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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1204 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing
  [SJR: 1.599]   [H-I: 113]   [181 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-835X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • The importance of translaminar fracture toughness for the penetration
           impact behaviour of woven carbon/glass hybrid composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 103
      Author(s): Yentl Swolfs, Yoran Geboes, Larissa Gorbatikh, Silvestre T. Pinho
      The impact resistance of fibre-reinforced composites is vital in many applications, and can be improved by exploiting synergies in fibre-hybridisation. These effects are however not sufficiently well understood in the literature. Penetration impact tests were hence performed on carbon/glass hybrids, and the results were linked to the flexural behaviour and translaminar fracture toughness. The results revealed large synergetic effects of up to 40% compared to the linear rule-of-mixtures. The results are also the first to reveal that creating a translaminar fracture surface can strongly contribute to the energy absorbed during penetration impact: 56% for an all-carbon fibre composite and 13% for an all-glass fibre composite. These results prove that strategies for maximising the translaminar fracture toughness can also be exploited to maximise the penetration impact resistance of fibre-hybrids. In carbon fibre composites in particular, ply blocking, using larger yarns and introducing micro-cuts should therefore increase the penetration impact resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T14:32:44Z
       
  • A fast water-induced shape memory polymer based on hydroxyethyl
           cellulose/graphene oxide composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 103
      Author(s): Yongkang Bai, Xin Chen
      Herein, a fast water responsive shape memory polymer composites based on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) has been fabricated by crosslinking with graphene oxide (GO) and citric acid (CA). The swelling behavior, mechanical properties, micro-topography, thermal stability, as well as water and moisture induced shape memory performance of this composite were all fully investigated to demonstrate its functions. After crosslinking with GO and CA, the composite exhibited excellent mechanical properties with tensile strength over 100MPa, which was nearly 4 times higher than pure HEC. Moreover, the pre-deformed composite was able to fully recover to its original shape in aqueous environment, which not only quickly happened in water (14s), but also occurred in wet air with relative humidity about 70 within only 5min. With such outstanding properties, we envisage that this composite could play a significant role in developing new generations of water responsive sensors, actuators and biomedical devices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T14:32:44Z
       
  • The influence of N-doping types for carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy
           composites: A combined experimental study and molecular dynamics
           simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 103
      Author(s): Hana Jung, Hoi Kil Choi, Soyoung Kim, Hun-Su Lee, Yonjig Kim, Jaesang Yu
      In this study, nitrogen doped carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were characterized through experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Carbon nanotubes were functionalized by nitrogen inductively coupled plasma. They were made into a nanocomposite by a solvent-free mixing method. The various characteristics of nanocomposites, including nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes were analyzed by the following experiments: a Raman spectra, an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), quasi-static tensile tests, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, an MD simulation was performed to predict the mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the results were compared to the test measurements. It showed that the effective dispersion of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes was important to improve the mechanical characteristics of the nanocomposites.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T14:32:44Z
       
  • New BN-epoxy composites obtained by thermal latent cationic curing with
           enhanced thermal conductivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 103
      Author(s): Isaac Isarn, Lluís Massagués, Xavier Ramis, Àngels Serra, Francesc Ferrando
      A series of boron nitride (BN) composites, with different BN content, were prepared and characterized by cationic curing of DGEBA/BN formulations. As cationic initiator a commercial benzylanilinium salt was used. This cationic system shows good latent characteristics that were not lost on adding the filler. The performance of the catalytic system was optimized by varying the amount of initiator and adding little proportions of glycerol. The kinetics of the curing process was evaluated by calorimetric measurements. The addition of BN allowed increasing thermal conductivity without loss of mechanical properties like Young modulus, impact resistance, adhesion and other thermal characteristics like Tg or thermal stability. In addition, dielectric properties were improved with the increment of filler.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T14:32:44Z
       
  • Environmentally assisted crack growth in adhesively bonded composite
           joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jared Tracy, Yikai Yin, Jeffrey Yang, John C. Osborne, Kay Y. Blohowiak, Reinhold Dauskardt
      Adhesively bonding composite components is a reliable alternative to conventional joining processes that minimizes part weight and reduces fabrication costs. Regarding performance and reliability, of particular interest is developing adherend surface treatments that enhance adhesion of the joint interfaces in aggressive chemical environments. Using fracture mechanics-based adhesion metrologies, critical and subcritical crack growth were evaluated for several peel-ply-treated, adhesively bonded composite joints. Fracture toughness, Gc, and corresponding failure modes were evaluated for specimens constructed using two different bonding processes (co-bonding and secondary bonding) and four different peel ply treatments. Environmentally assisted crack growth was evaluated as a function of time in several environments: humid, high temperature humid, and hydraulic fluid immersion. It is shown that humid environments accelerate crack growth rates, da/dt, relative to the strain energy release rate, G. This effect was amplified at elevated temperatures and further amplified in the presence of hydraulic fluid.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T14:32:44Z
       
  • Simulation-driven mold compensation strategy for composites: Experimental
           validation on a doubly-curved part
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): B. Wucher, Ph. Martiny, F. Lani, T. Pardoen, C. Bailly, D. Dumas
      Thermoset-based composites exhibit irreversible distortions during manufacturing, which are detrimental to the assembly and then to the mechanical integrity. The optimal mold geometry can be determined by numerical simulation such that the produced composite component matches the target design. A simple mold compensation methodology as well as an all-around experimental validation are proposed for a doubly-curved part made of a carbon fiber reinforced composite. Non-compensated and compensated parts are processed in order to quantify the gain obtained by the compensation procedure and to validate the method. The spring-in is reduced by more than 90% and the overall distortions are reduced by about 70%.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • CFRP manufacturing method using electrodeposition resin molding for
           curvilinear fiber arrangements
