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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
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Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
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Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
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Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Composite Structures
  [SJR: 2.408]   [H-I: 92]   [252 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-8223
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A new way for revealing the damage evolution of impacted CFRP laminate
           under compression-compression fatigue load based on thermographic images
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Yin Li, Wei Zhang, An-bo Ming, Zheng-wei Yang, Gan Tian
      A new way is proposed in this work to reveal the damage evolution law of impacted carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate under compression-compression fatigue load based on thermographic images. Firstly, several specimens are began with impact testing with different energies, followed by compression-compression fatigue testing with different load amplitudes and monitored by infrared camera. Then, the thermographic images gathered by infrared camera are analyzed. Finally, the damage area is introduced to quantitatively reveal the damage evolution law of these impacted specimens. The obtained results show that combining appropriate image processing methods, the damage area can be used as an effective damage index to quantitatively reveal damage evolution law of impacted CFRP laminate under compression-compression fatigue load with excellent accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Mechanical properties of periodic interpenetrating phase composites with
           novel architected microstructures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Oraib Al-Ketan, Mhd Adel Assad, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub
      In this work, we investigate the mechanical properties of novel types of 3D printed interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) with periodic architectures. IPCs are composites with co-continuous phases that interpenetrate each other in such a way that if one of the phases is removed the remaining phase will form a self-supporting cellular structure. The topology of the architected phase is based on the mathematically-known triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that minimize the effects of stress concentrations and provide better reinforcement. Here, computer added design (CAD) is employed to design the TPMS-based IPCs, then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate polymer-polymer two-phase IPCs using Polyjet 3D printing technology. The mechanical behavior of these printed IPCs is investigated under uniaxial compression. Results show that while the hard phase endures a larger fraction of the load, the softer phase confine cracks and prevent catastrophic failure. The IPCs follow a bending-dominated deformation behavior and are potential candidates for applications were damage toleration and vibration damping is a requirement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Development of a novel prestressing anchor for CFRP plates: Experimental
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 176
      Author(s): Faizul M. Mohee, Adil Al-Mayah, Alan Plumtree
      Owing to high tensile strength, corrosion resistance and low weight, prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) plates have rapidly increasing applications in bridges, tall buildings, tunnels, high-speed trains, automotive, aviation, satellite and shipbuilding industries. This article illustrates the design of an innovative prestressing anchor for the popular 50mm wide and 1.2mm thick CFRP plates. This novel mechanical anchor can grip and prestress the CFRP plate to its full tensile capacity of 168kN without any premature failure. This article focuses on the experimental investigation of prototypes of the new anchor, the experimental setup and the experimental results of twenty-two static tension tests. The new anchor was optimized through a sequential testing program for different design parameters. The average failure load of the new anchor was 187±6kN. The failure mode of the anchor was the tensile rupture of the CFRP plate at its free length outside of the anchor. This innovative post-tensioning anchor will be used to rehabilitate and retrofit reinforced concrete structures by flexural strengthening of the structures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • The effect of node bond adhesive fillet on uniaxial in-plane responses of
           hexagonal honeycomb core
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): S.R. Keshavanarayana, H. Shahverdi, A. Kothare, C. Yang, J. Bingenheimer
      In the present work, experimental and numerical studies were conducted on the in-plane uniaxial behavior of a fiberglass/phenolic honeycomb core to investigate the effects of the node bond adhesive fillet. A non-linear finite element model (FEM) with large displacements of the repetitive unit cell of the hexagonal cell honeycomb core is employed to study the in-plane behavior numerically. The model was used to conduct a parametric study on the effects of the adhesive fillet and its geometry. To validate the numerical model, a series of in-plane quasi-static tensile and compressive tests was carried out. Numerical analysis showed that increased node bond adhesive fillet size significantly induces higher tangent stiffness of the honeycomb core. Good agreement was observed between the model predictions and test results. Analytical models from the literature without adhesive or adhesive fillet were also used for comparison.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Influence of initial biomechanical environment provided by fibrous
           composite intramedullary nails on bone fracture healing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Ali Mehboob, Hassan Mehboob, Jinha Kim, Seung-Hwan Chang, Faris Tarlochan
      Long bone fractures are primarily treated with internal fixation devices, and intramedullary (IM) nails are the most commonly used. Reamed and unreamed surgical procedures are commonly used to attach IM nails to fractured bones. It is believed that the use of flexible composites contributes to successful fracture healing because of the desirable initial interfragmentary movement (IFM) provided by the material. This finite element study was conducted to understand the influence of initial IFM on the healing process by using various IM nail materials (stainless steel, carbon/epoxy composites (WSN3k [0]2nT, WSN3k [±30]nT) and glass/polyprophylene (Twintex [0]2nT) composite). Reamed and unreamed IM nails were used to investigate the effects of mesenchymal cell activities, deviatoric strain, and body fluid flow in calluses on bone healing. The results showed that unreamed IM nails promoted healing because of a 40% increase in initial cells supplied to the central callus, compared to reamed nails. The most suitable initial interfragmentary strains (IFS) (18.3% and 6.85%, reamed and unreamed) were provided by the flexible Twintex [0]2nT IM nail and this induced 38% and 40.33% healing performances by the reamed and unreamed IM nails, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T00:48:32Z
  • Phenomenological approach to the study of hierarchical damage mechanisms
           in composite materials subjected to fatigue loadings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Alberto D'Amore, Luigi Grassia
      In this paper it is shown that the strength degradation of fiber reinforced composites subjected to constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loadings can be described by three distinct functions derived from a recently developed two-parameter residual strength model and associated with the sequence of damage mechanisms. Despite the phenomenological prerogative of the model, from the analytical approach it results that under moderate loadings the multiple damage mechanisms develop with different kinetics and manifest their effectiveness at different time scales, accordingly. This highlights the three-Stage hierarchical nature of damage accumulation in composites, from diffuse matrix cracking (I), to fiber/matrix interface failure (II) to fiber and ply rupture and delamination (III). It is also shown that by increasing the loading severity the timescales become comparable witnessing the simultaneous co-existence of the different damage mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Experimental and theoretical investigations on lateral crushing of
