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Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Journal Cover
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.314
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 13  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0007-4802
Published by GeoScienceWorld Homepage  [16 journals]
  • The Montney Play of Western Canada: Deposition to Development
    • Authors: Euzen T; Moslow TF, Caplan M.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Subsidence dynamics of the Montney Formation (Early Triassic, Western
           Canada Sedimentary Basin): insights for its geodynamic setting and wider
    • Authors: Rohais S; Crombez V, Euzen T, et al.
      Abstract: This study presents the first published subsidence analysis during the deposition of the Montney Formation. It was deposited during the Early Triassic (ca. 252.2–245 Ma) in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) located along the western margin of the North American craton. Subsidence analyses of six representative wells and two outcrop sections along a proximal to distal transect are presented using a backstripping method integrating recent high-resolution stratigraphic correlations for the Montney Formation. The entire Paleozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary column of the WCSB was backstripped to put the deposition of the Montney Formation into a broader context and provide results regarding the type of subsidence and geodynamic setting for the Montney Formation.The spatial and temporal evolution of the subsidence during the deposition of the Montney Formation indicates that the most likely basin setting is a foreland. The tectonic subsidence during the Triassic is herein interpreted as a combination of the topographic loading of the orogenic wedge (flexure) and the sublithospheric “loading” caused by slab load-driven subsidence (dynamic subsidence). This suggests that the retro-foreland basin setting was associated with an eastward dipping subduction during the deposition of the Montney Fm.Three foreland stages are thus recorded in the whole WCSB, with evidence for: 1) a Late Permian (fore-arc) pro-foreland setting; then 2) a Triassic collisional retro-foreland basin prior to the well-known; 3) Jurassic-Cenozoic collisional retro-foreland.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • A preliminary investigation of the igneous origins of the Montney and Doig
           formations: Integrating igneous geochemistry techniques for interpreting
           sedimentary provenance
    • Authors: Morris N; Asgar-Deen M, Gardner D, et al.
      Abstract: It is well documented through sedimentological and zircon provenance studies that the bulk of the Montney sediment is sourced from the eastern North American Craton (NAC), consisting of highly felsic and heavily fractionated crustal rocks. This study presents the application of immobile element ratio diagrams to understand igneous and tectonic source terrains of the NAC sediments that source the Montney and Doig formations. Igneous rock plots, and tectonic discriminant diagrams, display Montney and Doig samples as rhyodacite-dacite with syn-collisional granitoid and volcanic arc signatures. Aluminum oxide and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) normalized plots, which contain an array of elements including rare earth elements (REE) along with major oxides, show the Montney and Doig formations to have similar trends to calc-alkaline basalts, meaning highly felsic with a likelihood of crustal contamination. The Montney and Doig formation samples all show similar geochemical trends; however differences in Y and Yb trends suggest the Doig source samples were exposed to greater degrees of potential garnet, clinopyroxene or biotite fractionation, this trend displays more mafic-ultramafic influences. These mafic-ultramafic trends were not exhibited in the Montney Formation samples.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional stratigraphic architecture of the Spathian Deposits in Western
           Canada — Implications for the Montney Resource Play
    • Authors: Euzen T; Moslow TF, Crombez V, et al.