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Kazuaki Katagiri, Katsuhiko Sasaki, Shinya Honda, Hikaru Nakashima, Shimpei Yamaguchi, Tomoatsu Ozaki, Hirosuke Sonomura, Atsushi Kakitsuji
      Recently, theoretical and experimental methods were proposed for organizing carbon fibers in straight and curvilinear arrangements to obtain a uniform stress distribution in the design of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting plastic (CFRP). In this study, to establish an efficient CFRP manufacturing method and realize the curvilinear arrangement of carbon fibers, we develop an electrodeposition resin molding technique. That is, immersing a noncrimp fabric in the electrodeposition solution and energizing electricity, the fabric is impregnated by the resin; thus, a CFRP with curvilinear carbon fibers can be efficiently produced without autoclaving and vacuum packing. We then confirm the optimal electrodeposition conditions for maximizing the tensile strength of the CFRP, and obtain the 3D shape of the CFRP by keeping the noncrimp fabric in solution along the mold.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Influence of surface morphology on processing of C/SiC composites via
           femtosecond laser
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Zhaoyang Zhai, Wenjun Wang, Jie Zhao, Xuesong Mei, Kedian Wang, Fangcheng Wang, Huizhu Yang
      Carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) was processed with an 800nm femtosecond laser, and the results were analyzed through theoretical calculations and wave optics simulations. In the ablation experiment, C/SiC morphologies for different parameters such as laser power, defocus distance, and scanning speed were compared. It was found that the roughness prior to processing of the C/SiC surface noticeably affects the ablation effect. Beam waist radius, curvature radius, and electric field intensity of the femtosecond laser were calculated theoretically and the wave optics module was simulated in finite element software. Causes for the different morphologies can be explained directly through the simulation results from the perspective of the electromagnetic field. It was found that the microgroove quality of C/SiC processed subject to the femtosecond laser with high fluence is relatively higher and that the edge oxidation of the processing area can be effectively controlled through argon protection. The comparison between the simulation and the experiment results deepens the understanding of the ablation mechanism, which can provide references for the improvement in processing quality of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) by laser treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Nanopolydopamine coupled fluorescent nanozinc oxide reinforced epoxy
           nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Chaobo Liang, Ping Song, Hongbo Gu, Chao Ma, Yongqiang Guo, Hongyuan Zhang, Xiaojiang Xu, Qiuyu Zhang, Junwei Gu
      Fluorescent epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with polydopamine (PDA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been obtained. Results reveal that the PDA functionalized ZnO nanoparticles are dispersed uniformly in the epoxy nanocomposites. The enhanced tensile strength of the epoxy nanocomposites filled with PDA functionalized ZnO nanoparticles (up to 106.7MPa) is obtained compared with that of pure epoxy (83.8MPa) and epoxy nanocomposites filled with the same loading pristine ZnO nanoparticles (around 91.5MPa). The glass transition temperature (T g) of the epoxy nanocomposites filled with PDA functionalized ZnO nanoparticles has shifted to a higher temperature (127.0–132.0°C) compared with that of pure epoxy (118.3°C). The interaction between PDA and epoxy matrix is also explored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and contact angle. The introduction of PDA can enhance the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposites without damaging the fluorescent property of ZnO nanoparticles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Multistep modeling of Young’s modulus in polymer/clay nanocomposites
           assuming the intercalation/exfoliation of clay layers and the interphase
           between polymer matrix and nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Yasser Zare, Kyong Yop Rhee
      In the present paper, a multistep technique for prediction of Young’s modulus in polymer/clay nanocomposites (PCN) is developed considering the intercalation/exfoliation of clay layers and the interphase between polymer matrix and nanoparticles. This methodology is evaluated by the experimental data of various samples. In addition, the effects of several parameters attributed to intercalation/exfoliation of clay layers and interphases on the modulus are examined. The predictions demonstrate good agreement with the experimental data by proper levels of intercalation/exfoliation of clay layers and interphase properties, while the modulus is under-predicted by disregarding of these factors. The findings also indicate that more exfoliation of thinner clay layers and stronger interphase cause a higher modulus in PCN.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Measurement method of multi scale thermal deformation inhomogeneity in
           CFRP using in situ FE-SEM observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Y. Tanaka, K. Naito, H. Kakisawa
      The measurement of nano scale thermal deformation and strain inhomogeneity in the transverse direction in carbon fiber-reinformed polmer (CFRP) in the temperature range 170–370K has been carried out by in-situ Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) observation using a heating and cooling stage in the FE-SEM chamber. A grid pattern and also random patterns were drawn on the polished sample surface at different length scales. The electron moiré method was applied to measure the macroscopic deformation and the digital imaging correlation method was applied to measure the nano-scale deformation around the fiber/matrix interface. The strain inhomogeneity of the pitch-based carbon fiber in the transverse direction and the debonding at the interface between fiber and matrix has been evaluated quantitatively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • A clustering method for analysis of morphology of short natural fibers in
           composites based on X-ray microtomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Anna Madra, Jérôme Adrien, Piotr Breitkopf, Eric Maire, François Trochu
      The work presented here concerns the methodology for the analysis of X-ray micro-CT scans of composite materials with a discontinuous phase. An automatized method has been devised for the measurement of geometric features and identification of distinct morphological types. This approach offers new insights into the composition of a microstructure based on the analysis of phase morphology and its relative volume percentage. It stays in contrast to the frequency-based approach that attributes the same importance to all elements of the structure, and is thus biased towards numerous, but not necessarily essential components of the material. The method is general and can be applied to any type of discontinuous, dispersed phase in composites identified with X-ray micro-tomography. We have verified our approach for short natural fibers but it may be of interest for characterizing void distribution in RTM manufactured composites or cracks after failure.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Understanding and predicting defect formation in automated fibre placement
           pre-preg laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jonathan P.-H. Belnoue, Tassos Mesogitis, Oliver J. Nixon-Pearson, James Kratz, Dmitry S. Ivanov, Ivana K. Partridge, Kevin D. Potter, Stephen R. Hallett
