence the pressure/strain sensing behavior due to its influence on the morphology of conductive network and interfacial interaction between filler and polymer matrix. Herein, insulating SiO2 with different size and surface characteristics are incorporated into carbon black (CB)/silicon rubber (SR) composites to modify its piezo-resistive behavior. The conductivity of CB/SiO2/SR composites with nanoscale and hydrophobic SiO2 changes by several orders of magnitude, with more linear proportional to applied pressure and better stability under long term cyclic pressure due to better dispersion and stronger interfacial interaction. Through such simple method, high-performance piezo-resistive sensors could be fabricated with reversible piezo-resistivity, large pressure application (pressure below 2500kPa) and tunable piezo-resistive sensitivity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Micromechanical modeling of thermal expansion coefficients for
           unidirectional glass fiber-reinforced polyimide composites containing
           silica nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): M.K. Hassanzadeh-Aghdam, R. Ansari, A. Darvizeh
      The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of unidirectional glass fiber-reinforced polyimide composites containing silica nanoparticles are investigated. To this end, a three-dimensional unit cell-based micromechanical model together with an individual representative volume element (RVE) with c × r × h sub-cells is proposed. The interphase region between silica nanoparticle and polyimide matrix is considered as an equivalent solid continuum. Comparisons are made between the results of present model with those of available cylinder model and experiment. The results reveal that with adding silica nanoparticles to glass fiber-reinforced polyimide composites, the transverse CTE of composite decreases, while its longitudinal CTE increases. The effects of fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio, interphase thickness and material properties, silica nanoparticle volume fraction and diameter on the thermal expansion behavior of silica nanoparticle-glass fiber-reinforced polyimide composites are studied. The obtained results could be useful to guide the design of composites with optimal CTEs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Joining of AL-6016 to Al-foam using Zn-based joining materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Graziano Ubertalli, Monica Ferraris, Muhammad Kashif Bangash
      To obtain an Aluminium Foam Sandwich (AFS), Al-6016 sheets were successfully joined to a 9mm thick Aluminium (Al) foam, by using Zinc (Zn) based joining materials (pure Zn and Zn alloy with 2% Al) at 430°C in argon atmosphere. The microstructure of the joints was analysed by Optical Microscope (OM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, three-point bending tests were carried out to evaluate the flexural properties of the AFS components. Current experimental work is focused on optimization of the AFS joining process and the mechanical properties of AFS components.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Enhancing interfacial interaction and mechanical properties of
           styrene-butadiene rubber composites via silica-supported vulcanization
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Bangchao Zhong, Zhixin Jia, Dechao Hu, Yuanfang Luo, Demin Jia, Fang Liu
      To modify the filler surface and simultaneously elude issues related to the physical loss by migration of rubber additives, the concept of “supported rubber additives” was proposed and vulcanization accelerator 2-benzothiazolethiol (M) was chemically grafted onto the surface of silane modified silica (m-silica) to prepare silica-supported vulcanization accelerator (silica-s-M). Silica-s-M could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). Besides, the interfacial interaction between silica-s-M and SBR was significantly enhanced, which was confirmed by the constrained rubber chains approaching the filler surface. Consequently, silica-s-M effectively reduced the activation energy of vulcanization and SBR/silica-s-M composites showed much better mechanical properties than SBR/m-silica and SBR/silica composites containing equivalent accelerator component. From this work, it is envisioned that this methodology for the surface treatment of silica to prepare supported accelerator may be extended for other nanofillers and functional rubber additives, which may be promising for the preparation of high-performance and functional rubber/nanofiller composites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • Analysis and improved process response prediction of laser- assisted
           automated tape placement with PA-6/carbon tapes using Design of
           Experiments and numerical simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): P.M. Schaefer, D. Gierszewski, A. Kollmannsberger, S. Zaremba, K. Drechsler