      Abstract: Thick Spathian deposits of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation are preserved in northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta, where they hold massive amounts of unconventional resources. Understanding the internal architecture of these marine deposits at basin-scale can provide a framework to better predict the distribution of source-rocks, reservoirs and seals within this petroleum system and to investigate their control on hydrocarbon generation and migration pathways. Ultimately, this high resolution stratigraphic framework can be used to investigate the impact of geological heterogeneities on well performance at the regional scale.In northeastern British Columbia, the Spathian deposits consist mainly of offshore and offshore transition sediments forming a wedge prograding from northeast to southwest. This wedge is punctuated by major marine flooding surfaces bounding parasequence sets that can be correlated regionally owing to their characteristic gamma ray logs signature and to the high density of well and core control. The regional correlation of these parasequence sets, based on over 1450 wells, reveals well-defined clinoform morphologies characterized by topset, foreset and bottomset geometries along a proximal-distal depositional profile. The facies analysis and the characteristic dimensions of these morphologies are consistent with deposition in a predominantly siliciclastic shoreface to shelf setting and marks a significant contrast to the ramp setting of hybrid clastic-carbonate lithologies which prevailed during the Griesbachian to Smithian. The stratigraphic architecture is analogous to “subaqueous shelf-prism clinoforms” that have been described on numerous present-day and ancient continental shelves. Subaqueous shelf-prism clinoforms typically display a sigmoidal shape in the dip direction and along-shore-elongated depositional thick in plan-view. This geometry results from the interaction of clastic sediment input with shelf hydrodynamic processes such as storm generated waves and sediment gravity flows, as well as nearshore and offshore bottom currents. Consequently, the topset, foreset and bottomset of these clinoforms are characterized by different depositional facies that can be predicted and mapped at basin-scale, over hundreds of kilometres.In the Spathian depositional system of Western Canada, clinoform bottomset facies are mainly a product of suspension deposition, hemipelagic sedimentation and mineral precipitation. These facies form the main source-rock intervals within the Montney Formation, due to anoxic conditions and lower sedimentation rates resulting in better preservation of organic matter. Clinoform foresets result from traction transport processes of coarser siliciclastics and higher sedimentation rates, forming thick, mostly organic-lean intervals with better reservoir quality. Foreset deposits form the thickest part of the Spathian parasequence sets and are the main targets of horizontal drilling and multistage fracturing. Clinoform topsets mainly consist of shoreface to offshore transition deposits and are poorly preserved due to the erosion under the top Montney unconformity. The distribution of the depositional thick in map view and along a strike-oriented regional cross-section suggest that these deposits were influenced by major structural elements at basin scale. The regional flooding surfaces bounding the parasequence sets might form extensive permeability barriers that potentially control up-dip migration of hydrocarbons within the Montney petroleum system.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Sunset Prairie Formation: designation of a new Middle Triassic
           formation between the Lower Triassic Montney Formation and Middle Triassic
           Doig Formation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, northeast British
    • Authors: Furlong CM; Gingras MK, Moslow TF, et al.
      Abstract: Revised lithostratigraphic correlations reveal that the current stratigraphic nomenclature for the Middle Triassic within the subsurface of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin needs modification. This paper introduces a new formation, the Sunset Prairie Formation, for an interval of interbedded light grey, pervasively bioturbated sandstone and dark grey, minimally bioturbated to non-bioturbated siltstone, which sits stratigraphically between the Lower Triassic Montney Formation and the Middle Triassic Doig Formation within northeastern British Columbia, Canada. The Sunset Prairie is sedimentologically, ichnologically and paleontologically distinct from the overlying and underlying formations and warrants a new formational name to be established.The Sunset Prairie consists of seven lithofacies which are interpreted to have been deposited within offshore, offshore transition and lower shoreface settings. There is limited preservation of physical sedimentary structures due to pervasive bioturbation but, where preserved, include planar-, pinstriped-, planar-wavy and wavy laminae, low and high angle planar cross laminae, asymmetric ripples, hummocky cross stratification and penecontemporaneous deformation structures. Trace fossils present within the interval include Phycosiphon, Rosselia, Cylindrichnus, Teichichnus, Asterosoma, Scolicia, Helminthopsis, Palaeophycus, Chondrites, Planolites, Diplocraterion, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoides, Skolithos and Zoophycos. Glossifungites-demarcated discontinuity surface (firm ground assemblage) are also common throughout the unit. Macrofossils present within the unit include bivalves, gastropods, lingulid brachiopods, spiriferid brachiopods, terebratulid brachiopods, echinoid skeletal elements (particularly spines) and crinoid ossicles. Based on conodont biostratigraphy and the macrofossil assemblage, the unit is Middle Triassic (Anisian) in age.The transgressive, onlapping wedge is thickest to the west (basinward) and has been erosionally removed or not deposited within the east. Erosional surfaces occur at the top and base contacts, which suggest the unit is unconformity bound. These unconformities are interpreted to represent flooding surface sequence boundaries. Structural features active during Triassic deposition greatly influence the distribution and preservations of the Sunset Prairie Formation, and the thickest (80 m) preserved interval is located within the Fort St John Graben system and Hudson Hope Low. However, the interval is areally extensive and is mappable throughout the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sedimentology and ichnology of the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Sunset
           Prairie Formation of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
    • Authors: Furlong CM; Gegolick A, Gingras MK, et al.
