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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 268)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
  [SJR: 1.599]   [H-I: 113]   [212 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Synergistic effect of CNT films impregnated with CNT modified epoxy
           solution towards boosted interfacial bonding and functional properties of
           the composites
    • Authors: Ifra Marriam; Fujun Xu; Mike Tebyetekerwa; Yang Gao; Wei Liu; Xiaohua Liu; Yiping Qiu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ifra Marriam, Fujun Xu, Mike Tebyetekerwa, Yang Gao, Wei Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Yiping Qiu
      Carbon nanotubes thin films (CNTf) in polymers should demonstrate excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, such anticipated properties are hardly possible due to a number of factors. For example, the weak bonding of CNTf with polymers at the interface which results in easy delamination and deteriorated properties of the CNTf/polymer composites. More still, the declined conductivity of composites highly contributed by the insulating polymers. Herein, an approach to solve the mentioned problems is reported which briefly involved first modifying the polymer (epoxy resin) with the CNT in controlled percentages, and then introducing the CNTf to the modified epoxy solution which synergistically created a new CNT-to-CNT interphase and interlocked interactions, hence, presenting enhanced peeling (74.38%) and tensile (164.76%) strength in modified composites as compared to the unmodified CNTf/epoxy composites. Moreover, the strain sensing, conductivity, and temperature responses of the composites were also significantly improved as required in various high-performance composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Inter-ply angle influence on the out-of-plane compressive response of
           polyethylene fibre laminates
    • Authors: M.R. O'Masta; B.P. Russell; W. Ronan
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): M.R. O'Masta, B.P. Russell, W. Ronan
      Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites find extensive use in impact protection applications. When loaded in out-of-plane (through thickness) compression, UHWMPE laminates composed of a typical cross-ply lay-up (an inter-ply angle of θ = 90°) are known to exhibit fibre tensile rupture via a shear-lag mechanism. This study addresses the effect of inter-ply angle ( θ = 18–90°) on the compressive response of UHMWPE laminates and shows they may fail by this indirect tension mechanism. The shear-lag length increases as θ is reduced, which reduces the compressive strength at small sample sizes. A previous analytical model to predict compressive failure by this mechanism is generalised for laminates with non-orthogonal but constant inter-ply angles. The predictions capture the two key experimental observations which are dependent on inter-ply angle and sample size: the transition from ply shear failure to indirect fibre tensile rupture and the compressive strength.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Thickness effects on fibre-bridged fatigue delamination growth in
    • Authors: Liaojun Yao; Hao Cui; R.C. Alderliesten; Yi Sun; Licheng Guo
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Liaojun Yao, Hao Cui, R.C. Alderliesten, Yi Sun, Licheng Guo
      This paper provides an investigation on thickness effects on fibre-bridged fatigue delamination growth (FDG) in composite laminates. A modified Paris relation was employed to interpret experimental fatigue data. The results clearly demonstrated that both thickness and fibre bridging had negligible effects on FDG behaviors. Both energy principles and fractography analysis were subsequently performed to explore the physical reasons of this independence. It was found that the amount of energy release of a given crack growth was not only independent of fibre bridging, but also thickness. Fibre print was the dominant microscopic feature located on fracture surfaces, physically making the same energy dissipation during FDG. Furthermore, the present study provides extra evidence on the importance of using an appropriate similitude parameter in FDG studies. Particularly, the strain energy release rate (SERR) range applied around crack front was demonstrated as an appropriate similitude parameter for fibre-bridged FDG study.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Notch insensitive orientation-dispersed pseudo-ductile thin-ply
           carbon/glass hybrid laminates
    • Authors: Mohamad Fotouhi; Meisam Jalalvand; Michael R. Wisnom
      Pages: 29 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Mohamad Fotouhi, Meisam Jalalvand, Michael R. Wisnom
      Notch sensitivity, free edge delamination and brittle failure are limiting factors for the wider use of conventional composite laminates. In our previous study, a hybrid layup concept with the different materials blocked together but with dispersed orientations was successfully used to design pseudo-ductile hybrid composites with no free-edge delamination. This study introduces a comprehensive set of designed and characterised orientation-dispersed pseudo-ductile thin-ply hybrid composites to address notch sensitivity, another important limiting factor in conventional composite laminates. Un-notched, open-hole and sharp notched tension tests were performed on three different thin-ply carbon/glass hybrid configurations. The investigated laminates showed a successful pseudo-ductile un-notched behaviour with improved notch-insensitivity and suppression of free-edge delamination that was an undesirable damage mode in previously investigated hybrids with plies of the same orientation blocked together. This notch insensitivity results from subcritical damage in the laminates due to the pseudo-ductile damage mechanisms, i.e. dispersed delamination and fragmentation. These damage mechanisms can eliminate stress concentrations near the notch and suppress the conventional damage mechanisms that govern the notched response of the laminates.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Silica nanoparticle-decorated alumina rough platelets for effective
           reinforcement of epoxy and hierarchical carbon fiber/epoxy composites
    • Authors: Huichao Yao; Guodong Zhou; Weitao Wang; Mao Peng
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Huichao Yao, Guodong Zhou, Weitao Wang, Mao Peng
      Alumina platelets, ∼200 nm in thickness, have been previously used as the filler of polymers, especially for bio-inspired nacre-like composites. However, to the best of our knowledge, they have not been applied to hierarchical carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Herein, the effect of smooth alumina platelets and silica nanoparticle-decorated platelets with nanoasperities on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin and hierarchical composites were investigated. The rough platelets are much more effective than the smooth ones for the reinforcement, because of the greatly improved matrix-filler interactions. The increases of mechanically properties by the submicrometer-thick rough platelets are comparative with or even better than those by carbon nanotubes, nanofibers and graphene derivatives previously reported. The increase of the total energy dissipated during flexural fracture of the hierarchical composites and Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness are also more significant than the smooth platelets. This study provides a new approach for the reinforcement of hierarchical composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Constructing a filler network for thermal conductivity enhancement in
           epoxy composites via reaction-induced phase separation
    • Authors: Yuwei Zhang; Yucai Shen; Kunxiang Shi; Tingwei Wang; Eileen Harkin-Jones
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Yuwei Zhang, Yucai Shen, Kunxiang Shi, Tingwei Wang, Eileen Harkin-Jones
      Diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol-A (DGEBA)/methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride/polyethersulphone (PES) blends are prepared as matrix resins for thermally conductive composites using graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) as the conductive component. The epoxy/PES blends form a network structure via reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS) during the curing process, and the GNPs are selectively localized in the PES phase and at the interface leading to a three-dimensional continuous filler network. With this unique structure, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy/PES/10 wt% GNPs composite is increased to 0.709 W m−1 K−1, which is nearly 3.5 times that of the pure epoxy or a 52% increase compared to the epoxy/GNP composite without PES. In addition, it is found that the impact strength of the composite relative to the unfilled material is also improved.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Light-actuated reversible shape memory effect of a polymer composite
