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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2417 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1267 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.539
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 209  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Synergistic effect of CNT films impregnated with CNT modified epoxy
           solution towards boosted interfacial bonding and functional properties of
           the composites
    • Authors: Ifra Marriam; Fujun Xu; Mike Tebyetekerwa; Yang Gao; Wei Liu; Xiaohua Liu; Yiping Qiu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ifra Marriam, Fujun Xu, Mike Tebyetekerwa, Yang Gao, Wei Liu, Xiaohua Liu, Yiping Qiu
      Carbon nanotubes thin films (CNTf) in polymers should demonstrate excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, such anticipated properties are hardly possible due to a number of factors. For example, the weak bonding of CNTf with polymers at the interface which results in easy delamination and deteriorated properties of the CNTf/polymer composites. More still, the declined conductivity of composites highly contributed by the insulating polymers. Herein, an approach to solve the mentioned problems is reported which briefly involved first modifying the polymer (epoxy resin) with the CNT in controlled percentages, and then introducing the CNTf to the modified epoxy solution which synergistically created a new CNT-to-CNT interphase and interlocked interactions, hence, presenting enhanced peeling (74.38%) and tensile (164.76%) strength in modified composites as compared to the unmodified CNTf/epoxy composites. Moreover, the strain sensing, conductivity, and temperature responses of the composites were also significantly improved as required in various high-performance composites.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Inter-ply angle influence on the out-of-plane compressive response of
           polyethylene fibre laminates
    • Authors: M.R. O'Masta; B.P. Russell; W. Ronan
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): M.R. O'Masta, B.P. Russell, W. Ronan
      Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibre reinforced composites find extensive use in impact protection applications. When loaded in out-of-plane (through thickness) compression, UHWMPE laminates composed of a typical cross-ply lay-up (an inter-ply angle of θ = 90°) are known to exhibit fibre tensile rupture via a shear-lag mechanism. This study addresses the effect of inter-ply angle ( θ = 18–90°) on the compressive response of UHMWPE laminates and shows they may fail by this indirect tension mechanism. The shear-lag length increases as θ is reduced, which reduces the compressive strength at small sample sizes. A previous analytical model to predict compressive failure by this mechanism is generalised for laminates with non-orthogonal but constant inter-ply angles. The predictions capture the two key experimental observations which are dependent on inter-ply angle and sample size: the transition from ply shear failure to indirect fibre tensile rupture and the compressive strength.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Thickness effects on fibre-bridged fatigue delamination growth in
    • Authors: Liaojun Yao; Hao Cui; R.C. Alderliesten; Yi Sun; Licheng Guo
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Liaojun Yao, Hao Cui, R.C. Alderliesten, Yi Sun, Licheng Guo
      This paper provides an investigation on thickness effects on fibre-bridged fatigue delamination growth (FDG) in composite laminates. A modified Paris relation was employed to interpret experimental fatigue data. The results clearly demonstrated that both thickness and fibre bridging had negligible effects on FDG behaviors. Both energy principles and fractography analysis were subsequently performed to explore the physical reasons of this independence. It was found that the amount of energy release of a given crack growth was not only independent of fibre bridging, but also thickness. Fibre print was the dominant microscopic feature located on fracture surfaces, physically making the same energy dissipation during FDG. Furthermore, the present study provides extra evidence on the importance of using an appropriate similitude parameter in FDG studies. Particularly, the strain energy release rate (SERR) range applied around crack front was demonstrated as an appropriate similitude parameter for fibre-bridged FDG study.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Notch insensitive orientation-dispersed pseudo-ductile thin-ply
           carbon/glass hybrid laminates
    • Authors: Mohamad Fotouhi; Meisam Jalalvand; Michael R. Wisnom
      Pages: 29 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Mohamad Fotouhi, Meisam Jalalvand, Michael R. Wisnom
      Notch sensitivity, free edge delamination and brittle failure are limiting factors for the wider use of conventional composite laminates. In our previous study, a hybrid layup concept with the different materials blocked together but with dispersed orientations was successfully used to design pseudo-ductile hybrid composites with no free-edge delamination. This study introduces a comprehensive set of designed and characterised orientation-dispersed pseudo-ductile thin-ply hybrid composites to address notch sensitivity, another important limiting factor in conventional composite laminates. Un-notched, open-hole and sharp notched tension tests were performed on three different thin-ply carbon/glass hybrid configurations. The investigated laminates showed a successful pseudo-ductile un-notched behaviour with improved notch-insensitivity and suppression of free-edge delamination that was an undesirable damage mode in previously investigated hybrids with plies of the same orientation blocked together. This notch insensitivity results from subcritical damage in the laminates due to the pseudo-ductile damage mechanisms, i.e. dispersed delamination and fragmentation. These damage mechanisms can eliminate stress concentrations near the notch and suppress the conventional damage mechanisms that govern the notched response of the laminates.