           aluminum foam-filled circular tubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Zhifang Liu, Zhichao Huang, Qinghua Qin
      Mechanical response and energy absorption of aluminum foam-filled and empty circular tubes with different geometries were investigated experimentally and theoretically. All specimens including foam-filled circular and empty circular tubes were compressed laterally by two rigid plates. Effects of the geometrical characteristics of specimens and densities of aluminum foam on deformation and energy absorption of the foam-filled and empty circular tubes were considered. Experimental results show that the presence of aluminum foam filled in the circular tubes changes the deformation modes and increases the energy absorption of the foam-filled circular tubes. An analytical model for the plastic deformation of the foam-filled circular tubes under the lateral loading was proposed. The relations of lateral loading and energy absorption of the foam-filled circular tubes were obtained. Comparisons between the analytical predictions and the experimental results were performed and good agreement was achieved.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Three-dimensional micromechanical modeling of concrete degradation under
           multiphysics fields
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Tongyan Pan, Chi Chen, Qifeng Yu
      Concrete is a typical composite material including multiple phases. Concrete however is commonly treated as a homogeneous material in structural designs for the calculation of stress and strain. Moreover, concrete structures in service are subject to various mechanical and environmental loads. In design practices, these loads are handled separately without considering their interactions that could cause accelerated material degradation and unsafe designs. This work presents a finite element method (FEM) based model developed for studying concrete degradation by the synergistic interactions of applied mechanical and environmental loads with due consideration of the 3D microstructure of concrete that is reconstructed using the X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique. The degradation of a roadway concrete slab was simulated using the developed model. The results show that the microstructure of concrete matrix plays an important role in the distributions of stress and strain in concrete and that the effects of moisture and temperature in concrete are significant comparing to the effect of wheel load. This 3D microstructural multiphysics model can be used for design and non-destructive assessment of concrete structures of special shapes and needs, e.g., nuclear reactor vessels, which have high complexity and require high accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Exact solutions for free vibration analysis of laminated, box and sandwich
           beams by refined layer-wise theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Yang Yan, Alfonso Pagani, Erasmo Carrera
      The present work addresses a closed-form solution for the free vibration analysis of simply supported composite laminated beams via a refined one-dimensional (1D) model, which employs the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). In the framework of CUF, the 3D displacement field can be expanded as any order of generic unknown variables over the cross section, in the case of beam theories. Particularly, Lagrange expansions of cross-sectional displacement variables in conjunction with layer-wise (LW) theory are adopted in this analysis, which makes it possible to refine the kinematic fields of complex cross section by arbitrary order and accuracy. As a consequence, the governing equations can be derived using the principle of virtual work in a unified form and can be solved by a Navier-type, closed-form solution. Numerical investigations are carried out to test the performance of this novel method, including composite and sandwich beams ranging from simple to complex configurations of the cross section. The results are compared with those available in the literature as well as the 3D finite element method (FEM) solutions computed by commercial codes. The present CUF model is proved to be able of achieving high accurate results with less computational costs. Besides, they may serve as benchmarks for future assessments in this field.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Bending behavior of sandwich composite structures with tunable 3D-printed
           core materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Tiantian Li, Lifeng Wang
      We combine 3D printing technique, numerical analysis, and experiments to design a new class of sandwich composites that exhibit various bending behaviors. These programmed sandwich structures contain 3D printed core materials with truss, conventional honeycomb, and re-entrant honeycomb topologies. Three-point bending tests are performed to investigate the bending behavior of these sandwich composites with two types of carbon fiber reinforced polymer face sheets. Under bending deformation, sandwich composites with truss core materials provide highest flexural stiffness and strength that are desirable in structural components. The sandwich composites with re-entrant honeycomb core exhibit a sequential snap-through instability which significantly enhances the energy absorption abilities. Our experimental and numerical results indicate that architected core structures can be utilized to tailor the bending properties as well as failure mechanisms. These findings offer new insights into the study of nonlinear mechanical response of sandwich structures, which can benefit a wide range of industries and applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • On crushing characteristics of different configurations of
           metal-composites hybrid tubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Guohua Zhu, Guangyong Sun, Qiang Liu, Guangyao Li, Qing Li
      Metal/composites hybrid structures, which combine low-density composites with low-cost metallic materials, are gaining increasing attention for meeting higher and higher requirements of lightweighting and crashworthiness in automotive and aerospace engineering. This study explores the crushing characteristics involving energy absorption and damage behaviors of three different configurations of hybrid aluminum/CFRP under quasi-static axial loading. For a comparative purpose, empty aluminum tube and CFRP tube were tested as well. Based on the experimental results, effects of different configurations on crashworthiness characteristics were studied; and it was found that the hybrid tube H-I (i.e. the aluminum tube internally filled with a CFRP tube) offers the best results. Finally, the advantages of hybrid tube H-I were further investigated from the perspectives of cost and lightweight by using the analytical models derived. It was found that for the same energy absorption, hybrid tube H-I saves the cost by 32.1% compared with the pure CFRP tube, and leads to the weight saving of 33.6% compared with the pure aluminum tube. Such a hybrid structure would be of considerable potential to be used as an efficient energy absorber.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • A general exact elastic shell solution for bending analysis of
           functionally graded structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Salvatore Brischetto