      Abstract: Between the Lower Triassic Montney Formation and the Middle Triassic Doig Formation, there is an unconformity-bound interval recently identified as the Sunset Prairie Formation which occurs on a regional scale within eastern British Columbia. The interval is Middle Triassic in age and is characterized by interbedded light grey, pervasively bioturbated sandstone and dark grey, minimally bioturbated siltstone. Trace fossils present within the interval include Phycosiphon, Rosselia, Cylindrichnus, Teichichnus, Asterosoma, Scolicia, Helminthopsis, Palaeophycus, Chondrites, Planolites, Diplocraterion, Rhizocorallium, Thalassinoides, Skolithos and Zoophycos, which are indicative of the Cruziana Ichnofacies.Seven facies are identified, based on sedimentological, ichnological and paleontological analysis of core. They are interpreted to have been deposited in offshore, offshore transition and lower shoreface environments, which were weakly storm affected. The unconformity bound unit exhibits flooding surface sequence boundaries at its top and base, and internal geometries of the facies stacking suggest retrogradational parasequence sets. The Sunset Prairie Formation overall thickens to the west, but is spatially complex due to the deposition and preservation of the interval being influenced by structural features within the basin. The Sunset Prairie Formation is thickest (80 m) within the Fort St John Graben system and Hudson Hope Low.The Sunset Prairie Formation provides the first regionally expansive, highly bioturbated assemblage of diverse trace fossils within the Middle Triassic strata of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Bioturbation is limited to the proximal offshore to lower shoreface settings, which is similar to the few examples of diverse ichnological assemblages within the Montney Formation. However, those earlier published examples are associated with refugia environments and are not laterally extensive. The lateral distribution of the Sunset Prairie Formation suggests that favorable environmental conditions were widespread during the earliest Middle Triassic (Anisian) and could play a key role in understanding the biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Regional subdivisions, sequences, correlations and facies relationships of
           the Lower Triassic Montney Formation, west-central Alberta to northeastern
           British Columbia, Canada — with emphasis on role of paleostructure
    • Authors: Davies GR; Watson N, Moslow TF, et al.
      Abstract: Stratigraphic subdivisions and sequences established for the Lower Triassic Montney Formation based on extensive core control in west-central Alberta have been extended to the northern sector of northeastern British Columbia (NE BC). The paper draws extensively on unpublished data from multiple industry sources. The correlations are based on six (6) cross-sections incorporating 63 wells with a cumulative section length of over 1000 kms. The cross-sections are presented in two formats: proportionally-spaced LAS log sections, included as text figures;equally-spaced raster log sections with extensive labels (including selected core summaries) in an appendix.The Montney in this paper is divided into three unconformity-bounded, third-order sequences. The divisions and their internal subdivisions (from base up) are: the Griesbachian-Dienerian Lower Montney, built up by transgressive and highstand systems tracts;the Smithian Middle Montney, with a basal lower Smithian lowstand wedge, a ‘mid’ Smithian transgressive systems tract, and a thick mid to upper Smithian highstand systems tract;the Spathian Upper Montney, with a basal lower Spathian lowstand wedge, and an overlying mid to upper Spathian siltstone unit (the former Lower Doig Siltstone of earlier GDGC reports) built up by a basal transgressive systems tract and an upper highstand systems tract.The bounding unconformities for these Montney divisions (from the base up) are:the global first-order Permian-Griesbachian unconformity and sequence boundary (SB), a complex, multi-event, paleokarst boundary correlative with Permo-Triassic mass extinction event/s (base Lower Montney);the global third-order Dienerian-Smithian unconformity and SB (Lower to Middle Montney boundary);the global third-order Smithian-Spathian unconformity and SB (Middle to Upper Montney boundary); andthe global second-order Spathian-Anisian unconformity and SB (Upper Montney to Doig boundary).Paleostructure on the Paleozoic unconformity below the Montney is a key control on the thickness of the total Montney, and of thicknesses of internal subdivisions, of facies, and of depositional trends. Upper Devonian Leduc reef and platform margins are the principal controls on Montney paleostructure from the southern Peace River arch area southeastward into south-central Alberta, while reactivated basement faults, including the Dawson Creek Graben Complex (DCGC) and the Hay River Fault Zone (HRFZ), are the major paleostructural controls northward into NE BC. Paleostructure is expressed best by third-order residual structure mapping of the top-Paleozoic unconformity, with