      Fibre path defects are detrimental to the structural integrity of composite components and need to be minimised through process optimization. This requires understanding of the uncured pre-preg material, which is influenced by multiple process parameters, and sophisticated multi-scale modelling tools. Even though the capabilities of process modelling techniques have been improved over the past decades, the occurrence of localised wrinkles remains challenging to predict. One of the processes known to influence the formation of fibre path defects is the consolidation of laminates manufactured by automated fibre placement. The particular focus of this paper is to understand how out-of-plane wrinkles form during debulking and autoclave curing of laminates with embedded gaps and overlaps between the deposited tapes. Predictions are made using a novel modelling framework and validated against micro-scale geometry characterisation of artificially manufactured samples. The paper demonstrates the model’s ability to predict consolidation defects for the latest generation of toughened pre-pregs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • The Tsai-Wu failure criterion rationalised in the context of UD composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Shuguang Li, Elena Sitnikova, Yuning Liang, Abdul-Salam Kaddour
      This paper is to rationalise the empirical aspect of the Tsai-Wu failure criterion in the context of UD composites associated with the determination of the interactive strength property F 12 based on the analytic geometry. It reveals that the condition of closed failure envelope cannot be satisfied by all UD composites and hence the restriction should be abandoned. Depending on the way the failure envelope opens, UD composites can be classified into two categories. (a) F 12 can be determined uniquely using the conventional strength properties with an additional assumption that the material exhibits very high or infinite strength under triaxial compression at a specific stress ratio; or (b) The Tsai-Wu criterion leads to one of the two scenarios: either allowing infinite strength for an in-plane stress state or allowing infinite strength under triaxial stresses involving tension along fibres.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Enhancing thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of poly(methyl
           methacrylate) via adding expanded graphite and injecting water
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Min Wu, Han-Xiong Huang, Jun Tong, Dong-Ying Ke
      Poly(methyl methacrylate)/expanded graphite (PMMA/EG) composites are prepared using water-assisted mixing extrusion (WAME) technique. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that the EG exhibits better exfoliation and dispersion in the composite samples prepared with water injection than that in those without water injection. More EG layer networks and stronger PMMA-EG interfacial interaction are formed in the composite samples prepared with water injection, which are confirmed by the results of the FTIR and rheological measurements and the linear fits of experimentally obtained tensile yield stresses. The composite samples with well exfoliated and dispersed EG layers exhibit higher thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, which are ascribed to lower interfacial thermal resistance and stronger interfacial interaction, respectively. Finally, a mechanism for promoted EG exfoliation and dispersion in the PMMA matrix during the WAME is interpreted by analyzing the combined effect of injected high-pressure water with the shear force provided by the extruder screw.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of SBR composites by
           introducing graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with silica particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Zijin Liu, Yong Zhang
      Synergistic enhancement of fillers in the polymer matrix has emerged as a subject of scientific and industrial interest. A hybrid with the silica decorating on GO surface (SiO2@GO) was fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method, and its morphology, structure and composition were characterized. GO, silica, silica/GO mixture (SiO2-GO), and SiO2@GO were separately filled in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) to obtain composites. SBR/SiO2@GO (100/20) composite exhibited the best performance, and its tensile strength increased by 308% compared with that of SBR. This is due to SiO2@GO was uniformly embedded in the SBR matrix brought by the synergistic dispersion of silica and GO. SiO2@GO acted as the barrier in SBR composites, and increased the temperature at 50% weight loss for SBR/SiO2@GO (100/20) by 13.1°C compared to SBR. Anchoring silica on GO surface is an effective way to develop various high-performance rubber composite materials with good potential in industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Carbon nanotubes coated hybrid-fabric composites with enhanced mechanical
           and thermal properties for tribological applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Junya Yuan, Zhaozhu Zhang, Mingming Yang, Fang Guo, Xuehu Men, Weimin Liu
      Poor interfacial adhesion and inferior thermal property of resin matrix severely obstruct the continued development of fabric-reinforced polymer composites for potential advanced tribological applications. Herein, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) encapsulated by copolymer of polydopamine (PDA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) directly deposited onto hybrid Nomex/PTFE fabric leading to a hierarchical reinforcing structure was successfully carried out via a facile one-pot synthesis. The achieved organic-inorganic hybrid functional coating significantly increased the wettability, reactive functional groups and surface roughness of hybrid-fabric. Tensile and peeling tests show that the hierarchical composites exhibited 38.4% and 63% enhancement in tensile strength and interfacial bonding strength compared to that of the pristine fabric composites. Furthermore, CNTs modification forming percolating networks on hybrid-fabric within the resin matrix effectively promotes the thermal stability of the fabric composites. Results of wear tests prove that the hierarchical composites exhibited outstanding tribological properties under varied applied loads.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Preparation and performance of bio-based carboxylic elastomer/halloysite
           nanotubes nanocomposites with strong interfacial interaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xinxin Zhou, Qinan Zhang, Runguo Wang, Baochun Guo, Yuri Lvov, Guo-Hua Hu, Liqun Zhang
      Poly(dibutyl itaconate-co-isoprene-co-methacrylic acid) (PDIM)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites with strong interfacial interaction were prepared by co-coagulation of PDIM latex and HNTs aqueous suspension, followed by mechanical kneading with rubber additives. The interfacial interaction, thermal properties, morphology, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The hydrogen bonds were confirmed in the nanocomposites. Morphology investigation showed uniform and individual dispersion of HNTs in the PDIM matrix. With the incorporation of HNTs into the PDIM matrix, the tensile strength and the fracture energy were significantly improved without sacrificing the extensibility. The improved mechanical properties were correlated to the co-coagulation and the strong hydrogen bonds. Especially, the morphology investigation of tensile fracture surfaces revealed a mechanism for the improved mechanical performance, in which the stress was efficiently transferred from PDIM to HNTs via hydrogen bonds and then the dissociation of the hydrogen bonds dissipated energy to increase the fracture energy of the nanocomposites.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Experimental study of the effects of graphene oxide on microstructure and
           properties of cement paste composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Haibin Yang, Manuel Monasterio, Hongzhi Cui, Ningxu Han