      This new work proposes a three-dimensional (3D) exact shell model for the static analysis of simply-supported structures embedding Functionally Graded Material (FGM) layers when they are subjected to harmonic transverse normal loads. Results are proposed in terms of displacement and stress amplitudes through the thickness direction. One-layered FGM plates and cylinders, and sandwich cylindrical and spherical shell panels embedding an internal FGM core and external classical skins have been analyzed. Proposed results give a complete 3D description of FGM structures in terms of displacement and stress states. Such results can be used to validate new refined 2D shell models proposed in numerical or analytical form. Different geometries, lamination schemes, thickness ratios, materials and FGM laws through the thickness have been analyzed in order to have a general overview of the problem. The proposed 3D shell model uses the spherical 3D equilibrium equations developed in general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These equations automatically degenerate in those for cylindrical and plate structures via opportune considerations made about the radii of curvature. Equilibrium equations are solved in closed form considering simply supported boundary conditions and harmonic applied loads. The exponential matrix method has been employed to solve the second order partial differential equations in z. These equations have constant coefficients because of the introduction of opportune mathematical layers for the FGM description and for the curvature evaluation. A layer-wise approach has been identified with the direct imposition in the 3D shell model of equilibrium conditions for transverse stresses and compatibility conditions for displacements.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Flexural stress and crack sensing capabilities of MWNT/cement composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Faizan Naeem, H.K. Lee, H.K. Kim, I.W. Nam
      The flexural stress/crack sensing capabilities of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/cement composite sensors were investigated in this study. The electrical/mechanical characteristics of the composites were explored with respect to the MWNT contents, prior to evaluating the sensing capabilities of the composites. A dramatic increase (over three orders) in the electrical conductivity, compressive and flexural strength (36% and 18%) were observed in the composite specimens. The sensing capabilities of the composites were evaluated by monitoring the electrical resistance change of the composites under loading. The composites subjected to flexural stress showed higher sensing capability as the MWNT content was increased. Both stress and crack sensing capability were enhanced with the increase of MWNT content. In addition, the examination demonstrated that an embedment of MWNT content of 0.6wt% resulted in the best sensing capabilities. Lastly, the composites were embedded in two different locations of reinforced mortar beams for in-situ monitoring of electrical resistance. A dramatic change in the resistance of the composites were accompanied at failure of the mortar, regardless of the sensor location. The obtained result may have implications for the use of the composites as a stress/crack sensor in cement-based composite structures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Bilinear elastic characteristic of enhanced auxetic honeycombs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 175
      Author(s): Ming-Hui Fu, Yu Chen, Ling-Ling Hu
      Auxetic materials exhibit many superior properties but drawback in low stiffness owe to the substantial porosity. Some narrow-ribs enhanced auxetic honeycombs have been designed for improving the in-plane stiffness. For these narrow-ribs enhanced auxetic structures, local buckling likely appears as the reinforcing walls are designed in low thickness for superior auxeticy. In this paper, a novel narrow-ribs enhanced auxetic honeycomb is designed by embedding rhombus into each cell of the normal re-entrant hexagonal honeycomb (NRHH). Analytical model is built to investigate the elastic behaviors of the new proposed honeycomb under uniaxial compression, in which the incremental method is firstly introduced for post-local-buckling analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the analytical results. It is interesting that bilinear elastic characteristic is found for the stress-strain and transverse strain-longitudinal strain curves of the new proposed honeycomb on account of the local buckling. Parameters studies are performed and the new proposed honeycomb is proved to exhibit superior mechanical properties compared to other narrow-ribs enhanced honeycombs. Significantly, the incremental method brought forward in the present paper for the local buckling analysis can be popularized to other honeycombs enhanced with narrow-ribs. Thus, the bilinear elastic characteristic is a general feature for these honeycombs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Optimization of microstructures and mechanical properties of composite
           oriented strand board from reused prepreg
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Bo Cheng Jin, Xiaochen Li, Atul Jain, Carlos González, Javier LLorca, Steven Nutt
      A prepreg strand layup method (mat-stacking) is presented to enhance the microstructure and mechanical properties of composite oriented strand board (COSB) produced with re-used prepreg scraps. Eight COSB panels were produced using two layup methods and four prepreg strand aspect ratios (1:1, 2:1, 5:1, and 10:1). All COSB panels were compression molded with the same carbon/epoxy system and process parameters, including cure cycle, temperature, and mold pressure. COSB void content, morphology, and distribution were characterized using microscopy and X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Tensile properties and failure modes of COSB panels exhibited a strong dependence on the strand layup method and the strand aspect ratio. Results demonstrated that COSB with lower coefficient of variation and useful mechanical properties can be produced with the proposed layup method and judicious selection of strand aspect ratio, yielding stiffness similar to continuous quasi-isotropic composites with up to 50% of the strength.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Comparative study on dynamic parameters and seismic demand of pultruded
           FRP members and structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Giosuè Boscato
      Pultruded FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) material can be considered as a structural material for civil engineering applications when it guarantees structural reliability and higher efficiency under different loading conditions, dead loads, live loads, wind and seismic actions, during the serviceability state. The overall structural behaviour in static field of FRP members, columns-beams joints and connections and framed structures are well known, while the dynamic response is not yet widely investigated. Through the analysis of modal shapes, resonance frequencies and damping ratios of different pultruded members (beams, columns, beam-column joints) and structures the performance relationships in the dynamic field have been defined. As shown by the experimental and analytical results the dynamic properties of pultruded FRP material are characterized by high periods of vibration, low frequencies and a spontaneous dissipative capacity of the seismic action due to its low mass; in the design approach this latter aspect has to be balanced by the high deformability. The analyses allow to define the performance laws of structural elements made of pultruded FRP material that are preparatory for the final recommendation in the seismic design criteria of all-FRP structure addressed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:51:14Z
  • Recycled Aggregate Concrete in FRP-confined columns: A review of
           experimental results
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Jin-Jun Xu, Zong-Ping Chen, Yan Xiao, Cristoforo Demartino, Jun-Hua Wang
      This paper presents a review of experimental tests performed for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of FRP-concrete members realized employing Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC). First, with the aim to define confinement effects on RAC, the mechanical behaviors of RAC under triaxial compression is discussed, highlighting the governing variables and their influence on the mechanical response. Different variables such as Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) content, pre-wetting, confinement level, concrete age and RCA source are analyzed and their implication on the main mechanical properties is discussed. Then, the static and cyclic behavior of FRP-confined RAC members is reviewed. Considering the static behavior, columns under concentric compression and eccentric compression are analyzed. Finally, the limited number of results available from the literature are employed to derive a prediction model for the strength of multi-axial stressed and confined RAC by considering the RCA content as the main governing variable. The need for further research is pointed out at the end of the paper.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Growth from buckling to buckling-driven delamination in a film/substrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Y.P. Liu, C.G. Wang, H.F. Tan
