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ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Composite Structures
  [SJR: 2.408]   [H-I: 92]   [254 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-8223
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Damage resistance of a co-cured composite wing box to low-velocity impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Zhefeng Yu, Jicheng Fang, Yan Chen, Hai Wang
      In this study, low-velocity impacts were applied to an aircraft wing box fabricated by co-curing its spar and skin. The impact points were located at the bay (type A), the T joint (type B), and the spar (type C). The contact force and the energy absorbed by the wing box were compared with those of a full-scale horizontal tail. The contact force of the latter was lower while the energy absorbed was greater. An analytical model is proposed to predict the delamination threshold load of type-B impact based on that of type A, which is effective for both the wing box and the horizontal tail. The static bending test was performed on another wing box after being impacted with 60J of energy at five locations. The strain responses around the impact point show the propagation of the delamination at the type-A point. The fracture occurred at the location near the fixture rather than at the type-A point. Therefore, the correct impact point should be located on the fracture line in order to investigate the influence of the impact damage on the residual strength of the wing box.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • Computational and experimental strain analysis of flexural bending of
           thick glass/epoxy laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): A. Gorjipoor, J.F. Simpson, R. Ganesan, S.V. Hoa
      This paper introduces a numerical model to predict strain in a thick glass/epoxy laminates subjected to flexural bending moment and bolt joint loads. The accuracy of the proposed model was verified by experimental tests using strain gages and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) methods. Higher specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them an appropriate substitute for aluminum and steel in the aerospace industry. The yoke of the helicopter is one of the recent applications of thick composite structures. The yoke connects the main rotor blade to the hub using bolt joints and it is manufactured as a thick glass/epoxy beam. Performing the experimental tests during the design process of the yoke is highly expensive and time-consuming. In this study, a finite element model was developed to predict the structural behavior of the yoke in the presence of flexural bending which is the main load in the real application. This model can be utilized in the design process of the yoke to reduce the number of the required iterative experiments. The results showed the agreement between strain distribution obtained from the finite element model and the experimental results from strain gages and Digital Image Correlation (DIC).

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • Behavior of laminated shell composite with imperfect contact between the
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): David Guinovart-Sanjuán, Raffaella Rizzoni, Reinaldo Rodríguez-Ramos, Raúl Guinovart-Díaz, Julián Bravo-Castillero, Ransés Alfonso-Rodríguez, Frederic Lebon, Serge Dumont, Igor Sevostianov, Federico J. Sabina
      The paper focuses on the calculation of the effective elastic properties of a laminated composite shell with imperfect contact between the layers. To achieve this goal, first the two-scale asymptotic homogenization method (AHM) is applied to derive the solutions for the local problems and to obtain the effective elastic properties of a two-layer spherical shell with imperfect contact between the layers. The results are compared with the numerical solution obtained by finite elements method (FEM). The limit case of a laminate shell composite with perfect contact at the interface is recovered. Second, the elastic properties of a spherical heterogeneous structure with isotropic periodic microstructure and imperfect contact is analyzed with the spherical assemblage model (SAM). The homogenized equilibrium equation for a spherical composite is solved using AHM and the results are compared with the exact analytical solution obtained with SAM.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • Bond interface design for single lap joints using polymeric additive
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): R. Garcia, P. Prabhakar
      In this paper, the use of polymer additive manufacturing technology, also called 3D printing, for imparting texture to bond regions in adhesively bonded joints is explored. An improvement in the apparent shear strength values of adhesively bonded single lap joints is achieved by fusing structural reinforcements to the adherents through fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive technique. Towards that, computational models were first developed to simulate stress distribution along the overlap region of single lap shear joints, and four models that performed the best were chosen for physical testing. Pure adhesive (PA) joints were manufactured first, followed by the fabrication of 3D-printed adhesive (3D-PA) joints. Peak loads, shear stresses, and failure types were compared between these models. PA joints failed mainly adhesively, resulting in low peak loads and shear strength, whereas, 3D-PA joints registered higher average peak loads and shear strengths (increased by up to ≈ 832 %) with predominantly cohesive failure. 3D printed reinforcements appear to have imparted higher shear resistance against failure at the bond regions. Overall, using a combined computational and experimental approach, it is established that the 3D printed reinforcements have the potential to drastically improve the apparent shear strength of adhesively bonded single lap joints.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • A modified Paris relation for fatigue delamination with fibre bridging in
           composite laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Liaojun Yao, Yi Sun, Licheng Guo, Meiying Zhao, Liyong Jia, R.C. Alderliesten, R. Benedictus
      The aim of present research is to determine fatigue delamination with fibre bridging in composite laminates. Both the Paris relation and the Hartman-Schijve equation were employed to explore fatigue delamination behavior. The use of the Paris relation can result in fatigue delamination growth being crack scale dependent. This dependence was significantly reduced in case of using the Hartman-Schijve relation in data reduction. This difference can lead to controversies on fatigue delamination behavior in composite laminates. To address this dispute, a new parameter, which was consistent with the hypothesis of similitude as well as damage mechanisms, was introduced to represent the similitude in fatigue delamination growth. A modified Paris relation based on this parameter was proposed and used to determine fatigue delamination. And a master resistance curve was obtained to determine fatigue delamination growth with different amounts of fibre bridging. Thus, fatigue delamination is crack scale independent, if the similitude is well characterized. And in the Paris region, the modified Paris relation can provide good predictions in fatigue delamination growth with fibre bridging.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • Experimental study on flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams
           subjected to different plate strengthening
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Rongxiong Gao, Qi Cao, Fangjie Hu, Zeyu Gao, Fengyang Li
      Plate bonding technology is one of the most commonly used methods for strengthening existing structural beams. In this study, the strengthening effect caused by different plate materials, preloading conditions, end anchorage conditions was investigated at the same specimen scale. A total of nineteen reinforced concrete (RC) beams including two unplated (control) beams, five carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plated (CP-) beams, six carbon fiber plated (CC-) beams and six steel plated (SP-) beams were tested under four point bending. Tested parameters also include preloading condition, U-hoop end anchorage on carbon fiber plated specimen, and bolt anchorage on steel plated specimens. Finite element analysis was conducted to simulate the flexural properties of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by abovementioned strengthening methods. Results indicate that, compared with unplated specimens, all strengthened specimens showed improved structural behavior with steel plated specimens performed the best among all. In the same time, it shows that the pre-unloaded specimen is superior to load sustained specimen in cracking resistance, strengthening material utilization and strain lag between reinforcing steel rebar and strengthening materials. U-hoop end anchorage does not show significant influence on structural performance of CC- specimens. On the other hand, bolt anchorage improves ultimate capacity of SP- specimens significantly.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:22:48Z