      Laser-assisted thermoplastic automated tape placement (LATP) enables the additive manufacturing of composites. The quality of parts depends on the temperature distribution during processing and on the thermal history of the laminate. We demonstrate that process response variables e.g., maximum process temperature and the thermal history can be predicted by surrogate models. These models are analytical models, which are created by a Design of Experiments approach. They are evaluated in real time and allow for the fast prediction of process responses as a function of different process parameters. The models are based on data, which are obtained by computer experiments with a 2D simulation model of the LATP process. The surrogate models were applied to analyze the effects of process parameter variations. The laser power and placement velocity were found to be most influential. The capability to make these process predictions in real-time presumably improves manufacturing of complex shaped parts.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T14:47:25Z
  • POSS-bound ZnO nanowires as interphase for enhancing interfacial strength
           and hydrothermal aging resistance of PBO fiber/epoxy resin composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Lei Chen, Zhen Hu, Zijian Wu, Guangshun Wu, Lichun Ma, Chunhua Zhang, Yudong Huang
      A new hierarchical reinforcement was fabricated by growing ZnO nanowires (NWs) onto poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers using a mild hydrothermal method, which served as a platform for the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) grafting, using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) as a bridging agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphologies of PBO fibers and the de-bonding surface morphologies of their composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the chemical bonding nature between ZnO NWs and APTMS, as well as between APTMS and POSS. The reinforcement offered a 83.4% enhancement in the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) without degrading the base fiber. Moreover, the possible interfacial property enhancing reasons were explored. The hydrothermal aging resistance of PBO/epoxy composites was also greatly improved.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
  • Interlaminar fracture properties of surface treated Ti-CFRP hybrid
           composites under long-term hygrothermal conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Bin Yu, Peigang He, Zhenyu Jiang, Jinglei Yang
      The interfaces between the composite and metal in fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are vulnerable to the attacks of moisture and heat. Two surface treatment methods are introduced to improve the interlaminar performance of the FML made of titanium alloy (Ti) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The FML prepared using the anodized Ti plate and CF sheets grafted with multiwalled carbon nanotubes shows significantly increased interlaminar fracture toughness (1382%), compared with the FML fabricated with sandblasted Ti plate and untreated CF sheets. The exposure to long-term hygrothermal environment, i.e. 60-day immersion in simulated seawater at room temperature, reduces the performance of both treated and untreated FMLs. However, the treated maintains the improvement of interlaminar performance, and shows much higher interlaminar fracture toughness (25.5 times) than the untreated. This study provides a feasible solution to tune the interlaminar properties of the FMLs based on titanium alloy and carbon fibers for industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
  • Optimization of the temperature program to scale up the stabilization of
           polyacrylonitrile fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Juliane Meinl, Katrin Schönfeld, Martin Kirsten, Karsten Kittler, Alexander Michaelis, Chokri Cherif
      The production of carbon fibers from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) includes a stabilization step before carbonization. Transferring this stabilization from the laboratory to a bigger scale cannot be performed without changes of the process parameters. Using a pure PAN polymer, fibers were spun and their stabilization as well as carbonization was studied in laboratory scale. The resulting materials were analyzed with FTIR, SEM and XRD. The stabilization step was then transferred to a pilot scale. Limitations given by the production line had to be taken into account to develop a suitable temperature treatment. The formation of a core/shell structure during stabilization was observed and was detrimental to the properties of the fiber after carbonization. Adjustments were made based on obtained results to balance the negative effects of high heating rates and strong temperature gradients. With the implemented changes the mechanical properties could be reproduced on the larger production scale.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
  • The morphology and structure of natural clays from Yangtze River and their
           interactions with polyurethane elastomer
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Xing Zhou, Changqing Fang, Xinyu He, Yuzhen Wang, Jie Yang, Leipeng Yang, Jingbo Hu, Yan Li