      PubDate: 2018-04-23T14:30:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • Hot-pressing induced orientation of boron nitride in polycarbonate
           composites with enhanced thermal conductivity
    • Authors: Na Sun; Jiajia Sun; Xiaoliang Zeng; Peng Chen; Jiasheng Qian; Ru Xia; Rong Sun
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 110
      Author(s): Na Sun, Jiajia Sun, Xiaoliang Zeng, Peng Chen, Jiasheng Qian, Ru Xia, Rong Sun
      Thermally conductive polymer composites are commonly used in thermal management field because of their wide range of utilization, ease of processing and low cost. However, conventional polymer composites usually suffer from an undesired enhancement of thermal conductivity. Herein, we report on boron nitride (BN) plates/polycarbonate composites in which BN plates are aligned via hot-pressing. Since the orderly arrangement of BN plates can provide pathways for phonon transport, the obtained composites possess a maximum thermal conductivity of 3.09 W m−1 K−1 along the aligned direction as the BN loading reaching 18.5 vol%. The thermal infrared characterization also indicates that BN/polycarbonate composites perform higher heating or cooling rate due to the good heat conduction capacity. This strategy can potentially pave the way for the design and preparation of highly thermally conductive and mechanically strong materials for thermal-management applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-30T15:00:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2018)
  • The influence of oxygen containing functional groups on carbon fibers for
           mechanical properties and recyclability of CFRTPs made with in-situ
           polymerizable polyamide 6
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Toshihira Irisawa, Ryohei Inagaki, Junya Iida, Ryosuke Iwamura, Kento Ujihara, Sarasa Kobayashi, Yasuhiro Tanabe
      The influence of the oxygen containing functional groups on carbon fibers for mechanical properties and recyclability of carbon fiber reinforced thermos-plastics (CFRTPs) made with in-situ polymelizable polyamide 6 (PA6) have been discussed. Interfacial adhesion between CFs with functional groups and PA6 became higher compared with that of because of the interaction such as hydrogen bond, covalent bond. Furthermore, it was revealed that these effects apparently improved the mechanical properties of the CFRTPs. On the other hand, the interaction between the functional groups and PA6 affected the recyclability of the CFRTPs. Although PA6 as the matrix polymer of the CFRTP could be pyrolyzed even under N2 gas and recycle CFs with very little char could be obtained at 600 °C, it was found that the tensile strength decreased after pyrolytic process by about 10% only when the CFs with the functional groups were used for reinforcement fibers.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Evolution of microstructure and electrical property in the conversion of
           high strength carbon fiber to high modulus and ultrahigh modulus carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Xin Qian, Jianhai Zhi, Liqun Chen, Junjun Zhong, Xuefei Wang, Yonggang Zhang, Shulin Song
      Evolution of microstructure and electrical property in the conversion of high strength carbon fiber (HSCF) to high modulus carbon fiber (HMCF) and ultrahigh modulus carbon fiber (UHMCF) was investigated. Longitudinal grooves on fiber surfaces became less well-defined during high temperature graphitization. The tensile modulus of carbon fibers was affected by fiber crystalline structure and it increased with decreases in the value of interlayer spacing and improvements in the value of crystallite thickness. Increases in the crystallite size almost had little effect on the tensile strength. However, a lower interlayer spacing and a higher preferred orientation could result in a higher tensile strength. The crystal structure of carbon fibers became much more ordered during high temperature graphitization. It was found that the electrical resistivity gradually decreased from 14.69 × 10−4 Ω·cm to 9.70 × 10−4 Ω·cm and 8.80 × 10−4 Ω·cm, respectively, in the conversion of HSCF to HMCF and UHMCF.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Experimental method for mode I fracture toughness of composite laminates
           using wedge loaded double cantilever beam specimens
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sota Oshima, Akinori Yoshimura, Yoshiyasu Hirano, Toshio Ogasawara
      This study proposes a simple and accurate data reduction scheme for the wedge loaded double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen. The effects of axial loading applied by wedges were considered for the evaluation of mode I energy release rate. Furthermore, a methodology for the determination of crack length during the tests was proposed. The presented method was verified by both finite-element (FE) analyses and fracture toughness tests. The results of the FE analyses showed that the mode I energy release rate obtained by the presented method well agreed with that obtained by the virtual crack closure method. Both the wedge loaded DCB and standard DCB tests were carried out to verify the presented method with unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites. Mode I fracture toughness obtained by the wedge loaded DCB tests was almost identical to that obtained by the standard DCB tests.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Degradation mechanism of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics exposed to
           hot steam studied by chemical and structural analyses of nylon 6 matrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Hideaki Hagihara, Ryota Watanabe, Tomio Shimada, Masahiro Fanabashi, Masao Kunioka, Hiroaki Sato
      Degradation testing of nylon 6-based carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) was performed by exposure to hot steam in a closed vessel. The degraded structure was investigated to understand the degradation mechanism. Aging-induced micro-cracking in the nylon 6 matrix of CFRTP indicated that internal stress was generated by changes in its local density, along with a decrease in the molecular weight due to hydrolysis. Aging process of nylon 6 increased the free volume hole size in the amorphous part and also induced crystallization, suggesting that the density of the amorphous part decreases with increasing crystallinity in the matrix. Therefore, the degradation mechanism of the CFRTP was proposed to begin with a change in the local density of nylon 6 owing to crystallization, followed by water infiltration and hydrolysis of the matrix. Stress due to density changes combined with reduced molecular weight forms micro-cracks, decreasing the mechanical strength of CFRTP.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Stress transfer of single yarn drawing in soft fabric studied by micro
           Raman spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Fuyong Qin, Zhenkun Lei, Yu Ma, Qingchao Fang, Ruixiang Bai, Wei Qiu, Cheng Yan, Yang Feng
      The load transfer behavior of the Kevlar 49 soft fabric commonly used for bulletproof clothing in yarn drawing test was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The linear relationship between Raman shift and axial stress of single yarn was established. The axial stresses of warp yarn in soft fabric with and without preload condition were obtained by Raman measurement under tension, and they conform to the theoretical prediction using a yarn-drawing model with interface debonding. The experimental results show that the drawing load is transferred along the yarn from the beginning to the end. In the process of straightening the yarn, the interfacial friction shear stress caused by the yarn relative sliding remains almost constant, and the length of straightened yarn becomes longer as the external load increases. The preload plays a role in inhibiting the straightening of the yarn, which is helpful for the load transfer in the sliding friction section.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Creation of individual few-layer graphene incorporated in an aluminum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Weiwei Zhou, Yuchi Fan, Xiaopeng Feng, Keiko Kikuchi, Naoyuki Nomura, Akira Kawasaki
      3D-networks of few-layer graphene (FLG) platelets at grain boundaries, sandwiched between thin amorphous Al2O3 layers, were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of graphene oxide (GO)/Al mixed powders. The GO was prepared by a modified Hummers’ method, and was thermally reduced to FLG simultaneously during SPS densification. Subsequent plastic flow of the Al matrix during the hot extrusion process caused the destruction of this structure, rearranged the FLG platelets individually into the uniaxial direction, and made them incorporate in the Al matrix. Observations by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy proved the existence of a direct-contact interface between the FLG and the Al matrix without any interfacial compounds, and revealed that the Al matrix featured a fairly low dislocation density. Consequently, the mechanical strength of Al matrix was noticeably enhanced by FLG incorporation, agreeing with the potential strengthening effect predicted by the load transfer mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Viscoelastic response of carbon fibre reinforced polymer during push-out
