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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1199 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
  [SJR: 1.599]   [H-I: 113]   [177 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • High strain-rate dynamic mechanical properties of Kevlar fabrics
           impregnated with shear thickening fluid
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Saisai Cao, Qian Chen, Yunpeng Wang, Shouhu Xuan, Wanquan Jiang, Xinglong Gong
      To investigate the anti-impact mechanism, the mechanical property and energy absorption of the STF impregnated Kevlar (STF/Kevlar) fabric at high strain rate were conducted using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The volume fraction of STF, number of fabric specimens, and impact velocity highly affected the dynamic mechanical performance of the STF/Kevlar composite. The energy transfer rate decreased from 0.85 to 0.01 once the number of fabric specimens increased from 2 layers to 8 layers. The strain rate stiffening mechanism of the STF/Kevlar was analyzed. The Kevlar fabrics underwent four sections during the impact process. The STF was mainly worked in the slip and deformation section by enhancing the friction between fabric yarns and preventing the fabric yarns from slipping. Overall, this work demonstrated that the multilayer Kevlar fabrics impregnated with high volume fraction of STF were the optimal choice for soft body armor.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:27:58Z
       
  • Explosive blast damage resistance of three-dimensional textile composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): A. Kerber, A. Gargano, K. Pingkarawat, A.P. Mouritz
      The damage resistance of 3D textile composites when subjected to shock wave loading caused by an explosive blast is experimentally investigated. Non-crimp 3D orthogonal textile carbon-epoxy composites with different volume contents of through-thickness z-binder yarns are subjected to explosive blasts of increasing intensity, and the resultant damage is compared to a 2D woven carbon-epoxy laminate. At high blast impulse, the 3D textile composites are highly effective at resisting large delamination crack growth, and display superior damage resistance compared to the 2D laminate. The delamination resistance of the 3D textile composites at high blast impulse increases with their z-binder yarn content, and this correlates with higher modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness properties. Furthermore, the 2D laminate completely shatters under high blast impulse whereas the 3D textile composites remain intact, which is also evidence of higher explosive damage resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:27:58Z
       
  • Enhanced overall strength and ductility of magnesium matrix composites by
           low content of graphene nanoplatelets
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): S.L. Xiang, M. Gupta, X.J. Wang, L.D. Wang, X.S. Hu, K. Wu
      This work focuses on the microstructure, strengthening and plastic deformation of low content graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) reinforced magnesium (Mg) matrix composites. The GNPs with the homogeneous dispersion and distribution realised through the disintegrated melt deposition technique improve the overall strength and ductility of composites significantly and efficiently. The yield strength improvement is mainly attributed to (i) the effective load transfer owing to the high specific surface area and the interlock effect from the wrinkled two-dimensional GNPs, and (ii) the grain refinement by the GNPs induced twin lamellae. Besides, (i) the promoted { 1 0 1 ¯ 2 } extension twins that maintain the grains with favourable orientations for basal slip and (ii) the initiation of the prismatic 〈a〉 slip play important roles in the toughening effect of composites, which are discussed in detail. This study highlights the advantage of GNPs in tuning the metal matrix composites with high strength and high ductility simultaneously.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:27:58Z
       