      In thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (PUE) technology, the necessity for revealing the interactions between clays and polyurethane chains is improving recently. In this paper, three different natural clays (NC) were firstly employed to prepare NC/PUE composites to explore the relation between fillers and PUE chains. We found that the natural clays were formed from sand to fertile soil, and then corroded deeply to CaCO3 (rock) by surroundings, including water, wind and temperature and so on. Then, the neat PUE and NC/PUE composites were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, SAXS, FTIR and DSC to investigate the function of natural clays in polyurethane chains. We found that the different clays particles interacted with PUE chains in different ways. The lamellae and stacks of rock aggregated mainly in PUE matrix and interact with the hard/soft domains, while that of sand and soil aggregates mainly on the surface of PUE matrix.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
  • Structure and conformation of polyetheramine in confined space of graphene
           oxide and its enhancement on the electrically conductive properties of
           monomer casting nylon-6
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Meng Xiang, Chengjie Li, Lin Ye
      Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized with polyetheramine (PEA) and MC nylon-6/reduced GO (rGO)-PEA composites were in situ synthesized. Intermolecular covalent and hydrogen bonding was confirmed to form for GO/PEA molecules, and the grafting ratio and average layer thickness exhibit a significant increase with PEA loading. Meanwhile the interlayer spacing (d002) of GO-PEA increases steadily, and PEA chains adopt trans and planar zigzag conformation with arrangements of monolayer, bilayer in GO layers in the range of 100–400% PEA, while the completely exfoliated state of GO formed by saturation intercalation of 700% PEA. Compared with GO, the layer stacking of GO-PEA is much more weakened, exhibiting a wrinkled and almost monolayer dispersion state, which leads to a good dispersion of GO (rGO)-PEA in melting caprolactamand a much higher uniformity for the nylon-6 composites. The electrically conductive network formed, resulting in the remarkably improved electrical conductivity of the composites.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Sorting natural fibres: A way to better understand the role of fibre size
           polydispersity on the mechanical properties of biocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Marie-Alix Berthet, Claire Mayer-Laigle, Xavier Rouau, Nathalie Gontard, Hélène Angellier-Coussy
      Wheat straw fibres (WSF), obtained by successive dry grindings, were sorted by air-classification to produce two fractions, i.e. coarse fibres cleared from fines, allowing to investigate the impact of size polydispersity on their reinforcing effect in polyhydroxy-(butyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV)-based composites. Composite materials filled with up to 30wt% of both unsorted and sorted fibres were prepared by extrusion and structurally analysed. SEM pictures evidenced a better fibre/matrix adhesion in the case of fines, whereas crystallisation behaviour was not affected differently by the type of fraction used. The type of fibre did not significantly impact PHBV molecular weight. As regards tensile properties, no significant impact of sorting was noticed. Explaining this effect was difficult to gauge, as sorting affected, at the same time, fibre composition, size and aspect ratio, thus leading to competitive phenomena. The poor interfacial fibre/matrix adhesion was identified as the key phenomenon governing the mechanical properties of PHBV/WSF composites.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Use of castor and canola oils in “biopolyethylene” curauá
           fiber composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): D.O. Castro, F. Passador, A. Ruvolo-Filho, E. Frollini
      High-density biopolyethylene (HDBPE) used as a matrix in composites reinforced by curauá fibers (5, 10, 15 and 20wt%, 1cm) was obtained on an industrial scale by polymerization of ethylene derived from sugarcane ethanol. Castor (CO) and canola (CA) oils were used in the preparation of composites (5, 10, 15, and 20wt%) as a potential compatibilizer of the polar fibers and nonpolar matrix to facilitate the respective processing and to intensify polymer and reinforcement material interface interactions. The composites were characterized by SEM, DSC, TGA, DMA, and flexural and impact strength measurements. The results indicated that the incorporation of oils in various compositions, particularly CO, generally led to improved properties compared to the HDBPE/fiber composite material, indicating the potential of the oil as a compatibilizer at the fiber/matrix interface.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Lignocellulosic fiber breakage in a molten polymer. Part 2. Quantitative
           analysis of the breakage mechanisms during compounding
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): E. Di Giuseppe, R. Castellani, T. Budtova, B. Vergnes