three residual structure map-figures incorporating cross-section overlays included in this paper. A paleostructural location summary is included below each well log on the raster cross-sections.In the mid 1990s, preliminary biostratigraphic dating of the Montney in west-central Alberta was based on palynology. Within the last five years or so, new conodont biostratigraphic dating of the Montney in NE BC, from one published source but mainly from data released for this paper by Progress Energy Canada, has provided strong support for the proposed ages of subdivisions in the mid to upper Middle Montney (mid to late Smithian) and throughout the Upper Montney (early, mid, late Spathian). The only apparent discrepancy between conodont age dates and log-based lithostratigraphic picks and correlations in this paper centre around the placement of the Dienerian-Smithian (Lower to Middle Montney) boundary. As all conodont-dated wells lie within or peripheral to the HRFZ or other basement faults, structural movement may be a factor in this apparent discrepancy, but it is more likely due to uncertainties concerning the age range of key conodont species around or across the Dienerian-Smithian boundary, and of some stratigraphic picks.Some of the most intense bioturbation observed by the first author in any Montney cores occurs in the updip, shallower part of the lower Spathian lowstand wedge in westernmost Alberta and NE BC (where it is productive). A similar bioturbated interval also is recognized now in the updip, shallower part of the lower Smithian lowstand wedge in west-central Alberta. Ichnological analysis included in this paper demonstrates that the ichnogenera in both wedges essentially are the same, albeit more robust in the Spathian wedge. Extensive cryptobioturbation in HCS-dominant event beds in the upper Middle Montney enhances reservoir properties.The subdivisions, correlations and nomenclature for the Montney defined in this paper may stir some disagreement, but should serve as a base for an eventual industry-wide nomenclature and subdivision framework for the Montney.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Facies architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Lower Triassic
           Montney Formation, NE British Columbia: Fundamental controls on the
           distribution of ‘sweet spots’ in a world-class unconventional
    • Authors: Proverbs IP; Bann KL, Fratton CM, et al.
      Abstract: In the Regional Heritage Field of northeastern British Columbia, Canada, the Lower Triassic Montney Formation consists of up to 320 m of bituminous, dolomite-cemented, arkosic, siltstone that forms a continuous, basin-centred, hydrocarbon accumulation. An integrated sedimentological and ichnological analysis of cores taken from across the field, suggests that the Montney Formation features three main facies: shelf, distal prodelta and proximal prodelta. The shelf facies records deposition below storm wave base in a suboxic environment. The distal prodelta facies reflects deposition above storm wave base, in a setting that was subject to continuous paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The proximal prodelta facies was deposited between fair-weather and storm wave-base, in a setting that was periodically influenced by storms.The stratigraphic architecture of the Montney Formation consists of a series of offlapping clinoforms that comprise at least three unconformity-bounded, depositional sequences, informally named Sequence 1, 2, 3, in ascending order. These sequences are interpreted to reflect the construction of a relatively shallow marine shelf that was fed, primarily, by ephemeral rivers in an arid to semi-arid setting. A reconstruction of the depositional history of Sequence 3 places the reservoirs of this extensively targeted interval into facies and sequence stratigraphic context.The reservoir and production characteristics associated with the lowstand systems tract of Sequence 3 is examined, in order to identify and establish relationships between reservoir quality distribution and horizontal gas-well productivity in the Regional Heritage Field. The analysis reveals that the observed regional variability in horizontal well productivity is controlled, primarily, by the thickness and quality of the reservoir, as well as by factors that influence the relative permeability to gas. These factors include the distribution of hydrocarbons within the reservoir, and the associated water saturation. This study demonstrates that a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the depositional processes and sequence stratigraphy associated with the Montney Formation is fundamental to the exercise of defining sweet spots in this otherwise continuous reservoir.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sedimentary facies, petrology, reservoir characteristics, conodont
           biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphic framework of a continuous
           (395m) full diameter core of the Lower Triassic Montney Fm, northeastern
           British Columbia
    • Authors: Moslow TF; Haverslew B, Henderson CM.