  • Magnetic/conductive composite fibre: A multifunctional strain sensor with
           magnetically driven property
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Li Ding, Shouhu Xuan, Jiabin Feng, Xinglong Gong
      Here reports a lastex yarn-silver nanowires-magnetic polymer based magnetic-conductive composite fibre (MCF) prepared by a simple dropping-drying process. The magnetic-mechanic-electric coupling properties of the multifunctional fibre are systematically investigated. It’s found that the electrical resistance increases by 44% when the tensile strain reaches 8%. Meanwhile, the relative resistance meets a dramatically variation by applying the external magnetic field. For instance, a 1.5% relative resistance increment is achieved by bending the MCF to 44 deg under a 400mT magnetic field, in which the magnetic induced force is equivalent to 15mN. Afterwards, a potential mechanism is proposed to investigate the magnetic-mechanic-electric coupling behavior. The results show that the MCF can be applied both as strain sensors and magnetic field sensors. Furthermore, a magnetic-sensing on-off switch and a flexible gripper are subsequently developed, demonstrating that the MCF possesses high potential in the implement of intelligent soft sensors and actuators.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Dual modification of graphene by polymeric flame retardant and Ni(OH)2
           nanosheets for improving flame retardancy of polypropylene
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Bihe Yuan, Yuan Hu, Xianfeng Chen, Yongqian Shi, Yi Niu, Ying Zhang, Song He, Huaming Dai
      To improve its dispersion and flame retardant efficiency, graphene oxide (GO) is dually modified with polymeric flame retardant and the nanomaterial with catalytic carbonation ability. Via the reactions between oxygen functional groups in GO and PCl groups in hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, phosphazene-based flame retardant is grafted to GO. Due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ with NH2 groups in this phosphazene flame retardant, the decoration of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets on the graphene is facilitated. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm good dispersion and exfoliation state of graphene in polypropylene (PP) matrix. The incorporation of functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) results in the reduction of peak heat release rate, total heat release and smoke release of PP during the combustion. Flame mechanism of FGO is concluded according to the results of thermal decomposition and char analysis. This work provides a novel modification strategy for enhancing the dispersion and flame retardant efficiency of graphene.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Microstructural damage dependent stiffness prediction of unidirectional
           CFRP composite under cyclic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): K. Senthilnathan, Chandrashekhar P. Hiremath, N.K. Naik, Anirban Guha, Asim Tewari
      Property degradation for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites under fatigue is usually modeled by assuming some kind of notional internal damage parameter which keeps growing with fatigue cycles. However, the damage parameter is itself defined as a function of property degradation. Hence, these models do not have a true predictive capability for mechanical property degradation. In this study, controlled microstructural damage was created by subjecting the unidirectional CFRP specimen to tension-tension fatigue load with predetermined stress ratio, load factor and number of cycles. True 3D microstructural damage state, in terms of fiber breakage, matrix microcracking and interface debonding, in CFRP composites was quantitatively measured. The work further mapped the damage state, from 3D damage space, to the stiffness degradation irrespective of how the damage state was achieved. This is for the first time that property degradation in CFRP under cyclic loading was related to the independently measured damage state.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Lightweight, multifunctional microcellular PMMA/Fe3O4@MWCNTs nanocomposite
           foams with efficient electromagnetic interference shielding
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Hongming Zhang, Guangcheng Zhang, Jiantong Li, Xun Fan, Zhanxin Jing, Jianwei Li, Xuetao Shi
      Lightweight and multifunctional PMMA/Fe3O4@MWCNTs composite foams with density of 0.22–0.38g/cm3 were fabricated by supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) foaming process. Benefitting from the existence of microcellular structure and the Fe3O4@MWCNTs hybrids, the specific Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of obtained PMMA/Fe3O4@MWCNTs foams was significantly enhanced. The resulting foams with hybrids loading of 7wt% displayed excellent specific EMI SE of 50dB/(g/cm3) over the X-band. Furthermore, the EMI shielding mechanisms of the porous materials were discussed and it suggested that the dominant contribution to EMI SE was absorption. Meanwhile, the high-strength composite foams also exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and low thermal conductivity of 0.080–0.142W/(mk). In this work, we provide a feasible way to produce lightweight and multifunctional PMMA/Fe3O4@MWCNTs foams with superior EMI shielding performance to apply in the electronics and aerospace industries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Novel thin-film nanocomposite membranes filled with multi-functional
           Ti3C2Tx nanosheets for task-specific solvent transport
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Lan Hao, Haoqin Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Jiakui Zhang, Jingtao Wang, Yifan Li
      MXenes as an emerging class of 2D metallic carbide/carbonitrides materials have great potentials in designing and fabricating functional polymer composites. In this study, Ti3C2Tx as a representative MXene was employed to fabricate thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes. The abundant surface groups (mainly OH) on Ti3C2Tx allowed facile modification, and thus evenly functionalized nanosheets were obtained. Four functional groups were grafted on Ti3C2Tx surface respectively, which was found to strongly affect the affinity towards solvent molecules and further determine the solvent transport properties of membranes. Interestingly, the functional groups on Ti3C2Tx, namely NH2, COOR, C6H6, and C12H26, could effectively enhance the flux for isopropanol, ethyl acetate, toluene, and n-heptane, respectively, no matter the polymer matrix was hydrophilic or hydrophobic. This finding indicated that the task-specific function of Ti3C2Tx could be distinctly transferred to TFN membranes. Moreover, the nanosheets effectively blocked the permeation of solute molecules, resulting in high rejection ability.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Tapered laminate designs for new non-crimp fabric architectures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Christopher Bronn York, Sérgio Frascino Müller de Almeida
      Non-Crimp Fabric (NCF) materials are now available in a range of areal weights and layer architectures, including 0/45, 0/−45, 45/−45 and 0/90, which correspond to the standard ply orientations employed in traditional UD material lay-ups. The benefit of NCF material is generally associated with increased deposition rate, but this advantage may be offset by reduced design freedoms when a specific form of mechanical coupling behaviour is required, layer terminations must be introduced and/or thermal warping distortion eliminated. This article investigates the extent to which new NCF architectures can be tailored to achieve warp free tapered laminates with mechanical Extension-Shearing Bending-Twisting coupling, by single axis (longitudinal) deposition of all ply angles; thus avoiding ply discontinuities that may be introduce in large component manufacture. Lamination parameter design spaces are used to demonstrate the extent of the feasible solutions both before and after applying a laminate tapering scheme.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:16:41Z
       
  • Effects of graphene oxide aggregates on hydration degree, sorptivity, and
           tensile splitting strength of cement paste
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Xiangyu Li, Zeyu Lu, Samuel Chuah, Wengui Li, Yanming Liu, Wen Hui Duan, Zongjin Li
      It has recently been found the graphene oxide (GO) aggregates form in cement paste due to the chemical cross-linking of calcium cations. Therefore, the effects of GO addition on the properties of cement based materials should be dependent on the properties of GO aggregates rather than GO nanosheets. In this study, GO aggregates were first characterized by particle size measurement. Then, the effects of GO aggregates on the degree of hydration, sorptivity, and tensile strength of cement paste were investigated. The aspect ratio of GO aggregates is much larger than that of the original GO nanosheets. Compared to plain cement paste, the increase of non-evaporable water content of the cement paste was found to be very limited, around 1.17% and 3.90% for cement pastes containing 0.02% and 0.04% by weight GO, respectively. The sorptivity of cement paste, especially the secondary sorptivity, was notably reduced for GO incorporated cement paste. The tensile strength was significantly improved by GO aggregates. Incorporation of 0.04% by weight GO increased the tensile strength by 67% compared to that of plain cement paste.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Characterization on the anisotropic slip for flows over unidirectional
           fibrous porous media for advanced composites manufacturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Jingang Lu, Hye Kyeong Jang, Sang Bok Lee, Wook Ryol Hwang
      The anisotropic velocity slip at interfaces of unidirectional fibrous porous media is modeled via an effective tensorial Navier-slip model and, through extensive numerical simulations, the slip length tensor is fully characterized in a closed form for the applications to composites manufacturing. The slip tensor model replaces complicated fiber architecture at the interface by effective smooth surfaces and it has been validated in comparison with direct simulation for flows over the porous media. The slip model yields reduction in computational cost significantly, while keeping the accuracy in flow solutions. Transverse and longitudinal slip lengths have been explored with characteristic parameters such as flow channel height, fiber fractions, porous architectures and permeability. The dimensionless void length is proposed as a single parameter that determines universal behaviors of slip length. Finally we report a complete set of fitted equations that facilitates estimation of slip length and slip coefficient for a given fibrous media.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Influence of the chemical functionalization of graphene on the properties
           of polypropylene-based nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): S. Quiles-Díaz, P. Enrique-Jimenez, D.G. Papageorgiou, F. Ania, A. Flores, I.A. Kinloch, M.A. Gómez-Fatou, R.J. Young, H.J. Salavagione
      Nanocomposites of polypropylene were prepared with different loadings of both commercially-available graphene and graphene that had been modified with low molecular weight polypropylene brushes. The dependence of the thermal stability, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of the composites on the type and loading of graphene have been investigated. The mechanical properties were studied using several techniques, including nanoindentation, four-point bending coupled to Raman spectroscopy and tensile testing. Significant differences on the mechanical performance, due to the influence of graphene content and modification, have been observed; i.e. the Young’s modulus takes values up to 30% higher for nanocomposites with modified graphene, compared to those with pristine graphene. Different trends on the variation of mechanical properties have been encountered at the local and macro scales and a discussion of the respective results from the different techniques is offered. Finally, the behavioral changes on the electrical conductivity are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Stimulus methods of multi-functional shape memory polymer nanocomposites:
           A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Tianzhen Liu, Tianyang Zhou, Yongtao Yao, Fenghua Zhang, Liwu Liu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng
      This review is focused on the most recent research on multifunctional shape memory polymer nanocomposites reinforced by various nanoparticles. Different multifunctional shape memory nanocomposites responsive to different kinds of stimulation methods, including thermal responsive, electro-activated, alternating magnetic field responsive, light sensitive and water induced SMPs, are discussed separately. This review offers a comprehensive discussion on the mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of each actuation methods. In addition to presenting the micro- and macro- morphology and mechanical properties of shape memory polymer nanocomposites, this review demonstrates the shape memory performance and the potential applications of multifunctional shape memory polymer nanocomposites under different stimulation methods.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Manufacturing of conductive structural composites through spraying of
           CNTs/epoxy dispersions on dry carbon fiber plies
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Mathieu Fogel, Patricia Parlevliet, Philippe Olivier, Éric Dantras
      In this work, multiscale Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers have been manufactured by inserting carbon nanotubes in the matrix of the composite material to improve and homogenize the through-thickness electrical conductivity. A first part of this work introduces a spraying technique and manufacturing process followed to produce the CNT-doped multiscale CFRP. A quality assessment of the produced material is also presented. A second part investigates the electrical conductivity, as well as a few mechanical properties of the newly manufactured material, to be able to conclude on the viability and potential of this technique. This paper presents the further development of an earlier study presenting the thermal, rheological and electrical behavior of the CNT doped epoxy matrix (Fogel et al., 2015).