      Compressing a stiff film bonded to a compliant substrate with finite thickness can lead to various instabilities, including global buckling, local wrinkling, delamination or their concomitant buckling. This paper proposed an analytical model, which integrates global and local interactive effects due to the finite thickness, to reveal the growth from buckling to buckling-driven delamination. The resulting governing non-linear equations (non-autonomous fourth-order ordinary differential nonlinear equations with integral conditions) are then solved by introducing a continuation algorithm, which offers considerable advantages to detect multiple bifurcations and trace a complex post-buckling path. The critical conditions for global buckling, local wrinkling and buckling-driven delamination are carefully studied. Two different growth processes from destabilization to restabilization (snap-back) are captured in the post-buckling range. Moreover, it is found that the interface toughness and the pre-existing delamination crack length dominates the critical strain for the onset of buckling-driven delamination, and further decide the initial instability mode. Finally, two phase diagrams are plotted to predict both initial and advanced instability modes in such a bilayer system. The phase diagrams can be used to guide the design of film/substrate systems to achieve desired modes of instabilities.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Fatigue study on the sensor performance of macro fiber composite (MFC):
           Theoretical and experimental approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Akash Pandey, A. Arockiarajan
      Due to its high flexibility and enhanced electro-mechanical coupling, macro fiber composite (MFC) is widely used in the area of sensing, vibration control and structural control. While in application, MFCs are subjected to continuous cyclic mechanical load which may lead to the deterioration of piezoelectric coupling coefficient, thereby affecting its sensing performance. In order to predict the life cycle of MFC ( d 31 & d 31 type) subjected to mechanical loading, an experimental setup has been devised and the tests are carried out for various loading conditions. For lowering the effort and cost involved in the experiments, a non-linear finite element model along with cumulative damage theory is introduced. The degradation in the piezoelectric coupling coefficient obtained using the current theoretical model are in good comparison with the experimental observations. The current non-linear FE model is also extended to predict the stiffnesses and strengths of the MFC as a function of fatigue cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Use of the Iosipescu test for the identification of shear damage evolution
           laws of an orthotropic composite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Thomas Bru, Robin Olsson, Renaud Gutkin, Gaurav M. Vyas
      The experimental evaluation of the shear response of fibre-reinforced plies is a requirement for accurate material models predicting progressive damage. In the first part of the paper, the quality of the Iosipescu shear test is investigated with full-field strain measurements and finite element analyses. In the second part, the in-plane and through-thickness shear response of an orthotropic carbon/epoxy uni-weave non-crimp fabric composite are compared, and the stress–strain curves used as input for two continuum damage mechanics models. Both models were able to predict accurately the nonlinear shear behaviour of the material. The model parameters and the damage evolution laws could easily be extracted from cyclic Iosipescu tests.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Thermomechanical anisotropy and flowability of talc and glass fiber
           reinforced multiphase polymer composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Doo Jin Lee, Young Seok Song
      For fillers reinforced polymer composites, the material properties of the composites are affected by the dispersion and orientation of the inclusions. In particular, high aspect ratio inclusions such as glass fibers in the polymer matrix generate the mechanical or thermomechanical anisotropy of the composites that are critical to the dimensional stability, flowability, toughness, and strength of the final products. We investigate the microstructural anisotropy of multiphase polymer composites composed of talcs and glass fibers to characterize the anisotropic thermomechanical properties of the composites. The internal structure of the composites is observed by using an X-ray microtomography to characterize fiber length distributions. The fiber length distributions are fitted to the Weibull distribution statistical function to model the ultimate tensile strength of the composites. A fiber efficiency factor is coupled with the statistical function to understand the effect of the fiber length distributions on the mechanical strength of the composites. The thermomechanical anisotropy is evaluated by using linear thermal expansion coefficients. The flowability of molten polymer composites is evaluated experimentally and numerically to evaluate the role of inclusions on rheological properties and processability of the composites.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Experimental investigation and evaluation of numerical modeling approaches
           for hybrid-FRP-steel sections under impact loading for the application in
           automotive crash-structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): M. Dlugosch, J. Fritsch, D. Lukaszewicz, S. Hiermaier
      A large body of work has studied the energy absorption of metallic and composite tubes undergoing crushing. Similarly, reinforcements of metallic structures with composites have also been studied. By contrast, composite tubes with metallic reinforcements (composite-intensive) have not been investigated, although they may offer benefits in terms of robustness or cost over both composite as well as metallic tubes. Here, composite materials with metallic reinforcements were tested under dynamic axial loading in order to study the effects of major design parameters on the energy absorption and load uniformity behavior. Significant benefits could be identified, particularly when considering cost aspects. Two numerical approaches for modeling the adhesive interface between the two discrete material phases were evaluated in terms of accuracy and efficiency in crash simulations. The simplified modeling technique comprising two layers of shell elements rigidly tied at the interface proved to be generally applicable to the evaluation of structural concepts in an early vehicle development stage.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Evaluation of hybrid joints strengthened by carbon plates connecting new
           steel frames with existing concrete slabs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): J.D. Nzabonimpa, Won-Kee Hong
      This paper introduces hybrid joints strengthened by carbon plates for connecting new steel frames onto concrete slabs, enabling rapid and effortless assembly of frames relative to traditional wall frame construction; this study proved that the use of carbon strips was efficient in strengthening the joint. The nonlinear structural response of the proposed joints with carbon strips, which can transfer moments through the interconnected components, was evaluated experimentally and numerically based on identified parameters that influence the structural behavior of retrofitted frames. The parameters are also capable of evaluating failure modes of the extended structure with vertical additions by identifying the structural behavior of the joints with carbon strips. This study performed numerical analysis based on delamination growth predictions using cohesive finite elements, in an attempt to engender better practice for cost effective analytical investigations, and demonstrated a good correlation with test data obtained from extensive experimental investigations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Thermal residual solutions of beams, plates and shells due to laminated