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Santiago Corujeira Gallo, Xiaoying Li, Zhenxue Zhang, Constantinos Charitidis, Hanshan Dong
      Push-out is one of the available techniques to assess the bond strength between the reinforcing fibres and the matrix in composite materials. The test is conducted on thin sections of composite, and a small indenter is used to apply increasing load on single fibres while measuring the displacement, until the debonding occurs. This study used push-out tests to assess the debonding mechanism of carbon fibres in an epoxy matrix. The tests were conducted at multiple loading rates (0.1 mN/s, 1 mN/s and 10 mN/s) and temperatures (24 °C and 125 °C). The results were analysed and contrasted with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations. The data showed evidence of push-out events and provided new insights into the contribution of the viscoelastic behaviour of the fibre/matrix interface and/or the matrix. This finding could pave new pathways for improving the bond strength between the carbon fibres and the matrix in composite materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Facile fabrication and performance of robust polymer/carbon nanotube
           coated spandex fibers for strain sensing
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Qin Chen, Dong Xiang, Lei Wang, Yuhao Tang, Eileen Harkin-Jones, Chunxia Zhao, Yuntao Li
      The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growth of research and development in flexible and wearable strain sensors. However, there are still some challenges associated with the fabrication of strain sensors to achieve a high sensitivity and large workable range at low cost. Here, we report on the development of a highly elastic strain sensor based on a commercial spandex fiber coated with a nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) manufactured by a layer-by-layer (LBL) method. The sensor demonstrated outstanding performance with large workable strain, high sensitivity, excellent repeatability and regular signal responses within a wide measuring frequency range of 0.01–1 Hz. Additionally, the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the sensor performance was also investigated. Application of the sensor in monitoring diverse human motions, such as facial micro expressions and speech recognition, are also demonstrated showing its potential for applications in wearable devices and intelligent robots.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Optical high dynamic range acquisition of crack density evolution in
           cyclic loaded GFRP cross-ply laminates affected by stitching
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): J.J. Bender, J.A. Glud, E. Lindgaard
      The fatigue crack density evolution in a cross-ply laminate where edge finish and stitching are taken into account is investigated. Diamond saw and water jet cutting are used to produce the test specimens and some of the specimens are polished afterwards. The crack density evolution and crack initiations are tracked automatically. It is shown that the number of cracks initiating at the edges for non-polished specimens are similar, whereas the diamond saw cut and polished specimens have fewer cracks at the edges, and the water jet cut and polished specimens have even fewer. In addition it is shown that the crack density is higher in the stitching areas than in the rest for polished specimens. This indicates that the stitching is highly governing of where cracks initiate and propagate in the specimens with limited edge defects. The same applies to real composite structures, which are negligibly affected by edge defects.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Microstructure engineering of graphene towards highly thermal conductive
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Haoming Fang, Shu-Lin Bai, Ching Ping Wong
      Heat management is more and more crucial challenge since the development of modern electronic devices towards miniaturization and high dense integrity. Highly thermal conductive composites based on graphene are ideal heat-dissipating materials for their excellent heat dissipation ability, outstanding mechanical properties as well as low coefficient of thermal expansion. Numerous efforts have been made towards the development of graphene-based polymeric composites with high performance. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that microstructure engineering of graphene-based construction of three-dimensional networks and high orientation is extremely important to improve the properties of composites. In this review, the research progress on the latest strategies of microstructure engineering of graphene for highly thermal conductive composites is summarized. Both fabrication methods and theoretical simulations are discussed. Finally, development and perspectives of highly thermal conductive composites are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Characterization of fibre alignment in as-received aerospace grade
           unidirectional prepreg
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Andrew L. Stewart, Anoush Poursartip
      Analysis of the fibre dominated properties of composite materials typically assumes, often implicitly, the perfect alignment of fibres. Increasingly, however, it is acknowledged that waviness (in-plane misalignment) and wrinkling (out-of-plane misalignment) play an important role in both manufacturing and structural response. In this paper, a previously developed experimental method to measure fibre misalignment has been improved and extended to also determine fibre excess length. Results are presented for two unidirectional aerospace grade prepregs (8552 and 8552–1 resins reinforced by AS4 fibre). The fibre alignment distributions are well fitted by an analytical model that allows for a distribution of excess lengths; the fibre excess length is not constant at the end of the prepregging process. It is shown that only with a distribution of excess lengths can the experimental unimodal misalignment distributions be analytically modelled. Misalignment distributions presented in this paper are consistent with those reported elsewhere, and furthermore it is shown that the fibres were significantly more aligned out-of-plane than in-plane. Finally, contrary to the best working hypothesis in the literature, samples prepared using a thermal cure process saw no correlation between fibre misalignment and initial location on a prepreg roll.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • A polymer colloidal technique for enhancing bending properties of carbon
           fiber-reinforced thermoplastics using nylon modifier
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Tetsuya Yamamoto, Katsumasa Uematsu, Toshihira Irisawa, Yasuhiro Tanabe
      To enhance the bending properties of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) by improving their interfacial properties, a new colloidal technique has been developed in this work. First, colloidal polymer containing the main components of thermoplastic nylon resin was synthesized from nylon powder and surfactants or through emulsion polymerization and then subsequently adsorbed on the surface of carbon fibers by electrodeposition. The strength of the surface adhesion between the modified carbon fibers and nylon was estimated by measuring their interfacial shear strength (ISS) via fragmentation testing. The obtained results revealed that both the ISS and impregnation ratio of nylon depended on the amount and composition of the adsorbed particles. Furthermore, the relationship between the interfacial and bending properties of CFRTP was clarified. The data by three-point bending tests showed that the contribution of the impregnation ratio of nylon to the enhancement of the bending strength of CFRTP was much larger than that of ISS.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Prediction, evaluation and mechanism governing interphase strength in
           tensile fractured PA-6/MWCNT nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Swamini Chopra, Kavita A. Deshmukh, Abhay D. Deshmukh, C.L. Gogte, Dilip Peshwe
      Present investigation focuses on exploring the tensile fracture mechanism in Polyamide-6 (PA-6) reinforced with low contents of Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Fractography revealed not only uniform dispersion of MWCNTs but also appreciable interfacial interaction between PA-6 matrix and MWCNTs. Polymer sheathing and formation of bead-like morphology on fractured MWCNTs also confirmed strong interfacial adhesion. Upon fracture, the MWCNTs bridged over broken polymer facets and contributed towards improvement in strength of the composites by stress transfer effect. The bonding of MWCNTs on favourable sites along PA-6 chain was observed from FTIR, while the formation of strong interphase was confirmed by theoretical modelling of interphase strength and the thickness of interphase layer by using modified combination model of Leidnar-Woodhams model and Pukanszky model for cylindrical nanofillers. Mechanism for the formation of a strong and dense interphase and its contribution for improved tensile properties of PA-6/MWCNT nanocomposites are also explained herein.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Automatic glass fiber length measurement for discontinuous