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Hybridisation of two ductile materials – Steel fibre and self-reinforced
           polypropylene composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Y. Swolfs, P. De Cuyper, M.G. Callens, I. Verpoest, L. Gorbatikh
      Hybridisation of self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) with ductile steel fibres is proposed as a way to create composites with a high stiffness, failure strain and toughness. The stiffness and yield stress of SRPP were significantly increased without sacrifice of toughness, even after normalisation to the composite density. The measurements revealed a higher stress level and slope after yielding than the predictions by the linear rule-of-mixtures. This effect was attributed to differences in the Poisson contraction of the two constituents and was supported by modelling predictions. The absolute penetration impact resistance of SRPP was increased, whereas the specific impact resistance remained the same, despite the high density of steel fibres. Placing steel fibre layers on the outside of the laminate maximised the penetration impact resistance, as it allowed the steel fibres to exploit their full plastic potential. These results can guide the optimisation of other hybrid composites with two ductile fibres.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Influence of microbond test parameters on interfacial shear strength of
           fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Chao Zhi, Hairu Long, Menghe Miao
      The microbond test commonly used to determine the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of fiber-reinforced composites involves a number of experiment parameters that are not standardized in practice. This investigation is aimed to quantify and explain the influences of these parameters on the test results. We first validated the force-displacement curves and IFSS results of finite element simulated model pullout tests with that from experiments conducted at equivalent conditions. The von Mises and contact friction stress distributions from the simulation models were used to explain the influences of experimental parameters on IFSS from microbond test. The study shows that fiber diameter has the largest effect on IFSS. Bead size and blade position also have significant influences on the IFSS results from microbond tests. These testing parameters should be kept as close to constants as possible when conducting comparative microbond tests.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Conductivity enhancement of polymer composites using high-temperature
           short-time treated silver fillers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Chaowei Li, Qiulong Li, Liyao Cheng, Taotao Li, Huifen Lu, Lei Tang, Kai Zhang, Songfeng E, Jun Zhang, Zhuo Li, Yagang Yao
      In this work, we develop an easy, convenient and effective high-temperature short-time annealing method to treat silver fillers through decomposing the silver oxide on the surface into silver nanoparticles and also in-situ paralyzing part of the surface lubricants to reduce the length of the tunneling distance between neighboring silver flakes. The modified micro silver flakes play a significant role in improving the electrical conductivity of the corresponding electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs), exhibiting the lowest resistivity of 1.28×10−4 Ω·cm at 70wt% filler loading. This work suggests that the high-temperature short-time annealing strategy can greatly enhance the electrical conductivity of as-treated silver flakes based ECAs, which will allow them to be widely used in electronic packaging.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of flexible BN foam and BN
           nanosheets reinforced polymer composites for electronic packaging
           application
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): Haoming Fang, Shu-Lin Bai, Ching Ping Wong
      A series of novel flexible polymer composites consisted of boron nitride foam (BNF), boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were designed and fabricated by vacuum-assisted infiltrating BNNS/PDMS mixtures into 3D BNF synthesized via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Their microstructure, thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties were studied. Contributed to the interconnected networks of BNF and synergistic effect of BNNS with BNF, 10wt% BNNS/BNF/PDMS composite shows a high thermal conductivity of 0.56Wm−1 K−1, high heat resistance index of 275.6°C, 33% increment of Young’s modulus compared to PDMS, relative permittivity of 3, dissipation factor of 0.0051, EMI shielding effectiveness of 1.5dB at X band and breakdown strength of 21.8MV/m. Due to the outstanding comprehensive properties, BNNS/BNF/PDMS composites have a promising potential application in wide electronic packaging field.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • A shell formulation for fibrous reinforcement forming simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 100
      Author(s): B. Liang, J. Colmars, P. Boisse
      The fibrous nature of continuous fiber textile composite reinforcements strongly modifies their mechanical behavior, in particular for bending. The basic assumptions of classical plate and shell theories are not verified by these materials during a deformation because of the slippage between fibers. However, simulations of reinforcement forming generally use shell finite elements. A shell formulation is proposed for the forming of continuous fiber reinforcements. The large tensile stiffness leads to the quasi inextensibility in the fiber directions. The fiber bending stiffness determines the curvature of the reinforcement. The calculation of tensile and bending virtual works are based on the precise geometry of the single fiber. A simple way to consider friction between fibers is to take it into account in the flexion bending. Simulations and experiments are compared for different reinforcements. It is shown that the proposed fibrous shell approach not only correctly simulates the deflections but also the rotations of the through thickness material vectors. This is particularly interesting in the case of thick interlock reinforcements.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:02:22Z
       