  • Thermal buckling response of laminated and sandwich plates using refined
           2-D models
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): R. Vescovini, M. D’Ottavio, L. Dozio, O. Polit
      This paper discusses the thermal buckling analysis of composite plates and sandwich panels by means of a Ritz-based variable-kinematic formulation. Main feature of the proposed formulation consists in the representation of the structure by means of sublaminates, i.e. arbitrary groups of plies composing the panel. Each sublaminate is associated with an independent, arbitrary kinematic description, so that the use of refined, high-order theories can be restricted to specific regions, such as the core of sandwich panels. Monolithic plates can be studied as a special case where the structure is modeled using only one sublaminate. Presented are the critical temperatures, with and without accounting for the nonlinear pre-buckling effects, for a set of monolithic and sandwich configurations. When pre-buckling effects are neglected, the problem is solved as a standard eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, the introduction of pre-buckling effects leads to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is solved with an iterative procedure. The results are validated against 3D solutions, and highlight the importance of accounting for pre-buckling deformations, especially in the case of sandwich panels. As demonstrated, high-fidelity predictions are obtained while keeping at minimum the amount of degrees of freedom.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Temperature-dependent thermal expansion behaviors of carbon fiber/epoxy
           plain woven composites: Experimental and numerical studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Kai Dong, Xiao Peng, Jiajin Zhang, Bohong Gu, Baozhong Sun
      Thermal expansion behaviors of carbon fiber/epoxy plain woven composites were experimentally and numerically studied in this paper. The thermal strains and linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of plain woven composites were measured by a classic dilatometer. Based on the periodical displacement and temperature boundary conditions, two-scale finite element models, i.e. the micro-scale and meso-scale representative volume elements (RVEs) were established to analyze the thermal expansion behaviors of carbon fiber yarns and plain woven composites, respectively. In addition, a neat epoxy resin (NER) model with the same geometrical shape as the filled epoxy resin (FER) was presented to compare their thermal expansion differences. From the results it could be found that the glass transition temperatures of epoxy resin and carbon fiber yarns had significant effects on the thermal expansion behaviors of plain woven composites. The interlacing network of yarns could effectively restrict the FER to make further thermal expansion. The special structure effects of plain woven composites led to nonuniform distributions of thermal stress/strain, which mainly showed that the regions with higher fiber volume fraction produced higher thermal stress/strain. The analyses methods this paper presented can be also used for thermal expansion researches of other complex structure composites.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Improved layer-wise optimization algorithm for the design of viscoelastic
           composite structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Komlan Akoussan, Mohamed Hamdaoui, El Mostafa Daya
      To combine lightness and rigidity in passive damping, elastic faces of visco-elastic sandwich structures are often made of laminates. These laminates are usually cross-ply, angle-ply, special orthotropic, anti-symmetric or balanced laminates which are commonly called classical laminates. In the design of visco-elastic sandwich structures, one often seeks to maximize the loss factor of the structure and its rigidity. To achieve this, computations are often made for several combinations of laminate fibers’ orientation angles. In this paper, the optimal design of composite laminates regarding the orientation angles is carried out by an improved layer-wise optimization algorithm (ILOA) by coupling a parametric non-linear eigenvalue problem resolution method (PANLER) with the so-called layer-wise optimization algorithm (LOA) to determine maximal frequencies and loss factors. The results are checked against a classical optimization algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Structural strength and laminate optimization of self-twisting composite
           hydrofoils using a Genetic Algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Manudha T. Herath, B. Gangadhara Prusty, Andrew W. Phillips, Nigel St. John
      This paper presents a novel optimisation scheme using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to produce a shape-adaptable composite hydrofoil. Importantly the scheme included additional constraints that ensure that the hydrofoils produced were able to be manufactured and have sufficient structural integrity to allow hydrodynamic testing in a cavitation tunnel. Hydrofoils optimised by this scheme were then manufactured using a closed mould Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) process. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) as well as static cantilever load tests was then performed on the hydrofoils to characterise their mechanical response. The EMA results showed that the hydrofoils could be produced with excellent reproducibility with differences in natural frequencies in the order of 1%. The static cantilever results showed the predicted shape change occurred under load and that the hydrofoils had sufficient strength to permit hydrodynamic testing. The results obtained were also used to validate the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approached used to predict the hydrofoils structural response.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • High temperature mechanical behaviors of lightweight ceramic corrugated
           core sandwich panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Kai Wei, Yong Peng, Zhaoliang Qu, Rujie He, Xiangmeng Cheng
      Lightweight design of high temperature ceramic is in urgent need, as their engineering application requires higher payload. Current approach to design lightweight ceramic is either porous ceramics or ceramic foams. Here, as a new approach, ZrO2 ceramic corrugated core sandwich panel is proposed for lightweight design. The high temperature mechanical behaviors are systematically obtained through experimental measurements, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Under room temperature and 1000°C, the compressive strength are as high as 11.8 and 8.5MPa, and the stiffness are 375.9 and 340.9MPa, which agree well with the analytical predictions. The specific bending strengths are 124.3MPa/(g/cm3) under room temperature and 114.6MPa/(g/cm3) under 1000°C, which are twice higher than that of the ZrO2 bulk ceramic. We reveal that with increasing temperature up to 1000°C, the critical relative density for the failure models under compression shows significant change, while the failure model boundaries under three point bending display small difference. Moreover, the finite element analysis reveals that distinguished stress peaks are as high as 748MPa in compression and 710MPa in bending. The peak stresses locate at the connections between the facesheets and core sheets, and illustrate the failure mechanism of the experimentally observed failure models.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Flexural analysis of laminated composite and sandwich beams using a
           four-unknown shear and normal deformation theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Thuc P. Vo, Huu-Tai Thai, Trung-Kien Nguyen, Domagoj Lanc, Armagan Karamanli
      This paper presents flexural analysis of composite and sandwich beams using a quasi-3D theory, which considers simultaneously three effects such as normal and shear deformation as well as anisotropy coupling. The axial and transverse displacements are assumed to be cubic and parabolic variation through the beam depth. In order to solve problem, two-node C1 beam elements with six degrees of freedom per node are developed. Numerical examples are carried out and the results are compared with those available in literature to validate the accuracy of the present theory. The effects of fibre angle, lay-up and span-to-height ratio on displacements and stresses are studied. Some new results, which can be useful for future references, are also given.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Curved shape memory alloy-based soft actuators and application to soft