           fiber-reinforced composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Ruggero Giusti, Filippo Zanini, Giovanni Lucchetta
      Severe fiber breakage occurs in injection molding, affecting the mechanical performance of discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites. Accurate measurement of the residual fiber length distribution is crucial to experimentally investigate the physics of fiber breakage. This work proposes an automatic glass fiber length measurement method, based on the algorithm CT-FIRE for individual fiber detection. The main parameters of the algorithm were optimized to minimize the average systematic error between measurements performed with CT-FIRE and with a high-accuracy CMM. An approach to the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty based on substitution measurements was proposed and verified for a large size sample. For the scanner used in this study the uncertainty was 0.651 mm. Eventually, the developed automatic measurement method was used to investigate fiber breakage during plastication of long glass fiber-reinforced PP. The results obtained using the optimized algorithm parameters showed that significant breakage is due to the presence of the dynamic mixer.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Atherton–Todd reaction assisted synthesis of functionalized
           multicomponent MoSe2/CNTs nanoarchitecture towards the fire safety
           enhancement of polymer
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Junling Wang, Yixin Hu, Wei Cai, Bihe Yuan, Yan Zhang, Wenwen Guo, Weizhao Hu, Lei Song
      High fire hazard of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) has been an unavoidable obstruction on its comprehensive employment. Here, this work utilizes the physical barrier and promoting charring effect of functionalized multicomponent molybdenum diselenide/carbon nanotubes nanohybrid (HCMo) to reduce the fire hazard of TPU. Markedly suppressed heat and smoke releases can be obtained after its addition. With 3.0 wt% HCMo dosage, the peak heat release rate (PHRR) is decreased by 38.3%. The peak smoke production rate (PSPR) and peak specific extinction area (PSEA) values are reduced by 32.1 and 35.6%, respectively. Moreover, the toxic volatiles release is obviously inhibited after its incorporation. Furthermore, by incorporating 1.0 wt% HCMo, the decreased smoke density is obtained and the total yields of CO and CO2 are decreased by 13.4 and 20.0%, respectively. Overall, HCMo shows favorable suppressions function on heat, smoke and toxic gases releases, resulting in the improved fire safety of TPU.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Hybrid enhancements by polydopamine and nanosilica on carbon fibre
           reinforced polymer laminates under marine environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Wei Han, Hong-Ping Zhang, Xin Xu, Youhong Tang
      In this study, two enhancement methods, i.e., toughen the epoxy matrix by commercially available nanosilica and enhance the interfaces of fibres and matrix by autoxidation of dopamine were applied together in carbon fibre reinforced polymer laminates with potential large-scale applicability. Significant enhancements were found for Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness and interlaminar shear strength with the combined addition of nanosilica and polydopamine in the laminates. The enhancement mechanism is proposed as well. Salt spray tests were applied in this study to simulate a marine environment for the laminates. Model I interlaminar fracture toughness and interlaminar shear strength both decreased under the simulated marine environment with an increase in immersion time, but the deterioration was significantly mitigated when nanosilica and polydopamine were added together with still much higher mechanical properties measured after 3 weeks of salt spray immersion than in neat laminate without salt spray immersion, providing promising evidence for maritime engineering applications of such laminates.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Combining interface damage and friction in cohesive interface models using
           an energy based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Zhenmin Zou, Marwah Hameed
      Cohesive zone models coupling interface damage and friction have been developed in the literature and are available in the commercial finite element package ABAQUS to consider the enhancing effect of through-thickness compression on interfacial fracture resistance. It is revealed in this paper that these models are extremely dependent on interface stiffness, because interface stiffness reduction factor is used to combine damage and friction in these models. The interfacial constitutive law converges but only when the interface is extremely stiff and an unrealistic evolution of the interface damage is produced. A new approach is then developed which uses a cohesive energy related parameter to combine interface damage and friction. The behaviour of the new coupled model is independent of the interface stiffness once the interface is moderately stiff. The new and existing damage/friction coupled models have been employed to simulate the shear failure of a composite specimen and the predictions are compared against the experimental data in the literature. The new model produces converged results over a wide range of interface stiffness and the predictions match the experiments quite well, better than the existing models.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T18:58:12Z
  • Largely enhanced thermal conductivity of HDPE/boron nitride/carbon
           nanotubes ternary composites via filler network-network synergy and
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Junjin Che, Mengfan Jing, Dingyao Liu, Ke Wang, Qiang Fu
      In recent years, hybrid fillers with different dimension are frequently used to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer/filler composites. While the combined effect of hybrid filler and orientation on the thermal conductivity of polymer/filler composites has rarely reported. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE)/boron nitride (BN)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) ternary composites were prepared by melt blending then hot rolled to obtain oriented sheets. The thermal conductivity and internal structure of the obtained sheets were investigated and compared with those obtained by hot-pressed sheets with random distributed structure. Two representative systems were used, the one is that BN content is low and forms the isolated dispersions (using HDPE/5BN/CNT composites with 5 wt% of BN as example), the other one is that BN content is high and forms network structure (using HDPE/25BN/CNT composites with 25 wt% of BN as example). For hot-pressed samples, no synergy between BN and CNT was found for HDPE/5BN/CNT system with BN dispersed in isolation in HDPE matrix, while an obvious increase of thermal conductivity was seen for HDPE/25BN/CNT system with BN network formation in HDPE matrix, and a 300% increase of thermal conductivity could be achieved as 3 wt% of CNT was added, compared with that of net HDPE. For hot-rolled samples, an increase of thermal conductivity was observed for both HDPE/5BN/CNT and HDPE/25BN/CNT ternary composites by adding CNT into the composites, suggesting the importance of filler orientation in the enhancement of thermal conductivity in polymer/filler composites with hybrid filler. The combined effect of hybrid filler and orientation could result in a further increase of thermal conductivity and 600% increase of thermal conductivity could be achieved. Finally, based on the analysis of internal structure of prepared samples as obtained by SEM observation, rheology and XRD measurements, a possible mechanism for the enhancement of thermal conductivity via hybrid and orientation was proposed. Our work is important and could shed light for the preparation of polymer composites with super thermal conductivity.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • In situ shear-induced mercapto group-activated graphite nanoplatelets for
           fabricating mechanically strong and thermally conductive elastomer
           composites for thermal management applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Yinhang Zhang, Soo-Jin Park
      Interfacial interaction is one of the most crucial and dominant factors affecting the performance and behavior of a material. The surfaces of layered expanded graphite (EG) were activated by covalently grafted mercapto groups (-SH), which can readily react with the macromolecular chains of rubber, thus forming a strong interfacial adhesion between the filler and the rubber matrix. Shear-induced mercapto-group-activated graphite nanoplatelets (S@GNPs) were fabricated in situ by compound mixing in a two-roll mill. A correlation between the interfacial interaction and the thermal conductivity, as well as the thermo-physical properties, was comprehensively investigated. The results showed that rubber/S@GNPs composites exhibited better mechanical performance, enhanced thermo-physical properties, and superior thermal conductivity, all of which could be attributed to the stronger interfacial interaction resulting from chemical bonding between the S@GNPs and the molecular chains of the rubber, relative to XSBR/GNP composites connected by weaker π-π stacking.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • Simultaneous enhancement on thermal and mechanical properties of
