for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2267 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1196 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1196 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
  [SJR: 1.599]   [H-I: 113]   [176 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Permeability of textile fabrics with spherical inclusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Baris Caglar, Laurent Orgéas, Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, E. Murat Sozer, Véronique Michaud
      We investigated the effect of rigid spherical inclusions such as microcapsules and fillers on the permeability of fabrics by using glass beads as model inclusions. Beads with a range of diameters (40–800μm) and volume fractions (2.5–10%) were sieved between layers of woven E-glass fabric targeting a fiber volume fraction of 40%. Permeability measurements were completed by X-ray microtomography to analyze the samples pore structure and estimate their permeability using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. Experimental and numerical estimates were also fitted with a Kozeny model accounting for porosity and specific surface of samples. We identified a threshold curve related to bead diameter and volume fraction below which the permeability follows that of a plain packed textile, and above which a strong departure from this trend is observed, induced by strong distortions of the textile. This behavior was closely correlated to the internal features of the textile.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Improving the transesterification and electrical conductivity of vitrimers
           by doping with conductive polymer wrapped carbon nanotubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hong Zhang, Xuecheng Xu
      Vitrimers, thermosets with exchangeable covalent bonds, have recently attracted increasing attention in the field of functional polymer materials. However, their transesterification rates and electrical properties are inadequate for many practical applications. In this study, we showed that doping vitrimers with conductive polymer wrapped carbon nanotubes could effectively facilitate the transeterification for stress relaxation and endow vritrimers with enhanced electrical conductivity. The vritrimer network was formed by curing epoxy with citric acid, in the presence of polypyrrole wrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT/PPy) as dopant. The transesterification performance, evaluated by stress relaxation analysis, showed 3.6 times faster relaxation rate, reduced transesterification activation energy and 15°C lower T v, after doping with only 3wt% of CNT/PPy. The improved transesterification in stress relaxation, benefited from the higher thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and the interfacial interaction between CNT/PPy and vitrimer matrix. In contrast, pure CNT as dopant results in little enhancement suffering from strong agglomeration in the matrix. Tensile fracture analysis suggested the major role of π-π and p-π conjugation in the doping enhancement. In addition, CNT/PPy doping improved the conductivity for several orders of magnitude. This work provides a promising method for lowering temperature of transesterification and fabricating vitrimers with improved performance and extended applications.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Multiscale model to predict fatigue crack propagation behavior of
           thermoset polymeric nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hyunseong Shin, Maenghyo Cho
      In this study, we develop the methodology to predict the fatigue crack growth of the thermoset polymer nanocomposites, based on multiscale approach. The experimentally observed microscopic energy dissipating mechanisms (nanoparticulate debonding, the subsequent plastic yield of nanovoids, and localized shear banding) are reflected in the proposed methodology. The predicted results show satisfactory agreements with respect to experimental data. In addition, the extrinsic crack closure effects are considered, and their influences on the fatigue crack propagation are investigated. The achievement of this study is expected to elucidate the complex phenomenon of fatigue crack growth as well as provide high efficiency with satisfactory predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Largely improved thermal conductivity of HDPE/expanded graphite/carbon
           nanotubes ternary composites via filler network-network synergy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Junjin Che, Kai Wu, Yunjie Lin, Ke Wang, Qiang Fu
      Utilizing the synergistic effect of various fillers is an efficient strategy to enhance the thermal conductivity of polymer composites, in which the key is to modulate their dispersion and network formation in polymer matrix. In this work, expanded graphite (EG) was individually added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate first the binary composites through melt blending. The electrical conductivity of the prepared composites was measured to determine the percolation threshold for HDPE/EG composites. Then HDPE/EG composites with three compositions, representing below percolation, just percolation and above percolation, respectively, were chosen as matrix and melt mixed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make HDPE/EG/CNTs ternary composites. It was found that adding CNTs results in a linear increase of thermal conductivity for HDPE/EG composites with composition below percolation, along the line by adding the same amount of EG. While a jump of thermal conductivity was observed by adding CNTs for HDPE/EG composites with composition just and above percolation. The electrical conductivity and rheology property were measured and SEM experiment was carried out to explore the filler dispersion and their network formation in HDPE matrix. All the results suggested a possible location CNTs in EG filler network for HDPE/EG composites with composition just and above percolation. Thus the formation of CNTs network within EG network is attributed to the main reason for the largely enhanced thermal property. This work endows a new enlightenment to fabricate the composites with a great thermal conductivity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Enhanced dielectric performance of polyimide composites with modified
           sandwich-like SiO2@GO hybrids
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 99
      Author(s): Leipeng Liu, Fengzhu Lv, Yihe Zhang, Penggang Li, Wangshu Tong, Ling Ding, Guoqiang Zhang
      High-dielectric-constant (high-k) polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise microelectronics industry. In this work, sandwich-like SiO2 encapsulated graphene oxide hybrids (SiO2@GO) were fabricated throng a sol–gel method to enhance the dielectric properties of PI. Series of analysis, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that SiO2 were successfully grafted onto the surface of GO and formed a sandwich-like core–shell structure hybrids. Then, polyimide (PI) composites filled with SiO2@GO were prepared via in-situ polymerization method. A dielectric constant of 73 (40Hz) was obtained for SiO2@GO/PI composites as the fraction of SiO2@GO was 20wt%. In order to improve the dielectric properties of composite, two kinds of coupling agents, 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS), were used to modify the surface of SiO2@GO. GPTS-SiO2@GO/PI composite had an increased dielectric constant of 79 and a decreased loss of 0.25 at 40Hz. The significantly enhanced dielectric performance of GPTS-SiO2@GO/PI composite was caused by the good dispersion of GPTS-SiO2. In addition, the different dielectric performance of composites modified by different coupling agent was also discussed. This work could help researchers further understand the mechanism of fillers’ interface on the dielectric properties of composites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Compatibilization of polypropylene fibers in epoxy based GFRP/clay
           nanocomposites for improved impact strength
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Karanbir Singh, Tarun Nanda, Rajeev Mehta