  • Bridging mechanisms of through-thickness reinforcement in dynamic mode
           I&II delamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hao Cui, Mehdi Yasaee, Gordon Kalwak, Antonio Pellegrino, Ivana K. Partridge, Stephen R. Hallett, Giuliano Allegri, Nik Petrinic
      Z-pin through-thickness reinforcement is used to improve the impact resistance of composite structures; however, the effect of loading rate on Z-pin behaviour is not well understood. The dynamic response of Z-pins in mode I and II delamination of quasi-isotropic IM7/8552 laminates was characterized experimentally in this work. Z-pinned samples were loaded at both quasi-static and dynamic rates, up to a separation velocity of 12m/s. The efficiency of Z-pins in mode I delamination decreased with loading rate, which was mainly due to the change in the pin misalignment, the failure surface morphology and to inertia. The Z-pins failed at small displacements in the mode II loading experiments, resulting in much lower energy dissipation in comparison with the mode I case. The total energy dissipation decreased with increasing loading rate, while enhanced interfacial friction due to failed pins may be largely responsible for the higher energy dissipation in quasi-static experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:26:38Z
       
  • A multiple anisotropic material finite element and its application to
           stiffness tensor predictions for woven composite lamina
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): C.M. Boise, D.A. Jack, D.E. Smith
      The effective anisotropic stiffness tensor C ijkl of a woven composite lamina can be calculated by performing a finite element analysis (FEA) of the representative volume element (RVE); however, the complex geometry of heterogeneous RVEs makes meshing tedious. This paper develops two unique multiphase voxel elements (MVEs) that account for multiple materials within an elemental domain by utilizing the material properties at each integration point to develop local strain corrections. Studies performed on simple cuboid geometries show exceptional agreement with standard FEA results, and results from the new voxel elements are more accurate than previous MVEs presented in literature. The application for these new MVEs is demonstrated on plain and twill weave composite laminae, and the results generated are in exceptional agreement with experimental results available in the literature and computationally expensive studies using standard finite elements.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:26:38Z
       
  • Monitoring the interface and bulk self-healing capability of tri-axial
           electrospun fibers in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jamal Seyyed Monfared Zanjani, Burcu Saner Okan, Cagatay Yilmaz, Yusuf Menceloglu, Mehmet Yildiz
      Tri-axial electrospun fibers with self-healing capability are fabricated through a direct, one-step tri-axial electrospinning process. They have been designed to have two distinct protective walls to encapsulate epoxy resin and its hardener as healing agents in separate cores. The presence of an extra layer between encapsulated liquid healing agent and outer layer enables the encapsulation of chemically and physically active healing agents, extends the efficiency and life-time of the healing functionality. Tri-axial electrospun healing fibers are incorporated to add self-healing capability into solo epoxy matrix and also utilized as an interlayer between glass fabric mats in glass fiber reinforced composite. Tri-axial electrospun fiber interlayers provide self-healing functionality at the interface of glass fibers with epoxy matrix, which is highly prone to failure. In addition, various structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing techniques coupled with traditional mechanical testing methods are employed to evaluate the self-healing efficiency of composite structures. In this study, successful and recurring self-healing ability of composite structures at the interface of glass fiber with the epoxy matrix are achieved and confirmed using different characterization techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:26:38Z
       
  • Influence of nanoparticles on the interfacial properties of
           fiber-reinforced-epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Yan Tian, Hui Zhang, Zhong Zhang
      The effects of nanoparticles on interfacial properties between fiber and epoxy resin were evaluated based on micro- and macro-mechanical experiments, including micro-droplet, transverse fiber bundle tension and short-beam shear tests. All results indicated that the sol-gel-formed silica nanoparticles did improve the interfacial properties effectively. According to scanning electron microscope morphologies of fracture surfaces, these improvements were likely ascribed to the toughening effects of nanoparticles, i.e., nanoparticles offered better energy dissipation and more efficient stress transfer during fracture in the fiber/epoxy composites.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T11:26:38Z
       