           polypropylene composites filled with graphite platelets and graphene
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Yanjuan Ren, Yafei Zhang, Haoming Fang, Tianpeng Ding, Jinlai Li, Shu-Lin Bai
      Thermoplastic composites have aroused extensive academic and industrial concern because of their recyclability and versatility. In this work, polypropylene (PP) composites filled with multilayer graphene sheets (GSs) and graphite platelets (GPs) were successfully fabricated via a facile melt-mixing procedure. The hybrid fillers exhibit simultaneous enhancement on thermal and mechanical properties of composites. With the loading of 3 wt% GSs and 20 wt% GPs, the thermal conductivity (TC) of GSs/GPs/PP composites reaches 1.72 Wm−1 K−1, which is much higher than that of single filler composites with the same loading. Besides, this composite material displays enhanced mechanical properties. Usually, high filler content leads to high thermal conductivity, but decreases mechanical properties. However, this work shows a simultaneous enhancement effect which could be explained by the unique connected microstructure. It is found that the small GSs are filled into the interspaces of large GPs, which not only facilitates the heat transfer, but also enhances the resistance to fracture, thus leading to better thermal and mechanical performances. The excellent properties of the composites endow a promising potential in industrial application.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • The influence of hardener-to-epoxy ratio on the interfacial strength in
           glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Ross F. Minty, Liu Yang, James L. Thomason
      This work seeks to develop a better understanding of the influence that the chemistry of an epoxy thermoset system has on the stress-transfer capability of the fibre-matrix interface. We discuss the correlation between the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and the properties of the matrix such as glass transition temperature (Tg), storage modulus and linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE). The results indicate that each is strongly dependent on the hardener-to-epoxy ratio and it was found that changes in IFSS can be related to changes in the thermomechanical properties of the matrix. From the results presented it is hypothesized that residual radial compressive stresses at the interface are influenced by the chemistry of the matrix system due to the changes in the properties of the matrix. The combination of these residual stresses with static friction may lead to a potential variation of the interfacial stress-transfer capability in glass-fibre reinforced epoxy composites.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • Thermal and ablation properties of EPDM based heat shielding materials
           modified with density reducer fillers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Marco Rallini, Ivan Puri, Luigi Torre, Maurizio Natali
      EPDM/aramid fibers ablatives represent the state of the art of Elastomeric Heat Shielding Materials (EHSMs) for Solid Rocket Motors (SRMs). EPDM exhibits the lowest density among elastomers maximizing the payload of a SRM. Due to necessity to further maximize the payload of a rocket, density reducer fillers, such as glass or phenolic microballoons, can be considered in the material formulation of the SRM insulation liner. However, the open literature on EPDM based EHSMs combined with these density reducers is extremely limited because these formulations are generally proprietary of companies manufacturing SRMs. In our paper we studied the heat capacity, thermal and dimensional stability, mechanical properties, and ablation resistance of EPDM based EHSMs combined with glass microspheres at different percentages. The main aim was to evaluate Perlite, an affordable density reducer additive commonly used in concrete applications, as a possible replacement of glass microballoons.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • Lightweight chopped carbon fibre reinforced silica-phenolic resin aerogel
           nanocomposite: Facile preparation, properties and application to thermal
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chonghai Wang, Haiming Cheng, Changqing Hong, Xinghong Zhang, Tao Zeng
      A chopped carbon fibre (CF) reinforced silica-phenolic resin (Si/PR) aerogel nanocomposite was prepared through a simple one-pot sol-gel polymerization in a slurry of CF, PR, silane, hexamethylenetetramine and ethylene glycol. CFs were distributed homogeneously and randomly in the Si/PR aerogels. The Si/PR aerogels exhibit finer microstructure, higher thermal stability and better anti-oxidation resistance than PR aerogels. The compressive strength for the composites with low densities between 0.402 and 0.463 g/cm3 ranged from 0.33 to 2.44 MPa and thermal conductivities from 0.089 to 0.116 W/(mK), respectively. Furthermore, the CF/Si/PR aerogel nanocomposites could deliver linear ablation rates as low as 0.117 mm/s, and internal temperature peaks approximately 100 °C at 38 mm in-depth position as the surface temperature exceeded 1800 °C in oxyacetylene flame. From mentioned above, this lightweight composite presents huge application prospects in thermal protection and heat insulation field, especially in aerospace industry.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • Highly efficient catalysts for reducing toxic gases generation change with
           temperature of rigid polyurethane foam nanocomposites: A comparative
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Yao Yuan, Bin Yu, Yongqian Shi, Chao Ma, Lei Song, Weizhao Hu, Yuan Hu
      Huge consumption of rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) brings about two serious challenges for our society: fire hazards and environmental pollution. To address these issues, metal oxides and bimetallic oxides used for reducing smoke toxicity was successfully synthesized. The structures and morphologies were confirmed and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that incorporation of 2 wt% NiO conspicuously increased the residual yield of RPUF nanocomposites by 63.8% due to its catalytic coupling effect. Additionally, through the thorough analysis of volatile and condensed products, the smoke toxicity suppression mechanism in the pyrolysis and combustion of RPUF was investigated so as to find out the conversion of CO to CO2 through a redox cycle, involving the reduction of Ni+-Ni0 by CO and the oxidation of Ni0-Ni+ by O2. Among all the additives, nickel molybdate is the best catalyst which facilitates the migration of fuel-N in RPUF into the pollution-free gas in pyrolysis and combustion process.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • Highly boosting the interlaminar shear strength of CF/PEEK composites via
           introduction of PEKK onto activated CF
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Elwathig A.M. Hassan, Dengteng Ge, Lili Yang, Jianfeng Zhou, Mingxia Liu, Muhuo Yu, Shu Zhu
      Due to poor wettability and low reactivity, the interfacial adhesions between CF and PEEK matrix are relatively weak, significantly affecting mechanical performances of composites, especially the interlaminar shear strength. This study focuses on improvement of fiber-matrix interfacial interactions for CF/PEEK composites via introducing interfacial layers of polyertherketoneketone (PEKK) on activated CF. This method takes advantage of hydrogen bond between PEKK and activated CF, as well as good compatibility between PEKK and PEEK. As a result, interlaminar shear strength, flexural strength and modulus of CF/PEEK composites increased by 70%, 37% and 48%, respectively. SEM observations on fractured surfaces of composites indicated that dominant failure mechanisms shifted from fiber-matrix debonding to deformation of interfacial layers and breakage in resin. This modification method is easy to handle and can be applied to produce large size of composite materials containing continuous CF or CF fabrics, showing potentials in industrial applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:22:21Z
  • On the interplay behavior of fatigue crack growth and delamination of
           Ti/Cf/PMR polyimide hybrid laminates under overloading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
      Author(s): Kai Jin, Yanyan Lin, Kai Chen, Huaguan Li, Jie Tao
      The effect of overload on the fatigue crack growth and delamination of the Ti/Cf/PMR (Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants) polyimide hybrid laminates and the interplay behavior between crack growth and delamination were studied by applying single-peak, multi-peak, and block overloads. The retardation effect was discovered under variable overloads. The mechanism of crack growth and delamination was also analyzed. It was found that the crack grew perpendicular to the fiber direction and the initiation site of delamination always located around the micro-cracks of metal layers. The delamination growth was affected by the maximum stress level and the stress sequence. The interplay between crack growth and delamination on fatigue failure of Ti/Cf/PMR polyimide hybrid laminates could accelerate the crack growth and delamination extension.