      Graphene oxide (GO) has been utilized to strengthen composite materials. In this study, the effects of GO on hydration degrees, macro-mechanical strength and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) structure of cement based composites were investigated through comprehensive experimental tests. In addition, the aggregation mechanism of GO was verified by alkaline solution simulations, using Ca(OH)2 and NH3·H2O. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the 3-day and 7-day compressive strengths of cement based composites with 0.2wt% of GO were increased by 35.7% and 42.3%, respectively as compared to the control. Moreover, the C-S-H structure of cement paste with GO was not observed to have undergone any change via qualitative and quantitative analyses combined with FT-IR, XRD and 29Si-NMR. Besides, the test results of TGA, DTG and 29Si-NMR showed that the hydrated degree of cement paste increased to 10.4% at 28days when incorporating with 0.1% of GO.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • A critical review on research progress of graphene/cement based composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Haibin Yang, Hongzhi Cui, Waiching Tang, Zongjin Li, Ningxu Han, Feng Xing
      Cement based composite materials (CBCM) with superior mechanical strength and excellent durability are always desirable in practical applications. Although considerable research has been reported in the past decades about the use of Nano materials (NMs) for strength and durability enhancement of cement matrix, there is little information available on the use of graphene nano-sheets and their derivatives (GND) in cement-based materials. Particularly the role of GND in hydration processes and their mechanisms of strengthening in cement matrix are unclear. In this paper, a critical review on recent research findings about GND modified cement-based materials was conducted. The review mainly discussed the influence of GND on properties of cement matrix including microstructure, hydration, mechanical properties, etc. The information revealed in this paper would not only provide a comprehensive understanding of the effect of GND on cement composites, but also provide valuable ideas and guidance for similar studies in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Highly aligned graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite fibers
           with high-strength, antiultraviolet and antibacterial properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xinjun Hu, Nan Ren, Yuanzhi Chao, Huilin Lan, Xiaojie Yan, Yan Sha, Xiaolin Sha, Yongxiao Bai
      Demands for the strong and multifunctional fiber has substantially increased in textile industry, biomedical, and biotechnological applications. This study explores to fabricate nanocomposite functional fibers by embedding highly oriented graphene oxide (GO) into the poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The GO/PVA nanocomposite fibers were prepared via gel spinning and subsequent hot drawing process. The tensile strength of the produced GO/PVA nanocomposite fibers was significantly enhanced owing to the uniformly dispersed and oriented GO nanosheets. Additionally, the ultraviolet protection factor of the highly aligned GO/PVA nanocomposite fibers is about 16 times than that of the neat PVA fiber. The as-prepared GO/PVA nanocomposite fibers also exhibit significant activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This highly aligned and integrated approach suggests an effective method to prepare graphene-based nanocomposites fibers with high performances and novel functional characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • The effect of multi-wall carbon nanotube morphology on electrical and
           mechanical properties of polyurethane nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jatin Sethi, Essi Sarlin, Seyyed Shayan Meysami, Reija Suihkonen, Arunjunai Raja Shankar Santha Kumar, Mari Honkanen, Pasi Keinänen, Nicole Grobert, Jyrki Vuorinen
      In this study, we examine the effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) morphology on electrical and mechanical properties of MWCNT-filled polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites. The main objective of this study is to understand the role of aspect ratio and length of MWCNTs in determining the performance of nanocomposites. Highly aligned MWCNTs were prepared by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition method and compared to commercially available MWCNTs in PU matrix for ease of dispersibility and performance. We observed opposing influence of the MWCNT on electrical and mechanical behaviour of the nanocomposites. The electrical properties were proportional to length of the MWCNTs whereas the mechanical properties were dependent on the aspect ratio of the MWCNTs. Moreover, thicker nanotubes (approximately 40nm) with a higher aspect ratio (approximately 225) are less prone to shortening and impart better tensile and storage modulus along with improved electrical and therefore are more suitable for the MWCNT nanocomposites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Layer-by-layer assembly of layered double hydroxide/rubber multilayer
           films with excellent gas barrier property
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Lumei Wang, Yibo Dou, Jiajie Wang, Jingbin Han, Li Liu, Min Wei
      Rubber nanocomposites with high gas barrier property have extensive application prospects in sealing and packing industry, while developing a novel and cost-effective rubber-based material with low gas permeability and good mechanical property still remains a challenge. Herein, we designed and fabricated an excellent gas barrier film by using polyvinyl pyrrolidone modified ultrathin layered double hydroxide nanoplatelets (U-mLDH) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) as building blocks. The resultant (U-mLDH/NBR)30 film displays significantly decreased (reduced by 92.2% compared with NBR film) oxygen transmission rate with 0.626cm3 m–2 day–1 atm–1, and much lower relative permeability in comparison with reported rubber composites. The improved gas barrier performance is ascribed to the prolonged passage of oxygen molecules and the decreased free space arising from large aspect ratio of U-mLDH and good interfacial compatibility. In addition, the (U-mLDH/NBR)30 film also possesses high thermal stability and satisfactory mechanical property, which would guarantee its practical applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • A macroscopic approach to simulate the forming behaviour of stitched
           unidirectional non-crimp fabrics (UD-NCF)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): F.J. Schirmaier, D. Dörr, F. Henning, L. Kärger
      Thin composite shell structures manufactured from stitched unidirectional non-crimp fabrics (UD-NCF) in a liquid composite moulding process provide high lightweight design capabilities. For complex geometries, the forming process of the textile pre-products is challenging and requires intensive investigations to avoid defects like macroscopic wrinkling or fibre gapping. In contrast to biaxial engineering fabrics, UD-NCF has been investigated only sparsely in terms of its forming behaviour, both experimentally and numerically. To close this gap, a macroscopic forming simulation model for UD-NCF is proposed in this work, including a new non-orthogonal and linear strain measure for large strains and the corresponding nominal stress measure. To parameterize the constitutive laws and to investigate the multiaxial deformation behaviour of UD-NCF, supplementary off-axis-tension tests with optical strain measurement are performed in this work. The new forming simulation model is validated via forming simulation of a hemisphere test and of a preforming process of an automotive component.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T12:56:54Z
       
  • Enhanced thermal conductivity of free-standing 3D hierarchical carbon
           nanotube-graphene hybrid paper
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Huifen Lu, Jun Zhang, Jie Luo, Wenbin Gong, Chaowei Li, Qiulong Li, Kai Zhang, Ming Hu, Yagang Yao