      In the present work, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) nanocomposites containing polypropylene fibers as a reinforcement were prepared for the first time. Nanocomposites containing 1 phr nanoclay and 1–3 phr polypropylene fibers were fabricated to improve the impact strength of the brittle GFRPs. In addition to impact strength, tensile and flexural properties were also investigated. Polypropylene fibers were used as a reinforcement in the as-received form and also after their compatibilization by two different methods viz. silanization, and ultra-violet assisted maleic anhydride grafting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy of the treated polypropylene fibers were studied to confirm the treatment of fibers. Scanning electron microscopy of fractured impact specimens was conducted to evaluate the interfacial bonding between matrix and reinforcement in composites. Transmission electron microscopy was conducted to ascertain the extent of dispersion of nanoclay in the matrix. The results showed that compatibilization of polypropylene fibers with silane agents significantly increased the impact strength of nanocomposites (maximum improvement of 44%), though with some loss in tensile and flexural properties. However, ultra-violet assisted maleic anhydride grafting of polypropylene fibers increased the impact strength while restoring other properties of the composite system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Rhubarb petioles inspire biodegradable cellulose fibre-reinforced PLA
           composites with increased impact strength
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Nina Graupner, David Labonte, Jörg Müssig
      The petioles of red rhubarb are load-bearing structures which need to combine sufficient stiffness with high toughness. Although mostly consisting out of water, the petioles showed a remarkable Charpy impact strength, partly based on their beam-like structure: outermost bark fibre bundles provide stiffness and strength, and surround a core reinforced with ductile vascular bundles, which dissipate impact energy at two hierarchical levels: helical fibres in the vascular bundles are straightened, and both helical fibres and bundles are pulled-out of the parenchyma. Using technical composites made from stiff and ductile cellulose fibres as a model system, we investigated the functional significance of the fibre arrangement further. The impact resistance of bio-inspired composites exceeded that of composites with identical fibre-fraction but random fibre-distribution by more than a factor of two, while their tensile and flexural properties did not differ significantly, suggesting promising new routes for the design of tough, bio-compatible composites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Improving laminate quality in wet lay-up/vacuum bag processes by magnet
           assisted composite manufacturing (MACM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Mehrad Amirkhosravi, Maya Pishvar, M. Cengiz Altan
      A novel method, Magnet Assisted Composite Manufacturing (MACM), which utilizes a magnetic compressive pressure, is proposed to improve laminate quality in wet lay-up/vacuum bag (WLVB) processes. This paper first describes the salient features of MACM/WLVB process, and then demonstrates the effectiveness of this process by investigating the void content and mechanical properties of random mat E-glass/epoxy composite laminates. During cure, high-power, N52 Neodymium permanent magnets are placed on the vacuum bag to apply sufficiently high consolidation pressure. Thus, laminate quality successfully improved such that fiber volume fraction increased more than 55% from 17% to 27% and void content decreased by 53% to under 3% compared to the laminates made without magnetic pressure. The flexural strength and modulus were also substantially improved by 60% and 46% to 253.5MPa and 9.9GPa, respectively. The effect of time and duration of applyingmagnetic pressure on the quality of the part were also investigated. The lowest void content of under 2% and 21% increase in fiber volume fraction were observed by only applying magnetic pressure 15min at the start of the vacuum in WLVB process.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Distinct tribological mechanisms of various oxide nanoparticles added in
           PEEK composite reinforced with carbon fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Lihe Guo, Huimin Qi, Ga Zhang, Tingmei Wang, Qihua Wang
      The tribological behaviors of various oxide nanoparticles, i.e. Bi2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZrO2, added into a carbon fibers reinforced polyether-ether-ketone were comprehensively investigated. It was demonstrated that nanoparticle types played an important role in the tribological performance. When sliding took place at a low FV (load×speed) condition, the addition of CuO and ZrO2 nanoparticles led to the formation of patch-like tribofilms increasing friction and wear. However, at FV factors ranging from 30 to 300Nm/s, the hard nanoparticles, i.e. SiO2 and ZrO2, resulted in dramatic improvement of the tribological properties. Moreover, nano-ZrO2 was significantly more effective than nano-SiO2 for enhancing the tribological performance. Hard nanoparticles released onto the sliding interface removed the tribo-oxidation layer on steel counterface. Hereafter, they were “tribo-sintered” into an oxide-based tribofilm having a high load-carrying capability. However, the soft nanoparticles, i.e. Bi2O3 and CuO, did not help to form a robust and lubricating tribofilm.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Wetting and swelling property modifications of elementary flax fibres and
           their effects on the Liquid Composite Molding process
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Monica Francesca Pucci, Pierre-Jacques Liotier, David Seveno, Carlos Fuentes, Aart Van Vuure, Sylvain Drapier
      Flax fibres were thermally treated, to prove that in the same manufacturing conditions, modifying wetting and swelling properties of fibres changes the flow during LCM processes and thus could enhance the final material health of composite parts. Swelling of untreated and treated fibres was measured with optical and tensiometric methods proving that the thermal treatment increases the dimensional stability of flax fibres. A methodology to minimise the dispersion of contact angle values was also developed, and surface energy components of untreated and treated fibres were then determined in the frame of the Owens and Wendt theory. It was evidenced that the thermal treatment makes fibres less hydrophilic. Composite half plates reinforced with untreated and treated flax fabrics were then simultaneously manufactured by Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process (resin infusion) and finally, a reduction of porosity was observed in composites reinforced with treated flax fabrics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Long-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite lattice structures:
           Fabrication and compressive properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Bo Xu, Sha Yin, Yang Wang, Hongfu Li, Boming Zhang, Robert O. Ritchie
      Recyclable lightweight materials with advanced processing techniques are essential for the sustainable development of future transportation. Thermoplastic composites lattice structures were developed to meet this demand. An additive manufacturing method is presented here to fabricate such lattice structures by reversible assembly of several long-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite parts (LFTCPs) which were economically processed by injection molding. The resulting thermoplastic lattice structures (density of 30kg·m−3) assembled with different sequences and connections are structurally evaluated and compared. Out-of-plane compression tests revealed that their mechanical properties were more sensitive to the presence of the connections rather than their assembly sequence, although their structural failure mode was always brake of inclined struts followed by fracture of the horizontal struts. Potential solutions to the problem of internal stresses, induced during assembly, are also explored by designing novel LFTCPs. The novel fabrication route for thermoplastic lattice structures will improve the prospects for their industrial application.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:19:00Z
  • Investigation of the Z-binder role in progressive damage of 3D woven