      PubDate: 2018-06-06T08:18:56Z
  • Multifunctional cementitious composites modified with nano titanium
           dioxide: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Zhen Li, Siqi Ding, Xun Yu, Baoguo Han, Jinping Ou
      Nano titanium dioxide (NT) as a zero-dimensional nano material has received widespread attention from both industry and research communities due to its distinguished physical and chemical properties. Much research work indicated that NT can modify material structures, thus providing a new approach to develop high-performance, durable, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly cementitious composites. This paper reviews state-of-the-art research carried out on the effect of NT on the properties of cementitious composites and aims to provide a comprehensive insight into possible development of NT-engineered cementitious composites. The detailed introductions on the processing, microstructures (hydration products and pore structure), properties (hydration, workability, density, mechanical properties, shrinkage, functional properties and durability) and applications of NT-engineered cementitious composites are presented. Finally, the risks, challenges and future development of NT-engineered cementitious composites are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:58:00Z
  • Sustainable biocarbon reinforced nylon 6/polypropylene compatibilized
           blends: Effect of particle size and morphology on performance of the
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Amandine Codou, Manjusri Misra, Amar K. Mohanty
      The effects ofbiocarbonparticle size and shapeon the thermo-mechanical properties of Nylon6/Polypropylene compatibilized blendswere investigatedat 25% loading. Thebiocarbon particleswere milled toa sizefrom ∼7 μmdownto ∼800 nm,in whichthe aspect ratio was reduced from ∼5 to ∼1. Corroboration of SEM and AFM of biocomposites illustrated a high biocarbon-matrix interaction and a reduction in thesize ofdispersed PP droplets after biocarbon addition. Morphological disparities between nano- and micro-sized biocarbon (porosity, particle shape) were correlated to thermo-mechanical propertiesof the biocomposites,particularlystrength andthermal expansion, and supported by DMA experiments. Rheological investigation showed alignment in the shear directionforthe widely distributed particles size at low frequencies and an unexpected plateaufor all the biocomposites,attributed to the particle size and shape heterogeneities. The presence of porous biocarbon in any form showed no negative influence on the thermal stability of biocomposites.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • High residual mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of carbon
           fiber/acetylene-functional benzoxazine composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Bao-Gang Sun, Kun-Xiao Yang, Qin Lei, Han-Qiao Shi, Yuan-Qing Li, Ning Hu, Shao-Yun Fu
      It is always of great practical significance to develop carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polymer composites with high residual mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for aerospace engineering structures, etc. In this work, the CF reinforced composite based on acetylene-functionalized benzoxazine (AFBEN) was manufactured by the resin transfer moulding (RTM) technology. The mechanical properties at elevated temperatures (150–350 °C) are first and systematically examined for the as-prepared CF/AFBEN composite. Differential scanning calorimetry and rheological characteristics are employed to evaluate the adaptability of AFBEN for the RTM process. Dynamic mechanical and thermogravimetric properties of the CF/AFBEN composite are also investigated to evaluate the thermal stability. The results display that the mechanical strengths of the CF/AFBEN composite exhibit the high residual rates of ca. 90% at 250 °C and over 60% at 350 °C compared to the mechanical properties at room temperature. The fracture mechanisms at room and elevated temperatures are studied and the fracture behavior of the CF/AFBEN composite is shown to transform from fiber-matrix interfacial debonding to resin matrix failure as the temperature increases. Consequently, the as-prepared CF/AFBEN composite show great potentials for practical applications in aerospace engineering structures, etc. due to its high residual mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and the ease of the RTM processing.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Anisotropic thermally conductive composite with wood-derived carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): Li Chen, Na Song, Liyi Shi, Peng Ding
      In this study, we reported a thermally conductive composite with wood-derived 3D scaffold. The composites were easily fabricated by impregnating the polyamide-imide (PAI) into the wood scaffold and then in-situ carbonized. The well-aligned cellulose mircochannels in natural wood are maintained during the carbonization, leading to the improved anisotropic thermal conductive properties of the composite. The thermal conductivity of the composite reached 0.56 W·m−1·K−1 in cross-plane direction increasing by 250% and 0.22 W·m−1·K−1 in parallel direction, increasing by 37.5%, respectively. The unique structure of the composite also plays an important role in enhancing the mechanical performance. The Young’s modulus of the composite in vertical direction reached to 451.9 MPa, 4-times higher than that of natural wood in the same orientation. The integrated performance of the composites could be attributed to the alignment of cellulose nanofibers inherited from the natural wood. This study will provide an innovative design and fabrication of composite for thermal management.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Characterisation of electrical resistance for CMC materials up to
           2000 K
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 112
      Author(s): T. Stäbler, H. Böhrk, H. Voggenreiter
      Carbon based composites are used in thermal protection systems (TPS) for atmospheric re-entry. The electrical properties of this semiconductor material can be used for health monitoring, as electrical resistivity changes with damage, strain and temperature. In this work the electrical resistivity as a function of the material temperature is analysed, eliminating effects of thermal electricity, and the thermal coefficient of electrical resistance is determined. In the linear region, for material temperatures up to 523 K the thermal coefficient of electrical resistance is found to be C α = - 6.67 · 10 - 4 1 / K and in the non-linear region it is C β = 3.89 · 10 - 1 . A sensor network is applied for local and time resolved monitoring of the 320 mm × 120 mm × 3 mm panel shaped samples. Since the TPS is used for atmospheric re-entry it needs to be characterised for a wide range of temperatures, in this case up to 2000 K. Therefore, experiments in an inductively heated test bench were conducted.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • High-strength CNT/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu composites with improved ductility achieved
           by flake powder metallurgy via elemental alloying
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Run Xu, Zhanqiu Tan, Genlian Fan, Gang Ji, Ding-Bang Xiong, Qiang Guo, Yishi Su, Zhiqiang Li, Di Zhang