           object manufacturing with gradient cooling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Xiaoping Shu, Rongliang Wang
      Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) results in thermal residual stresses and deformations due to its material mismatch among layers and gradient cooling. The manufacturing and cooling processes in a laminated workpiece are decomposed into many turns. Through-thickness cooling gradients are considered in each layer forming turn. The thermal residual strains in each turn are deduced. The total thermal residual stresses are obtained by composing the strains in all turns. The workpieces with geometries of a beam, plate and shell are considered. For a beam or plate, the analytical solutions of the stresses and deformations in the axial and transverse directions are deduced separately and then synthesized to the total solutions. One-dimensional beams and two-dimensional plates have very similar solutions. For a symmetrical hollow cylinder or sphere, the analytical solutions of thermal residual stresses with through-thickness cooling gradients are also formulated. The numerical examples show that the assumption of synchronous cooling results in big errors and cooling gradients also induce thermal residual stresses and deformations. Four gradient cooling models are summarized according to various LOM manufacturing techniques and the thermal residual level is proportional to the cooling gradient. Processing sequence in functional gradient materials has a strong impact on thermal residual level.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Effects of fiber shape, aspect ratio, and volume fraction on flexural
           behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Doo-Yeol Yoo, Soonho Kim, Gi-Joon Park, Jung-Jun Park, Sung-Wook Kim
      This study investigated the feasibility of reducing fiber content in ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (UHP-FRCC). For this, three different types of steel fibers were considered, and three different aspect ratios were applied for the case of straight fibers. To quantitatively evaluate the cost effectiveness of reducing the fiber content of UHP-FRCC, cost analysis was also performed. Test results indicated that at low fiber volume fractions (Vf ≤1.0%), the twisted fibers provided the highest flexural strength, but they exhibited similar strength and poorer toughness than the straight fibers at a Vf equal to or higher than 1.5%. Smaller flexural strength and toughness were observed in the specimens with hooked fibers than those with straight ones at a Vf equal to or higher than 1.0%. In the case of straight fibers, the one with the highest aspect ratio was more effective in improving the flexural performance than those with lower aspect ratios. The medium-length straight fibers were most efficient at improving the flexural performance of UHP-FRCC at a Vf equal to or higher than 1.5%. The total production costs of commercially available UHP-FRCC could be reduced by as much as 32–35% by replacing short straight fibers with medium-length or long straight fibers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:52:58Z
  • Damage mechanisms assessment of hybrid flax-glass fibre composites using
           acoustic emission
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): El Hadi Saidane, Daniel Scida, Mustapha Assarar, Rezak Ayad
      This work presents an assessment of the damage mechanisms occurring during tensile tests in hybrid flax-glass fibres reinforced epoxy composites. The samples were composed of twill flax and glass fibre laminate plies with different stacking sequences and subjected to water immersion at 55°C. The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique combined with scanning electron microscopy observations was used to identify the typical damage mechanisms and to follow their evolution. This identification was made with a statistical multivariable analysis in which the number of parameters and classes was optimised. Finally, the participation of each damage mechanism to the global failure was evaluated from the hits number and AE energy. The AE results showed that, although the hits number associated with the fibre failure was the lowest, their contribution to the overall failure of composites became predominant regarding the cumulative of AE energy. Furthermore, an additional group of AE signals induced by the delamination between flax and glass fibre layers was detected for the aged hybrid laminates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Experimental evaluations and modeling of the tensile behavior of
           polypropylene/single-walled carbon nanotubes fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): S. Acierno, R. Barretta, R. Luciano, F. Marotti de Sciarra, P. Russo
      Polypropylene fibers containing up to 0.2vol% of single-wall carbon nanotubes, prepared by melt-spinning, are analyzed in terms of both experimental mechanical properties and numerical nonlocal models. In particular, fibers of a commercial polypropylene (PP) resin are compared with composite fibers, based on the same matrix, reinforced with 0.1 and 0.2vol% of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental findings shows that, although the applied processing conditions are such that the inclusion of carbon nanotubes does not alter the crystalline structure and the degree of crystallinity of the hosting matrix, tensile properties of nanocomposite fibers vary significantly with the filler content. Specifically, Young modulus, yield strength and ductility show a linear dependence upon the nanotube content over the range of compositions explored; in particular with respect to neat PP fibers filaments containing 0.2vol% of single wall carbon nanotubes show increases of approximately 16% and 6% in the modulus and the yield strength, respectively, while the ductility decreases of about 65%. Moreover, the analysis of the elastic behavior performed by means of a nonlocal modeling approach based on the two-phase constitutive mixture allows us to identify the values of the small-scale parameter for the considered PP-CNT microrods.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Design of composite structures with extremal elastic properties in the
           presence of technological constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): J. Awrejcewicz, S.P. Pavlov, K.S. Bodyagina, M.V. Zhigalov, V.A. Krysko
      In this paper, composites made of periodically repeating micro structures are investigated. The study aims at identifying the optimal spatial distribution of constituents within a composite material to obtain the material of desired/improved functional properties. To find the relationship between micro- and macro-structural properties of the composite material, the method of homogenization is used. The problem of finding optimal microstructures of various materials, with the aim of obtaining maximum rigidity, i.e., maximum volume and shear modules for the base cell of a composite that contains the original installation of technological holes and/or inclusions was first investigated. For illustration and validation of the proposed approach, numerical examples are provided.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • The influence of curing agents in the impact properties of epoxy resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Ana M. Amaro, Luís Bernardo, Deesy G. Pinto, Sérgio Lopes, João Rodrigues
      This study investigates the impact properties (impact strength (IS) and impact energy (IE)) of epoxy resin nanocomposites (EPNCs) manufactured with different curing agents and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs consisted on alpha alumina with irregular shapes (100nm maximum size) pretreated with a silane agent. The weight fractions of alumina NPs were 1, 3 and 5wt(%). Two different epoxy (EP) resins were studied and compared. The first one was cured and post cured with bis (4-aminophenyl) methane (DDM) and the second one was cured with 3-Dodec-2-enyloxolane-2,5-dione (DDSA)+8-methyl-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano-2-benzofuran-1,3-dione (MNA). Comparatively to the neat EP, and among the three NPs loadings used in this study, the EPNCs with 1wt(%) showed the maximum improvement in IS and IE, around 78%(IE)-89%(IS) for DDM and 82%(IS)-93%(IE) for DDSA+MNA. EPNCs with 1wt(%) cured with DDM present the best results for IS and IE, when compared with EPNCs cured with DDSA+MNA. IS and IE of EPNCs highly reduce at 3–5wt(%).