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Hugo Rodrigue, Wei Wang, Dong-Ryul Kim, Sung-Hoon Ahn
      The performance of shape-memory alloy (SMA)-based soft actuators depends largely on the configuration of the cross-section of the actuator. A shape memory alloy-based curved bending actuator manufactured by double casting is introduced in this work. Curved actuators are capable of larger maximum bending angles with the same cross-section configuration as a straight actuator, and both the design method and the casting method proposed in this work are novel for this type of actuator. The effect of the initial bending angle due to the curvature of the actuator and of non-uniform initial curvatures on the maximum bending angle was tested. A model based on the thermoconstitutive model of SMA with a geometrical analysis of the deformation of the actuator was used to estimate the effect of the initial curvature on the maximum bending angle of the actuator. Finally, multiple curved actuators were implemented as a simple gripper and the lifting force of straight and curved actuators were compared, and the curved gripper has a lifting force nearly three times larger than the straight gripper. This type of concept can be used to tailor the force, deformed shape and maximum deformation of SMA actuators.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • The effect of the viscoelastic film and metallic skin on the dynamic
           properties of thin sandwich structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Leire Irazu, Maria Jesus Elejabarrieta
      In this work, the influence of design parameters on the dynamic properties of thin sandwich structures composed of micron-size viscoelastic adhesive layers is analysed. Sandwiches composed of different types of viscoelastic film and metallic skins are characterised in the frequency bandwidth of 0–1kHz. The numerical modelling of thin sandwich structures is presented and validated with experimental results. A four-parameter fractional derivative model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the viscoelastic films, and a three-layer beam element is used to model the sandwich structures. The analysis of experimental and numerical results allows the establishment of design considerations to obtain thin sandwich structures with high stiffness and damping. The viscoelastic adhesive film should have a high shear modulus and loss factor, and the metallic skin should have a high storage modulus.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Delamination onset in symmetric cross-ply laminates under static loads:
           Theory, numerics and experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Paolo Andrea Carraro, Elisa Novello, Marino Quaresimin, Michele Zappalorto
      In this paper, the delamination onset from transverse cracks in composite cross-ply laminates under static loadings is thoroughly investigated. Initially, an analytical solution is presented for the local mode I, II and III stress fields arising in the close neighbourhoods of a transverse crack, stresses being written as a function of Generalized Stress Intensity Factors (GSIFs). Then, a fracture criterion for the delamination onset in cross-ply laminates under tension, based on a critical value for the mode 1 GSIF, is proposed and validated taking advantage of the results from an experimental campaign carried out in the present work, as well as reconsidering some data taken from the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • AUXHEX – A Kirigami inspired zero Poisson’s ratio cellular
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Simone Del Broccolo, Susanna Laurenzi, Fabrizio Scarpa
      This work describes the development, manufacturing and testing of a zero Poisson’s ratio PEEK cellular structure (AuxHex) made using Kirigami-inspired techniques. The AuxHex hybrid cell pattern is a combination of cells with different shapes that interlock with each other. This principle can lead to graded honeycombs possessing, in different areas, synclastic as well as anticlastic behavior. The AuxHex samples produced have been tested for flatwise compression according to ASTM standards and the results are compared with a unit-cell-based analytical model. Hexagonal-cell shaped honeycombs were also produced with the same technique and used for direct comparison. The mechanical flatwise properties have been benchmarked against the ones of other experimental PEEK-based cores and commercially available honeycombs. AuxHex samples are found to have higher stiffness compared to other experimental PEEK honeycombs, but lower compared with the commercially available honeycombs. The strength thought, while it is still higher compared to the other experimental PEEK cores, it is comparable with other honeycomb configurations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Elastic constants for adhesively bonded corrugated core sandwich panels
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ye Yu, Wen-bin Hou, Ping Hu, Liang Ying, Ganiy Akhmet
      In this paper, the adhesively bonded corrugated core sandwich panel is introduced and its elastic properties are discussed. Due to the relative displacement and rotation between face and core plates in adhesive joints caused by adhesive layer distortion, traditional elastic constants with considering both face and core plates to be fastened to each other are no longer fit for adhesively bonded sandwich panels. Therefore, its elastic constants with effect of adhesive layer distortion have been derived and presented in this paper. By submitting these elastic constants into closed-form solution, the response of simply supported sandwich panel under uniform load with small deflection is calculated which agrees well with 3D FEM analysis. Lastly, with the elastic constants, the effects of adhesive layer thickness and its elastic modules on both transverse shear stiffnesses with different shapes and dimensions are further studied and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • A novel chiral three-dimensional material with negative Poisson’s ratio
           and the equivalent elastic parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ming-Hui Fu, Bin-Bin Zheng, Wei-Hua Li
      In this paper, a new kind of chiral three-dimensional honeycomb material was designed by orthogonal assembling based on chiral two-dimensional honeycomb with four ligaments. The analytical formulae of equivalent Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are deduced using the beam theory. The calculations of the analytical formulae can be well consistent with those of finite element method. The theoretical and numerical results show that the honeycomb material proposed in this paper is isotropic at the macroscopic scale and its Poisson’s ratio is close to −1, which means the material have larger ratio of shear modulus to Young’s modulus. Furthermore, the influence of geometries on the equivalent elastic parameters are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Multiscale stress analysis in CFRC using microscope image data of carbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): R.J.R. Graça, J.A. Rodrigues, M.A.R. Loja, P.M. Jorge
      Composite materials, are known as strong candidates to improve different kinds of structures. The micromechanical study of these materials is very important, because it may define the best composite characteristics to be used and/or predict more accurately its response. In the present work a multi-stage procedure comprising different fibre contour modelling strategies and a sequent hierarchic multiscale analysis is performed. With this study it is intended to achieve a more realistic characterization of the stresses maximum values for a set of case studies, through the use of fibre geometry data obtained from microscope images of carbon fibre laminated composites. The theoretical circular cross-section is also considered to enable a comparative study among the different situations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Evaluation of FRP-to-concrete anchored joints designed for FRP
           shear-strengthened RC T-beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ahmed Godat, Francesca Ceroni, Omar Chaallal, Marisa Pecce
      The objective of this paper is to evaluate the bond performance of different anchorage techniques that can in particular be used for fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) shear-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. The results of two different experimental programs are gathered and compared to highlight some common aspects. Overall, 25 bond tests on FRP-to-concrete joints with test setups that simulate the behavior of an anchored FRP shear-strengthened beam are examined. The anchorage techniques considered are mechanical anchors, FRP bars, longitudinal FRP plates, extensions to the underside of the flange, and carbon FRP (CFRP) ropes. The influence of concrete strength, plate width, bond length, and rope length on bond strength is investigated. Experimental results show that both bond strength and ductility are affected by the anchorage technique used. In light of the experimentally observed failure modes, some bond strength models provided in the literature and design standards are used to predict the maximum bond load of FRP-to-concrete joints and compared with experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Scale-dependent pull-in instability of functionally graded carbon