  • Covalently bonded polyaniline/graphene composites as high-performance
           electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jing Yan, Ying Huang, Chao Wei, Na Zhang, Panbo Liu
      In this work, the polyaniline nanorods/graphene sheets composites with covalent bond were synthesized through in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of amino-functionalized graphene sheets (AFG), in which polyaniline (PANI) polymerization is initiated by those amino groups on graphene. The chemical bonding between graphene and PANI is confirmed by several analytical techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The microwave-absorbing properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer. The electromagnetic data demonstrates that the maximum reflection loss of covalently bonded PANI-AFG can reach −51.5dB at 11.2GHz, and the absorption bandwidths exceeding −10dB are 4GHz with thickness of 2.5mm. The results indicate that the hybrid composites with enhanced microwave absorption properties and lightweight have a promising future in decreasing electromagnetic wave irradiation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Thermal mending in E-glass reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone)/epoxy
           blends
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Amaël Cohades, Véronique Michaud
      Blends of difunctional epoxy monomer with a 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone hardener and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were used as a self-healing matrix in woven glass fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPs). FRPs with these blends (containing 0, 25 and 37vol% of PCL in the blend) were manufactured through Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Moulding at high temperature and the matrix, resulting from polymerization induced phase separation, consisted of interconnected epoxy particles embedded in PCL. With 25vol% PCL in the matrix, similar storage modulus and interfacial shear strength as compared to unmodified systems have been observed, however toughness was decreased by 40%. Up to 45% toughness recovery and over 100% stiffness recovery were observed over several cycles when the blend matrix composite samples were re-tested after a thermal cycle at 150°C for 30 min. These composites can thus provide efficient crack healing, but remain more sensitive to initial crack propagation due to confinement of the thermoplastic phase.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • On the volume resistivity of silica nanoparticle filled epoxy with
           different surface modifications
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Pengfei Chu, Hui Zhang, Jun Zhao, Feng Gao, Yufeng Guo, Bin Dang, Zhong Zhang
      It was found that metallic oxide nanoparticles may positively influence insulation properties of polymers working under high electric field. Herewith, four kinds of surface-modified silica nanoparticles were employed to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites. The surface properties of nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and contact angles. The effects of surface modification, filler fraction and test temperature on volume resistivity (ρ v) of epoxy nanocomposites were studied. It was found that, at different test temperatures, the long-alkyl-modified nanoparticles resulted in higher ρ v values of epoxy and less ρ v sensitivity to temperature, compared to the short-alkyl-modified and hydroxyl-modified ones. The surface polarity of nanoparticles was found to correlate with the ρ v values well. The surface modification may cause two possible mechanisms that affect the ρ v values of the epoxy: (i) to offer the nanoparticles different levels of water absorption; (ii) to change the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization behaviors of the composites.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Novel graphite-like carbon nitride/organic aluminum diethylhypophosphites
           nanohybrid: Preparation and enhancement on thermal stability and flame
           retardancy of polystyrene
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Yulu Zhu, Yongqian Shi, Zheng-Qi Huang, Lijin Duan, Qilong Tai, Yuan Hu
      Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was innovatively modified by diethylphosphinic acid through hydrogen bonding; g-C3N4/organic aluminum diethylhypophosphites (g-C3N4/DAHPi) hybrid (denoted as CDAHPi) was synthesized by salification reactions, and subsequently incorporated into PS matrix to prepare composites through melt blending method. Thermal data showed that g-C3N4 could protect DAHPi from external heat, leading to improved thermal stability of DAHPi. Moreover, it was found that the introduction of the hybrid reduced the values of heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR) of the composites. Compared with those of pure PS, the HRR and THR of PS/CDAPHi4 decreasing by 43% and 21% respectively were observed at loadings as low as 4.0wt%. The PS/CDAHPi exhibited an additional advantage in suppression of pyrolysis gas production in comparison with neat PS. In addition, the additive showed higher interfacial adhesion with PS.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Thermal stress analysis of the FGLCS in hypersonic vehicles: Their
           application to fuel injection struts in scramjets
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Weihua Xie, Zujun Peng, Songhe Meng, Chenghai Xu, Fajun Yi, Hua Jin, Shanyi Du
      This paper proposes a novel functionally graded layer composite structure (FGLCS) for use in hypersonic vehicles. It consists of a passive thermal protection layer made from ultra-high temperature ceramic composites, an interface layer of high temperature insulating material and an active thermal protection layer of alloy. The transient thermal stress alleviation characteristics of an FGLCS plate and an FGLCS strut under aerodynamic heating conditions were studied using a finite element method. Compared to a traditional ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) plate and strut, FGLCS can greatly reduce the thermal stress level of structures, the stress relief can be up to 84% in a case study considered in this paper. In addition, the long-term and reusable performance of a prepared FGLCS strut, with much lower thermal stress, was completely validated for the first time by an oxy-propane testing system in a combustion environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Enhanced thermal conductivity of functionalized-graphene/boron nitride
           flexible laminated composite adhesive via a facile latex approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zheng Su, Hua Wang, Xianzhu Ye, Konghu Tian, Weiqi Huang, Chao Xiao, Xingyou Tian
      Flexible fiber-reinforced laminated composite adhesive combining with functionalized-graphene (f-G) layer and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was prepared by colloid-blending and self-assembly technology with the assistance of the secondary force and hydrophilic difference. In this system, poly (2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (P2EHA) as the polymer matrix linked the layer of functionalized-graphene and another layer of hexagonal boron nitride like the cross-linker or adhesive via self-assembly technology. Lewis acid-base (δ+−δ−) interaction and π-π stacking improved the compatibility between the filler and the polymer matrix. The effective and successful fabrication of flexible f-G/h-BN laminated composite adhesive has been confirmed by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD investigations. The oriented stacking and laminated structure resulted in much higher in-plane thermal conductivities (∼4.20W/mK) and insulation in the direction through the plane and good adhesive properties. The procedure was environmental friendly, easy operation, and potential for the practical application in industry.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Non-covalent poly (2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (P2EHA)/functionalized
           graphene/h-boron nitride flexible composites with enhanced adhesive and
           thermal conductivity by a facilitated latex approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Zheng Su, Hua Wang, Xianzhu Ye, Konghu Tian, Weiqi Huang, Yulan Guo, Jing He, Xingyou Tian
      Thermally conductive poly (2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (P2EHA)/functionalized graphene/h-boron nitride composites materials were fabricated by colloid blending and self-assembly approach. Here, self-assembly technology has been used to achieve the facile surface modification of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) microplatelets by forming a functionalized graphene (f-G) sheets on its surface via π-π interaction. The polar functionality on the graphene surface allowed the permeation of the polymer matrix through the secondary interaction between them, increasing the content of this hybridized filler in composite. The effective and successful fabrication of f-G@h-BN microplates have been confirmed by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and TGA investigations. The self-alignment 2D stacked fillers result in higher in-plane thermal conductivities and excellent electrical insulation of the composites. In addition to the good adhesive properties, the procedure is environment-friendly, easy operation, and potential for the practical application in large scale.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Cure history dependence of residual deformation in a thermosetting
           laminate
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Oleksandr G. Kravchenko, Sergii G. Kravchenko, R. Byron Pipes
      The cure history dependent residual deformation in a thermosetting composite laminate was investigated using bi-lamina strip sample with [0/904] stacking-sequence. The samples were subjected to cure cycles with different heating profiles. Significant dependence of the residual strip deflection was found to relate to (i) the interaction of thermal expansion and cure shrinkage of resin and (ii) dependence of resin modulus development on cure strain rate. The lamina constitutive model was proposed to include cure induced shrinkage and composite hardening during cure. The model was calibrated following the single and multiple ramps cure cycles and applied to a number of two hold stage cure cycles with constant maximum temperature. The heating ramp of the cure cycle was varied allowing decreasing the residual deformation at ambient conditions after cure. The presented methodology can be applied for designing the cure cycle to reduce the amount of residual deformation in composite materials from manufacturing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:13:51Z
       