      Composites made of polypropylene and short lignocellulosic fibers are usually produced by compounding in a twin-screw extruder. During processing, fibers are submitted to stress and strain and they undergo severe degradations, i.e. a reduction of both length and diameter, affecting the final properties of the composites. In this paper, which is the second of a series, we have systematically studied the changes in the dimensions of four types of fibers (hemp, miscanthus, sisal, flax) under different processing conditions, using an internal mixer to mimic the extrusion process. We show that the fibers’ length and diameter decrease with the strain cumulated during the process. These changes may be described using exponential laws, the parameters of which differ from one fiber type to another. Based on these evolution laws, we propose to define a “breakage index” to discriminate the behavior of the different types of fibers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Reinforcement effect of graphene oxide in glass fibre/epoxy composites at
           in-situ elevated temperature environments: An emphasis on graphene oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Rajesh Kumar Prusty, Sohan Kumar Ghosh, Dinesh Kumar Rathore, Bankim Chandra Ray
      The unique and exceptional properties of graphene based nanofillers have impelled material scientists for their possible exploitation in fibrous polymeric composites. Present investigation elucidates the effect of environmental temperature on the mechanical response of glass fibre/epoxy (GE) composite loaded with a range of graphene oxide (GO) content. Incorporation of 0.5wt.% GO in GE exhibited 21.1% improvement in flexural strength. The state of interface (both GO/epoxy and glass fibre/epoxy) and its impact on the flexural behaviour at various testing temperatures has been discussed. The viscoelastic properties of all the materials have been further evaluated in the temperature range of 40–200°C. The Weibull design parameters have been analysed as a function of GO content and testing temperature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of fractured surfaces has been carried out to comprehend various interfacial strengthening and failure micro-mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Measuring fibre orientation in sisal fibre-reinforced, injection moulded
           polypropylene – Pros and cons of the experimental methods to validate
           injection moulding simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Katharina Albrecht, Erwin Baur, Hans-Josef Endres, Ralf Gente, Nina Graupner, Martin Koch, Marco Neudecker, Tim Osswald, Philip Schmidtke, Sandro Wartzack, Karl Webelhaus, Jörg Müssig
      In commercial injection moulding simulation software only tools for glass fibre-reinforced thermoplastics exist, but not for natural fibres. In our research, we adapted a simulation software for sisal fibre-reinforced polypropylene. To evaluate our simulation results, three experimental methods, to measure fibre orientation are compared to each other using injection moulded sisal fibre-reinforced polymer parts: terahertz spectroscopy, μ-CT and light microscopy measurements (LMM) of microtome sections. Terahertz spectroscopy determines the main orientation over the plate thickness, but it neglects variances of fibre orientation across the plate thickness. Using μ-CT and LMM allows measuring fibre orientation at different layers across the plate thickness and to detect a shell-core effect. Care has to be taken comparing results from μ-CT and LMM, due to their differences in the slice thicknesses. The orientation found with the μ-CT correlates well with the injection moulding simulation developed for sisal fibre-reinforced polypropylene.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Stress ratio dependence of fibre bridging significance in mode I fatigue
           delamination growth of composite laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Liaojun Yao, Yi Sun, Meiying Zhao, R.C. Alderliesten, R. Benedictus
      This paper aims to investigate stress ratio effect on fibre bridging significance in mode I fatigue delamination growth of composite materials. Fatigue resistance curves (R-curves) of different stress ratios are determined and compared with the quasi-static R-curve. The fatigue R-curve of a high stress ratio is similar to the quasi-static results. However, fatigue resistance of a low stress ratio is smaller than quasi-static resistance. These indicate that fibre bridging significance is stress ratio dependent. More bridging fibres can be generated in delamination of a high stress ratio, as compared to that of a low stress ratio. This can lead to fatigue bridging laws are stress ratio dependent and fatigue delamination is block load sequence dependent.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Effect of geometric dimensions and fibre orientation on 3D moisture
           diffusion in flax fibre reinforced thermoplastic and thermosetting
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Abderrazak Chilali, Mustapha Assarar, Wajdi Zouari, Hocine Kebir, Rezak Ayad
      In this work, we investigate the diffusion behaviour of twill flax fabrics reinforced thermoplastic and thermosetting composites elaborated by the vacuum infusion technique. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing composite specimens into tap and salt water at room temperature. In particular, the effects of aspect ratio, thickness and fibre orientation are considered. The principal three-dimensional (3D) diffusion parameters are identified by 3D Fick’s and Langmuir’s models using an optimization algorithm. It is found that the flax reinforced thermoplastic composite absorbs less water than the flax thermoset composite. In addition, the obtained absorption curves indicate that the equilibrium mass gain linearly increases with fibre orientation, decreases with thickness and strongly related to the diffusion rate. Furthermore, 3D water diffusion kinetics are shown to depend on the samples aspect ratio and governed by a privileged direction.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Compression moulding of composites with hybrid fibre architectures