           nanotubes-reinforced piezoelectric tuning nano-actuator considering finite
           temperature and conductivity corrections of Casimir force
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): W.D. Yang, W.B. Kang, X. Wang
      A scale-dependent analytical model is presented to solve the nonlinear pull-in instability of functionally graded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced nano-actuator with piezoelectric layer considering high order-corrected electrostatic pressure and finite temperature and conductivity corrections of Casimir force. Based on Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory considering the long range forces among atoms, and geometrical nonlinearity, the electro-thermo-mechanical coupling governing equation of nano-actuator is derived, and solved by utilizing natural mode function and Galerkin’s decomposition method. The higher-order corrected model of electrostatic force with fringing field effect accounting for large gap and geometrical nonlinearity is employed. The results indicate that pull-in voltage decreases with increase of positive piezoelectric effect but increases with increment of negative piezoelectric effect. Pull-in voltage declines as the piezoelectric layer thickness of nano-actuator increases. Casimir force appears in more significant effect on the pull-in voltage of nano-actuator than that of van der Waals force, which shows that the analysis of nanoscale devices cannot neglect the influences of intermolecular forces within sub-micron separations. Finally, the coupling influences of van der Waals force and Capillary force on pull-in voltage are compared.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Effective yield limits of microstructured materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Rainer Glüge
      In a recent article, a closed-form expression of the effective yield limit under uniaxial loading has been given for elastoplastic laminates made of isotropic layers. It was suspected that this result may serve as a reference solution for more complex microstructures by subjecting it to orientation averaging. It turns out that this is possible, but not by interface orientation averaging. The yield limit is more affected by the long range order of the microstructure than by local interface orientations. Consequently, reasonable estimates may be obtained by identifying planes of easy shear band formation, and using these for orientation averaging. This is demonstrated by determining the yield limit of two different microstructures numerically, both with cubic symmetry but different interface orientation distributions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM)-inspired structural integrity monitoring
           and its applications to bolted composite joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Zhen Zhang, Hao Xu, Yaozhong Liao, Zhongqing Su, Yi Xiao
      Vibro-acoustic modulation (VAM) – one of the prevailing nonlinear methods for material characterization and structural damage evaluation – is based on the effect of modulation of a low-frequency vibration (pumping vibration) on a high-frequency acoustic wave (probing wave). In this study, the contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN), associated with changes in the solid-solid interface of a bolted joint under VAM, due to bolt loosening, is explored analytically and experimentally, on which basis a VAM-inspired approach is developed for monitoring structural integrity of bolted joints. Numerical simulation based on a theoretical model with structural nonlinear contact stiffness is implemented, to achieve insight into CAN induced by a loose bolt. A quantitative correlation between vibro-acoustic nonlinear distortion and degree of bolt loosening is ascertained. The developed approach is applied to detect bolt loosening in a composite bolted joint and to evaluate the residual torque of the loose bolt quantitatively. Take a step further, the VAM-based nonlinear approach is compared against an elastic wave-based linear method, underscoring a higher sensitivity to bolt loosening. From early awareness of bolt loosening to continuous evaluation of the bolt loosening progress, this VAM-based approach has provided a cost-effective framework for monitoring the health and integrity of a composite bolted joint.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:15:25Z
  • Re-entrant inclusions in cellular solids: From defects to reinforcements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Laura Zorzetto, Davide Ruffoni
      A contrast in Poisson ratio is a possible strategy to enhance the stiffness of composite structures. In solid materials Poisson ratio is hardly tailorable unless cellular architectures are considered. Here, we first investigated the effect of a single re-entrant inclusion acting as a defect into a regular (non-re-entrant) honeycomb lattice. Building on this, we generated regular patterns of re-entrant inclusions into a regular hexagonal cellular matrix and we characterized the apparent stiffness and Poisson ratio of the obtained structures. We also explored the role of the intrinsic material properties of the inclusion as well as of its closest environment on the interplay between the deformations of different phases in the lattice. Our main finding is that a small fraction of re-entrant inclusions (around 12%) is sufficient to generate a substantial augmentation in stiffness (300%) at constant overall relative density and without inducing strong anisotropy. Eventually, we fabricated by 3D polyjet printing bi-material composite architectures to demonstrate the superior mechanical behavior obtained exploiting the Poisson effect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Strength and ductility of innovative hybrid NSM reinforced and FRP
           confined short RC columns under axial compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): M. Chellapandian, S. Suriya Prakash, Akanshu Sharma
      Strengthening of concrete structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites has gained prominence in the recent years due to its various advantages. Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns are predominantly subjected to compression loading and often need strengthening to increase their strength and ductility. This paper explores an innovative hybrid strengthening technique where short RC square column elements are strengthened using both Near Surface Mounted (NSM) CFRP laminates and Externally Bonded (EB) CFRP fabrics for confinement. Ten square column elements of cross sectional dimension 230mm and height of 450mm were cast, strengthened and tested under pure axial compression to investigate the efficiency of different combinations of strengthening techniques. Existing constitutive models available from past literature were used to predict the behavior of FRP strengthened RC column elements. A close correlation was observed between the peak strength obtained from experimental and analytical values. Hybrid strengthening technique was found to be more efficient leading to higher increase in strength, stiffness and ductility as compared to only NSM strengthened or only CFRP confined RC columns.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Doublet analysis of changes in electric potential induced by delamination
           cracks in carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Takuya Yamane, Akira Todoroki
      The early detection of delamination cracks, which compromise the compressive strength of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates, is necessary to guarantee the integrity of CFRP structures. In this study, a simple analysis method for calculating the changes in the electric potential induced by delamination cracks in CFRP laminates is proposed for three-dimensional structures. First, a three-dimensional orthotropic doublet potential function is newly defined to simulate the delamination cracks. This function is then combined with a simple electric current analysis technique, specifically, the orthotropic electric potential function method. This novel method can be applied in a practical nondestructive detection technique to determine the location and size of delamination cracks. Comparison with results obtained using the commonly used finite-element method demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed simple analysis method for calculating changes in electric potential.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Buckling and postbuckling of elastoplastic FGM plates under inplane loads