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Nestor Castaneda, Brian Wisner, Jefferson Cuadra, Shahram Amini, Antonios Kontsos
      The lack of strengthening mechanisms in the through-thickness direction of two-dimensional (2D) laminated composites often results in the incubation and initiation of distinct damage patterns such as delaminations and cracking. To address this issue, 3D woven composites containing z-binders have been introduced to provide means for enhanced damage tolerance. To assess the benefits of such novel composite architectures, this article uses an experimental mechanics approach coupled with a multiphysics nondestructive evaluation and characterization methodology involving Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission (AE) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to investigate the role of z-binder in the damage process of a specific example of a 3D composite. The novelty in this approach stems from the combined evaluation of globally calculated and locally resolved strain patterns which track the 3D damage process. Strain localizations are linked with out-of-plane deformation related to damage and are cross validated by the AE data and micro-CT analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Multiscale modeling of free-surface effect on crack formation in
           unidirectional off-axis laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Yuta Kumagai, Sota Onodera, Yoshiko Nagumo, Tomonaga Okabe, Kenichi Yoshioka
      A multiscale approach based on the mesh superposition method is applied to unidirectional CFRP laminates to evaluate the influence of the deformation field near the free-surface region on crack formation. Our approach employs two different scale analyses: local analysis utilizing a model composed of carbon fibers with micron-scale diameter and matrix resin, and global analysis employing a homogenized model assumed to be an anisotropic elasto-plastic body. Global analysis is conducted to evaluate the macroscopic deformation behavior of laminates. The local model is superimposed on the global model, maintaining the continuity of the displacement field between global and local domains. Local analysis is then performed to predict crack initiation and crack propagation, using the displacement field obtained from the global analysis. Our simulated results indicate that the initial crack occurring on the free-surface region does not affect the final failure strain.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Friction of carbon tows and fine single fibres
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Michel Tourlonias, Marie-Ange Bueno, Dominique Poquillon
      The aim of this study conducted on carbon tows and single fibres is to highlight some friction behaviours to help better understand the friction mechanisms that occur during the manufacture of carbon composites. These mechanisms are responsible for damage that reduces the specifications and lifetime of mechanical parts. An experiment has been developed in order to rub together two carbon tows, or two single carbon fibres (with a diameter down to 5µm), at an angle of 90°. The influences of friction velocity, normal load, and type of carbon fibre have been studied. For both tows and fibres the friction follows the Coulomb’s law because there is no influence of the velocity and the normal load in the tested range. The rearrangement of fibres within the tow has been shown to be fundamental. For the single fibre, the role of the Young’s modulus and the sizing treatment is important.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • The characterization of DOPO/MMT nanocompound and its effect on flame
           retardancy of epoxy resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Xiangdong He, Wenchao Zhang, Rongjie Yang
      A DOPO-MMT nanocompound has been prepared and used to flame-retard epoxy resin (EP) compared with the physical mixture of DOPO and MMT. The structures of nanocompound and EP samples have been characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Intercalated and exfoliation of MMT layers in DOPO and EP matrix have been observed which means good dispersity. The flame retardancy of EPs has been studied by limiting oxygen index measurements, UL-94 testing, and cone calorimeter test. The DOPO-MMT nanocompound shows better flame retardancy (limiting oxygen index, UL-94, peak of heat release rate, etc.) than the physical mixture of DOPO and MMT. The morphologies of EPs and chars after cone calorimeter test have been studied by SEM. Lighter color and better transparency of EP samples, smoother and less porous structure of chars both prove the DOPO-MMT nanocompound shows better flame retardancy because of the better dispersity of MMT layers in EP matrix.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Fracture toughness of injection molded, man-made cellulose fiber
           reinforced polypropylene
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): J.-C. Zarges, D. Minkley, M. Feldmann, H.-P. Heim
      This investigation focuses on the fracture toughness of injection molded compact tension (CT) specimen of man-made cellulose fibers reinforced composites with PP as their matrix and different varying fiber contents. The influence of the fiber orientation and the addition of a coupling agent on the fracture toughness was determined using an optical strain measurement and a micro computer tomography. It was verified that a reinforcement with man-made cellulose fibers leads to significantly higher values of fracture toughness and J-Integral in comparison to glass fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the majority of fibers in the CT specimen show an orientation perpendicular to the flow direction of the injection molding process. Thus, a notch direction parallel to the flow direction leads to significantly higher values. This is a result of less local strains around the crack path, as well as of a higher amount of fiber pull-outs in the fractured surface. The coupling agent MAPP creates stronger fiber-matrix adhesion, which results in increasing values of the fracture toughness but a decreasing of the J-Integral values due to less fiber pull-outs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Effects of silanization and silica enrichment of carbon fibers on
           interfacial properties of methylphenylsilicone resin composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Guangshun Wu, Lei Chen, Li Liu
      Effects of silane and silica enrichment of carbon fibers (CFs) on interfacial properties of methylphenylsilicone resin (MPSR) composites were investigated. CFs were oxidized, grafted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and then modified with silica nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Chemical structures of CFs were characterized by confirming the successful grafting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a uniform distribution of silica nanoparticles on the CFs surface. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and impact toughness of silanized CF (CF-Siloxane) composites were 12.05% and 7.46% higher than those of untreated composites. However, ILSS and impact toughness of the hybrid fiber (CF/Si) composites obtained from the hydrolysis of different concentrations TEOS improved significantly, especially for grafting silica enrichment with the TEOS concentration of 0.05mol/L (CF/Si0.05), increasing 45.64% in ILSS and 29.59% in impact properties. Moreover, the hydrothermal aging resistance was also improved greatly. Meanwhile, functionalization processes did not decrease fiber tensile strength.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Effects of hydrophobic-modified cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) on cell
           morphology and mechanical properties of high void fraction polypropylene
           nanocomposite foams
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Long Wang, Megumi Ando, Masaya Kubota, Shota Ishihara, Yuta Hikima, Masahiro Ohshima, Takafumi Sekiguchi, Akihiro Sato, Hiroyuki Yano