  • Fruit pomace as a source of alternative fibers and cellulose nanofiber as
           reinforcement agent to create molded pulp packaging boards
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Virginia P. Gouw, Jooyeoun Jung, John Simonsen, Yanyun Zhao
      Fruit pomace (FP) as a source of fiber partially replaced recycled newspaper (NP) to create molded pulp boards (FPBs). Blueberry (BP), cranberry (CP), and apple pomace (AP) with different fiber compositions and morphologies were studied for their compatibility with NP. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) was used to improve adhesion between FP and NP. FP/NP ratio and CNF concentration were optimized via central composite design to create FPBs with lower water absorption, and similar flexural strength and strain to 100% newspaper board (NPB). Lignocellulosic composition and fiber morphology of FP affected its compatibility with NP. Incorporating CNF reduced water absorption and increased flexural strength and strain of FPBs, but the amount of required CNF varied among the types of pomace. This study demonstrated that FP can partially substitute NP to create FPBs with better or similar properties to 100% NPB.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Enhancing the interfacial strength of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy
           composites by green grafting of poly(oxypropylene) diamines
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Caifeng Wang, Lei Chen, Jun Li, Shaofan Sun, Lichun Ma, Guangshun Wu, Feng Zhao, Bo Jiang, Yudong Huang
      We report on a green method of using poly(oxypropylene) diamines (D400) as coupling and curing agent to functionalize carbon fiber in water. We propose to enhance the interfacial properties of carbon fiber composites, together with the tensile strength of carbon fibers. The microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon fibers before and after modification are investigated. The results show that D400 do not change the surface morphology, but significantly increase the polarity, wettability and roughness of the carbon fiber surface. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of modified carbon fiber/epoxy composite and the tensile strength of carbon fibers increase by 79.1% and 8.2%, respectively. It is believed that D400 can effectively improve the interfacial adhesion of the composites by improving resin wettability, increasing chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking. This green and simple method can have applications in continuous production of high-performance carbon fiber composites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Improved fiber orientation predictions for injection molded fiber
           composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Huan-Chang Tseng, Rong-Yeu Chang, Chia-Hsiang Hsu
      Highly concentrated fiber suspensions exhibit complex rheological behaviors. There is a particular broader core region of the fiber orientation structure for fiber-filled parts in the injection molding process. However, there is a long-running problem requiring an urgent solution for the industry: to date, prior state-of-the-art predictive engineering tools have always provided unsatisfactory results pertaining to the narrow core. In accordance with insights derived from experimental results related to fiber suspension viscosity, yield stress viscosity does exist at low shear rates. By introducing the yield stress term to modify the standard Cross-WLF viscosity flow curve, namely the Yield-Cross-WLF, the core region can be realistically widened at present. Regarding validation, we employed the Yield-Cross-WLF viscosity model used in 3D injection molding simulation of an end-gated plaque for the concentrated long-carbon-fiber composite. Significantly, the predicted fiber orientation distributions show strong agreement with the measurements, as well as improvement compared to previous simulation attempts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Digital image correlation as a strain measurement technique for fibre
           tensile tests
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Delphine Depuydt, Kevin Hendrickx, Wouter Biesmans, Jan Ivens, Aart Willem Van Vuure
      A method is presented to test fibres in tension using direct strain measurement. This eliminates the need to test the fibres at multiple gauge lengths to correct for machine compliance, reducing the number of samples. Additionally, fibre slippage can contribute to the underestimation of the stiffness since this is not considered in the correction procedure. Steel fibres with a diameter of 30μm, and a known stiffness of 193GPa, were tested in tension using indirect methods and the direct strain method. Direct strain measurement resulted in a stiffness of 187±12GPa while the lowest and highest stiffness obtained by the indirect methods are 140±2GPa and 150±4GPa. The underestimation by the indirect measurement strain methods show the need for a new method. To demonstrate the applicability of the new test method to natural fibres, the properties of technical flax and bamboo fibres were determined.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Preparation and properties of dual-matrix carbon nanotube-reinforced
           aluminum composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Ehab I. Salama, Aya Abbas, Amal M.K. Esawi
      Recent studies on Aluminum-Carbon Nanotube (Al/CNT) composites reported improved strength with the addition of small amounts of CNTs. Most studies reported low ductility which is limiting the potential of such materials. In the current study, a novel Al/CNT microstructural design was introduced to improve ductility while maintaining adequate strength. Al/CNT composites were prepared as: Single Matrix (SM) and Dual Matrix (DM) structures. The SM composites were synthesized by dispersing CNTs in aluminum powders. The DM composites were produced by embedding pre-processed SM Al/CNT powders into a secondary matrix of soft aluminum. Two overall CNT compositions, 1wt.% and 2.5wt.%, were synthesized. The DM approach was found to lead to enhancements of up to 14.8% in ductility compared to SM composites of the same CNT content. Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of DM composites were found to be comparable to their SM counterparts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Active forming manipulation of composite reinforcements for the
           suppression of forming defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Farbod Nosrat Nezami, Thomas Gereke, Chokri Cherif
      For composite applications in automotive serial production, reinforcement textiles are brought into the desired shape by forming processes. The preform quality depends on the interacting factors of tool geometry, textile material, and forming process. The primary cause of defects in multilayer draping is relative movements of the plies, and the occurrence of wrinkles. Thus, the reduction of the interactions between plies is crucial to enhance preform quality. This was achieved with active metal sheets between the fabric layers. Those intermediate layers are additionally stimulated with piezo actors to reduce friction. Additional local and ply-specific clamping of layers was achieved with tension rods and segmented actuators. Defects and wrinkles in the preform could be eliminated or reduced significantly and fiber orientation could be controlled. Thus, a forming process providing high-quality preforms from multiple fabric layers was developed. Furthermore, automation complexity could be reduced significantly by utilizing rigid interlayers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Interfacial properties with bonding and failure mechanisms of wheat straw
           node and internode
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Seyed Hamidreza Ghaffar, Mizi Fan, Bruce McVicar
      The interfacial properties with bonding and failure mechanisms of different anatomical sections of wheat straw stem, namely node and internode, inner and outer surface, with various resins are investigated. An environmentally friendly pre-treatment was employed which led to an improved interface between resins and the micro porous surface of straw. The results showed that chemical functionalities of various surface profiles altered the bonding performance, i.e. extractive, aliphatic fraction of waxes, and silica concentrated on the outer surface, inhibited the bonding quality and the establishment of robust interface. The pre-treatment however, could significantly (P<0.05): (i) modify the surface of straw with the partial removal of extractives, waxes, and silica which made it more hydrophilic and more compatible with water based resins, (ii) cause the microcellular structure of straw to expand and hence inspire the mechanical entanglement on a micro level upon resin solidification and, (iii) increase the tensile strength of node and internode by modifying the cellulose crystallinity. The combined effects of resin, straw and interface led to hierarchical damage process, which could be modelled into four main failure mechanisms representing strong to weak bonding quality.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Influence of ply stacking pattern on the structural properties of
           quasi-isotropic carbon-epoxy laminates in fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): K. Grigoriou, A.P. Mouritz
      An experimental investigation is presented into the effect of the ply stacking pattern to quasi-isotropic carbon-epoxy laminates on their structural properties in fire. Small-scale simulated fire tests are performed on laminates with different stacking sequences of the 0, 90, +45 and −45 plies loaded in tension or compression. Testing revealed that the internal temperature and fire-induced delamination cracking of the laminates depends on the ply stacking pattern. The tension softening rate and stress rupture time of laminates also depends on the ply stacking pattern, particularly at low applied tensile stresses. However, the fire response of laminates under compression loading appears less sensitive to the ply stacking sequence, due in part to their much shorter failure times. The research reveals that the structural survivability of carbon-epoxy laminates when exposed to fire can be influenced by the ply stacking sequence, with composites with 0 mid-plane plies having superior performance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T08:30:08Z
       