    • Authors: Wenbing Li; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Wenbing Li, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng
      In the current study, a novel polymer composite with excellent light-actuated two-way shape memory effect (2W-SME) was fabricated using poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) as matrix and p-aminodiphenylimide (p-AP) as both light-absorber and heat source (EVA/p-AP). Unlike traditional thermally-driven two-way reversible shape memory polymers, in our concept, the EVA/p-AP featured remotely controlled and light-manipulatable reversible two-way shape memory behaviors. Utilizing the distinct light-responsive behavior of p-AP in the irradiation of 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) light, the EVA/p-AP composite exhibited excellent light-actuated reversible 2W-SME by a light-manipulated procedure. The results from this study indicated that the composite material could have greatly potential applications in soft reversible drivers.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Microscopical observations of interface cracks from inter-fibre failure
           under compression in composite laminates
    • Authors: Patricia Lucía Zumaquero; Elena Correa; Jesús Justo; Federico París
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Patricia Lucía Zumaquero, Elena Correa, Jesús Justo, Federico París
      Matrix/inter-fibre failure is characterized by the appearance at the fibre–matrix interfaces of small debonds that can progress along them until reaching a certain extension, then changing their orientation to kink towards the matrix and, finally, growing through it. The particular case of compressive loading is specially interesting, given the morphology of the interface cracks and the specific angle that the macro-cracks form in the matrix. To date, the analysis of this problem at micro-mechanical level has been carried out mainly by means of Finite Element or Boundary Element models. In this work, the problem is approached from the experimental point of view, observing under optical microscope those coupons previously tested at different loading levels. Several aspects such as the identification of the stages of the failure mechanism, the kinking angle, the extension of the interface cracks and the presence of damage as a function of the loading level are studied.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Micromechanics of reinforcement of a graphene-based thermoplastic
           elastomer nanocomposite
    • Authors: Mufeng Liu; Dimitrios G. Papageorgiou; Suhao Li; Kailing Lin; Ian A. Kinloch; Robert J. Young
      Pages: 84 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Mufeng Liu, Dimitrios G. Papageorgiou, Suhao Li, Kailing Lin, Ian A. Kinloch, Robert J. Young
      In this work, a series of graphene-reinforced thermoplastic elastomers were prepared, with the introduction of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) of different particle diameter. Their microstructures were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by polarised Raman spectroscopy. Τhe GNPs were well-dispersed and their orientation across the cross-section of the injection moulded samples was consistent with the shear rate profile of fountain flow mechanism. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated by tensile testing and it was found that the GNPs contributed to significant improvements in both the stiffness and strength. A micromechanical model based on the combination of shear-lag theory and the rule-of-mixtures was introduced to analyse the stiffening mechanisms. Τhe effective aspect ratio of GNPs was in the order of 100 and decreased with increasing filler loading due to agglomeration. Finally, the stress transfer efficiency from the matrix to GNPs was evaluated by observing the Raman band shifts under tension.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Effect of fibre straightness and sizing in carbon fibre reinforced powder
           epoxy composites
    • Authors: Dimitrios Mamalis; Tomas Flanagan; Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh
      Pages: 93 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Dimitrios Mamalis, Tomas Flanagan, Conchúr M. Ó Brádaigh
      Carbon fibres with three different sizing agents were used to manufacture unidirectional composites based on powder epoxy resin. A specially designed tensioning apparatus was adopted to apply tension on fibres during the thermal curing cycle, in order to achieve an enhancement of fibre straightness. Chemical composition and surface morphologies of the carbon fibres were extensively characterised. The composites were evaluated using tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength tests, and mechanical performance measured based on fibre orientation, fracture modes and interfacial properties. The results demonstrated that composites processed with fibres under tension resulted in an increased unidirectional character in connection with the different amounts of sizing. Flexural and interlaminar testing of the laminates, in addition to Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyses, revealed interfacial adhesion differences, emphasizing the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the type of reinforcement to the structural integrity of composite.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Fabrication of high thermal conductive shape-stabilized polyethylene
           glycol/silica phase change composite by two-step sol gel method
    • Authors: Zengsheng Weng; Kun Wu; Fubin Luo; Fei Xiao; Qian Zhang; Shan Wang; Mangeng Lu
      Pages: 106 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Zengsheng Weng, Kun Wu, Fubin Luo, Fei Xiao, Qian Zhang, Shan Wang, Mangeng Lu
      Tetraethyl silicate (TEOS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to prepare inorganic–organic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/silica (SiO2) nanocomposites by a controllable sol–gel method. Two kinds of counter ions were used to help gelatinize step by step. The presence of metal ions accelerates hydrolysis of SiO2 sol and the presence of ammonium ions allows the system to gel rapidly. PEG forms a shell-and-core structure with SiO2 and this composite shows excellent thermal stability. Moreover, system contains respectively Calcium ions (Ca2+), magnesium ions (Mg2+), aluminum ions (Al3+) were studied. It is very interesting that PEG with different metal ions formed different strength of the chemical force between PEG and metal ions change due to presence of different metal ions. As the force increased, the thermal conductivity increased from 0.25 W m−1 k−1 to 0.41 W m−1 k−1 and the phase change latent heat of the composites increased from 46.99 to 91.05 J/g, without affecting the phase transition temperature.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Flame retardancy of rice straw-polyethylene composites affected by in situ
           polymerization of ammonium polyphosphate/silica
    • Authors: Dong Jiang; Mingzhu Pan; Xin Cai; Yuting Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Dong Jiang, Mingzhu Pan, Xin Cai, Yuting Zhao
      Rice straw was modified by in situ polymerization of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) polyelectrolyte. FTIR and SEM results indicated that APP polyelectrolyte was grafted into rice straw surface and attracted silica granules. APP polyelectrolyte showed a uniform distribution on surface of rice straw. Composites containing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the modified rice straw with APP polyelectrolyte were prepared. By incorporating APP polyelectrolyte of 15 wt%, limited oxygen index (LOI) of rice straw-HDPE composites (RPCs) reached to 23.5%. Introducing neat rice straw to HDPE resulted in a reduction in peak heat release rate (pHRR) of 563.7 kW/m2 for RPCs compared with 1223.8 kW/m2 for pure HDPE. For RPCs with APP polyelectrolyte of 15 wt%, pHRR reached to 488.4 kW/m2. An intumescent, stable, and compact char layer, consisting of PC, PNC, CC, SiOP, and SiP, resulted in an improvement on flame retardancy of RPCs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Experimental investigation of impact behavior of wood-based sandwich
    • Authors: John Susainathan; Florent Eyma; Emmanuel De Luycker; Arthur Cantarel; Bruno Castanie
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): John Susainathan, Florent Eyma, Emmanuel De Luycker, Arthur Cantarel, Bruno Castanie