      Abstract: A 395 m continuous 7.5 cm (3”) full-diameter core of the entire Montney Formation and overlying “Anisian Wedge” (a.k.a. Sunset Prairie Fm) from the Progress Graham c-65-F/94-B-8, provides an outstanding opportunity to examine the complete sedimentologic and stratigraphic record of the entire Lower Triassic in its most basinward paleogeographic position in the subsurface of northeastern British Columbia. The well has been extensively sampled for rock properties, including routine core analysis, thin-section petrology, XRF, rock-eval geochemistry, and conodont biostratigraphy. Integration of a detailed sedimentologic description of the entire core with data from 30 samples analyzed for conodonts, supported by extensive previous sedimentologic and biostratigraphic studies of Montney core in offset wells, provides the basis for construction of a sequence biostratigraphic framework of the entire Montney Formation. Seven primary sedimentary lithofacies are identified: four siliciclastic facies with varying degrees of bituminous matrix, two bioclastic facies and a calcareous, calcispheric dolosiltstone facies. All facies were deposited on the distal through proximal portions of a clastic shoreface to inner shelf or mixed clastic/carbonate ramp. Three principal reservoir facies associations regionally targeted for horizontal drilling are observed in the core as follows: 1) Early Dienerian Claraia sp. biostrome. This facies association, which has informally been referred to for years as “the turbidite zone,” is an in situ, monospecific, life assemblage of Claraia sp. “flat clams,” interpreted as a biostrome.2) Smithian mixed clastic/carbonate ramp facies association. Sharp-based, normally graded, 5–20 cm thick bioclastic event beds consisting of a low diversity mixture of bivalve fragments interpreted as tempestites and interbedded with variably cryptobioturbated suspension deposited siltstone.3) Late Spathian siliciclastic shoreface-inner shelf facies association. Dominantly burrowed to bioturbated sandy coarse siltstone and silty very-fine grained sandstones were deposited in lower shoreface, offshore transition and offshore environments. This interval is bounded at the base by a maximum flooding surface and above by a coplanar sequence boundary/flooding surface demarcated by a Glossifungites trace fossil assemblage. The Spathian section is overlain by the “Anisian Wedge” (Sunset Prairie Fm.) stratigraphic unit.Petrographic analysis in conjunction with core analysis data indicate that macro- and cryptobioturbation preserve intergranular porosity and permeability by inhibiting calcite cementation and developing dual pore throat size apertures, both of which play a key role in hydrocarbon deliverability. This has been demonstrated in MICP results from Late Spathian shoreface-inner shelf facies associations in nearby wells (Moslow and Haverslew, 2015).The Montney is bounded by coplanar sequence boundary/flooding surfaces at the top of the underlying Paleozoic Belloy Formation and base of the overlying Middle Triassic Doig-Phosphate Formation. An informally named “Middle Montney” sequence boundary is regionally correlatable and coincident with the Smithian-Spathian contact. This surface is associated with significant erosion, brecciation and truncation of underlying strata. All three surfaces are likely the products of relative sea level fluctuations coincident with regional tectonism.Conodont biostratigraphy of the c-65-F core provides the basis for subdividing the Montney into four sequences from oldest to youngest as follows: Sequence 1) Griesbachian-Dienerian (Lower Montney); Sequence 2) Smithian (Middle Montney); and Sequence 3) Spathian (Upper Montney). In addition, the overlying “Anisian Wedge” (Sunset Prairie Fm), sometimes included lithostratigraphically with the Montney Formation, is Sequence 4 and of Anisian (Middle Triassic) age.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sedimentology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Sulphur Mountain (Montney
           equivalent) Formation outcrop in south central Rocky Mountains, Alberta,
    • Authors: Zelazny IV; Gegolick A, Zonneveld J, et al.