      Light-weight materials with superior thermal and electrical transport properties have received much attention for effective thermal management. In this study, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid hierarchical structure with carbon nanotube (CNT) intercalated graphene sheets by thermal annealing of carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (CNT/GO) films. In this full-carbon architecture, CNTs are employed to bridge adjacent graphene sheets to facilitate the phonon propagation and prevent the corrugation of graphene layers during thermal treatment. The as-obtained carbon nanotube/graphene (CNT/G) film with 15wt% CNTs content exhibits ultrahigh in-plane thermal conductivity of 1388.7W/mK and favorable electric conductivity of 1.7×105 S/m. The mechanisms of the enhanced thermal conductivities of the hybrid films are then analyzed by theoretical simulation. These films could be useful in thermal management for next generation commercial portable electronics.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Polyimide-based lubricating coatings synergistically enhanced by MoS2@HCNF
           hybrid
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Hong Yuan, Shengrong Yang, Xiaohong Liu, Zhaofeng Wang, Limin Ma, Kaiming Hou, Zhigang Yang, Jinqing Wang
      In this work, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor dispersion of MoS2 nanoflowers in polyimide (PI) by carefully grafting them onto the surface of hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNF). The obtained MoS2@HCNF hybrid was then utilized as homogeneous filler to enhance the tensile strength and lubricity of the PI-based protective coating. The results revealed that the tensile strength can be effectively improved by 46% accompanying with a slight decrease in elongation (19%) after the incorporation of 2.0wt% MoS2@HCNF. Furthermore, the MoS2@HCNF/PI composite coatings also manifested outstanding anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics under the lubrication conditions of water (0.5wt%, 72.5% reduction in wear rate) and liquid paraffin oil (1.5wt%, 56% reduction in wear rate), demonstrating that the formed stable MoS2@HCNF hybrid could collaboratively alleviate the wear caused by the friction shear force in PI matrix through water or oil medium. The outstandingly enhanced behaviors of MoS2@HCNF hybrid suggest its potential application as the novel filler in anti-wear composite coatings.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Quantitative analysis by micro-CT of damage during tensile test in a woven
           hemp/epoxy composite after water ageing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Amélie Perrier, Fabienne Touchard, Laurence Chocinski-Arnault, David Mellier
      The influence of water ageing on the evolution of damage during tensile loading in woven hemp/epoxy composites is studied. First, the water uptakes of several types of samples are compared. Micro-CT observations show that, from the beginning of desorption but not during the water ageing, damage appears in the composites. At macroscopic scale, tensile tests reveal a significant modification of mechanical properties of the composite after water ageing. Then, an original test, combining tensile loading and X-ray microtomography, is performed on a ±45 hemp/epoxy composite material. The volume of damage inside two specimens (with and without water ageing) at several steps during a tensile test can be quantified. Results highlight significant differences in the evolution of the volume of damage between the two samples. This work shows how the mechanisms of deformation and damage of plant fibre composites are governed by their moisture exposure history.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • A novel fabrication method and mechanical behavior of all-composite
           tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jie Mei, Jiayi Liu, Jialin Liu
      A novel hot-press molding method was developed to manufacture all-composite sandwich panel with tetrahedral truss cores in this paper. The out-of-plane compressive and in-plane shear behaviors of this structure were investigated by experiments. The results have shown that the tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel had a high compressive specific strength compared to metallic truss core sandwich panels. The node failure was observed in the experimental process. Finite element analysis (FEA) with a progressive failure model was involved to simulate the damage evolution process and predict the mechanical properties. The analytical formulae were also presented to predict the stiffness and strength of sandwich panel. Good agreement was found between FEA calculated results and the experimental results. It is expected that this study can provide useful information for the fabrication and application of all-composite tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Thermo-gravimetric analysis method to determine the fiber volume fraction
           for PAN-based CFRP considering oxidation of carbon fiber and matrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): YunHo Kim, Chunghyeon Choi, Sarath Kumar Sathish Kumar, Chun-Gon Kim, Sun-Won Kim, Jae Hyuk Lim
      The properties of fiber reinforced composites are mainly determined by the fraction of reinforcement and matrix. Thus, to design a system based on composite materials, it is vital to carefully measure the volume fractions of the composites with a proper method. Digestion by strong acid or ignition at high temperature in an oxidizing environment are conventional for measuring content fractions. In essence, these methods assume that the reinforcement does not lose weight by digestion or ignition. However, by neglecting reported vulnerable oxidization characteristics of carbon fiber, these conventional methods result in inaccurate fiber volume fractions of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this study, an effective and accurate method, having only 2 steps in measuring process and 1.5%p maximum error, for determining the fiber volume fractions of two different PAN (Polyacylonitrile)-based carbon fiber reinforced composites via thermo-gravimetric analysis was developed and subsequently verified using the results from 80 microscopic images.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of randomly-oriented tow-based discontinuous
           composites and their equivalent laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Yizhuo Li, Soraia Pimenta, Jordan Singgih, Stefan Nothdurfter, Karsten Schuffenhauer
      The equivalent laminate assumption is a commonly-used method to model the random architecture of discontinuous composites, but which has never been validated experimentally. This study aims to verify the equivalent laminate assumption, focusing on tow-based discontinuous composites (TBDCs), which have higher fibre-content and thus improved modulus and strength, compared to conventional discontinuous-fibre composites. This verification was achieved by manufacturing and testing (i) actual TBDCs with randomly oriented tows and (ii) their equivalent laminates (ELs), at two different tow thicknesses. The results show that ELs exhibit the same failure mechanisms as TBDCs, and are similarly weakened by an increase in tow thickness. However, ELs lack the spatial variability in local fibre-content and local tow orientations, which makes ELs stronger than TBDCs. Therefore, the equivalent laminate assumption is suitable for predicting the modulus of discontinuous composites, but cannot predict their strength without considering the local variability in their microstructure.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • A simple chemical approach to regenerating the strength of thermally
           damaged glass fibre
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): S.T. Bashir, L. Yang, R. Anderson, P.L. Tang, J.J. Liggat, J.L. Thomason