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Experimental and numerical crushing analysis of circular CFRP tubes under
           axial impact loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Corin Reuter, Kim-Henning Sauerland, Thomas Tröster
      In this paper, a prospective simulation method for composite crushing under axial crash loading is presented. To this end carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) circular crash tubes are investigated in drop tower tests. Flat specimen tests are performed to determine calibration parameters and are used for efficient re-parameterization of a transversally isotropic material card used in finite element (FE) simulation. An existing material card for CFRP based on basic tension and compression tests is used as a starting point and only a small set of material parameters is numerically reasonable adjusted to account for crushing. Once calibrated by means of flat specimens the material model is able to cover a variety of different composite layups and specimen geometries, e.g. tube specimens. Therefore, numerical simulation of drop tower testing is carried out and results show good agreement between numerical and experimental results. In addition to these tests, it can be shown that the presented approach is leading to equally good results when the material and geometry of the specimens are changed to a glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP) tube structure.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Nonlinear resonant dynamics of geometrically imperfect higher-order shear
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Raheb Gholami, Reza Ansari, Yousef Gholami
      This study aims at numerically analyzing the nonlinear resonant dynamics of geometrically imperfect higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) beams with various end conditions subjected to a harmonic transverse load. Introducing a generalized displacement field including various beam theories, employing Hamilton’s principle and taking into account geometrical nonlinearity and initial imperfection, three nonlinear coupled equations and associated boundary expressions are obtained for geometrically imperfect FG-CNTRC beams. These equations formulate the longitudinal, transverse and rotational motions of FG-CNTRC beams. An efficient multistep numerical solution approach based on the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method, a numerical Galerkin-based scheme and time periodic discretization is employed to convert the time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) into a Duffing-type nonlinear set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which can be solved via the pseudo arc-length continuation technique. Nonlinear resonant dynamics characteristics are illustrated in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves; highlighting the influences of initial geometrical imperfection, geometrical parameters, excitation frequency and boundary conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • A new refill friction spot welding process for aluminum/polymer composite
           hybrid structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Hossein Karami Pabandi, Mojtaba Movahedi, Amir Hossein Kokabi
      A new refill friction spot welding process called Threaded Hole Friction Spot Welding (THFSW) was introduced to join AA5052 aluminum to short-carbon-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP-SCF) composite sheets. The process was based on filling of the pre-threaded hole by melted and re-solidified polymer. The results showed that THFSW was successful to join aluminum to polymer sheets and the hole was completely filled with melted polymer. Formation of a reaction layer composed mostly of Al, C and O as well as interlocking between the threaded hole and the re-solidified polymer were recognized as main bonding mechanisms. Maximum shear-tensile strength of the joints reached to ∼80 percent of the composite base strength. Moreover, Mechanical strength and fracture energy of the joints increased with enhancement of tool rotational speed. Variation of the joint strength was explored in light of the fracture surface features as well as crystallinity percent of the re-solidified polymer inside the hole.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Bending behaviour of two directional functionally graded sandwich beams by
           using a quasi-3d shear deformation theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Armağan Karamanlı
      This paper presents the static behaviour of two-directional functionally graded (FG) sandwich beams subjected to various sets of boundary conditions by using a quasi-3D shear deformation theory and the Symmetric Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SSPH) method. The SSPH code, which is developed based on the present formulation of the FG sandwich beam, is validated by solving a simply supported conventional functionally graded beam problem. Numerical results which are in terms of maximum dimensionless transverse deflections, dimensionless axial, normal and shear stresses are compared with the analytical solutions and the results from previous studies. Various FG sandwich beam structures are investigated by considering different aspect ratios (L/h) and sets of boundary conditions and using power-law distribution.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • A semi-analytical method for vibration analysis of functionally graded
           carbon nanotube reinforced composite doubly-curved panels and shells of
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Qingshan Wang, Bin Qin, Dongyan Shi, Qian Liang
      The object of this paper is to present a novel semi-analytical method and its associated applications for linear vibration analyses of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) doubly-curved panels and shells of revolution on with arbitrary boundary conditions. Distribution of the carbon nanotubes through the thickness of the structures may be uniform or functionally graded and four types of the CNTs distribution are considered in this paper. Properties of the composite media are determined by a refined rule of mixtures approach which contains the efficiency parameters. The translation and rotation displacements of the doubly-curved structures are uniformly expressed as the superposition of a standard cosine Fourier series and several auxiliary functions introduced to eliminate all potential discontinuities of the original displacement function and its derivatives at the edges. Based on that, the energy expression of the FG-CNTRC doubly-curved panels and shells of revolution is examined where the first-order shear deformation elasticity theory is considered. Lastly, to solve the natural frequencies as well as the associated mode shapes by means of the Ritz-variational energy method. Unlike other existing methods, the proposed method is capable of handling various combinations of boundary constraints in a unified fashion, including free, simply-supported, clamped and elastic-supported boundary conditions. Comprehensive studies on the convergence, accuracy, stability and efficiency of the method are derived via the comparison with existing results reported in publications. The parametric studies concerning the influence of the geometrical parameters, CNTs distributions, volume fraction of CNTs as well as boundary restraint parameters on free vibration of FG-CNTRC doubly-curved panels and shells of revolution is also investigated in detail.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Hygrothermal ageing behaviour of a glass/epoxy composite used in wind
           turbine blades
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): I.B.C.M. Rocha, S. Raijmaekers, R.P.L. Nijssen, F.P. van der Meer, L.J. Sluys
      In this work, a glass/epoxy material system applied in wind turbine blades was used to evaluate degradation processes induced by water ingression. Composite and neat epoxy specimens were conditioned in demineralised water at 50°C for 4800h and tested quasi-statically and in fatigue. Comparing results from mechanical tests in composite specimens, significant degradation was found, with up to 36% lower static shear strength and three orders of magnitude shorter fatigue life. For neat epoxy specimens, a lower degree of degradation was observed, with up to 17% lower tensile and bending moduli and strength. Specimens dried after having been immersed were also tested. For composite samples, recovery of shear stiffness and strength was incomplete. For neat resin, stiffness and bending strength were completely recovered but a decrease in the strain at failure was observed. It is hypothesised from differences in magnitude and reversibility of degradation between composite and neat resin that matrix degradation is accompanied by high differential swelling stresses and damage to the fibre/matrix interface in composites. The damage due to moisture ingression and the subsequent changes in failure behaviour are further investigated through thermal analysis (DSC, DMA) and optical microscopy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Compressive deformation and energy-absorption capability of aluminium
           honeycomb core
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Ines Ivañez, Lorena M. Fernandez-Cañadas, Sonia Sanchez-Saez