      Nanocomposite foams based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with a void fraction as high as 80% were fabricated by a core-back foam injection molding (FIM). The hydrophobic CNFs were modified using alkenyl succinic anhydride. Different rheological curves such as the complex viscosity and tan δ–ω curves were investigated to distinguish the effects of CNFs on PP’s viscoelastic properties. Fast scanning chip calorimetry (FSC) results revealed that the added CNFs significantly increased the crystallization temperature and accelerated the crystallization process. Consequently, CNFs, especially with a concentration between 1 and 5wt%, could clearly reduce PP’s cell size and increase its cell density. The specific flexural modulus and bending strength were increased when the void fraction was lower than 80%. These findings suggest that CNFs is effective for strengthening PP foams, and such materials exhibit great potential for automotive and construction applications.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Synergistically building flame retarding thermosetting composites with
           high toughness and thermal stability through unique phosphorus and
           silicone hybridized graphene oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Zhijuan Zhang, Li Yuan, Qingbao Guan, Guozheng Liang, Aijuan Gu
      Flame retardant, tough and heat-resistant thermosetting composites have been developed through building crosslinked network based on cyanate ester (CE) and unique hybridized graphene oxide (FGO) with phosphorus and silicone. The integrated performances of FGO/CE composites were studied and compared with those of graphene oxide (GO)/CE composites and CE resin. Attractively, with the same loading of fillers, FGO/CE composite has much better integrated performances than GO/CE composite, including not only flame retardancy, but also thermal stability, toughness and rigidity. Especially, the phosphorus content of FGO/CE composite is as low as 0.18wt%, much lower than the necessary phosphorus concentration (1.1–7.8wt%) for available phosphorus flame retardants. The origins behind attractive properties were intensively studied and found to be attributed to unique crosslinked structure induced by the presence of FGO.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Synergistic effect of spherical Al2O3 particles and BN nanoplates on the
           thermal transport properties of polymer composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Young-Kuk Kim, Jae-Yong Chung, Jung-Goo Lee, Youn-Kyung Baek, Pyoung-Woo Shin
      Efficient heat transport along through-plane direction is one of the primary requisites for thermal interface materials (TIMs) to relieve heat accumulation at the interface between chip and heat sinks. We report enhanced thermal conduction of Al2O3-based polymer composites by surface wetting and texturing of thermally conductive hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets with large anisotropy (diameter <500nm, thickness <30nm) in morphology and physical properties. The thermally conductive polymer composites are prepared with hybrid fillers of Al2O3 macrobeads and surface modified h-BN nanoplatelets. Here, the clustering or assembly of h-BN nanoplatelets is analyzed based on depletion interaction of colloidal particles. In addition, further addition of minimal amount of SiO2 nanoparticles shows a drastic improvement of thermal transport properties, which is attributed to the depletion interaction between nanoplatelets mediated by spherical nanoparticles. Here, the benefits of surface wetting for thermal management composite materials are illustrated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Loading, support and geometry effects for pin-reinforced hybrid
           metal-composite joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Alex T.T. Nguyen, Chamendra K. Amarasinghe, Milan Brandt, Stefanie Feih, Adrian C. Orifici
      Reliable joining technologies are increasingly required for multi-material lightweight structures. For metal-composite joints, there is significant potential to integrate through-thickness pins onto the metal surface to improve bond strength. We investigated Selective Laser Melting manufactured Ti-64 adherends with integrated pins bonded to carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite, and characterised joint performance from pure tension to shear-dominated pin loading. Both single pin and multi-pin double cantilever beam specimens were examined and correlated using experimental and finite element methods. Adherend support conditions affected the single pin pull-out process and related energy absorption up to 35% for all pin offset angles. The pin alignment with respect to the crack direction and fibre angle had little effect on joint performance. Pins with grooved surface features further increased energy absorption by 60% compared to smooth cylindrical pins. This work adds significant insight into pin-reinforced hybrid metal-composite joints and their performance and optimisation in realistic structural scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:37:45Z
  • Azide-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped mesoporous carbon cloth
           for high-performance symmetric supercapacitor employing LiClO4 as
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Qian Zhang, Ni Wang, Peng Zhao, Mengqi Yao, Wencheng Hu
      In our investigation, N-doped porous carbon cloth (NPCC) was synthesized through KOH activation and sodium azide-assisted hydrothermal method to improve its surface area and conductivity, respectively. The morphology and structure of the obtained NPCC were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were then performed to test electrochemical performance of the NPCC. The surface area of the NPCC was approximately 52m2 g−1, which was 6.5 times higher than that of carbon cloth (CC, 8m2 g−1), and the average pore size of NPCC was 5.0nm. XPS demonstrated that elemental N (pyrrolic N and quaternary N) was successfully doped into the CC structure with a total N content of 3.49%. Electrochemical assessment was conducted in a symmetrical system in 1M LiClO4/acetonitrile electrolyte. The charge transfer resistance was significantly decreased from 97Ω to 60Ω after N-doping treatment. The NPCC device delivered a high areal capacitance of 130mF cm−2 at a current density of 1mAcm−2, and the highest volumetric energy density of 2.03mWhcm−3 (16.25Whkg−1) was achieved at a volumetric power density of 0.375Wcm−3 (3kWkg−1). Additionally, the device could retain 95.8% of its initial capacitance even after 30,000 cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
  • Nanocable-structured polymer/carbon nanotube composite with low dielectric
           loss and high impedance
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Junwen Ren, Demei Yu, Lihua Feng, Guolong Wang, Guowei Lv
      A hierarchical nanocable structure was fulfilled by grafting poly(glycidyl methacrylate) from single walled carbon nanotubes (PGMA-SWCNTs) via activators regenerated by electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP). It was found that SWCNTs were parallelly separated by the grafted PGMA brushes in the nanocables. To investigate the advantages of nanocable architecture, a composite film was prepared through filtrating the uniform solution of PGMA-SWCNTs nanocables. The dielectric properties dependent on frequency and temperature revealed that high dielectric constants, high impedance and low dielectric loss were simultaneously achieved for the PGMA-SWCNTs film. Meanwhile, thermal conductive analysis showed that the PGMA-SWCNTs film possessed a high thermal conductivity. The unique nanocable structure and the excellent interfacial interaction between PGMA and SWCNTs were believed to be the critical causes for the high performance of the nanocomposite.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
  • A cohesive zone model taking account of the effect of through-thickness
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Zhenmin Zou, Hao Lee