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): D.M. Corbridge, L.T. Harper, D.S.A. De Focatiis, N.A. Warrior
      Advanced Sheet Moulding Compounds (ASMC) and unidirectional (UD) prepregs have been co-compression moulded to form a hybrid composite material. In-mould flow influences the UD fibre architecture in two ways. When UD fibres are aligned transversely to the ASMC flow direction, shearing occurs which causes local changes in fibre volume fraction and fibre waviness. When the UD fibres are aligned with the ASMC flow direction, ply migration takes place. In general, the composite stiffness follows a rule of mixtures relationship, with the stiffness proportional to the UD fibre content. A grid analysis method has been developed to quantify distortion in the UD plies. Staging the resin to 50% cure was shown to reduce ply distortion during moulding, whilst maintaining suitable inter-laminar shear strength. Adding an interfacial prepreg ply between the reinforcing UD fibres and the ASMC charge successfully prevented distortion in the UD fibres, avoiding shear thinning and fibre migration.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Nano-core effect in nano-engineered cementitious composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Baoguo Han, Liqing Zhang, Shuzhu Zeng, Sufen Dong, Xun Yu, Rongwei Yang, Jinping Ou
      Nanoscale impact can bring big changes in micro-meso-macroscale behaviors of the composites. The addition of nano fillers makes cementitious materials stronger, more durable and multifunctional/smart. This paper aims at investigating the underlying mechanism for understanding and controlling the nano-engineered cementitious composites. The nano-core effect is proposed through integrating core-effect with nano effect, and is proved by experimental evidences for the cementitious composites with different nano fillers. The nano-core effect is closely relative to the intrinsic properties of nano fillers, composition and processing of the cementitious composites. The behaviors of the nano-engineered cementitious composites are governed by nano-core effect zone, i.e. nano-core-shell element. It is therefore concluded that the nano-core effect is fundamental for design, fabrication and application of the nano-engineered cementitious composites.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Rheological measurements and rheological shell model Considering the
           compressible behavior of long fiber reinforced sheet molding compound
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Martin Hohberg, Luise Kärger, Frank Henning, Andrew Hrymak
      For a realistic process simulation of sheet molding compound (SMC), comprehensive and reliable viscosity data are essential. As the fiber-length in SMC is as long as the sample size of shear or rotation rheometers, an alternative rheology tool method was developed. To improve the quality of this method, a molding tool was equipped with seven pressure sensors. By means of this tool, compressibility of a semi-structural SMC was observed during the molding process. To consider this behavior, an empirical approach is proposed to describe the material compressibility in terms of relative volume change. By adding this approach to the rheological shell-model proposed by Dumont, good agreement with experimental measurements is achieved. With the new tool design, a single molding trial is sufficient to generate a series of pressure data over the flow length. This leads to an improved quality of viscosity-data and to faster results due to fewer molding trials.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
  • Enhanced dispersion and material properties of multi-walled carbon
           nanotube composites through turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sung-Hoon Park, Sang-Eui Lee
      We report enhanced dispersion conditions and electrical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites through the use of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. The vortex flow, which is created in a cavity between concentric inner rotating and outer stationary cylinders, provided a uniform dispersion of MWCNTs in a polymer matrix through debundling highly entangled carbon nanotubes. Compared with a three-roll milling process that can apply mechanical shear forces to bundles of MWCNTs, the turbulent Taylor-Couette process generates fluidic shear forces that can more effectively exfoliate MWCNTs, particularly for high MWCNT concentrations. This was validated by the high electrical conductivity that reached 1640S/m for uniformly dispersed carbon nanotubes in a silicone polymer matrix (at 21.8Vol% of MWCNT). In view of their high electrical conductivity and uniform dispersion, the MWCNT composites can be promising for rapid electric heating elements.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:45:14Z
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