      In this study, the crush behaviour and the energy absorption capability of an aluminium honeycomb core is discussed. A three-dimensional finite-element model of a honeycomb-core structure was developed using the commercial code Abaqus. Flatwise and edgewise experimental compressive tests were made to validate the numerical model and good agreement was found between the experimental data and the numerical results. Virtual compressive tests varying the cell size, cell-wall thickness, and material properties were performed. The deformation mode, compressive core behaviour and its energy-absorption capacity were examined. The crushing parameters at in-plane directions were more affected by the variations of the characteristic core parameters; although, in general, increasing the cell-wall thickness and the yield stress of the aluminium alloy give higher crush loads, and therefore the absorbed energy increases. However, if the cell size increases, the energy-absorption capacity decreases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Buckling and post-buckling analysis of geometrically non-linear composite
           plates exhibiting large initial imperfections
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): A. Karrech, M. Elchalakani, M. Attar, A.C. Seibi
      This paper discusses the buckling and post-buckling of thick composite plates having large initial geometrical imperfections. Within the theory of large transformations, the proposed formulation uses generalised forces and deformations derived from the energy conjugacy of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. In addition, it provides partial differential equations of equilibrium that are easy to solve using common techniques such as the Galerkin-Ritz method. Unlike existing contributions, which are (i) limited to imperfections that are proportional to current deformations, (ii) address small to moderate initial imperfections only, and/or (iii) require advanced and time consuming numerical methods, the present approach is based on analytical solution and takes into account large initial imperfections. Despite the complexity of the energy balance formulation, the resulting governing equations are simple and applicable to design practical composite structures. The proposed model was compared to numerical results obtained using the finite element method. Overall, good agreements have been obtained when the assumptions fall within the range of validity of the commercial software used for simulation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Analytical method to investigate nonlinear dynamic responses of sandwich
           plates with FGM faces resting on elastic foundation considering blast
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Hyuk Chun Noh
      An analytical approach is presented to investigate nonlinear dynamic responses of sandwich plates. To obtain governing differential equations of motion, the higher order shear deformation theory is employed together with Hamilton’s principle. The Navier’s solution and Runge-Kutta method using available mathematical package software MAPLE 14 are used to solve the governing equations. This method can consider any required number of layers through the sandwich plate thickness. To evaluate the method validity a sandwich plate with FGM face sheets and the FRC core resting on an elastic foundation is subjected to the blast load due to the burst of 5kg charge. The maximum plane-normal displacement is obtained by the analytical method and numerical approach. Comparison between results shows good agreement. Thereafter, time histories obtained from both analytical and numerical approaches are compared. The interlaminar stresses are obtained through the sandwich plate thickness. The results show that neither material failure nor delamination occurs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Strain distributions in superconducting strands with twisted filaments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Bingxin Liu, Ze Jing, Huadong Yong, Youhe Zhou
      The aim of this article is to analyze the strain distributions of filament bundles in the superconducting strands subjected to external mechanical loads and thermal strain. A multistage micromechanical model is adopted to characterize the mechanical behavior of the superconducting strand with twisted filaments. First, we employ the equivalent model to simplify the filament bundles. Then, the continuous filament bundles are divided into discrete elements, and an incremental mean-field micromechanics theme based on the Mori-Tanaka method is used to obtain the equivalent properties of the strand and the local strains in the Nb3Sn filament bundles. The results for two different structures are compared. The variation trends of normal strains along x , y and z directions are different. The effects of temperature on the equivalent properties of strands are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Design and fabrication of a metal-composite hybrid pantograph upper arm by
           co-cure technique with a friction layer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Min-Gu Han, Yong Hyeon Cho, Seung-Woo Jeon, Seung-Hwan Chang
      A pantograph is a part in trains that receives electricity by contacting with a contact wire. During driving conditions, de-wiring of the pantograph may occur owing to the movement of the train resulting in a temporary interruption of power supply and noise during re-contact. To solve this problem, it is necessary to make the pantograph lighter and stiffer, and therefore, fibrous composites are gaining attention to meet the needs for high performance pantographs. A parametric study is performed to determine the configurations of carbon/epoxy composite laminates with appropriate stiffness for a high-performance metal-composite hybrid pantograph. To avoid excessive thermal stress at the interface between the outer aluminum tube and inner composite tube, a friction layer made of a Teflon film is applied during the co-curing process. Finite element (FE) analysis is conducted to evaluate the structural integrity of the hybrid structures. Bending stiffness, natural frequencies with the corresponding modes, and the generated stresses owing to thermoforming are estimated according to the stacking sequence, and the most appropriate choice is determined. A prototype of the designed pantograph is fabricated, and the structural stiffness is estimated and compared with the FE analysis result, with which it shows good agreement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Evaluation of effective material properties in magneto-electro-elastic
           composite materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Jan Sladek, Vladimir Sladek, Miroslav Repka, Jozef Kasala, Peter Bishay
      The meshless local integral equation method is developed to analyze general two-dimensional boundary value problems in size-dependent magnetoelectroelastic solids. A consistent theory is developed for size dependent magnetoelectroelasticity. The strain gradients are considered in the constitutive equations for electric displacement and magnetic induction. The governing equations are derived with the corresponding boundary conditions using the variational principle. The local integral equations are subsequently derived and the meshless moving least square (MLS) numerical method is implemented to solve these equations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Experimental and numerical studies on the stability behavior of composite
           panels stiffened by tilting hat-stringers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Yi Wang, Fusheng Wang, Senqing Jia, Zhufeng Yue
      Due to the existence of sweepback angle of aircraft, the stringers of the stiffened panels in some parts may be declined instead parallel to the boundary. The paper deals with stability experiment investigation on the stiffened composite panels with tilting stringers. Two panels stiffened by six tilting stringers were manufactured and tested. Attempts were made to obtain the buckling load, ultimate load carrying capability and failure state of the panels. Finite element analysis was performed to investigate the tests and FE models were calculated by ABAQUS. The numerical results were assessed by comparing with the test data and good agreement was observed for both buckling and ultimate collapse load as well as the failure modes of the structure. Further investigation was performed to explore the influence of tilting angles on stability behavior of the panels which revealed that the buckling load exhibited a continuous decrease with the increasing tilting angles while the ultimate load showed an initial rise from 0° to 1° and then decreased.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Moment redistribution and ductility of CFRP strengthened and
           non-strengthened unbonded post-tensioned indeterminate I-beams composed of
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): M. Maghsoudi, A.A. Maghsoudi