      Process-induced strength loss is a major technical barrier to the effective reuse of thermally recycled glass fibres in composite applications. We have developed a novel approach to effectively restore strength in glass fibres through treatment in alkaline solutions. Glass fibres were treated at elevated temperature and experienced significant strength loss found typically after thermal recycling processes. Different alkaline treatments were then applied to the thermally damaged fibres in an attempt to restore strength which had been lost as a result of the heat conditioning procedure. Results indicated that these treatments were able to generate considerable fibre strength recovery. The degree of strength regeneration was found to be highly dependent on reaction conditions, which were investigated and optimised. The positive effect of these simple chemical treatments demonstrated great potential for facilitating the reuse of thermally recycled glass fibres in composite applications.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Spatial Confining Forced Network Assembly for preparation of
           high-performance conductive polymeric composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 102
      Author(s): Daming Wu, Xiaolong Gao, Jingyao Sun, Dan Wu, Ying Liu, S. Kormakov, Xiuting Zheng, Lili Wu, Yao Huang, Zhanhu Guo
      Constructing a network of conductive fillers in polymeric matrix is essential for the preparation of conductive polymer composites. Although the conductivity of the composites could increase remarkably after the percolation threshold, it is still much lower than expected due to a limited self-assembly interaction between filler particles. In this paper, high-performance conductive polymer composites were prepared by the method of Spatial Confining Forced Network Assembly (SCFNA). The compound of homogenous polymer and conductive fillers, prepared by conical twin-screw mixer, was placed in a compression mold with confining space to carry out two-stage compression, free compression and spatial confining compression. The electrical conductivity of the SCFNA prepared polypropylene/short carbon fibers was increased up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that of by ordinary compounding technology.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T05:01:42Z
       
  • Facile synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) interconnecting polypyrrole
           (PPy) nanowires/nanofibrous textile composite electrode for high
           performance supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Qiongzhen Liu, Bo Wang, Jiahui Chen, Fei Li, Ke Liu, Yuedan Wang, Mufang Li, Zhentan Lu, Wenwen Wang, Dong Wang
      In present work, polypyrrole (PPy) has been in-situ polymerized on a poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofirous textile to form a 3D interconnecting PPy nanowires/nanofibrous textile composite electrode (designated as NW-PPy/NFs/PET). It demonstrates that the introduction of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium (AQS) can tune the morphology of PPy from nanospheres to nanowires. The resulting PPy@PVA-co-PE conformal nanofibers act as bridges among intertwined PPy@PET fibers and PPy nanowires, leading to continuous pathways for ion/electron transfer and larger surface area for faradic reaction. Benefiting from this unique structure, the two-electrode supercapacitor using NaCl solution as electrolyte delivers a high power density of 800Wkg−1 at an energy density of 20Whkg−1 per mass of active materials. Furthermore, the symmetric all-solid-state NW-PPy/NFs/PET supercapacitor demonstrates high flexibility and cycle stability. Therefore, this work may open a new way to develop light weight and cost-effective electrodes for flexible energy storage devices.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T23:59:46Z
       
  • Flexible hdC-G reinforced polyimide composites with high dielectric
           permittivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Xiaojian Liao, Wan Ye, Linlin Chen, Shaohua Jiang, Guan Wang, Lin Zhang, Haoqing Hou
      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced composites with high dielectric permittivity empower miscellaneous applications in flexible electronics but are hindered by the large addition and agglomeration of fillers and weak mechanical performance. Here, we prepare homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and graphene oxide (hdC-G) via solvent-exchange, and fabricate hdC-G/polyimide (PI) composite films by in situ polymerization and thermal imidization. The achieved hdC-G can construct a 3D network and keep a long term stability. The hdC-G/PI composites show high dielectric permittivity of 124.9 at 100Hz, 4000% higher than that of pure PI. The hdC-G/PI composites also exhibit enhanced thermal stability and improved tensile strength without sacrificing the flexibility. This solvent-exchange approach can greatly enrich the applications of synergistic uses of CNTs and GO in composites and the hdC-G/PI composites with simultaneously high dielectric permittivity, low content of fillers, good mechanical and thermal performances can be good candidates for flexible electronics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T23:59:46Z
       
  • Pre-impregnated natural fibre-thermoplastic composite tape manufacture
           using a novel process
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): O.P.L. McGregor, M. Duhovic, A.A. Somashekar, D. Bhattacharyya
      Pre-impregnated flax and thermoplastic poly(amide) composite tapes have been produced using a novel process. The manufacturing method uses an impregnation unit with a siphon system to impregnate continuous flax yarns with the polymer in the form of a slurry. After water evaporation, the powder is sintered and the coated yarns are compressed by passing them through a pair of heated rollers. Using a parametric study of the process, tape quality has been assured using the key outcome criteria of tensile strength/stiffness, surface roughness, fibre weight fraction, width and thickness. The temperature of the air heater placed before the roller has the biggest influence on tape quality. A heating model was developed using finite element software LS-DYNA. The research novelty comes from producing composite tapes with good tensile properties and surface finish using aligned natural fibres; the feasibility of automated tape placement and winding has also been demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T23:59:46Z
       
  • Residual mechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics
           with thin-ply prepreg after simulated lightning strike
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Shinichiro Yamashita, Yoshiyasu Hirano, Takeo Sonehara, Jun Takahashi, Kazumasa Kawabe, Tetsuhiko Murakami
      This study experimentally examined the residual mechanical properties of a carbon-fibre/polyamide-6 laminate and randomly-oriented carbon-fibre strand (ROS) thermoplastic composites with thin-ply prepreg after a simulated lightning strike, and compared the results with those of a carbon-fibre/epoxy laminate fabricated from thick-ply prepreg. The damage was characterized by visual inspection, ultrasonic scanning, and optical microscopy. The residual mechanical properties were evaluated using a four-point flexural test. The flexural strength of the carbon-fibre/epoxy laminate was considerably reduced due to delamination, whereas the carbon-fibre/polyamide-6 laminate with a thin-ply prepreg exhibited improved retention of flexural properties. Lightning damage to ROS composites was spread over larger areas and depths, while being scattered and spotted, consistent with superior retention of flexural strength. Moreover, the flexural properties of intact and damaged ROS composites were improved by thin-ply prepreg. These results suggest that the application of thin-ply prepreg to thermoplastics affords composites with superior mechanical properties and lightning resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:03:44Z
       
  • Joining of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites and aluminium
           alloys – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): A. Pramanik, A.K. Basak, Y. Dong, P.K. Sarker, M.S. Uddin, G. Littlefair, A.R. Dixit, S. Chattopadhyaya