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Guanghui Xu, Huaiwei Huang, Biao Chen, Feichao Chen
      Elastoplastic buckling behaviors of rectangular plates made from functionally graded materials (FGMs) are investigated in this paper. The elastoplastic material properties are assumed to vary smoothly through the thickness of the plates. The three dimensional material constitutive relation of FGMs is found by introducing the material homogenization method, named Tamura-Tomota-Ozawa(TTO) model, into J 2 deformation theory or J 2 flow theory. The uniform strain hypothesis helps to simplify the prebuckling state and derive the analytical expression of the position of the material elastoplastic interface. The buckling governing equations and the buckling critical condition of the structures are formulated under the framework of the classical plate theory. An iterative algorithm is designed to obtain the elastoplastic buckling critical load, a converging result between the prebuckling and the buckling critical internal forces. ABAQUS simulation well verifies the present theoretical predictions from J 2 flow theory, and is resorted to investigate the postbuckling behaviors of FGM plates. Discussions are addressed for the effects of the constituent distribution, the material plastic flow, the preloaded states of the plates, and the regions of buckling types are plotted as well.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Localization of impact on composite plates based on integrated wavelet
           transform and hybrid minimization algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Gang Zhao, Haixiao Hu, Shuxin Li, Lisheng Liu, Kun Li
      Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite material has been widely used in engineering structures due to its outstanding physical properties. However, the susceptibility to internal damage caused by the low-velocity impact event is a critical problem and monitoring of impact is essential for the integrity and reliability of CFRP structures. An integrated impact localization scheme is proposed and validated in this paper. The scheme is based on the arrival time obtained by wavelet transform (WT) analysis of signals received by dynamic strain gauges, triangulation localization technique together with a proposed hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) algorithm. The proposed localization scheme is validated by experimental testing of two CFRP plates with cross-ply [0/90]4s and symmetrical stacking [0/45/90/−45/0/90/−45/0]s respectively. The calculated impact locations are generally in agreement with the testing impact locations with acceptable accuracy for engineering application.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Bend-strength of novel filament wound shear reinforcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Saverio Spadea, John Orr, Kristin Ivanova
      The winding of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) tows around longitudinal reinforcing bars provides a novel method for the fabrication of reinforcement cages. Complex geometries of internal reinforcement can be fabricated using this technique, a particular advantage for the construction of optimised concrete beams. A key limitation on the contribution of FRP to the shear capacity of a concrete member is found at corners, where the presence of stress concentrations in different directions can lead to premature failure. A new test methodology was developed to allow for rapid testing of the samples as well as sample re-alignment during load application, reducing the effects of eccentricities and imperfections created during their fabrication. An experimental program, comprising 30 test samples, was undertaken to assess the bend capacity of filament wound FRP (W-FRP) shear links manufactured using a carbon tow impregnated with epoxy resin. A fixed bend radius of 5mm and six non-circular fibre cross sectional areas having different width-thickness ratios were considered. Additionally, 18 samples were tested to measure the tensile properties of the straight reinforcement. The test results indicate that W-FRP shear links exhibit improved bend strength as compared to conventional stirrups with circular sections (up to +53%), as a larger width-thickness ratio of the reinforcement provided more strength for a given cross sectional area. A good correlation between the test results and predictions of the W-FRP bend strength was observed when the specimens were modelled as a collection of transformed individual circular sections.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Elastic-plastic analysis of functionally graded bars under torsional
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): George C. Tsiatas, Nick G. Babouskos
      In this paper a new integral equation solution to the elastic-plastic problem of functionally graded bars under torsional loading is presented. The formulation is general in the sense that it can be applied to an arbitrary cross-section made of any type of elastoplastic material. In material science the Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a non-homogeneous composite which performs as a single-phase material, by unifying the best properties of its constituent phase material. The nonlinear elastic-plastic behavior is mathematically described by the deformation theory of plasticity. According to this theory, the material constants are assumed variable within the cross section, and are updated through an iterative process so as the equivalent stress and strain at each point coincide with the uniaxial material curve. In this investigation a new straightforward nonlinear procedure is introduced in the deformation theory of plasticity which simplifies the solution method. At each iteration step, the warping function is obtained by solving the torsion problem of a non-homogeneous isotropic bar using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in conjunction with the Analog Equation Method (AEM). Without restricting the generality, the FGM material is comprised of a ceramic phase and a metal phase. The ceramic is assumed to behave linearly elastic, whereas the metal is modeled as an elastic – linear hardening material. Furthermore, the TTO homogenization scheme for estimating the effective properties of the two-phase FGM was adopted. Several bars with various cross-sections and material types are analyzed, in order to validate the proposed model and exemplify its salient features. Moreover, useful conclusion are drawn from the elastic-plastic behavior of functionally graded bars under torsional loading.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • A nonlinear model for predicting intermediate crack-induced debonding in
           FRP-retrofitted beams in flexure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ahmed Mostafa, A.Ghani Razaqpur
      A nonlinear analytical model is presented and used to determine the interfacial shear and normal stresses at the FRP/concrete interface for RC beams externally strengthened with CFRP sheets. The computed stresses can be used to predict intermediate crack-induced debonding near the section of maximum moment. The model is based on composite beam theory with partial slip at the FRP-concrete interface permitted. Nonlinearity in the retrofitted beam is accounted for via consideration of the full moment-strain response of the unretrofitted beam. For model validation, the computed longitudinal strain along the laminate and the debonding load for a number of tested beams are compared with their corresponding experimental values. Furthermore, the shear and normal stresses distribution were also predicted. The theoretical predicted delamination load is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model yielded a reasonable theoretical load for beams with anchors and as predicted using ACI (08) method.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Failure mechanisms of a sandwich beam with an ATH/epoxy core under static
           and dynamic three-point bending
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): G. Morada, A. Vadean, R. Boukhili
      In this work, mechanical response of a new sandwich beam with a hybrid core composed of epoxy resin and Alumina trihydrate (ATH) was investigated. Interactions between the indentation mode and the core shear failure mode, as well as the role of face/core debonding were evaluated as part of the failure mechanism. A digital image correlation technique (DIC) was used to capture the sequence of failure and the strain field during quasi-static loading. In addition, an explicit nonlinear finite element model was developed to predict the evolution of damage in the sandwich face sheet and core. The model includes a viscoplastic-damage model to simulate the strain rate-dependent behavior of the core material. The numerical results were compared with the impact data to demonstrate the ability of the model to follow the evolution of damage from onset to catastrophic failure. It was found that shear failure in the core plays the main role in the final failure of sandwich beams. For an impact energy below 60J, indentation is the dominant failure mode, and its effect on the flexural response of the beam was demonstrated.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Multiple low-frequency broad band gaps generated by a phononic crystal of