      Strengthening might be necessary for unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) concrete members to account for mistakes at the design stage or to solve construction errors. Various strengthening techniques have been developed that use carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) to increase the load carrying capacity and fulfill serviceability requirements. Although many in situ post-tensioned beams are continuous, there has been little research done on such beams with unbonded tendons. The brittle nature of UPT members, particularly with high strength concrete and CFRP, raises concerns about the ability to redistribute the moments of a continuous member. Knowledge about the degree of moment redistribution (MR) and ductility response of ultra-high strength self-compacting concrete (UHSSCC) in strengthened and non-strengthened UPT indeterminate members is crucial. The current study presents the experimental results of research to determine the flexural response of six non-strengthened or strengthened full-scale continuous UHSSCC unbonded post-tensioned I-beams with emphasis on ductility and moment redistribution. The results showed that, despite a decrease in MR, displacement, and energy ductility, the confinement provided satisfied the high MR demand in presence of strengthening, unbonded prestressing and use of UHSSCC. The stress measured in unbonded strands approached the point of yielding at the onset of failure for non-strengthened and strengthened beams.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Fatigue response of hybrid magnesium/APC-2 nanocomposite laminates at
           elevated temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Ming-Hwa R. Jen, Che-Kai Chang, Yu-Chung Tseng
      AS-4/PEEK APC-2 nanocomposite laminates and Mg/APC-2 hybrid nanocomposite laminates were fabricated. The mechanical properties and fatigue response of laminates were obtained due to tensile and cyclic tests at room and elevated temperatures. The surface treatment of chemical etching on Mg sheets resulted in strong bonding with APC-2 laminates. The nanoparticles SiO2 of optimal weight were uniformly spread on the faces of APC-2. From the tensile test the mechanical properties, such as ultimate strength and stiffness, of cross-ply APC-2 nanocomposite laminates were found higher than those of quasi-isotropic nanocomposite laminates. The ultimate strength of hybrid nanocomposite laminates was predicted satisfactorily well with experimental data by using the rule of mixtures. As for cyclic tests we received the data of applied stress vs. cycles and plotted the S-N curves. Also, the failure mechanisms were observed. It was found APC-2 quasi-isotropic nanocomposite laminates possessed better fatigue resistance than that of the cross-ply nanocomposite laminates. Through the regression of fatigue data we proposed the semi-empirical model for APC-2 nanocomposite laminates and the theoretical model for hybrid nanocomposite laminates. Both models predicted the results of durability/life in good agreement with experimental data. The theoretical model for hybrid nanocomposite laminates was simple, conservative and precise.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Velocity feedback damping of piezo-actuated wings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Xiao Wang, Marco Morandini, Pierangelo Masarati
      A geometrical nonlinear model of thin-walled beams with fiber-reinforced and piezo-composite is developed for smart aircraft wing structures. Some non-classical effects such as warping inhibition and three-dimensional (3-D) strain are accounted for in the beam model. The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived using the Hamilton’s principle. The Extended Galerkin’s Method is used for the numerical study. A negative velocity feedback control algorithm is adopted to control the aircraft wing response. The effective damping performance is optimized by studying anisotropic characteristics of piezo-composite and elastic tailoring of the fiber-reinforced host structure. The relations between active vibration control effect and design factors, such as the size and position of piezo-actuator are investigated in detailed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Investigation of failure modes and influence on ballistic performance of
           Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) uni-directional laminate
           for hybrid design
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Yanfei Yang, Xiaogang Chen
      For hybrid design of soft body armour, material selection must be based on ballistic characteristics of materials. This study aims to identify ballistic characteristics of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) uni-directional (UD) laminate, including failure modes of UHMWPE fibres during ballistic impact and its influence on ballistic performance of UD laminate. According to fractorgraphic analysis, thermal damage of UHMWPE fibres is obvious and more significant for front layers at the striking face, which results in material properties degradation during impact. Ballistic test results showed when Dyneema UD laminate was placed on the striking face before Twaron fabric, ballistic performance including energy absorption and Backface signature (BFS) exhibits obvious degradation. Finite Element (FE) results showed when material properties degradation of Dyneema UD induced by thermal damage is taken into account, stress wave propagation and transverse deflection of Dyneema UD is highly constrained, which leads to quick perforation. As a result, energy absorption of whole hybrid panel is decreased.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Vibration-based identification of interphase properties in long fiber
           reinforced composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Kaifeng Wang, Kiichi Okuno, Mihaela Banu, Bogdan I. Epureanu
      The interphase properties of fiber-reinforced composite materials affect significantly the dynamic behavior of the material, and hence they have to be accounted for accurately. However, the small thickness of the interphase makes it hard to measure precisely its properties directly. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to determine the properties of the interphase by using the vibratory response of coupons made of the composite material. A model obtained from first principles combining Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the strain energy method is used to identify interphase properties from experimental data. The model of a vibrating cantilevered beam is parameterized to obtain effective properties of the material, which include the interphase properties. The identified interphase properties are verified using composites with different fiber volume fractions. It is found that the predicted vibration response matches very well the experimental measurements; hence, the proposed approach is feasible to characterize the interphase properties.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Seismic response of a rocking bridge column using a precast hybrid
           fiber-reinforced concrete (HyFRC) tube
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Wilson Nguyen, William Trono, Marios Panagiotou, Claudia P. Ostertag
      With the expected replacement of deteriorated reinforced concrete bridges to occur in the next several decades, an opportunity exists to design more economic bridge columns in seismically active regions which are rapidly constructed while having enhanced crack resistance for extended service life. A precast hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HyFRC) tube, which contains a column’s steel reinforcement, is proposed for accelerating construction and is to be filled with plain concrete at the construction site. An experimental column was subjected to static, uni-directional, cyclic loading and utilized a base-rocking design for further ductility enhancement. At the conclusion of the test, the column reached a peak drift ratio of 13.1% and showed minor damage, including elimination of cover spalling. The HyFRC tube column design contributed effective resistance against longitudinal reinforcing bar buckling, allowing the column to maintain 93% of its peak load capacity at 9.5% drift. Compared to a monolithic HyFRC column, the precast HyFRC tube column was constructed with less HyFRC volume while having similar seismic performance, making it a more sustainable alternative.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
  • Fiber pullout behavior of HPFRCC: Effects of matrix strength and fiber
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2017
      Source:Composite Structures, Volume 174
      Author(s): Doo-Yeol Yoo, Jung-Jun Park, Sung-Wook Kim
      This study investigated the effects of fiber type and matrix strength on the fiber pullout behavior of high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC). The correlation between single fiber pullout behavior and flexural behavior of HPFRCC was also evaluated. Two different steel fibers, i.e., straight and hooked steel fibers, and three different matrix strengths were adopted. Test results indicate that the fiber pullout performance was improved with increasing matrix strength. The hooked fibers exhibited higher bond strengths and pullout work than the straight fibers, but at large slips, they showed smaller shear stress at the interface than their counterpart. In addition, the straight fibers were more effective in improving the pullout performance with the matrix strength than the hooked fibers. For the straight fibers, the shorter fibers provided higher bond strengths and maximum shear stress at the interface than the longer fibers. The flexural performance of HPFRCC beams was improved with increasing matrix strength. The beams with medium-length straight fibers (lf /df =19.5/0.2mm/mm) gave the best flexural performance, whereas those with hooked fibers exhibited the worst flexural performance. Due to several influential factors, the correlation between the single fiber pullout behavior and flexural behavior of HPFRCC beams was quite low.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:43:54Z
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