      This paper investigates comprehensive knowledge regarding joining CFRP and aluminium alloys in available literature in terms of available methods, bonding processing and mechanism and properties. The methods employed comprise the use of adhesive, self-piercing rivet, bolt, clinching and welding to join only CFRP and aluminium alloys. The non-thermal joining methods received great attention though the welding process has high potential in joining these materials. Except adhesive bonding and welding, other joining methods require the penetration of metallic pins through joining parts and therefore, surface preparation is unimportant. No model is found to predict the properties of jointed structures, which makes it difficult to select one over another in applications. The choice of bonding methods depends primarily on the specific applications. The load-bearing mechanism of bolted joints is predominantly the friction that is the first stage resistance. Hybrid joints performance is enhanced by combining rivets, clinch or bolts with adhesives.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Conductive thermoplastic polyurethane composites with tunable
           piezoresistivity by modulating the filler dimensionality for flexible
           strain sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Yanjun Zheng, Yilong Li, Kun Dai, Mengran Liu, Kangkang Zhou, Guoqiang Zheng, Chuntai Liu, Changyu Shen
      Conductive elastomer composites based strain sensors have attracted increasing attention recently. In this paper, flexible composites were prepared by incorporating thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with zero-dimensional carbon black (CB) and one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. CNTs/TPU showed a lower percolation threshold (0.28wt.%) and wider sensing range (0-ca.135% strain), compared with CB/TPU (1.00wt.% and 0-ca. 90% strain). CB/TPU composites exhibited a higher sensitivity with a GF of 10.8 under 20% strain, while CNTs/TPU showed a lower GF of 6.8. In cyclic loading-unloading test, both the two composites showed non-monotonic ‘shoulder peak’ behaviors. For CB/TPU, the ‘first peak’ was higher than the ‘second peak’; interestingly, CNTs/TPU presented a negative strain effect. The discrepancy was mainly ascribed to the difference of filler dimensionality and the evolution of the conductive network.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Fatigue modeling in composites with the thick level set interface method
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): M. Latifi, F.P. van der Meer, L.J. Sluys
      This paper presents a new discontinuous damage model for modeling fatigue crack growth in composites. This new fatigue model is formulated based on the thick level set interface approach which we developed recently. In this approach the thick level set (TLS) method is combined with interface elements for modeling delamination growth. Crack growth under cyclic loading is described with the Paris relation. In contrast with popular cohesive zone methods, this new approach provides an accurate non-local evaluation of the energy release rate as well as a framework in which the crack growth rate can be directly imposed. The proposed 3D mixed-mode model is validated against experimental and theoretical data.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Influence of specimen pre-shear and wrinkling on the accuracy of uniaxial
           bias extension test results
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): J. Alsayednoor, F. Lennard, W.R. Yu, P. Harrison
      The influence of unintended specimen pre-shear and out-of-plane wrinkling on the accuracy of shear angle and axial force results, measured during a uniaxial bias extension (UBE) test on engineering fabrics, is examined. Three techniques of measuring test kinematics are investigated, including manual image analysis, 2-D and 3-D full-field analysis. Error introduced by specimen pre-shear is shown to influence test results in different ways, depending on analysis technique. Procedures to take specimen pre-shear error into account when interpreting results are demonstrated, though an important recommendation resulting from this investigation is to minimise pre-shear as much as possible. Out-of-plane wrinkling is shown to create significant errors in kinematic data when using 2-D analysis methods (up to 20% overestimates of measured shear angle). It is shown that wrinkle-error can be corrected if 3-D stereoscopic analysis methods are employed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Modification of GO based on click reaction and its composite fibers with
           poly(vinyl alcohol)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Juan Li, Yao Cheng, Shiyu Zhang, Yajun Li, Jun Sun, Chuanxiang Qin, Jianjun Wang, Lixing Dai
      We present a novel approach to the functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) based on click reaction, in which GO was modified by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) via thiol-ene reaction in mild reacting conditions. The modified GO (mGO) was bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to get PVA grafted mGO (p-mGO) and the composite fibers of PVA and p-mGO were prepared using a wet-spinning process. Compared with PVA grafted GO (p-GO) without the process of click reaction, where PVA chains only distribute at the edge of GO, much more PVA chains are bonded on the surface of mGO. Therefore, p-mGO has better dispersibility in PVA than p-GO because of better interaction between p-mGO and PVA, resulting in much higher mechanical properties of PVA/p-mGO than PVA/p-GO. For example, the strength of PVA/p-mGO fiber is up to 908.93MPa, 57% higher than that of PVA/p-GO fiber at the same GO loading of 0.4wt%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Ternary hybrid nanoparticles of reduced graphene oxide/graphene-like
           MoS2/zirconia as lubricant additives for bismaleimide composites with
           improved mechanical and tribological properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Zhengyan Chen, Hongxia Yan, Qing Lyu, Song Niu, Cheng Tang
      To develop low friction coefficient and high wear resistance composites, the ternary hybrid nanoparticles consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), graphene-like MoS2 and ZrO2 with active amino groups (NH2-rGO/MoS2/ZrO2) were successfully prepared through a facile and effective one-pot hydrothermal method. Subsequently, the bismaleimide (BMI) composites with different weight fraction of fillers were fabricated to enhance the mechanical and tribological properties of BMI resin. The results demonstrate that the layers of MoS2 in the filler can significantly decrease and just a little content of fillers can remarkably improve the mechanical and tribological properties of BMI resin. In particular, the average friction coefficient and volume wear rate of the BMI composite containing 0.4wt.% NH2-rGO/MoS2/ZrO2 can reach the lowest value of 0.15 and 1.5×10−6 mm3/(N·m), respectively. The excellent friction-reducing and wear-resistance performances are mainly attributed to the good synergistic effect among the rGO nanosheets, graphene-like MoS2 and ZrO2.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • RGO/TPU composite with a segregated structure as thermal interface
           material
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): An Li, Cong Zhang, Yang-Fei Zhang
      Thermal management has become a serious problem with the development of electronics, where thermal interface material (TIM) is crucial for heat transfer from the device to heat sink. In this work, reduced graphene oxide/thermoplastic polyurethane (RGO/TPU) composites with a segregated structure were proposed and prepared by a simple method to obtain superior thermal conductive property and used as TIM. The microstructures and thermal properties of RGO/TPU composites were characterized, as well as heat transfer performance and thermal fatigue resistance. The obtained composite, at an ultralow graphene loading of 1.04wt.%, exhibits a high thermal conductivity (0.8Wm−1 K−1). Furthermore, the composite as a TIM presents a good performance in practical application and has a stable performance in the thermal cycling test.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Modification of basalt fibre using pyrolytic carbon coating for sensing