      Low carbon emission and sustainable development are shared goals throughout the transportation industry. One way to meet such expectations is to introduce lightweight materials based on renewable sources. Sandwich panels with plywood core and fiber reinforced composite skins appear to be good candidates. Additional properties of wood such as fire resistance or thermal and acoustic insulation are also essential for many applications and could lead to a new interest for this old material. In this paper, Sandwich panels with two different types of plywood and four different skins (aluminum and glass, CFRP, or flax reinforced polymer) are tested under low-velocity/low energy impacts and their behavior is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • The brittle-to-ductile transition in tensile and impact behavior of hybrid
           carbon fibre/self-reinforced polypropylene composites
    • Authors: Marina Selezneva; Yentl Swolfs; Amalia Katalagarianakis; Tomoko Ichikawa; Noriyuki Hirano; Ichiro Taketa; Takuya Karaki; Ignaas Verpoest; Larissa Gorbatikh
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Marina Selezneva, Yentl Swolfs, Amalia Katalagarianakis, Tomoko Ichikawa, Noriyuki Hirano, Ichiro Taketa, Takuya Karaki, Ignaas Verpoest, Larissa Gorbatikh
      Hybrid composites combining two fibre types with distinctly different mechanical properties have the potential to surpass the stiffness-toughness dilemma, which is characteristic to standard (single fibre type) composite materials. The current work demonstrates this potential on the example of carbon fibre/self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) hybrids. The aim is to understand the transition from brittle to ductile behaviour under tensile and impact loadings and to identify the parameters affecting this transition. It was found that the volume fraction (Vf) of carbon fibres at which the transition occurs can be increased by using a dispersed layup with thinner layers. The use of a high adhesion matrix results in higher modulus and yield strength but lowers the transition Vf. The experimental program is supported by analytical models used to predict modulus, strength and energy absorption. Results indicate that pseudo-ductile carbon fibre/SRPP hybrids are competitive with composites produced from bulk and sheet moulding compounds.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Uniaxial strength of a composite array of overlaid and aligned prepreg
    • Authors: Sergii G. Kravchenko; Drew E. Sommer; R. Byron Pipes
      Pages: 31 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Sergii G. Kravchenko, Drew E. Sommer, R. Byron Pipes
      The tensile strength of a discontinuous composite system consisting of aligned, unidirectional prepreg platelets is predicted by performing progressive damage analyses in a periodic representative volume element. Interlaminar and in-plane damage mechanisms are combined to yield failure characteristics of the meso-structure. The length-to-thickness ratio of the platelet was found to be the primary variable for control of system strength and failure mode. A critical platelet aspect ratio was determined as that ratio wherein system strength is maximized. Further, composite strength variability was shown to be vary inversely with aspect ratio, while attaining a minimum at the critical aspect ratio.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • High-energy-density with polymer nanocomposites containing of SrTiO3
           nanofibers for capacitor application
    • Authors: Lingmin Yao; Zhongbin Pan; Jiwei Zhai; Guangzu Zhang; Zhiyu Liu; Yuhua Liu
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Lingmin Yao, Zhongbin Pan, Jiwei Zhai, Guangzu Zhang, Zhiyu Liu, Yuhua Liu
      Inorganic/polymer nanocomposite films have attracted pronounced attention for electric energy storage applications since their high power energy density and fast charge-discharge ability. In this work, the flexible nanocomposite films composed by the paraelectric SrTiO3 nanofibers (ST NFs) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were prepared by a solution cast method. The ST NFs, synthesized by an electrospinning method, were coated with a dense and robust dopamine layer which could effectively improve the filler-matrix distributional homogeneity and compatibility. The composite film with an optimized filler content illustrates a high discharge energy density of 9.12 J/cm3 at 360 MV/m, which is about 625% over the biaxially oriented polypropylenes (BOPP) (1.2 J/cm3 at 640 MV/m). Moreover, the composite film shows a superior power density of 2.31 MW/cm3 and ultra-fast discharge speed of 178 ns. Therefore, the present approach might be extended to the fabrication of similar polymeric nanocomposites for high-performance capacitor energy storage devices.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.040
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Core-shell structured carbon nanotube-poly(methylmethacrylate) beads as
           thermo-conductive filler in epoxy composites
    • Authors: Minh Canh Vu; Young Han Bae; Min Ji Yu; Md. Akhtarul Islam; Sung-Ryong Kim
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Minh Canh Vu, Young Han Bae, Min Ji Yu, Md. Akhtarul Islam, Sung-Ryong Kim
      A facile and novel method has been developed for the preparation of highly thermo-conductive epoxy-based composites. The core-shell structure is formed with ‘functionalized carbon nanotubes (sCNTs)’ as shell encapsulated on the plasma-treated poly(methylmethacrylate) (pPMMA) as core. Effective thermo-conductive pathways are realized through core-shell structured bead-bead conduction throughout the composites. The core and shell have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared analysis and zeta potential measurement. The core-shell arrangement has visualized by scanning electron microscopy, which supported the expectation that the shell being positively charged would be assembled on the negatively charged core forming a highly conductive outer surface of the non-conductive core. The thermal conductivity of the epoxy composites increased from 0.19 W m−1 K−1 of neat epoxy to 0.96 W m−1 K−1 at 1 wt% of sCNTs in sCNT@pPMMA beads. The method developed in this work introduces a new approach of using non-conductive polymer beads as constituting element in conductive framework formation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Dynamic response of circular composite laminates subjected to underwater
           impulsive loading
    • Authors: Wei Huang; Wei Zhang; Tuo Chen; Xiongwen Jiang; Jiayi Liu
      Pages: 63 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Wei Huang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Chen, Xiongwen Jiang, Jiayi Liu
      The dynamic response and failures of carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to underwater impulsive loading are investigated experimentally. The effect of impulsive intensity and thickness of laminates on dynamic deformation, failure modes, and associated mechanisms is identified and quantified respectively. The plates are subjected to underwater impulsive loads of different intensities with a lab-scaled underwater explosive simulator. 3D DIC is employed to capture the dynamic response in terms of response rate, mid-span deflection, and deflection-profile history during the elastic response process, followed by a series of postmortem non-destructive investigation and microscopic examinations to examine the failure modes and its distributions, and analyse the associated mechanisms. The results show that the intensity of impulse, thickness and failure of panels affect the dynamic response of laminate plates significantly. The non-surface failure has very limited influences on the tendency of the deflection-impulse relationship, and the local failure on the surface occurring later than the delamination and fiber fracture through the thickness of laminates. The blast resistance of composite laminates is not enhanced continuously with the increasing thickness due to the inconsistent changes of failure modes. With similar areal mass, meanwhile, composite laminates perform better blast-resistant performance than that of the metallic structures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.043
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Ultrasonic welding of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites through a
           PEI thermoplastic coupling layer
    • Authors: Irene Fernandez Villegas; Regis van Moorleghem
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Irene Fernandez Villegas, Regis van Moorleghem