           periodic circular cavity sandwich plates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Shan Jiang, Hao Chen, Longxiang Dai, Hongping Hu, Vincent Laude
      We propose a new type of phononic crystal (PnC) composed of a periodic alternation of circular cavity sandwich plates. In the low-frequency regime, the crystal can modulate the propagation of flexural waves. Governing equations are deduced basing on the classical theory of coupled extensional and flexural vibrations of plates. The dispersion relation of the infinite PnC is calculated by combining the transfer matrix method with Bloch theory. The dynamic response of the PnC with finite unit cells is further studied with finite element analysis. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the performance of the PnC in vibration isolation. Numerical results and experimental results both illustrate that the proposed PnC can generate several wide low-frequency Bragg band gaps providing strong attenuation. The dependence of band gaps upon geometric and material parameters is also analyzed in detail in view of vibration isolation applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Analysis of the effect of impact damage on the repairability of composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): N. Alzeanidi, H. Ghasemnejad
      The present paper aims to provide further understanding of the behaviour of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite panels under high velocity impact and develop design guideline for repair of damaged composite panels in order to increase the aircraft survivability. This work consists of two parts: part one is a combination of experimental investigation and numerical simulation to evaluate the impact of a woven CFRP laminate which were subjected to selected impact velocities (100m/s–500m/s) in order to evaluate the induced impact damage in two different thicknesses of CFRP composite panels (4.125mm and 2.625mm). In part two a finite element model is developed to design a guideline for repairing of a composite panel. In order to achieve this an optimised repair models with variable parameters such as number of steps and length of steps in the stepped lap joints are investigated. The penetration process and also change of kinetic energy absorption characteristics have been used to validate the finite element results. Finite element results were in close agreement with experimental data obtained from different sources.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T05:36:13Z
  • Analytical buckling model for slender FRP-reinforced concrete columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Thomas A. Hales, Chris P. Pantelides, Lawrence D. Reaveley
      Research is limited with respect to load-deflection behavior of slender concrete columns internally reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) spirals and longitudinal bars. An analytical buckling model based on numerical integration is presented to predict the load versus deflection performance of slender concrete columns reinforced with FRP spirals and longitudinal bars, subjected to eccentric loads. The model can be used to predict the behavior of slender concrete columns with various configurations including FRP and/or steel reinforcement, single or double spiral, and number of longitudinal bars. The longitudinal bars considered include steel, FRP, or hybrid reinforcement consisting of steel and FRP bars. The model is found to predict the experimental performance of slender concrete columns reinforced with Glass FRP longitudinal bars and spirals with satisfactory accuracy. The model is used to create interaction diagrams for FRP spiral-confined circular concrete columns with various slenderness ratios, reinforced with steel, FRP or hybrid reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Interlocking orthogrid: An efficient way to construct lightweight
           lattice-core sandwich composite structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Shu Jiang, Fangfang Sun, Xirui Zhang, Hualin Fan
      To construct weight efficient aerospace sandwich structures, interlocked orthogrid sandwich composite panels reinforced by carbon fibers were designed, made and tested. The orthogrid is weight efficient in flatwise compression for its strength is greater than usual three-dimensional (3D) lattice truss composite structures. Progressive crushing of the ribs endows the orthogrid long deformation plateau and great mean crushing force (MCF) while most of 3D lattice truss composite structures are usually brittle. Crushing models of lattice truss materials were developed to predict the MCF and it is found that the orthogrid composite has comparable or even better specific energy absorption (SEA) compared with 3D metallic lattice trusses. Forming continuous resin adhesive layers between the facesheets and the orthogrid, the orthogrid sandwich panel has stronger shear strength and is more weight efficient than usual 3D lattice truss sandwich panels jointed by adhesive joints in shear resistance. Through the research, it is concluded that interlocking orthogrid provides a simple but efficient way to construct lightweight sandwich composite.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Impact shear damage characterizations of 3D braided composite with X-ray
           micro-computed tomography and numerical methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Yuanyuan Li, Baozhong Sun, Bohong Gu
      This paper presents the impact shear fracture mechanisms of 3D braided composite observed from computed tomography (CT) and the comparisons with finite element analyses (FEA). The effects of braiding parameters on the damage modes have been analyzed from micro-CT and FEA. It revealed that there are multiple damage modes of fiber tows fracture, debonding, resin cracks and inter-yarn delaminations under impact shear loading. The failure mode mainly depends on the braiding structural parameters, which in return determines the energy absorption capacity. A meso-structure geometrical model based on braided preform structure was developed to calculate the stress distribution and to simulate the shear damage modes. The failure modes from FEA were compared with those obtained from the micro-CT. Both the micro-CT and FEA observations capture the impact shear damage morphologies and unveil the energy absorption mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Non-linear vibration and dynamic instability of
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Mehdi Darabi, Rajamohan Ganesan
      Internally-tapered composite plates are formed by terminating or dropping-off some of the plies in the laminates at pre-determined locations, which is an important method for stiffness tailoring and weight saving in these structures. In the present work, the dynamic instability of internally-thickness-tapered laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic in-plane loading is studied based on non-linear vibration analysis. The non-linear von Karman strains associated with large deflections and curvatures are considered. The in-plane displacements are determined from the two in-plane force-equilibrium equations of motion of non-linear large deflection tapered plate. Consequently, the in-plane force-resultants can be obtained from the in-plane displacements and further applying the boundary conditions. Then the general Galerkin method is used for the moment-equilibrium equation of motion to satisfy spatial dependence in the partial differential equation of motion to produce a set of non-linear Mathieu-Hill equations. These equations are ordinary differential equations, with time-dependency. By applying the Bolotin’s method to these equations, the dynamically-unstable regions, stable-, and unstable-solutions amplitudes of the steady-state vibrations are obtained. The non-linear dynamic stability characteristics of symmetric cross-ply laminates with different taper configurations are examined. A comprehensive parametric study is carried out to examine and compare the effects of the taper angles, magnitudes of both tensile and compressive in-plane loads, aspect ratios of the tapered plate including length-to-width and length-to-average-thickness ratios on the instability regions and the parametric resonance particularly the steady-state vibrations amplitude. For linear vibrations, the present results show good agreement with that available in the literature which were obtained based on linear analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Nonlinear indirect identification method for cement composite-to-concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Maciej Wozniak, Tine Tysmans, Svetlana Verbruggen, John Vantomme