      Experiments in the literature show that through-thickness compressive stress significantly enhances interfacial fracture resistance. Most existing cohesive zone and interface element models which consider the enhancement only introduce friction in the model. In this paper, a new method is proposed to include both friction and enhanced interfacial shear strength in a cohesive zone model. Contact and friction at micro/macro crack closure is added to the cohesive constitutive law. A traction-based failure function and an energy-based failure function are employed and combined to construct a damage surface. An enhancement of interfacial shear strength due to through-thickness compressive stress is introduced into the traction-based function which governs the damage initiation, while the energy-based function controls the damage growth. The damage surface shrinks in the traction space as damage develops and leads to a softening cohesive constitutive law. The model is employed to simulate shear failure of symmetric double notch specimens and delamination failure in specimens with cut- and dropped-plies. Numerical predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data in the literature. Parametric studies show that both the friction at crack closure and enhancement of the interfacial shear strength play an important role in enhancing fracture resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
  • The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A
           statistical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): J.P. Torres, L.-J. Vandi, M. Veidt, M.T. Heitzmann
      The use of long natural fibres (LNF) as reinforcement in composite systems for structural applications has been steadily growing in the automotive and construction industries as these materials offer sustainability benefits combined with high specific strength and stiffness. However, the performance of natural fibres has been questioned by a high variability in their mechanical properties and design data for structural reliability analysis of LNF composites are not yet available. Here, we present a statistical study of the elastic modulus, strength and failure strain of a comprehensive set of LNF composite systems. We have found that the variability of LNF laminate properties is similar to that of carbon fibre laminates. We provide recommendations to apply the statistical parameters determined here to the design of natural fibre composite structures. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of LNF composites reliability and are important for the further acceptance of these materials by the industry.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
  • Interlaminar shear characterization of ultra-high molecular weight
           polyethylene (UHMWPE) composite laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Travis A. Bogetti, Matthew Walter, Jeffrey Staniszewski, Julia Cline
      Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composites have received widespread attention in the literature due to their attractive ballistic protection attributes. Recently, investigators are recognizing and demonstrating the significant role that interlaminar shear has on their ballistic performance. In this paper, we present a characterization methodology to quantify the quasi-static interlaminar shear strength and nonlinear interlaminar shear stress-strain response of UHMWPE composite laminates. The methodology uses a tension loaded double-lap coupon design to introduce interlaminar shear loading. Coupon displacement measurements using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) coupled with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) incorporating nonlinear material behavior and traction-separation behavior is an integral part of the data reduction scheme. This research provides a unique methodology for developing interlaminar shear constitutive models for UHMWPE composite laminates, which are critically needed to improve the accuracy of ballistic impact simulations for the development of more efficient armor designs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:07:23Z
  • Effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of injection
           molded short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): M. Kawai, H. Takeuchi, I. Taketa, A. Tsuchiya
      The effects of temperature and stress ratio on fatigue life of short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 composite have been examined. Static tension and compression tests are carried out at room temperature (RT), 50°C and 70°C, respectively. For each of these temperatures, constant amplitude fatigue tests are performed at different stress ratios. Experimental results show that the temperature dependence of static strength can be described by a single equation of the Arrhenius type in the range higher than room temperature for each of tension and compression. The tensile strength turns to be smaller than the compressive strength at high temperature. The effect of temperature on fatigue life can approximately be removed by normalization of fatigue stress with respect to static strength, regardless of stress ratio. The asymmetry and nonlinearity in constant fatigue life diagram turns to be more significant with increasing temperature, and they can adequately be modeled by means of the anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram. The temperature-dependent anisomorphic constant fatigue life diagram approach is also tested. It is demonstrated that this method allows adequately predicting the S-N curves for any stress ratios as well as the constant fatigue life curves for the whole range of mean stress at any temperature in a range that includes the test temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Enhanced through-plane thermal conductivity of boron nitride/epoxy
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Cuiping Yu, Jun Zhang, Zhuo Li, Wei Tian, Liangjie Wang, Jie Luo, Qiulong Li, Xiaodong Fan, Yagang Yao
      A facile strategy was reported to fabricate vertically oriented and densely packed hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/epoxy (EP) composites via vacuum filtration followed by slicing up. This route is simple and high-efficient without special treatment and/or chemical modification. A high through-plane thermal conductivity of 9W/mK was obtained at a h-BN loading of 44vol% in the composites. Laser flash thermal analyzer (LFA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated that the through-plane thermal conductivity of the composites increased with the fraction of the fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests indicated that h-BN microplatelets were mainly vertically oriented in the composites. In addition, as-made composites showed good mechanical strength. Therefore, it has great potential as thermal interface materials, which is very important in the thermal management of electronics, especially in electronic packages where electrical insulation is required.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Impact of interfacial adhesion on the microstructure and property
           variations of biocarbons reinforced nylon 6 biocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Emmanuel O. Ogunsona, Manjusri Misra, Amar K. Mohanty
      This work systematically demonstrates the effect of biocarbon surface chemistry on the properties of nylon-biocarbon biocomposites and that they can be designed for specific applications by engineering the biocarbon surface through pyrolysis. Miscanthus fibers pyrolyzed at ∼500°C (B1) and ∼900°C (B2) were used to reinforce nylon 6 at 20 wt.% loading. The composite containing B1 (NB1) exhibited increased tensile and flexural strengths by 19.5% and 31% respectively while the composite containing B2 (NB2) exhibited significantly lower aforementioned properties than those of NB1. The impact strength of NB2 was unchanged while that of NB1 was diminished by 32%. The property variations of the composites were attributed to the difference in interfacial adhesion between the biocarbons and nylon due to the biocarbons’ different surface functionalities. Complex and shear-viscosities showed greater restriction of the nylon chains in NB1 stemming from stronger interaction between B1 and nylon.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Influence of off-axis in-plane yarns on the mechanical properties of 3D
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 98
      Author(s): Ahmad Rashed Labanieh, Yang Liu, Dmytro Vasiukov, Damien Soulat, Stéphane Panier