  • Permeability of textile fabrics with spherical inclusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Baris Caglar, Laurent Orgéas, Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, E. Murat Sozer, Véronique Michaud
      We investigated the effect of rigid spherical inclusions such as microcapsules and fillers on the permeability of fabrics by using glass beads as model inclusions. Beads with a range of diameters (40–800μm) and volume fractions (2.5–10%) were sieved between layers of woven E-glass fabric targeting a fiber volume fraction of 40%. Permeability measurements were completed by X-ray microtomography to analyze the samples pore structure and estimate their permeability using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. Experimental and numerical estimates were also fitted with a Kozeny model accounting for porosity and specific surface of samples. We identified a threshold curve related to bead diameter and volume fraction below which the permeability follows that of a plain packed textile, and above which a strong departure from this trend is observed, induced by strong distortions of the textile. This behavior was closely correlated to the internal features of the textile.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
       
  • Improving the transesterification and electrical conductivity of vitrimers
           by doping with conductive polymer wrapped carbon nanotubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xuecheng Xu
      Vitrimers, thermosets with exchangeable covalent bonds, have recently attracted increasing attention in the field of functional polymer materials. However, their transesterification rates and electrical properties are inadequate for many practical applications. In this study, we showed that doping vitrimers with conductive polymer wrapped carbon nanotubes could effectively facilitate the transeterification for stress relaxation and endow vritrimers with enhanced electrical conductivity. The vritrimer network was formed by curing epoxy with citric acid, in the presence of polypyrrole wrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT/PPy) as dopant. The transesterification performance, evaluated by stress relaxation analysis, showed 3.6 times faster relaxation rate, reduced transesterification activation energy and 15°C lower T v, after doping with only 3wt% of CNT/PPy. The improved transesterification in stress relaxation, benefited from the higher thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and the interfacial interaction between CNT/PPy and vitrimer matrix. In contrast, pure CNT as dopant results in little enhancement suffering from strong agglomeration in the matrix. Tensile fracture analysis suggested the major role of π-π and p-π conjugation in the doping enhancement. In addition, CNT/PPy doping improved the conductivity for several orders of magnitude. This work provides a promising method for lowering temperature of transesterification and fabricating vitrimers with improved performance and extended applications.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
       
  • Multiscale model to predict fatigue crack propagation behavior of
           thermoset polymeric nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hyunseong Shin, Maenghyo Cho
      In this study, we develop the methodology to predict the fatigue crack growth of the thermoset polymer nanocomposites, based on multiscale approach. The experimentally observed microscopic energy dissipating mechanisms (nanoparticulate debonding, the subsequent plastic yield of nanovoids, and localized shear banding) are reflected in the proposed methodology. The predicted results show satisfactory agreements with respect to experimental data. In addition, the extrinsic crack closure effects are considered, and their influences on the fatigue crack propagation are investigated. The achievement of this study is expected to elucidate the complex phenomenon of fatigue crack growth as well as provide high efficiency with satisfactory predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
       
  • Largely improved thermal conductivity of HDPE/expanded graphite/carbon
           nanotubes ternary composites via filler network-network synergy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Junjin Che, Kai Wu, Yunjie Lin, Ke Wang, Qiang Fu
      Utilizing the synergistic effect of various fillers is an efficient strategy to enhance the thermal conductivity of polymer composites, in which the key is to modulate their dispersion and network formation in polymer matrix. In this work, expanded graphite (EG) was individually added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate first the binary composites through melt blending. The electrical conductivity of the prepared composites was measured to determine the percolation threshold for HDPE/EG composites. Then HDPE/EG composites with three compositions, representing below percolation, just percolation and above percolation, respectively, were chosen as matrix and melt mixed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make HDPE/EG/CNTs ternary composites. It was found that adding CNTs results in a linear increase of thermal conductivity for HDPE/EG composites with composition below percolation, along the line by adding the same amount of EG. While a jump of thermal conductivity was observed by adding CNTs for HDPE/EG composites with composition just and above percolation. The electrical conductivity and rheology property were measured and SEM experiment was carried out to explore the filler dispersion and their network formation in HDPE matrix. All the results suggested a possible location CNTs in EG filler network for HDPE/EG composites with composition just and above percolation. Thus the formation of CNTs network within EG network is attributed to the main reason for the largely enhanced thermal property. This work endows a new enlightenment to fabricate the composites with a great thermal conductivity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
       