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Bin Hao, Theresa Förster, Edith Mäder, Peng-Cheng Ma
      This paper reported the modification of basalt fibre (BF) using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, aiming at enhancing the functionality of BF for sensing applications. Various techniques were used to characterize the surface, electrical and mechanical properties of fibres before and after CVD treatment. The results showed that a thin layer of pyrolytic carbon with a thickness of 15–30nm was deposited on the fibre surface, making the insulating fibres electrically conductive. Upon embedding a strand of these fibres into epoxy resin, the corresponding composites exhibited a piezoresistive effect with the highest gauge factor of 38.6 under the mechanical load. Analysis of the stress–strain curve along with the corresponding electrical resistance of the sample confirmed that BF with pyrolytic carbon coating could be used as both reinforcement and a sensor to monitor structural damage in composite structures.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • PvT-HADDOC: A multi-axial strain analyzer and cure monitoring device for
           thermoset composites characterization during manufacturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Mael Péron, Romain Cardinaud, Nicolas Lefèvre, Julien Aubril, Vincent Sobotka, Nicolas Boyard, Steven Le Corre
      Process-induced strains have an important role on the development of residual stresses and final dimensions of composite parts. It is of utmost importance to characterize them in order to optimize the process conditions. This paper is devoted to the presentation of a new device, which can measure the curing strains of thermosetting composite materials under process representative conditions (temperature and pressure up to 200°C and 1.0MPa, respectively). The sample strains are recorded along two directions (through-thickness and in-plane), and the degree of cure is estimated in the same time. The device has been thoroughly validated thanks to several tests, demonstrating its accuracy. Two specific materials were tested, i.e. a glass-vinylester SMC and a UD carbon-epoxy composite. The measured coefficients of thermal expansion and of chemical shrinkage are in excellent agreement with both theoretical and experimental values available in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Enhancing mechanisms of multi-layer graphenes to cementitious composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Baoguo Han, Qiaofeng Zheng, Shengwei Sun, Sufen Dong, Liqing Zhang, Xun Yu, Jinping Ou
      The mechanical property and underlying enhancing mechanisms of cementitious composites filled with multi-layer graphenes (MLGs) are investigated in this paper. Research results indicate that the addition of MLGs can achieve an enhancement of 54% in compressive strength and a reinforcement of 21% in flexural strength to cementitious composites, respectively. The strengthening effects can be attributed to extensive distribution network of MLGs inside matrix, decreasing ratio of water to cement and self-curing caused by water adsorption and release of MLGs, reducing primary cracks due to MLGs presence, strong bonding between MLGs and matrix, and lowering orientation index of calcium hydroxide crystal in hydration products of cementitious composites. It is therefore concluded that MLGs are effective nanoscale fillers for reinforcing cementitious composites.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Interlaminar toughening of woven fabric carbon/epoxy composite laminates
           using hybrid aramid/phenoxy interleaves
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Doris W.Y. Wong, Han Zhang, Emiliano Bilotti, Ton Peijs
      The influence of a hybrid interleaf system based on aramid and phenoxy fibres on the interlaminar toughness and damage tolerance of epoxy based carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates was studied. An interleaf consisting of a non-woven aramid mat was either used on its own or in combination with epoxy-dissolvable thermoplastic phenoxy fibres. These thermoplastic phenoxy fibres are miscible with the epoxy resin and phase separate upon curing to improve ductility and toughness. Tensile properties, Mode-I fracture toughness, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), as well as compression after impact (CAI) properties of the toughened CFRP laminates have all been characterized and analysed. Fractography was used to identify the toughening mechanisms in the CFRP laminates with different interleaf compositions. At the optimal interleaf composition, obvious synergic effects were found in terms of the overall mechanical performance of these hybrid composite laminates, including a near 150% increment in interlaminar fracture toughness in comparison to a reference CFRP laminate.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Shape memory behaviors in cylindrical shell PLA/TPU-cellulose nanofiber
           bio-nanocomposites: Analytical and experimental assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): Mohsen Barmouz, Amir Hossein Behravesh
      Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to assess shape memory behavior of Polylactic acid-thermoplastic polyurethane/cellulose-nanofiber bio-nanocomposites. Shape memory polymers were manufactured for experimental evaluation in cylindrical shell form. Subsequently, analytical assessment of shape memory behavior of thin sheet samples was accomplished based on the isothermal thermomechanical tests. Besides, evaluation of the acquired inclusive responses was performed for the cylindrical shell shape memory polymers, utilizing variance analysis. The results were indicative of dominant effect of programming temperature on force recovery ratio. Additionally, it showed that a higher force recovery can be attained at the higher weight ratios of cellulose-nonofiber and thermoplastic polyurethane. The analytical examination of the compounds with and without cellulose nanofibers correlates with the experimental results so that adding cellulose nanofibers to the polymeric matrix imposed notable promotion of stress recovery (over 40%) with a slight reduction in strain recovery.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
  • Permeability of carbon fibre PEEK composites for cryogenic storage tanks
           of future space launchers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Volume 101
      Author(s): M. Flanagan, D.M. Grogan, J. Goggins, S. Appel, K. Doyle, S.B. Leen, C.M. Ó Brádaigh
      This work presents an experimental investigation into the permeability of carbon fibre (CF) polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for cryogenic storage tanks for space applications. The effects of cryogenic cycling, manufacturing method, PEEK matrix type, fibre type, cryogenic temperatures, pressure, and thickness on the permeability of CF-PEEK laminates are investigated. Laminates are manufactured using autoclave, press and in-situ laser assisted automated tape placement (ATP) consolidation. Optical microscopy is used to characterise the microstructure of test samples. The results show that, for undamaged autoclaved CF-PEEK samples, the permeability remains essentially constant for the ranges of pressures and thicknesses tested. Samples manufactured using the ATP process and samples which were damaged by cryogenic cycling, had a higher leak rate than autoclaved and pressed samples. For cryogenically cycled samples, the leak rate was shown to be dependent on the damage state of the microstructure.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:39:30Z
       
 
 
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