      In the current paper, investigations have been carried out on in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties of 3D multiaxial woven composites keeping in view three different architectures. The first two architectures constitute of additional bias yarns oriented at +θ° and −θ° along with 0° and 90°, whereas the third comprises of yarns directed at 0° and 90° only. Composites in which the bias yarns accompany the 0° and 90° yarns have improved mechanical properties in comparison to classical 3D orthogonal woven textile composites. In order to demonstrate the influence of off-axis yarns on the mechanical properties, uniaxial tensile (loading-unloading) and short beam shear (SBS) tests were conducted. To measure strain field and record the visual analysis of the cracking processes and de-bonding, all mechanical tests were equipped with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system. It was concluded based on the experimental results that 3D multiaxial woven composites exhibit enhanced interlaminar shear strength compare to classical 3D-orthogonal composites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Ballistic performance of hybrid thermoplastic composite armors reinforced
           with Kevlar and basalt fabrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Aswani Kumar Bandaru, Suhail Ahmad, Naresh Bhatnagar
      Ballistic performance of hybrid thermoplastic composite armors reinforced with Kevlar and basalt fabrics of 2D plain woven (2D-P) and 3D angle interlock (3D-A) architectures was investigated through experiments and simulations. Two types of hybrid armors were manufactured with polypropylene (PP) as a matrix: one with a non-symmetric (H-1) stacking sequence and the other with a symmetric (H-2) stacking sequence. Ballistic impact tests were imparted with a 9mm full metal jacket (FMJ) projectile on the H-1 and H-2 armors. H-1 armor exhibited full perforations for the velocities between 365 and 395m/s, while the H-2 armor was able to confront successfully. The front face damage of the armor was not influenced by the stacking sequence. The ballistic limit was increased by 26.27% from H-1 armor to H-2 armor, indicating the influence of placing 3D-A fabrics on the front face. However, the overall stacking sequence showed a significant influence on the overall ballistic performance of composite armors.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Microstructural investigation of drilling induced damage in fibre metal
           laminates constituents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Khaled Giasin, Sabino Ayvar-Soberanis
      Fibre metal laminates (FMLs) are used in the upper fuselage of the Airbus A380 aircraft. Machining FMLs might cause various forms of damage around the hole either in the composite layers or the metallic sheets, all of which are known as drilling-induced damage which deteriorates the surface quality of the metal/composite. The current study investigates the effects of cutting parameters on the drilling-induced damage during drilling of GLARE FMLs at a microstructural level. This study extends the previous investigation of our study on dry drilling of GLARE laminates by incorporating two modern cooling technologies namely cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) to investigate their impact on drilling-induced damage in FMLs. The results showed that both cutting parameters had an impact on the drilling induced damage in the borehole, while using MQL and cryogenic coolants showed the ability to eliminate waste formation on the machined borehole surface.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • A comparison of IR- and UV-laser pretreatment to increase the bonding
           strength of adhesively joined aluminum/CFRP components
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Valentina Reitz, Dieter Meinhard, Simon Ruck, Harald Riegel, Volker Knoblauch
      In this work different CFRP laminates (called “A” and “B”) were pre-treated using IR- and UV-laser prior to adhesive bonding. The achieved surface conditions were characterized by optical methods and correlated with mechanical properties of adhesively bonded hybrid Al/CFRP single-lap joints. Two opposing effects could be detected on both CFRP laminates after IR-laser pre-treatment: strength increasing surface activation and reducing weakening of the fiber-matrix interface in near surface areas. However, using UV-radiation it was possible to activate the surface damage-free for A whereas B exhibited thermal induced damaging of the fiber-matrix adhesion comparable to IR laser treatment. Furthermore, it was shown that surface activation by laser pre-treatment strongly depends on the used CFRP laminate. IR- and UV-laser pre-treatment of A leads to a significant increase of shear strength, whereas for B even a slight reduction was observed compared to chemical cleaning with acetone which was the reference process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:38:12Z
  • Ultrahigh gas barrier poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite film filled with
           congregated and oriented Fe3O4@GO sheets induced by magnetic-field
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Peng-Gang Ren, Huan Wang, Ding-Xiang Yan, Hua-Dong Huang, Hao-Bin Wang, Zeng-Ping Zhang, Ling Xu, Zhong-Ming Li
      Graphene oxide nanosheets coated with magnetic ferroferric oxide nano-particles (Fe3O4@GO) were firstly in-situ synthesized and then employed as fillers to prepare a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite film with ultrahigh gas barrier property under magnetic field. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed that the magnetic Fe3O4 particles were homogenously absorbed onto the surface of GO sheets. Polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) results proved that the PVA composite film containing congregated and oriented Fe3O4@GO nanosheets was facilely manufactured aided by the magnetic field. Due to dramatic decline of gas permeable areas along parallel direction of film, an unprecedented improvement on gas barrier property of PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposite film was achieved. With the addition of only 0.072vol% Fe3O4@GO, the oxygen permeability (PO2) of PVA film decreased from 21.17×10−15 to 0.2126×10−15 cm3 cm/(cm2 sPa), showing about 99.0% improvement of gas barrier performance. The modified Bharadwaj model introduces a proportionality coefficient (k), giving better prediction of the PO2 of PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposites. In addition, the prepared PVA/Fe3O4@GO nanocomposite film exhibited excellent tensile strength and Young’s modulus. This congregated and oriented nanocomposite film with unprecedentedly excellent barrier performance could be perceived as a satisfying alternative for the traditional aluminum films applied in food and medicine packaging.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Comparison between temperature and pyrolysis dependent models to evaluate
           the lightning strike damage of carbon fiber composite laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yunli Guo, Qi Dong, Jingliang Chen, Xueling Yao, Xiaosu Yi, Yuxi Jia
      Both temperature dependent model and pyrolysis dependent model were proposed to investigate the lightning strike damage of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates, where lightning in-plane and in-depth damages were evaluated by the two models, respectively. Firstly, the simulated results were compared with the experimental data of IM600/133 composites to determine the feasibility of the models. The results affirmed that lightning in-plane damage evaluated by temperature dependent model had a good agreement with experimental results while the lightning in-depth damage evaluated by pyrolysis dependent model matched well with experimental results. Then the proposed models and methods were confirmed by the simulation of the lightning strike damage of TR50S15L/YPH-308 laminates and the comparison between the simulated and experimental results. The appropriate models and methods to evaluate lightning in-plane and in-depth damages are helpful for the research of lightning damage behaviors, mechanisms and anti-lightning optimizations of CFRP.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Characterization of 3D fabric permeability with skew terms
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Minyoung Yun, Hatice Sas, Pavel Simacek, Suresh G. Advani