      This paper investigates welding of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites using the following procedure. Firstly, the carbon/epoxy composite was made “weldable” through a very thin PEI thermoplastic film co-cured on its surface. During the curing cycle, the PEI resin and the components of the epoxy resin system partially diffused into each other generating a gradient interphase between the original epoxy and PEI resins. Subsequently, the carbon/PEEK composite adherend was welded onto the PEI-rich surface of the weldable carbon/epoxy adherend, exploiting the total miscibility between PEI and PEEK. Thermal degradation of the carbon/epoxy adherend during the welding process was avoided via the ultra-short heating times enabled by the ultrasonic welding technology. In this research, mechanical testing was used to evaluate the weld strength relative to reference joints. Additionally, cross-section scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the morphology of the PEI/epoxy interphase before and after the welding process.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Laser-based surface patterning of composite plates for improved secondary
           adhesive bonding
    • Authors: Ran Tao; Marco Alfano; Gilles Lubineau
      Pages: 84 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Ran Tao, Marco Alfano, Gilles Lubineau
      The effects of laser irradiation surface pretreatments on the mode I fracture toughness of adhesively bonded composite joints were evaluated. First, pulsed CO2 laser irradiation was uniformly deployed on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates. Next, double cantilever beam (DCB) tests were performed to assess the effects of surface pretreatments on the mode I fracture toughness of the adhesive joints. Then, a thoughtful combination of the proposed surface pretreatments was deployed to fabricate DCB specimens with patterned interfaces. A wide range of techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact profilometry, and optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to ascertain the effects of all investigated surface pretreatments. It is shown that patterning promoted damage mechanisms that were not observed in the uniformly treated interfaces, resulting in an effective fracture toughness well above that predicted by a classical rule of mixture.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.041
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Ply thickness dependence of the intralaminar fracture in thin-ply
           carbon-epoxy laminates
    • Authors: G. Frossard; J. Cugnoni; T. Gmür; J. Botsis
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): G. Frossard, J. Cugnoni, T. Gmür, J. Botsis
      The effect of ply thickness t in intralaminar fracture of unidirectional thin-ply carbon-epoxy laminates is characterized by testing double cantilever beam (DCB) and compact tension (CT) specimens with different t. While the average intralaminar energy release rate (ERR) at initiation is found equal to the corresponding interlaminar values, the steady-state intralaminar ERRs, only reached in the DCB configuration, are approximately three times higher than the corresponding interlaminar values. Due to changes in the extent of bridging, intralaminar steady-state ERRs are ∼30% higher in thick-ply (t = 0.150 mm) than in thin-ply laminates (t = 0.030 mm). Thin-ply composite laminates exhibit a faster ERR growth with crack length, and for DCB, reach steady-state at a much shorter crack extension than thick-ply composites. Traction profiles, due to bridging, are identified using R-curves and implemented in cohesive element simulations to predict intralaminar fracture of DCB and CT specimens. The experimental and simulated load–displacement responses are in good agreement.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Adhesion enhancement and damage protection for carbon fiber-reinforced
           polymer (CFRP) composites via silica particle coating
    • Authors: Kyungtae Kim; Yong Chae Jung; Seong Yun Kim; B.J. Yang; Jaewoo Kim
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Kyungtae Kim, Yong Chae Jung, Seong Yun Kim, B.J. Yang, Jaewoo Kim
      Adhesive materials for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have attracted the interest of researchers as an effective means to bond newly developed lightweight and high-performance composite structures. In this study, we developed a novel method to overcome these critical problems through a silica particle coating. Four-step bonding procedures were proposed to bind heterogeneous materials, where various concentrations of silica particles were introduced to coat CFRP composite surfaces uniformly in order to serve as a reinforcement and as a protection barrier layer against CFRP fractures. Experimental evaluations of the mechanics and fractography studies were conducted to clarify the correlations among the silica concentrations, adhesive strength levels, coating properties, and CFRP surface fractures. It was demonstrated that the introduction of the silica surface coating improves the adhesive strength by approximately 20% while also reducing CFRP surface fractures significantly by around 90%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.042
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Nano-enhanced interface in carbon fibre polymer composite using halloysite
    • Authors: Miriam Jäger; Omid Zabihi; Mojtaba Ahmadi; Quanxiang Li; Andreas Depalmeanar; Minoo Naebe
      Pages: 115 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Miriam Jäger, Omid Zabihi, Mojtaba Ahmadi, Quanxiang Li, Andreas Depalmeanar, Minoo Naebe
      The carbon fibres (CFs) sizing has a crucial impact on final properties of CFs reinforced polymer composites. Herein, an industrially-adaptable process for sizing of CFs was employed through a dip-coating process which includes using epoxy sizing solutions mixed with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Potential changes in the mechanical properties of the CFs and the characteristics of the resulting composites were evaluated. Epoxy sizing containing various concentrations of HNTs changed the surface roughness, and friction of CFs. The obtained results demonstrated that HNTs does not significantly affect the tensile strength of CFs, however, surface energies, obtained by an inverse gas chromatography technique, are increased. To demonstrate the effect of HNTs on the fibre/epoxy matrix interactions, single fibre fragmentation tests (SFFT) were conducted and consequently apparent interfacial shear strength (IFSS) were calculated. The IFSS increased up to 23% compared to a pure sized CFs and up to 61% compared to an unsized-CFs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Enhanced interfacial, electrical, and flexural properties of polyphenylene
           sulfide composites filled with carbon fibers modified by electrophoretic
           surface deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes
    • Authors: Min Park; Jong Hyuk Park; B.J. Yang; Jaehyun Cho; Seong Yun Kim; Inhwa Jung
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Min Park, Jong Hyuk Park, B.J. Yang, Jaehyun Cho, Seong Yun Kim, Inhwa Jung
      Electrophoresis can be an effective approach for depositing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of carbon fiber (CF). Nevertheless, it has been rarely reported on polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composites filled with CFs surface-modified by CNTs based on electrophoresis. In this study, we investigated the electrophoresis process conditions that can completely coat CF with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) using self-manufactured electrophoresis equipment, and the enhancement of interfacial, electrical and flexural properties of PPS composites by introducing CFs coated with MWCNTs based on electrophoresis. In particular, interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the PPS composites was measured by microbond tests and improved by about 41.7% due to the MWCNTs introduced on the surface of CFs. These enhancements were theoretically explained by an interface-modified CF-based micromechanical model. Introducing MWCNTs on the CF surface based on electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective method for improving the interfacial, electrical and flexural properties of PPS composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • A continuum mechanics analysis of shear characterisation methods
    • Authors: Remko Akkerman
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Remko Akkerman
      The shear response of fabrics and fabric reinforced materials is primarily characterised by means of Picture Frame and Bias Extension experiments. Normalisation methods have been proposed earlier to enable comparison between different measurement results. Here, a continuum mechanics based analysis is presented for biaxial fabric materials without intra-ply slip, subject to constraints of fibre inextensibility. The fibre stresses are separated from the constitutively determined extra stresses, leading to a scalar equivalent stress resultant which makes the analysis of these tests more transparent. The equations are elaborated for both shear characterisation experiments and a direct measurement evaluation is proposed, without the need for iterative parameter identification methods.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.036