  • Enhanced dielectric performance of polyimide composites with modified
           sandwich-like SiO2@GO hybrids
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Leipeng Liu, Fengzhu Lv, Yihe Zhang, Penggang Li, Wangshu Tong, Ling Ding, Guoqiang Zhang
      High-dielectric-constant (high-k) polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise microelectronics industry. In this work, sandwich-like SiO2 encapsulated graphene oxide hybrids (SiO2@GO) were fabricated throng a sol–gel method to enhance the dielectric properties of PI. Series of analysis, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that SiO2 were successfully grafted onto the surface of GO and formed a sandwich-like core–shell structure hybrids. Then, polyimide (PI) composites filled with SiO2@GO were prepared via in-situ polymerization method. A dielectric constant of 73 (40Hz) was obtained for SiO2@GO/PI composites as the fraction of SiO2@GO was 20wt%. In order to improve the dielectric properties of composite, two kinds of coupling agents, 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS), were used to modify the surface of SiO2@GO. GPTS-SiO2@GO/PI composite had an increased dielectric constant of 79 and a decreased loss of 0.25 at 40Hz. The significantly enhanced dielectric performance of GPTS-SiO2@GO/PI composite was caused by the good dispersion of GPTS-SiO2. In addition, the different dielectric performance of composites modified by different coupling agent was also discussed. This work could help researchers further understand the mechanism of fillers’ interface on the dielectric properties of composites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
       
  • Azide-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped mesoporous carbon cloth
           for high-performance symmetric supercapacitor employing LiClO4 as
           electrolyte
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Qian Zhang, Ni Wang, Peng Zhao, Mengqi Yao, Wencheng Hu
      In our investigation, N-doped porous carbon cloth (NPCC) was synthesized through KOH activation and sodium azide-assisted hydrothermal method to improve its surface area and conductivity, respectively. The morphology and structure of the obtained NPCC were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were then performed to test electrochemical performance of the NPCC. The surface area of the NPCC was approximately 52m2 g−1, which was 6.5 times higher than that of carbon cloth (CC, 8m2 g−1), and the average pore size of NPCC was 5.0nm. XPS demonstrated that elemental N (pyrrolic N and quaternary N) was successfully doped into the CC structure with a total N content of 3.49%. Electrochemical assessment was conducted in a symmetrical system in 1M LiClO4/acetonitrile electrolyte. The charge transfer resistance was significantly decreased from 97Ω to 60Ω after N-doping treatment. The NPCC device delivered a high areal capacitance of 130mF cm−2 at a current density of 1mAcm−2, and the highest volumetric energy density of 2.03mWhcm−3 (16.25Whkg−1) was achieved at a volumetric power density of 0.375Wcm−3 (3kWkg−1). Additionally, the device could retain 95.8% of its initial capacitance even after 30,000 cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
       
  • Effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of injection
           molded short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): M. Kawai, H. Takeuchi, I. Taketa, A. Tsuchiya
      The effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite have been examined. Static tension and compression tests are carried out at room temperature (RT), 50°C and 70°C, respectively. For each of these temperatures, constant amplitude fatigue tests are performed at different stress ratios. Experimental results show that the temperature dependence of static strength can be described by a single equation of the Arrhenius type in the range higher than room temperature for each of tension and compression. The tensile strength turns to be smaller than the compressive strength at high temperature. The effect of temperature on fatigue life can approximately be removed by normalization of fatigue stress with respect to static strength, regardless of stress ratio. The asymmetry and nonlinearity in constant fatigue life diagram turns to be more significant with increasing temperature, and they can adequately be modeled by means of the anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram. The temperature-dependent anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram approach is also tested. It is demonstrated that this method allows adequately predicting the S-N curves for any stress ratios as well as the constant fatigue life curves for the whole range of mean stress at any temperature in a range that includes the test temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
       
  • Enhanced through-plane thermal conductivity of boron nitride/epoxy
           composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Cuiping Yu, Jun Zhang, Zhuo Li, Wei Tian, Liangjie Wang, Jie Luo, Qiulong Li, Xiaodong Fan, Yagang Yao
      A facile strategy was reported to fabricate vertically oriented and densely packed hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/epoxy (EP) composites via vacuum filtration followed by slicing up. This route is simple and high-efficient without special treatment and/or chemical modification. A high through-plane thermal conductivity of 9W/mK was obtained at a h-BN loading of 44vol% in the composites. Laser flash thermal analyzer (LFA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated that the through-plane thermal conductivity of the composites increased with the fraction of the fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests indicated that h-BN microplatelets were mainly vertically oriented in the composites. In addition, as-made composites showed good mechanical strength. Therefore, it has great potential as thermal interface materials, which is very important in the thermal management of electronics, especially in electronic packages where electrical insulation is required.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
       
  • Impact of interfacial adhesion on the microstructure and property
           variations of biocarbons reinforced nylon 6 biocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Emmanuel O. Ogunsona, Manjusri Misra, Amar K. Mohanty
      This work systematically demonstrates the effect of biocarbon surface chemistry on the properties of nylon-biocarbon biocomposites and that they can be designed for specific applications by engineering the biocarbon surface through pyrolysis. Miscanthus fibers pyrolyzed at ∼500°C (B1) and ∼900°C (B2) were used to reinforce nylon 6 at 20 wt.% loading. The composite containing B1 (NB1) exhibited increased tensile and flexural strengths by 19.5% and 31% respectively while the composite containing B2 (NB2) exhibited significantly lower aforementioned properties than those of NB1. The impact strength of NB2 was unchanged while that of NB1 was diminished by 32%. The property variations of the composites were attributed to the difference in interfacial adhesion between the biocarbons and nylon due to the biocarbons’ different surface functionalities. Complex and shear-viscosities showed greater restriction of the nylon chains in NB1 stemming from stronger interaction between B1 and nylon.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
       
  • Influence of off-axis in-plane yarns on the mechanical properties of 3D
           composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, Yang Liu, Dmytro Vasiukov, Damien Soulat, Stéphane Panier
      In the current paper, investigations have been carried out on in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties of 3D multiaxial woven composites keeping in view three different architectures. The first two architectures constitute of additional bias yarns oriented at +θ° and −θ° along with 0° and 90°, whereas the third comprises of yarns directed at 0° and 90° only. Composites in which the bias yarns accompany the 0° and 90° yarns have improved mechanical properties in comparison to classical 3D orthogonal woven textile composites. In order to demonstrate the influence of off-axis yarns on the mechanical properties, uniaxial tensile (loading-unloading) and short beam shear (SBS) tests were conducted. To measure strain field and record the visual analysis of the cracking processes and de-bonding, all mechanical tests were equipped with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system. It was concluded based on the experimental results that 3D multiaxial woven composites exhibit enhanced interlaminar shear strength compare to classical 3D-orthogonal composites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
       
 
 
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