      In the application of cement composites as Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) for concrete structures, debonding is reported to be a common and undesired failure mode. This paper presents an indirect bond identification method that incorporates the nonlinear material behaviour of cement composites. The extended nonlinear indirect method is compared with a linear method by means of virtual and laboratory experiments. The virtual experiments allow omitting measurement scatter and hence quantify the error inherent to the theoretical assumptions. The laboratory experiments validate the use of the indirect method on real slip measurements. The results show that incorporating the cement composite’s nonlinear secant modulus as a function of the occurring strain is essential to accurately determine the cement composite – concrete bond from experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Influence of geometrical and installation parameters on performance of
           CFRP anchors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Paula Villanueva Llauradó, Jaime Fernández-Gómez, Francisco J. González Ramos
      This paper presents an experimental study of the geometrical and installation parameters affecting the maximum strength, failure mode and load-slip response of FRP anchors. In this study, single-shear tests were conducted on isolated carbon fibre ropes embedded in concrete to identify the variables that have a greater influence on the capacity of FRP anchors. Special attention was paid to variables influencing the stress concentration in the bending region. The parameters under evaluation included fabrication and installation method, embedment length, smoothing of the hole edge, hole diameter and dowel angle. The results demonstrate that increasing the embedment length leads to a proportional increase of maximum stress. Dowel angle and smoothing techniques can be combined to improve the anchor’s performance, as it was observed that both parameters reduce stress concentration and therefore enable higher bend strength.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Mechanical behavior of natural fiber-based isogrid lattice cylinder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Meirong Hao, Yingcheng Hu, Bing Wang, Shuo Liu
      This paper explores the compression behavior of eco-friendly natural fiber-based isogrid lattice cylinder made of pineapple leaf fibers and phenol formaldehyde resin matrix. The filament winding method and an appropriate curing system was used to prepare specimens. The mechanical behavior of the structure was determined by axial compressive test. The interfacial adhesions between pineapple leaf fibers and phenol formaldehyde resin contain physical and chemical bonding by analyzing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. For the lattice cylinder, corresponding theoretical and finite element models were proposed to simulate the mechanical properties. Compared with the measured values, the predicted values for the theory and the finite element method were approximately 77–96% of the values of the experimental data. The failure forms of lattice cylinders focus on delamination and fracture of circular rib segments adjacent to the crossover, in agreement with the analytical position of shear failure based on the finite element method, indicating the validity of the predicted model. After that, an orthogonal test was designed to explore the impacts of structural parameters on the mechanical behavior of the lattice cylinder. The results indicated that the main influence factor of special load and stiffness is the number of equal divisions of the circumference. The lattice cylinder can be treated as a truss core combined with skins to manufacture a hierarchical sandwich structure, for use in the construction of some parts of buildings, like the floor.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Confinement of ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Hyun-Oh Shin, Kyung-Hwan Min, Denis Mitchell
      This study investigates the axial load response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) columns with compressive strengths of 163 and 181MPa (design strengths of 150 and 180MPa). The UHPFRC used in this study had 1.5% of hybrid micro-steel fibers (1.0% of 19.5mm fibers and 0.5% of 16.3mm fibers) and did not contain coarse aggregate. A total of nine UHPFRC columns confined by transverse reinforcement with volumetric ratios of 0.9–9.9% and two different configurations (Types A and C) were tested under pure axial load to investigate the influence of these variables. The overall behavior of the UHPFRC columns was compared with the response of similar strength ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC) columns having coarse aggregate. Test results showed a pronounced effect of the volumetric ratio of the transverse reinforcement on the confinement. Hybrid micro-steel fibers controlled brittle cover spalling very well and assisted the transverse confinement reinforcement after the peak load. Applicability of the confinement reinforcement equations in the current seismic design provisions for developing ductile behavior of the UHPFRC columns was investigated. The analytical study examined the ability of the existing high-strength concrete (HSC) confinement models for predicting the axial load response of the UHPFRC columns, and a prediction model that accounts for the effects of steel fibers and the stress-strain relationship of UHPFRC is proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Isogeometric analysis of laminated composite and functionally graded
           sandwich plates based on a layerwise displacement theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ning Liu, Ann E. Jeffers
      A multi-layered shell formulation is developed based on a layerwise deformation theory (Reddy, 2004) within the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). IGA utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) to represent the geometry as well as to describe the field variables (Hughes et al., 2005). The high-order smoothness of NURBS offered the opportunity of capturing the structural deformation efficiently in a rotation-free manner. The derivation also follows a layerwise theory, which assumes a separate displacement field expansion within each layer, and considers transverse displacement component as C 0-continuous at layer interfaces, thus resulting in a layerwise continuous transverse strain states. Since the in-plane and through-thickness integrations are carried out individually, this approach is capable of capturing the complete three-dimensional stress states in a two-dimensional setting, which improves the computational efficiency. A knot insertion technique is utilized for the discretization in the through-thickness direction, and C 0-continuity is enforced by means of knot repetition at dissimilar material interfaces. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated using multiple laminated composites and sandwich plates (including functionally graded material core) as examples. Numerical results prove the accuracy of the proposed formulation and show that the isogeometric layerwise shell is superior to its finite element counterpart.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Finite element modelling and model updating of small scale composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): P.J. Maljaars, M.L. Kaminski, J.H. den Besten
      The application of composite materials in marine propellers is a relatively recent innovation. Methods have been presented to analyse the hydro-elastic behaviour of these type of propellers and in some studies these methods have been validated as well. Differences between measured and predicted responses are typically explained from inaccuracies in structural or fluid modelling. It is beyond all doubt that for an accurate finite element (FE) model a correct modelling of the fibre orientations and material properties is required. Both subjects are addressed in this work. An approach is presented in order to accurately define the element dependent fibre orientations in doubly curved geometries like (marine) propeller blades. In order to improve the structural response prediction this paper presents an inverse method based on experimental and numerical results which can be used for structural identification and FE model updating. In the developed approach the residual between measurement results obtained with static experiments and results obtained with an FE model is minimized by adapting the stiffness properties in the FE calculation. This method has been successfully applied to two small scale composite propellers. The obtained material properties have been determined with a relatively high confidence level. A verification by means of measured and calculated eigenfrequencies show also that accurate results are obtained with the inverse method. Therefore, this paper gives a positive answer on the research question whether it is possible to determine the stiffness properties of small scale composite marine propeller blades from a static experimental data.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • An anisotropic elastoplastic damage constitutive model for 3D needled