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effects of uracil on crystallization and rheological property of
    • Authors: Xue-Mei Che; Hai-Mu Ye; Guo-Qiang Chen
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Xue-Mei Che, Hai-Mu Ye, Guo-Qiang Chen
      Uracil was investigated as a nucleating agent for bacterially synthesized copolymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB4HB). The effects of uracil on the crystallization kinetics, melting behavior, spherulite morphology, crystalline structure and rheological behavior of P3HB4HB were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and rheometer. The crystallization half-times (t 1/2) of P3HB4HB decreased significantly in the presence of uracil. With addition of 1 wt% uracil, the t 1/2 value of P3HB4HB melt crystallizing at 95 °C decreased to 2.37 min, about 3.5% of the neat polymer. In-situ FTIR spectra revealed the clear interactions between uracil and P3HB4HB in composites, inducing some precursory structures. Furthermore, the storage and loss modulus of nucleated P3HB4HB increased exponentially compared with neat P3HB4HB. It was proposed that uracil is an environment friendly nucleating agent and rheological modifier for the P3HB4HB.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Microstructure and tensile properties of 5083 Al matrix composites
           reinforced with graphene oxide and graphene nanoplates prepared by
           pressure infiltration method
    • Authors: Puzhen Shao; Wenshu Yang; Qiang Zhang; Qingyu Meng; Xin Tan; Ziyang Xiu; Jing Qiao; Zhenhe Yu; Gaohui Wu
      Pages: 151 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Puzhen Shao, Wenshu Yang, Qiang Zhang, Qingyu Meng, Xin Tan, Ziyang Xiu, Jing Qiao, Zhenhe Yu, Gaohui Wu
      In the present work, 5083Al matrix composites reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplates (GNPs) have been prepared by the pressure infiltration method. Regardless of the graphene types, no peaks of Al4C3 phase have been detected by the XRD analysis. However, needle-like Al4C3 phase has been observed in the GO/5083Al and the GNPs/5083Al composites, while the content of the Al4C3 phase in the GNPs/5083Al composite was much lower. Furthermore, the segregation of Mg element at the surface of the GNPs has been found in the GNPs/5083Al composite, implying the inhibition effect of Mg element on the formation of the Al4C3 phase. It has been found that the yield strength of the composites was slightly improved by the addition of the GO and GNPs, and the GNPs/5083Al composite demonstrated 14% increment in the tensile strength. Meanwhile, the pulling-out of the GO and GNPs have been observed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Mechanical properties of composite laminates reinforced with rectangular
           z-pins in monotonic and cyclic tension
    • Authors: Julian Hoffmann; Gerhard Scharr
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Julian Hoffmann, Gerhard Scharr
      This paper presents an experimental study investigating the static and fatigue tensile properties of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates reinforced with rectangular and circular z-pins. All z-pinned laminates showed reduced tensile stiffness and strength compared to unpinned specimens. The insertion of rectangular z-pins that were aligned lengthwise to the fiber direction of a laminate ply was observed to cause minor microstructural damage, such as in-plane fiber waviness. Therefore, the use of rectangular z-pins led to significantly higher tensile stiffness and strength in both unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. Unpinned laminates showed only minor fatigue effects. The insertion of z-pins resulted in a decrease in the fatigue performance of the tested unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates. Since this deterioration was primarily caused by the initial knockdown of the static tensile strength of the z-pinned laminates, rectangular z-pins showed superior fatigue performance in both unidirectional and quasi-isotropic laminates.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Single polymer laminate composites by compression molding of knitted
           textiles and microparticles of polyamide 6: Preparation and
           structure-properties relationship
    • Authors: Shafagh D. Tohidi; Ana Maria Rocha; Nadya V. Dencheva; Zlatan Denchev
      Pages: 171 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Shafagh D. Tohidi, Ana Maria Rocha, Nadya V. Dencheva, Zlatan Denchev
      Knitted reinforced single polymer laminate composites based on polyamide 6 ( KSPCs PA 6 ) were produced by compression molding of polyamide 6 microparticles ( MPs PA 6 ) powder-coating annealed PA6 Rib or Jersey knitted textile structures. The MPs PA 6 were synthesized by solution/precipitation activated anionic ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam. The tensile properties of KSPCs PA 6 were studied in relation to the knitted reinforcement architecture, fiber volume fraction, ply orientation and stacking orders. The tensile stiffness and strength of the newly prepared KSPCs PA 6 with fiber content of 15% showed significant improvements as compared to the neat anionic PA6 matrix and to commercial hydrolytic PA6 (HPA6). The mechanical behavior of the KSPCs PA 6 was correlated with the geometry parameters of the knitted reinforcements, the polymorph content of the samples and their crystallinity indexes determined by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The fracture behavior of KSPCs PA 6 was investigated by electron microscopy complemented by simulation studies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Modelling heat transfer through an FBG optical fibre
    • Authors: P. Schubel; R. Umer; E.K.G. Boateng
      Pages: 184 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): P. Schubel, R. Umer, E.K.G. Boateng
      This paper presents a new approach to model heat transfer through an optical fibre. Three thermal strain modelling procedures were evaluated for coated and uncoated FBG optical fibres, considering different layers of sensors that effect strain measurements. The compensation factors required for strain measurements were investigated. The acrylate coating was found unsuitable for thermosetting polymers due to low Tg whereas, polyimide coating was appropriate for cure monitoring due to high Tg than most thermoset resins. Three types of thermal strain models were simulated, and the results were compared with experiments. The heat transfer through the core of an optical fibre was found negligible relative to glass cladding and the coating layers. It was found that thermal strains induced by the glass cladding and protective layers become more dominant as the heating rate and temperature range increases. The uncoated FBGs were found to give better accuracy for high temperature applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effect of resin-rich bond line thickness and fibre migration on the
           toughness of unidirectional Carbon/PEEK joints
    • Authors: Francisco Sacchetti; Wouter J.B. Grouve; Laurent L. Warnet; Irene Fernandez Villegas
      Pages: 197 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Francisco Sacchetti, Wouter J.B. Grouve, Laurent L. Warnet, Irene Fernandez Villegas
      It is a common practice in fusion bonding of thermoplastic composites to add a matrix layer between the two substrates to be joined. The aim is to ensure proper wetting of the two parts. The effect of this additional matrix layer on the mechanical performance was studied by mode I fracture toughness measurements. The additional matrix was inserted at the interface in the form of films of various thicknesses. Three different manufacturing techniques, namely autoclave consolidation, press consolidation and stamp forming, were used to prepare different sets of specimens with varying resin-rich bond line thickness. The occurrence of fibre migration towards the matrix rich interface was induced by the manufacturing techniques used due to their different processing times. The interlaminar fracture toughness was observed to increase with increasing amount of extra-matrix at the interface, while no effects of the fibre migration on the fracture toughness were observed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • An assessment of financial viability of recycled carbon fibre in
           automotive applications
    • Authors: Fanran Meng; Jon McKechnie; Steve J. Pickering
      Pages: 207 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Fanran Meng, Jon McKechnie, Steve J. Pickering