      Flow simulations can predict resin flow behavior and void formation locations in a preform. One important parameter for simulation is the preform permeability. For thick parts with distribution media on the surface, resin flow is three dimensional and through the thickness permeability is required for simulation. If the fabric is a 3D preform or unbalanced, the through the thickness (Kzz) and two skew components (Kxz and Kyz) must be characterized. The skew terms influence the flow behavior and hence the void formation. In this study, we present a measurement station that provides all six independent components of the permeability tensor from one experiment. The methodology uses the location data of the flow front with time and then couples it to an optimization algorithm and our flow simulation tool, LIMS (Liquid Injection Molding Simulation). The process is automated and experimental results are superimposed on the simulation results to confirm fidelity of the values determined.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Phosphorus-containing diacid and its application in jute/poly(lactic acid)
           composites: Mechanical, thermal and flammability properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Tao Yu, Tuerdi Tuerhongjiang, Cong Sheng, Yan Li
      Phosphorous-based flame retardant was demonstrated excellent fire resistance for polymers and their composites, but the mechanical properties were always deteriorated. In this work, a phosphorous-containing diacid derivative (DOPO-MA) was synthesized by the reaction between 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and maleic acid (MA). The chemical structure of DOPO-MA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DOPO-MA had been incorporated into short jute/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites to study the influence of DOPO-MA on the mechanical, thermal and flammability properties of jute/PLA composites. Compared to DOPO, slight enhancements in tensile, flexural and impact strength were observed with DOPO-MA loading. The thermal degradation behaviour and flammability of the composites with different DOPO and DOPO-MA loading were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UL94 test, limiting oxygen index (LOI) measurements and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC). The results showed that DOPO-MA imparted the better flame retardancy to the composites than DOPO.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • An infiltration method to synthesize thermoplastic polyurethane composites
           based on size-controlled graphene foams
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yanbei Hou, Lijin Duan, Zhou Gui, Yuan Hu
      Graphene foams (GFs) with different sizes were prepared and applied to design thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/GF nanocomposites by infiltration method. Size-controlled GFs were successfully synthesized with variable concentration of graphene oxide (GO). Stable framework of GFs contributed to uniformity of composites and endowed them preferable thermal and mechanics performance. Results of TGA and MCC manifested that thermostability and flame retardancy of composites were superior to pure polymer, which was contributed to laminar barrier effect of GFs. Compression modulus of composite reached up to 2041.29kPa, which was much higher than GFs. Due to porous structure, both GFs and TPU/GF composites exhibited quite low value of thermal conductivity. Char residue of TPU/GF composites not only remained original shape, but withstood certain pressure, which decreased potential fire risk. Polymeric materials design, based on GFs, is a feasible scheme to obtain composite with good integrated performance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Investigation of dielectric and thermal conductive properties of epoxy
           resins modified by core-shell structured PS@SiO2
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jun Zhou, Yingye Jiang, Gaoqing Wu, Weijian Wu, Yang Wang, Kai Wu, Yonghong Cheng
      In this study, the core-shell structured polystyrene@SiO2 (PS@SiO2) microspheres were successfully synthesized by tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis method. The synthesized PS@SiO2 microspheres were subsequently characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and TEM respectively. The results indicated that the particle size of PS@SiO2 microspheres is about 2μm, and the PS microsphere is uniformly coated by amorphous SiO2 shell. PS@SiO2/cyanate ester (CE)/epoxy resin (ER) composite films were prepared with PS@SiO2 microspheres as fillers and morphology of the films was inspected by AFM. The images showed that the PS@SiO2 microspheres were well-distributed in epoxy matrix. Thermal conductivity of PS@SiO2/CE/ER composite increases 131% by adding 1.0wt% of PS@SiO2 microspheres. The volume resistivity of composites decreased with increasing of the loading of PS@SiO2 fillers and still keeping an excellent insulating performance. In addition, the dielectric constant as well as the dielectric loss of composites increased with the increased the content of PS@SiO2 microspheres.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Individual fibre segmentation from 3D X-ray computed tomography for
           characterising the fibre orientation in unidirectional composite materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Monica J. Emerson, Kristine M. Jespersen, Anders B. Dahl, Knut Conradsen, Lars P. Mikkelsen
      The aim of this paper is to characterise the fibre orientation in unidirectional fibre reinforced polymers, namely glass and carbon fibre composites. The compression strength of the composite is related to the orientation of the fibres. Thus the orientation is essential when designing materials for wind turbine blades. The calculation of the fibre orientation distribution is based on segmenting the individual fibres from volumes that have been acquired through X-ray tomography. The segmentation method presented in this study can accurately extract individual fibres from low contrast X-ray scans of composites with high fibre volume fraction. From the individual fibre orientations, it is possible to obtain results which are independent of the scanning quality. The compression strength for both composites is estimated from the average fibre orientations and is found to be of the same order of magnitude as the measured values.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Combined acoustic emission and multiple lead potential drop measurements
           in detailed examination of crack initiation and growth during interlaminar
           testing of ceramic matrix composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Yogesh P. Singh, Rabih Mansour, Gregory N. Morscher
      This article presents a novel approach in which the methods of acoustic emission and direct current potential drop are utilized as complimentary techniques to monitor crack initiation and growth in interlaminar testing of ceramic matrix composites. The method presented here can be used in localizing cracks, monitoring of crack growth, and has potential to reveal the nature of damage. It is argued that using the first derivative of time dependent electrical resistance/potential drop provides information on individual events during the failure of a ceramic matrix composite under different types of loading. The results discussed here pertain to a particular method of testing for interlaminar properties of ceramic matrix composites. However, the use of presented approach can be extended to other testing methods and materials.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Thermally stable, conductive and flame-retardant nylon 612 composites
           created by adding two-dimensional alumina platelets
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Pingan Song, Cong Wang, Lei Chen, Yiqi Zheng, Lina Liu, Qiang Wu, Guobo Huang, Youming Yu, Hao Wang