           C/C-SiC composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Junbo Xie, Guodong Fang, Zhen Chen, Jun Liang
      This paper established a combined elastoplastic damage model to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior of 3D needled C/C-SiC composites. Inelastic deformation and stiffness degradation of the composite were characterized by the plasticity and damage theories. An innovative plastic potential function containing variable parameters was proposed to consider particularly the anisotropy of plastic deformation in each material direction. Based on the Weibull statistical distribution of the material strength, an exponential damage state function was established to characterize stiffness degradation for the composite in each material direction. Parameters of this constitutive model were determined from experiments data. It can be found that the nonlinear stress-strain curves for the composite under off-axis tensile and shear loadings can be accurately described by the model. The yield and damage surfaces of the composite were also studied. Finally, the constitutive model was validated by analyzing the mechanical behavior of a composite plate containing a center-hole subjected to tensile load.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Nondestructive identification of composite beams damage based on the
           curvature mode difference
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Meihong He, Tao Yang, Yu Du
      The nondestructive identification method for composite beams damage was explored based on the curvature mode difference (CMD). By combining hammer experiment tests with finite element simulation, modal analysis were performed on intact and damaged composite beams with single, multiple or different degree of damage, respectively. The first three-order modal parameters were obtained by using dynamic signal test system and finite element software ANSYS. From the obtained mode shapes, the CMD were calculated by the central difference operation to identify the damage in composite beams. Experimental and simulation results revealed that damage in the composite beams would cause mutation of CMD. The presence, location and size of damage, as well as the multiple damage can be accurately detected by the mutation position. In addition, when the number of delamination at the same damage location was increased from 1 to 3, the CMD of damage unit obtained from the finite element simulation results were increased from 5.45 to 54.63, with the corresponding experimental results increased from 3.79 to 40.54, which were significantly higher than those from the undamaged units. It can be concluded that the CMD can be used to quantitatively determine the damage degree at the same damage location.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • Monitoring the gelation and effective chemical shrinkage of composite
           curing process with a novel FBG approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Haixiao Hu, Shuxin Li, Jihui Wang, Lei Zu, Dongfeng Cao, Yucheng Zhong
      Chemical shrinkage and gelation are critical issues in curing process of composite structures since they have significant influence on generation of distortion or residual stress. In this paper, a new in-situ method to capture the gel point and to measure the effective transverse chemical shrinkage was presented. A tailed FBG (Fiber Bragg Grate) set consists of several FBG sensors with various tail lengths was embedded perpendicular to the fiber direction to monitor the curing process. Gel point was determined with the aid of profile turning point of the FBG set and the results matched well with DMA test. The effective transverse chemical shrinkage which occurs between gelation and vitrification was obtained and compared with the one determined by TMA or bi-material strip test. Both results were used to predict the spring-in of C-specimen manufactured on CFRP tube. It turns out that accurate prediction of spring-in can be obtained with the effective transverse chemical shrinkage determined by tailed FBG set. The in-situ monitoring method with tailed FBG set is an alternative and promising technology to capture the gel point and to reveal the mechanism of curing distortion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T02:56:54Z
  • A new way for revealing the damage evolution of impacted CFRP laminate
           under compression-compression fatigue load based on thermographic images
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Yin Li, Wei Zhang, An-bo Ming, Zheng-wei Yang, Gan Tian
      A new way is proposed in this work to reveal the damage evolution law of impacted carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate under compression-compression fatigue load based on thermographic images. Firstly, several specimens are began with impact testing with different energies, followed by compression-compression fatigue testing with different load amplitudes and monitored by infrared camera. Then, the thermographic images gathered by infrared camera are analyzed. Finally, the damage area is introduced to quantitatively reveal the damage evolution law of these impacted specimens. The obtained results show that combining appropriate image processing methods, the damage area can be used as an effective damage index to quantitatively reveal damage evolution law of impacted CFRP laminate under compression-compression fatigue load with excellent accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Mechanical properties of periodic interpenetrating phase composites with
           novel architected microstructures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Oraib Al-Ketan, Mhd Adel Assad, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub
      In this work, we investigate the mechanical properties of novel types of 3D printed interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) with periodic architectures. IPCs are composites with co-continuous phases that interpenetrate each other in such a way that if one of the phases is removed the remaining phase will form a self-supporting cellular structure. The topology of the architected phase is based on the mathematically-known triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that minimize the effects of stress concentrations and provide better reinforcement. Here, computer added design (CAD) is employed to design the TPMS-based IPCs, then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate polymer-polymer two-phase IPCs using Polyjet 3D printing technology. The mechanical behavior of these printed IPCs is investigated under uniaxial compression. Results show that while the hard phase endures a larger fraction of the load, the softer phase confine cracks and prevent catastrophic failure. The IPCs follow a bending-dominated deformation behavior and are potential candidates for applications were damage toleration and vibration damping is a requirement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Development of a novel prestressing anchor for CFRP plates: Experimental
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Faizul M. Mohee, Adil Al-Mayah, Alan Plumtree
      Owing to high tensile strength, corrosion resistance and low weight, prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) plates have rapidly increasing applications in bridges, tall buildings, tunnels, high-speed trains, automotive, aviation, satellite and shipbuilding industries. This article illustrates the design of an innovative prestressing anchor for the popular 50mm wide and 1.2mm thick CFRP plates. This novel mechanical anchor can grip and prestress the CFRP plate to its full tensile capacity of 168kN without any premature failure. This article focuses on the experimental investigation of prototypes of the new anchor, the experimental setup and the experimental results of twenty-two static tension tests. The new anchor was optimized through a sequential testing program for different design parameters. The average failure load of the new anchor was 187±6kN. The failure mode of the anchor was the tensile rupture of the CFRP plate at its free length outside of the anchor. This innovative post-tensioning anchor will be used to rehabilitate and retrofit reinforced concrete structures by flexural strengthening of the structures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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