      Carbon fibre (CF) recycling has been demonstrated to achieve reductions in environmental impacts compared to virgin CF production, but there is limited understanding of the financial viability of recycling and reutilisation of recycled CF (rCF). In this work, cost analysis and identification of market opportunities for rCF are performed by evaluating the cost of recycling, composite manufacture, and applications in automotive industry. Cost impacts of using rCF as a substitute for conventional materials and competitor lightweight materials are assessed over the full life cycle, including in-use implications. Recovery of CF can be achieved at $5/kg and less across a wide range of process parameters, approximately 15% of the cost of producing virgin carbon fibre. The life cycle cost results show that rCF composites, especially aligned rCF composites, give substantial cost reductions relative to virgin CF composites and even steel and aluminium.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • A study of the effects of acid, plasticizer, cross-linker, and extracted
           chitin nanofibers on the properties of chitosan biofilm
    • Authors: Melikasadat Hejazi; Tayebeh Behzad; Pejman Heidarian; Bijan Nasri-Nasrabadi
      Pages: 221 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Melikasadat Hejazi, Tayebeh Behzad, Pejman Heidarian, Bijan Nasri-Nasrabadi
      A comprehensive research was conducted to compare mechanical, optical, and water absorption properties of chitosan/chitin nanofiber (ChNF) nanocomposites, prepared by acetic acid in form of uncross-linked biofilms and adipic acid in form of physically (uncured) and chemically (cured) cross-linked biofilms. The chemical and morphological characterizations revealed that the isolated ChNFs contained almost 88% chitin, with crystallinity and average diameter of 84% and 21 nm. Mechanical properties of uncross-linked chitosan biofilms increased with loading ChNFs up to 5 wt% (wt.%), albeit their elongations at break declined—this reduction was then compensated using plasticizer. Moreover, it was found that the cured biofilms containing 5 wt% ChNFs and 20 wt% glycerol showed the highest strength. The superior resistance to water absorption was also observed in case of the cured biofilms, and transparency test showed that adding ChNFs and glycerol could reduce the transparency of chitosan biofilms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.038
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • MoS2 nanosheets-decorated carbon fiber hybrid for improving the friction
           and wear properties of polyimide composite
    • Authors: Beibei Chen; Xiang Li; Yuhan Jia; Xiaofang Li; Jin Yang; Fengyuan Yan; Changsheng Li
      Pages: 232 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Beibei Chen, Xiang Li, Yuhan Jia, Xiaofang Li, Jin Yang, Fengyuan Yan, Changsheng Li
      A novel hybrid material composed of micro-carbon fiber (CF) and hexagonal MoS2 nanosheets was prepared via a one-step hydrothermal method. The hybrid simultaneously had both lubricating and reinforcing effects to improve friction and wear properties of polyimide (PI). More importantly, MoS2 nanosheets decorated onto the surface of CF increased the interfacial adhesion between CF and the PI matrix. This enhanced the hardness and thermal stability, and was also favorable for transferring stress from the matrix to CF during friction and wear process. Accordingly, the PI/CF-MoS2 composite exhibited outstanding tribological properties. Also, its friction coefficient and wear rate were only 0.24 and 2.01 × 10−6 mm3/N m, respectively, which were lower than those of PI, PI/CF and PI/MoS2; this suggested CF-MoS2 hybrid was a promising additive for enhancing the tribological properties of polymers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.039
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Fracture behaviour of rubber- and silica nanoparticle-toughened glass
           fibre composites under static and fatigue loading
    • Authors: Shamsiah Awang Ngah; Ambrose C. Taylor
      Pages: 239 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Shamsiah Awang Ngah, Ambrose C. Taylor
      The crosslinked polymers used in fibre composites are very brittle, and require toughening for structural applications. Research over many years has increased the fracture energy, but the fatigue resistance of these toughened polymers is very poor, limiting the optimisation of structures. This work reports the first successful use of hybrid toughening to increase both the quasi-static interlaminar fracture energy, GIC, and the fatigue threshold strain-energy release-rate, Gth. Amine-cured epoxy glass-fibre composites were toughened using carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) which forms micron-sized rubber particles and 20 nm-diameter silica nanoparticles. The toughening mechanisms were identified as cavitation of rubber particles and debonding for the silica nanoparticles, followed by plastic void growth. The CTBN greatly increases GIC, and the nanoparticles increase Gth. Combining both particles as a hybrid has a synergistic effect on the fatigue resistance. This demonstrates the effectiveness of hybrid toughening, enabling the design of optimised composites by combining micro- and nanoparticles.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Development of flame-retarding elastomeric composites with high mechanical
    • Authors: Sherif Araby; Chun-Hui Wang; Hao Wu; Qingshi Meng; Hsu-Chiang Kuan; Nam Kyeun Kim; Adrian Mouritz; Jun Ma
      Pages: 257 - 266
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Sherif Araby, Chun-Hui Wang, Hao Wu, Qingshi Meng, Hsu-Chiang Kuan, Nam Kyeun Kim, Adrian Mouritz, Jun Ma
      Flammability of polymers is a major issue limiting their applications where fire safety is paramount, and a great challenge is to make polymers flame-retarding with no sacrifice of their mechanical performance. This work employed a low-cost graphite intercalation compound (GIC) as a multifunctional additive to improve the flame retardancy and mechanical strength of an elastomer by melt compounding. As characterized by cone calorimetry which presents real fire conditions, the average peak heat release rate and mass loss rate were reduced by 55% and 54% and the fire performance index enhanced by 60% at 12.0 vol% GIC, which implies a lot more time for fire victims to escape and to be saved. It inhibited the elastomer flammability through two consequential processes: (i) endothermic chemical reactions during the GIC expansion and (ii) char layer formation on composite surface protecting the polymer beneath from burning. Tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation at break and tear strength were respectively improved by 230%, 100%, 220% and 200%. These findings demonstrate that GICs can provide both flame retardancy and reinforcement to elastomers which are extensively used in industries.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Interface and mechanical/thermal properties of graphene/copper composite
           with Mo2C nanoparticles grown on graphene
    • Authors: Ke Chu; Fan Wang; Yu-biao Li; Xiao-hu Wang; Da-jian Huang; Zhong-rong Geng
      Pages: 267 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Ke Chu, Fan Wang, Yu-biao Li, Xiao-hu Wang, Da-jian Huang, Zhong-rong Geng
      Mo2C nanoparticles grown on reduced graphene oxide (Mo2C@RGO) were used to prepare the Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite. The Mo2C nanoparticles played a bridging role in not only being firmly attached on RGO but also forming a semi-coherent interface with the Cu matrix, leading to strong interfacial bonding of the composites. The 1 vol% Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite exhibited a yield strength of 238 MPa, 58% and 127% higher than that of 1 vol% RGO/Cu composite and pure Cu, respectively. The strengthening mechanism of Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite relied on the dual role of Mo2C nanoparticles that not only enhanced the load transfer strengthening of RGO but also provided the possible Orowan strengthening themselves. Nevertheless, the Mo2C@RGO/Cu composite showed a drop in coefficient of thermal expansion but a reduced thermal conductivity compared to pure Cu and the RGO/Cu composite. This study provides new insights into the interface structure, strengthening mechanism and thermal behavior of carbide-modified graphene/metal composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effect of ultraviolet curing kinetics on the mechanical properties of out
           of die pultruded vinyl ester composites
    • Authors: I. Saenz-Dominguez; I. Tena; M. Sarrionandia; J. Torre; J. Aurrekoetxea
      Pages: 280 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): I. Saenz-Dominguez, I. Tena, M. Sarrionandia, J. Torre, J. Aurrekoetxea