      With growingly demands for better performances in electronic-related applications, further improving thermal and fire safety of nylon 612 (PA612) becomes extremely pressing. In this work, we have reported the fabrication of flame retardant and thermally stable and conductive PA612 composites by using two-dimensional alumina platelets. Alumina platelets are observed being uniformly dispersed within the PA612 matrix. Thermal analysis demonstrates that addition of alumina platelets noticeably increases thermal stability and conductivity of PA612. Cone calorimetry results show that 40wt% of alumina platelets addition decreases the peak heat release rate (pHRR) and total smoke production of PA612 by 54% and 29%, respectively, indicating largely enhanced flame resistance. Rheology tests demonstrate that there exists a nearly qualitative correlation between the flammability (pHRR) and viscoelastic behaviors (storage modulus). This work offers a new approach for creating advanced polymer composites with enhanced thermal and flame retardancy properties by using alumina platelets as multifunctional filler.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Fabrication and characterization of Nylon 6/cellulose nanofibrils
           melt-spun nanocomposite filaments
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Rui Zhu, Vikram Yadama, Hang Liu, Richard J.T. Lin, David P. Harper
      Nylon 6/cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) melt-spun nanocomposite filaments were melt spun using a capillary rheometer to explore their capacity as textile materials with potentially improved fabric comfort. The effects of CNF loading level (0–10wt%) on the morphological structures, mechanical and physical properties of the nanocomposite filaments were evaluated. The nanocomposite filaments have much rougher surfaces and non-uniform diameters compared to neat Nylon 6 filaments. Nanoindentation test on the cross-section of the filaments revealed that there was no significant agglomeration of CNFs. As the CNF loading level was increased, the complex viscosity and storage modulus of the nanocomposite filaments were increased, whereas thermal stability was retained. Tenacity and initial modulus of the nanocomposite filaments were improved due to excellent mechanical properties of CNFs. The incorporation of CNFs also increased the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite filaments, which could have positive implications for textiles as it could potentially improve the perceived comfort.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene nanocomposites
           reinforced with nano-SiO2 functionalized graphene oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jun Bian, Zheng Jun Wang, Hai Lan Lin, Xing Zhou, Wen Qiang Xiao, Xin Wei Zhao
      In this paper, a novel PP nanocomposites containing graphene/SiO2 hybrid (GOS) was fabricated via melt blending. It showed that GO has been chemically functionalized by selective monomers. Due to the existence of “heterogeneous nucleation effect”, the melting temperatures and thermal properties were improved, as verified by thermal analysis. GOS has been dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix due to the “barrier effects” between SiO2 and graphene sheets. Tensile tests showed that GOS filler provided substantially greater mechanical property enhancement when embedded into PP matrix. When the GOSfiller loading was 0.25wt.%, the tensile and impact strength of PP nanocomposite increased by 13.8% and 41% compared with those of pure PP and by 27.95% and 43.87% respectively, compared with those of PP nanocomposites that filled with GO alone, indicating that the combination of graphene and nano-SiO2 demonstrated a synergistic effect for the property enhancement of PP.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • A new test method for the characterization of the bending behavior of
           textile prepregs
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Hassan Alshahrani, Mehdi Hojjati
      To improve forming simulation outcomes for composite prepregs and predict wrinkle formation, the bending behavior of prepreg materials must be correctly characterized. This paper proposes a new loading-rate control bending test in which the sample deflection and applied rate are controlled by a linear actuator while the load required to achieve this deflection is recorded by a miniature-load cell. An investigation of out-of-plane bending behavior as well as viscoelastic behavior at the forming process conditions of woven fabric out-of-autoclave prepregs was undertaken using this method. The experimental results show that the proposed bending test provides sufficient control of the deflection shape, testing rates, and processing temperatures within the range of thermosetting resin. Furthermore, the bending results reveal the rate dependency and viscoelastic nature of the materials. A method is developed to derive the bending stiffness from the nonlinear relationship between bending moment and curvature.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • Ultralight graphene aerogel enhanced with transformed micro-structure led
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 97
      Author(s): Bin Liu, Jinhuan Li, Lufang Wang, Jiahui Ren, Yanfang Xu
      By a simple one-step reduction self-assembly process, a three-dimensional composite material graphene/polypyrrole aerogel (GPA) has been fabricated. The polypyrrole nanorods (PNRs) not only act as a spacer to avoid the graphene sheets aggregation and enhance mechanical strength but also effectively adjust the permittivity of GPAs to gain expected microwave absorption (MA) performance. Compared with pure graphene aerogel (GA), these aerogels with the ultralow density of around 0.020g/cm3 show improved MA performance that the maximum reflection loss (RL) can reach −51.12dB at the frequency of 6.4GHz, and the effective absorption bandwidth (RL<−10dB) was 5.88GHz (10.48–16.36GHz) corresponding to an absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Such outstanding MA performances are attributed to the polarization and relaxation process that is correlated with the transformed microstructure of GPAs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:32:49Z
  • POSS-bound ZnO nanowires as interphase for enhancing interfacial strength
           and hydrothermal aging resistance of PBO fiber/epoxy resin composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Lei Chen, Zhen Hu, Zijian Wu, Guangshun Wu, Lichun Ma, Chunhua Zhang, Yudong Huang
      A new hierarchical reinforcement was fabricated by growing ZnO nanowires (NWs) onto poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers using a mild hydrothermal method, which served as a platform for the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) grafting, using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) as a bridging agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphologies of PBO fibers and the de-bonding surface morphologies of their composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the chemical bonding nature between ZnO NWs and APTMS, as well as between APTMS and POSS. The reinforcement offered a 83.4% enhancement in the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) without degrading the base fiber. Moreover, the possible interfacial property enhancing reasons were explored. The hydrothermal aging resistance of PBO/epoxy composites was also greatly improved.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
  • Interlaminar fracture properties of surface treated Ti-CFRP hybrid
           composites under long-term hygrothermal conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 96
      Author(s): Bin Yu, Peigang He, Zhenyu Jiang, Jinglei Yang
      The interfaces between the composite and metal in fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are vulnerable to the attacks of moisture and heat. Two surface treatment methods are introduced to improve the interlaminar performance of the FML made of titanium alloy (Ti) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The FML prepared using the anodized Ti plate and CF sheets grafted with multiwalled carbon nanotubes shows significantly increased interlaminar fracture toughness (1382%), compared with the FML fabricated with sandblasted Ti plate and untreated CF sheets. The exposure to long-term hygrothermal environment, i.e. 60-day immersion in simulated seawater at room temperature, reduces the performance of both treated and untreated FMLs. However, the treated maintains the improvement of interlaminar performance, and shows much higher interlaminar fracture toughness (25.5 times) than the untreated. This study provides a feasible solution to tune the interlaminar properties of the FMLs based on titanium alloy and carbon fibers for industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T14:35:21Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016