      The uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is usually accompanied by severe grain refinement of Al matrix, which leads to the low ductility of CNT/Al alloy composites. To accommodate this dilemma, a flake powder metallurgy route via elemental alloying was proposed to fabricate CNT/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu composites with improved ductility and high strength. CNT/Al flake powders were firstly obtained by ball milling at a low speed to achieve uniform dispersed of CNTs, and then milled with Zn, Mg and Cu elemental flake powders at a high speed to achieve lamellar CNT/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu particles, which were consolidated and homogenized to obtain bulk CNT/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu composites. Compared with the CNT/AA7075 counterparts fabricated by directly using CNTs and atomized AA7075 powders, the CNT/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu composites exhibited improved ductility with high modulus and strength, due to the well-protected and uniformly aligned CNTs, and good dislocation storage capability of the elongated ultrafine grains.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Synergistic enhancement of anisotropic thermal transport flexible polymer
           composites filled with multi-layer graphene (mG) and mussel-inspiring
           modified hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Zheng Su, Hua Wang, Xianzhu Ye, Konghu Tian, Weiqi Huang, Jing He, Yulan Guo, Xingyou Tian
      In this work, we presented novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resin composites filled with multi-layer graphene (mG)/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with high thermal conductivity and good electrical insulating. Firstly, the h-BN platelets were modified by mussel-inspired method with dopamine chemistry to obtain the modified filler h-BN@PDA. And the attachment of polydopamine molecule improved the interfacial adhesion between polymer matrix and filler. Secondly, the mG with fixed content was mixed with h-BN@PDA and then the hybrid filler mG/h-BN@PDA was added to the cycloaliphatic epoxy resin to obtain the polymer composites. Because of the high aspect of the filler, low viscosity of the polymer matrix, and assistance of the gravity force, the hybrid filler would stack alignment. It was found that the hybridization of the filler and alignment of the hybrid filler resulted in the enhancement of properties of the composites such as the thermal decomposition, mechanical (tensile strength = 5.50 MPa), thermal (through-plane ∼ 1.27 W/m K, in-plane ∼ 1.31 W/m K) and electrical insulating (electrical conductivity < 1.5 × 10−10 S/cm) properties. The obtained composites could be applied in thermal management area.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • On the determination of thermal degradation effects and detection
           techniques for thermoplastic composites obtained by automatic lamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): M.I. Martín, F. Rodríguez-Lence, A. Güemes, A. Fernández-López, L.A. Pérez-Maqueda, A. Perejón
      Automatic lay-up and in-situ consolidation with thermoplastic composite materials is a technology under research for its expected use in the profitable manufacturing of structural aeronautical parts. This study is devoted to analysing the possible effects of thermal degradation produced by this manufacturing technique. Rheological measurements showed that there is negligible degradation in PEEK for the temperatures reached during the process. Thermogravimetric analysis under linear heating and constant rate conditions show that thermal degradation is a complex process with a number of overlapping steps. A general kinetic equation that describes the degradation of the material with temperature has been proposed and validated. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that there is no remarkable degradation. The use of a combination of in-situ and ex-situ experimental techniques, including kinetic modelling, not only provides reliable information about degradation but also allows setting optimal processing conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Open hole fatigue testing of laser machined MD-CFRPs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Dinesh Kalyanasundaram, Suhasini Gururaja, Prajakta Prabhune, Dilpreet Singh
      The effect of fiber laser machining (FLM) on multi-directional carbon fiber reinforced plastics (MD-CFRP) with [0/90/45/−45]s lay-up was studied under tension-tension fatigue with stress ratio R = 0.1 for an open hole fatigue (OHF) test configuration. The FLM parameters were chosen to yield a heat affected zone (HAZ) corresponding to a damage factor of approximately 1.4. The growth of this initial damage under tension-tension fatigue was investigated using digital image correlation (DIC), and damage growth characterization was carried out using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT). The endurance limit of the MD-CFRPs was evaluated by examining the fatigue life at 70, 50 and 30% of its ultimate tensile strength. Results show a strong correlation of damage mode on the applied load levels like conventionally machined samples.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Manufacture of steel–CF/PA6 hybrids in a laser tape placement process:
           Effect of first-ply placement rate on thermal history and lap shear
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): C.M. Stokes-Griffin, A. Kollmannsberger, S. Ehard, P. Compston, K. Drechsler
      This paper investigates the manufacture of selectively reinforced metal/composite hybrids in a laser-assisted automated tape placement process. Carbon-fibre/PA6 composite tapes were applied to PA6-coated steel substrates. The bonding of the first-ply to the substrate is critical to the success of the hybrid; the effect of first-ply placement rate was investigated for speeds of 25 mm/s, 50 mm/s, 100 mm/s. The interfacial bond strength of the hybrid laminates was determined by ASTM D3165 lap shear tests. A 3D finite element thermal model was formulated to elucidate the thermal behaviour for increasing first-ply placement rate. A method for increasing model efficiency was shown to significantly decrease the computational difficulty while maintaining solution accuracy. Raising the first-ply placement rate from 25 mm/s to 100 mm/s resulted in a fourfold increase in lap shear strength with a maximum value of 22 MPa. The greater strength at higher speeds is attributed to improved synchronisation of the temperature and consolidation pressure history.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Advanced short fiber composites with hybrid reinforcement and selective
           fiber-matrix-adhesion based on polypropylene – Characterization of
           mechanical properties and fiber orientation using high-resolution X-ray
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): C. Kahl, M. Feldmann, P. Sälzer, H.-P. Heim
      Composites with two types of reinforcement fibers open a large field of opportunities and combine properties. Glass fibers lead to higher strength and modulus, but they provide a brittle character. In contrast to this, man-made cellulose fiber composites show higher energy absorption and higher elongation-at-break. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergy of those two fiber types in a hybrid compound. Compounds with an overall fiber content of 16 vol% and different ratios of glass and man-made cellulose fibers were prepared with a twin-screw extruder and injection molded to test specimen. Mechanical properties as well as the composite morphology were studied for compounds with selective fiber-matrix-adhesion and without a coupling agent. A bimodal fiber length distribution was found in the hybrid compounds due to the different shortened fiber types. The long man-made cellulose fibers increase the impact strength and influences the fiber orientation in the hybrid.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Reduced notch sensitivity in pseudo-ductile CFRP thin ply angle-ply
           laminates with central 0° plies
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Xun Wu, Jonathan D. Fuller, Marco L. Longana, Michael R. Wisnom