      This paper analyses the effect of curing kinetics on the mechanical properties of composites manufactured by out of die ultraviolet (UV) cured pultrusion. Curing kinetics have been modified using two combinations of depth curing (BAPO) and surface curing (α aminoketone) photoinitiators. The rate constant of the autocatalytic model k, shows that the curing kinetics of the formulation with the higher content of BAPO and lower content of α aminoketone is faster in the studied intensity range. Spectrometry results justify the differences in curing kinetics, since the light transmission through thickness is higher during the whole UV curing process due to photobleaching effect of BAPO. Faster UV curing kinetics generates lower expansion at the exit of the pultrusion die, reducing the void content approximately 90%. Consequently, flexural and interlaminar shear strength, as well as specific energy absorption index of the fast curing resin, are higher.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Exploring excellent dispersion of graphene nanosheets in three-dimensional
           bacterial cellulose for ultra-strong nanocomposite hydrogels
    • Authors: Honglin Luo; Jiaojiao Dong; Xinhua Xu; Jie Wang; Zhiwei Yang; Yizao Wan
      Pages: 290 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Honglin Luo, Jiaojiao Dong, Xinhua Xu, Jie Wang, Zhiwei Yang, Yizao Wan
      Homogeneous dispersion of graphene nanosheets in polymer matrices is still a big challenge in the area of nanocomposites. Herein we demonstrate a layer-by-layer (LBL) interface culture strategy to homogeneously distribute graphene (GE) nanosheets in three-dimensional (3D) bacterial cellulose (BC) matrix. In GE/BC nanocomposite hydrogels, the graphene nanosheets are closely bundled by BC nanofibers, which greatly improves the mechanical properties of GE/BC hydrogels. The improvements in tensile strength and modulus over bare BC reach 91% and 279%, respectively, for the GE/BC nanocomposite with 0.30 wt% graphene, which are very impressive for graphene-reinforced hydrogels. The scalable, versatile, and ecofriendly methodology is extendable to the fabrication of other BC-based nanocomposite hydrogels.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • First steps in composite materials for schoolchildren: A STEM educational
    • Authors: Delphine Depuydt; Kevin Hendrickx; Mahoor Mehdikhani; Nikolay A. Petrov; Stepan V. Lomov; David Seveno
      Pages: 298 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Delphine Depuydt, Kevin Hendrickx, Mahoor Mehdikhani, Nikolay A. Petrov, Stepan V. Lomov, David Seveno
      Composite materials are inseparable from today’s life, yet many schoolchildren (and adults) are not familiar with them. In the framework of InnovationLab, an initiative of KU Leuven, a new Science-Technology-Engineering-and-Mathematics (STEM) project was launched, intended to introduce composite materials to schoolchildren. A toolbox was developed which enables teachers to perform composite-related experiments together with their pupils, actualising the pupils’ knowledge in chemistry, physics and mathematics. The students learn about polymer matrices and fibres, produce a composite themselves, investigate its mechanical properties and finally test a composite catapult. This way the scientific awareness of the students is raised and they gain insight into today’s challenges in composite materials and how engineers respond to them.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effect of characteristics of assembly unit of CNT/NCB composite fillers on
           properties of smart cement-based materials
    • Authors: Liqing Zhang; Siqi Ding; Linwei Li; Sufen Dong; Danna Wang; Xun Yu; Baoguo Han
      Pages: 303 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Liqing Zhang, Siqi Ding, Linwei Li, Sufen Dong, Danna Wang, Xun Yu, Baoguo Han
      Electrostatic self-assembled CNT/NCB composite fillers with high CNT aspect ratio and large NCB size is incorporated into cement-based materials to develop smart cement-based composites. The mechanical, electrical and piezoresistive properties of the cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers are investigated. Percolation equation is used to describe electrically conductive property. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuits are used to explore the conductive and mechanical mechanism. The research results show that cement-based materials with CNT/NCB composite fillers at low content present acceptable mechanical property, high conductive property and stable and sensitive piezoresistive property. The fractional change of electrical resistivity, stress and strain sensitivity of cement-based materials with 1.41 vol.% CNT/NCB composite fillers can reach 13.4%, 3.12%/MPa and 521, respectively. It is concluded that high CNT aspect ratio and large NCB size in CNT/NCB composite fillers are beneficial for improving the properties of smart cement-based composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Enhanced thermal conductivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/boron nitride
           nanosheet composites at low filler content
    • Authors: Mengjie Wang; Zhaoyong Jiao; Yapeng Chen; Xiao Hou; Li Fu; Yuming Wu; Shuangyi Li; Nan Jiang; Jinhong Yu
      Pages: 321 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Mengjie Wang, Zhaoyong Jiao, Yapeng Chen, Xiao Hou, Li Fu, Yuming Wu, Shuangyi Li, Nan Jiang, Jinhong Yu
      Due to the growing needs of thermal management in modern electronics, high thermal conductive polymer composites are increasingly demanded. Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) was prepared through molten hydroxide assisted liquid exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) powder and used as thermally conductive filler. The poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/BNNS films were obtained through solution blend and hot pressing. With only 4 wt% BNNS, the in-plane thermal conductivity of PVDF/BNNS composite achieved 4.69 W/mK, with a thermal conductivity enhancement of 2297% compared to neat PVDF. However, the through-plane thermal conductivity of the composites is only 0.23 W/mK, which shows a high thermal conductive anisotropy over 20. The thermal conductive anisotropy and the high in-plane thermal conductivity can be attributed to the formation of thermally conductive network in PVDF matrix. Thus, the BNNS reinforced PVDF films are promising for use as an efficient heat spreader for electronic cooling applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Low density ablative materials modified by nanoparticles addition:
           Manufacturing and characterization
    • Authors: G. Pulci; L. Paglia; V. Genova; C. Bartuli; T. Valente; F. Marra
      Pages: 330 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): G. Pulci, L. Paglia, V. Genova, C. Bartuli, T. Valente, F. Marra
      Ablative materials represent a traditional approach to thermal protection adopted to protect re-entry space vehicles from the severe heating encountered during hypersonic flight through planet or Earth atmosphere. In this paper low density carbon-phenolic ablative materials were modified with addition of ZrO2 nanoparticles with the aim of improving the mechanical properties and the ablation resistance. It is known that an uneven distribution of nano-reinforcement could be responsible for a drastic limitation of potential beneficial effects. For this reason, several surface modification treatments were performed on nanoparticles to limit their agglomeration. The developed ablative materials, modified with different concentrations of nano-ZrO2 particles, were fully characterized for microstructure and mechanical properties (of both virgin and charred materials) and finally tested in an oxyacetylene torch-based facility to compare their thermal performance. Experimental evidence showed that the addition of nano-ZrO2 produces an improvement of both thermal and mechanical performance with respect to base material.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Silanization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the study of its effects
           on the properties of polyurethane rigid foam nanocomposites
    • Authors: Alireza Yaghoubi; Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje
      Pages: 338 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Alireza Yaghoubi, Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje
      In the current report, surface modification of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs) was done by silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and dipodal silane (DSi). Then, rigid polyurethane (PU) foam nanocomposites were prepared by silanized MWCNTs to investigate the effects of the silane-modified MWCNTs on the mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the nanocomposites. Morphological studies showed that the addition of silanized MWCNTs to the PU matrix increases the cell density of nanocomposites. The obtained data from SEM analysis also showed the nanoparticles dispersion for 1.5 wt% of DSi-MWCNT (dipodal silane - MWCNT) loading when compared to same loading level of Si-MWCNT (APTS - MWCNT) and resulted in improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The results of mechanical tests showed that the Young’s moduli as well as tensile strengths were improved due to the presence of strong interfacial interaction between the PU matrix and the nanotubes in PU nanocomposites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Poorly-/well-dispersed graphene: Abnormal influence on flammability and
           fire behavior of intumescent flame retardant
    • Authors: Bihe Yuan; Yaru Sun; Xianfeng Chen; Yongqian Shi; Huaming Dai; Song He
      Pages: 345 - 354
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Bihe Yuan, Yaru Sun, Xianfeng Chen, Yongqian Shi, Huaming Dai, Song He
      Surface feature of ammonium polyphosphate is modified by cation exchange reaction with piperazine, and then reduced graphene oxide nanosheets are attached to the surface of modified flame retardant via hydrogen bonding interactions. Good dispersion of graphene in the polypropylene matrix is observed. The dispersion state of graphene has an abnormal effect on the flammability results under small flame and fire behavior under forced flaming condition of intumescent flame retardant (IFR) composites. The well-dispersed graphene results in significantly deteriorated limiting oxygen index and UL-94 rating. The graphene with good dispersion is adverse to flammability results, which is in contrary to the widely-acknowledged flame retardant mechanisms. Low content of well-dispersed graphene exhibits higher reduction effect on heat release than that of poorly-dispersed counterpart. Novel flame retardant mechanism and model are proposed and new understanding of the role of graphene in the combustion of IFR is provided.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Towards robust sequential ultrasonic spot welding of thermoplastic
           composites: Welding process control strategy for consistent weld quality
    • Authors: Tian Zhao; Charlotte Broek; Genevieve Palardy; Irene Fernandez Villegas; Rinze Benedictus
      Pages: 355 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Tian Zhao, Charlotte Broek, Genevieve Palardy, Irene Fernandez Villegas, Rinze Benedictus
      The research in this paper is an essential part of a bigger effort on developing robust sequential ultrasonic welding of multi-spot welded joints in thermoplastic composites. It mainly focused on assessing the impact of the changes in boundary conditions on the welding process and whether it could be circumvented by using an appropriate process control strategy. A two-step approach was followed by investigating: (1) the effect of boundary conditions on displacement- and energy-controlled single-spot welded joints and (2) displacement- and energy-controlled sequential ultrasonic welding of double-spot welded joints. The results showed that previous spots indeed affect the energy required to obtain an optimum new welded spot, which challenges the use of energy-controlled welding for this application. Contrarily, displacement-controlled welding was shown to provide consistent-quality welds with a constant set of welding parameters and it was hence identified as the most promising welding strategy for sequential ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Influence of depositing nano-SiO2 particles on the surface microstructure
           and properties of jute fibers via in situ synthesis
    • Authors: Xuan Liu; Yihua Cui; Senjie Hao; Haiyan Chen
      Pages: 368 - 375
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Xuan Liu, Yihua Cui, Senjie Hao, Haiyan Chen
      Jute fibers are finding much interest as the reinforcement of polymer composites. However, surface flaws not only affect the properties of jute fibers, but also lead to the interfacial defects of jute fiber reinforced composites. This study aims to improve the properties of jute fibers, the surface flaws of which were filled up by nano-SiO2 particles via in situ synthesis. The waxy substance covering on jute fibers was removed by alkali pre-treatment, ethanediamine/alkali pre-treatment and acid/alkali pre-treatment, respectively. The acid/alkali pre-treatment was the most effective method among three pre-treatments. The nano-SiO2 particles deposition was prepared by the sol-gel technique. The results showed that the surface flaws of jute fibers could be filled up by nano-SiO2 particles with the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) concentration of 0.015 mol/L. Compared with acid/alkali pre-treated fibers, the surface free energy and tensile strength of nano-SiO2 deposited fibers were increased by 11.7% and 17.9%, respectively. Moreover, the presence of nano-SiO2 particles contributed to the significant enhancement on the thermal stability of jute fibers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effect of click coupled hybrids of graphene oxide and thin-walled carbon
           nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyurethane nanocomposites
    • Authors: Na Rae Han; Jae Whan Cho
      Pages: 376 - 381
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Na Rae Han, Jae Whan Cho
      Covalently bonded hybrids (GO-click-TWNTs) of graphene oxide (GO) and thin-walled carbon nanotubes (TWNTs) with different compositions were synthesized by a click chemistry reaction between alkyne-moiety GO and azide-moiety TWNTs. Polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites with the GO-click-TWNT hybrids were prepared to investigate an effect of the GO-click-TWNT hybrids on the mechanical properties of the PU nanocomposites. Synthesis of click coupled hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The transmission electron microscopic measurements showed a well-networked structure between the GO and TWNTs in the hybrids. The GO and TWNTs in the hybrids had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties of the PU nanocomposites. The PU nanocomposites with GO-click-TWNT hybrids with 3:7 GO/TWNT weight composition showed the highest breaking stress and modulus. The synergistic effect of the GO-click-TWNT hybrids was also shown in their electrical conductivity and near-infrared laser-induced photothermal properties.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Effect of seawater immersion on the explosive blast response of a carbon
           fibre-polymer laminate
    • Authors: A. Gargano; K. Pingkarawat; V. Pickerd; T. Delaney; R. Das; A.P. Mouritz
      Pages: 382 - 391
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): A. Gargano, K. Pingkarawat, V. Pickerd, T. Delaney, R. Das, A.P. Mouritz
      Explosions are an ever-present risk to laminates used in naval ships, submarines and offshore oil/gas platforms that are immersed in seawater. This study determines whether the absorption of water by a carbon fibre laminate changes its deformation response and damage resistance when impulsive loaded by an explosive blast. The stiffness and strength properties of the laminate were reduced with increasing immersion time in seawater up to and beyond the point of saturation. Explosive blast tests of increasing shock wave impulse were performed on the laminate before immersion and when in the saturated and beyond saturated conditions. Softening and weakening of the laminate caused by absorbed water reduced the resistance against deformation and damage when subjected to an explosive blast. The amount of blast-induced damage to the laminate increased with the immersion time in seawater due to plasticisation of the polymer matrix and weakening of the fibre–matrix interphase region.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
  • Ablation and erosion characteristics of EPDM composites under SRM
           operating conditions
    • Authors: Jiang Li; Kai Liu; Mengfei Guo; Yang Liu; Juan Wang; Xiang Lv
      Pages: 392 - 401
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jiang Li, Kai Liu, Mengfei Guo, Yang Liu, Juan Wang, Xiang Lv
      The ablation and erosion characteristics of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) composites under realistic solid rocket motor operating conditions were studied using an ablation motor and an overload simulation erosion motor. Silica fillers and aramid fibers have important effects on the ablation resistance of EPDM composites. The ablation resistance properties of non-silica and non-fiber formulations are obviously poor and worsen under erosion conditions with dense particle jets. From the analysis of the morphology and structure of the composite char layers, the combined use of silica and aramid fibers can make the char layer form a uniform network-like structure with a compact surface and a loose interior, improving both the heat-shielding and erosion-resistance performances of the char layer. By increasing the silica and aramid fiber contents, the erosion resistance performance of EPDM composite was improved under dense particle jet conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T23:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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