      This paper presents an experimental investigation on the unnotched and open-hole tensile behaviour of pseudo-ductile thin ply angle-ply carbon fibre/epoxy laminates with central 0° plies. Laminates with two different configurations of [±265/0]s and [±252/0]s were designed and tested under unnotched and open-hole tensile loading. Metal-like tensile stress-strain curves with a plateau were observed in both unnotched configurations. The open-hole net-section strength of the [±252/0]s laminate attained 96% of the unnotched “yield” strength. Digital image correlation and X-ray CT-scan images showed that the same damage mechanisms of central 0° ply fragmentation and local dispersed delamination observed in unnotched pseudo-ductile laminates were present in the open-hole specimens of the same configuration. These damage mechanisms caused stress redistribution around the hole and reduced the notch sensitivity in pseudo-ductile laminates under open-hole tensile loading. The main factors governing the open-hole performance are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Tailoring the structure and mechanical properties of graphene
           nanosheet/aluminum composites by flake powder metallurgy via shift-speed
           ball milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yuanyuan Jiang, Zhanqiu Tan, Run Xu, Genlian Fan, Ding-Bang Xiong, Qiang Guo, Yishi Su, Zhiqiang Li, Di Zhang
      Graphene nanosheet (GNS)/aluminum composites were fabricated via shift-speed ball milling (SSBM), consisting of a long-term low-speed ball milling (LSBM) and a short-term high-speed ball milling (HSBM). During the early stage of LSBM, Al powders were flattened into flakes, while the agglomerated GNSs were gradually dispersed onto Al flakes. After an inflection point of LSBM time, the dispersed GNSs got re-agglomerated and seriously damaged due to the accumulated work-hardening of Al flakes. During HSBM, the GNS/Al flakes were cold-welded into lamellar-structured particles, preserving the GNS dispersion states. It was demonstrated that the 0.5 vol.% GNS/Al composites via SSBM with 6 h LSBM had proper combination of ultrafine-grained Al matrices with well-preserved, uniformly-dispersed GNSs. Exceptional properties were achieved with a good ductility of 13.5% at a tensile strength of 295 MPa. Therefore, such flake powder metallurgy via SSBM proved to be a smart and effective fabrication strategy for nano-reinforced metal matrix composites.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Micro-configuration controlled interfacial adhesion by grafting graphene
           oxide onto carbon fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Xiaomin Yuan, Bo Zhu, Xun Cai, Kun Qiao, Shengyao Zhao, Min Zhang, Junwei Yu
      An effective way to enhance the interfacial properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRPs) was proposed by preparing graphene oxide (GO)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid fibers through electrophoretic deposition. The influence of different deposition parameters on the microstructure of GO/CF hybrid fibers were synthetically investigated in order to understand the micro-configuration and bonding mechanism. Note that GO deposition was highly effective in adjusting fiber surface physiochemical characteristics and constructing a strengthened interface. When utilizing a 20 V–15 min deposition technology underalkalescent condition (pH = 10), the introduction of GO on CF surface was feasible to toughen CFRPs, exhibiting substantial interfacial shear strength and interlaminar shear strength improvements of 14.8% and 37.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, three micro-configuration models were proposed to categorize the bonding mechanism of GO/CF hybrid fibers, namely, ‘Grafting’, ‘Coating’ and ‘Plastering’ deposition. Overall, the high mechanical performance achieved in this work are comparable or better than those of many previously reported researches.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Polydopamine-bridged synthesis of ternary h-BN@PDA@SnO2 as nanoenhancers
           for flame retardant and smoke suppression of epoxy composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Wei Cai, Wenwen Guo, Ying Pan, Junling Wang, Xiaowei Mu, Xiaming Feng, Bihe Yuan, Bibo Wang, Yuan Hu
      The potential prospect of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in the fields of polymer composites is severely limited by undesirable exfoliation efficiency and chemical inertness. Herein, bio-based dopamine was employed toward exfoliating bulk h-BN with hydrogen bond action and imparting a highly-active surface. With assistance of polypodamine, SnO2 nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized and strengthened the interfacial interaction between h-BN and epoxy (EP) matrix. The integrated function of metal oxide/h-BN toward flame retardant and smoke suppression of polymer materials was firstly studied and obtained, in term of reduced peak heat release rate (decreased by 41.1%), lower total heat release (decreased by 30.1%), and suppressed total smoke production (decreased by 21.6%). In addition, the mechanism for enhancements on flame retardant and smoke suppression of EP composites was systematically investigated. Such a design route simultaneously achieves the exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN, thus offering an active platform for further functionalization modification.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Viscoelastically prestressed polymeric matrix composites: An investigation
           into fibre deformation and prestress mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Bing Wang, Kevin S. Fancey
      A viscoelastically prestressed polymeric matrix composite (VPPMC) is produced by subjecting polymeric fibres to a creep load, which is removed before moulding the fibres into a polymeric matrix. The resulting fibre viscoelastic recovery creates compressive stresses within the cured matrix. Although mechanical properties can be improved by up to 50%, the effect of fibre creep stress magnitude on VPPMC performance is unknown. In this paper, viscoelastic effects were investigated for 24 h creep stress values of 330–590 MPa. This involved recovery force measurement and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) on nylon 6,6 fibres and Charpy impact testing of nylon fibre-polyester resin VPPMCs. Greatest performance was achieved with an intermediate value (460 MPa), suggesting an optimum creep stress condition. Moreover, with increasing creep stress, WAXD demonstrated a progressive reduction in regions with viscoelastic energy storage capability. By considering polymeric three-phase microstructural and latch-based mechanical models, a viscoelastic fibre-generated prestress mechanism is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
  • Benchmarking of strength models for unidirectional composites under
           longitudinal tension
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 111
      Author(s): Anthony Bunsell, Larissa Gorbatikh, Hannah Morton, Soraia Pimenta, Ian Sinclair, Mark Spearing, Yentl Swolfs, Alain Thionnet
      Several modelling approaches are available in the literature to predict longitudinal tensile failure of fibre-reinforced polymers. However, a systematic, blind and unbiased comparison between the predictions from the different models and against experimental data has never been performed. This paper presents a benchmarking exercise performed for three different models from the literature: (i) an analytical hierarchical scaling law for composite fibre bundles, (ii) direct numerical simulations of composite fibre bundles, and (iii) a multiscale finite-element simulation method. The results show that there are significant discrepancies between the predictions of the different modelling approaches for fibre-break density evolution, cluster formation and ultimate strength, and that each of the three models presents unique advantages over the others. Blind model predictions are also compared against detailed computed-tomography experiments, showing that our understanding of the micromechanics of longitudinal tensile failure of composites needs to be developed further.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T13:48:19Z
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