      Abstract: Deposition of the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation of Western Canada was the product of a dynamic interaction of sedimentary processes and tectonism, resulting in highly heterogeneous successions. The Sulphur Mountain Formation, age equivalent to the subsurface Montney Formation, outcrops in South Central Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada and provides an opportunity for a high-resolution study. A detailed framework of four studied outcrops was established by integrating sedimentology, stratigraphy, and inorganic geochemistry. Four lithofacies were identified in these outcrops; hummocky cross-stratified very fine sandstone (L-1), massive-appearing very fine sandstone and coarse siltstone (L-2), interlaminated very fine sandstone and siltstone (L-3), and planar laminated siltstone (L-4). Interpreted environments of deposition for these lithofacies range from lower shoreface to proximal offshore. Correlated outcrop measured sections and interpretations of the geochemistry and lithofacies suggest a dynamic and complex depositional history. Changes in relative sea level, source terrain/provenance, and detrital clastic sediment input infer depositional influences during intervals of extensive weathering and tectonic activity. These factors provide an explanation for the facies heterogeneity observed in the Sulphur Mountain Formation.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Middle Montney Altares Member: lithology, depositional setting and
           significance for horizontal drilling and completion in the Altares Field,
           British Columbia
    • Authors: Sanders SS; Etienne CC, Gegolick AA, et al.
      Abstract: The Montney Formation is dominated by fine-grained lithologies, primarily siltstone and very fine-grained sandstone. Regionally pervasive hydrocarbon saturation and a lithological framework that is both relatively easy to drill horizontally, as well as sufficiently brittle to respond satisfactorily to hydraulic fracture programs have rendered this the primary unconventional reservoir target in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.Recent drilling programs in the Altares Field of northeastern British Columbia have encountered heterogeneities in the Altares Member of the Montney Formation that present challenges to fracture stimulation. The Altares Member, consist of centimetre to decimetre-scale interbeds of bituminous siltstone, very fine-grained sandstone and bioclastic packstone to grainstone beds. These beds accumulated in a proximal offshore to offshore transition setting, above maximum storm wave base but below fairweather wave base. Bioclast-rich beds were subjected to syndepositional/early post-depositional calcite cementation, whereas bituminous siltstone horizons are largely devoid of calcite cements. These beds are characterized by geomechanical properties (changes in Poisson’s Ratio and Young’s Modulus determined via triaxial testing and analyses of dipole sonic logs) that are distinct from that of the host-rock.Frequent vertical contrasts in geomechanical properties in the interbedded siltstone/bioclastic packstone/grainstone beds provide numerous planes of weak-ness. Common bedding plane slickensides attest to lateral movement at lithofacies contacts, likely during Laramide tectonism. In the Altares Member in the Altares Field area these bedding-parallel contrasts in geomechanical properties act as vertical barriers to fracture stimulations, causing the water to follow the contrast instead of breaking through it, thus preventing effective stimulation. In addition to facilitating ineffective fracture propagation, bedding plane slippage can have a deleterious effect on the vertical well bore including, in several cases, crimping of well casings.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • The sedimentology, stratigraphy and reservoir characteristics of the
           Montney D1 and D2 horizons in the Greater Pouce Coupe area
    • Authors: Prenoslo D; Furlong CM, Gingras MK, et al.
      Abstract: Deposited immediately following the Montney lowstand turbidites, the moderate porosity and low permeability siltstones of the Montney D1 and D2 horizons are important exploration targets. Eight lithofacies are identified, based on detailed sedimentological and ichnological observations. Deposition took place in the distal offshore to offshore-transition area. Linear sourced turbidity currents are thought to have been the most important mechanism for sediment deposition. An arid coastline, with numerous ephemeral river systems that transported large amounts of sediment to the coast during storms, created an over steepened shoreface profile which would have been prone to mass wasting events.The study area overlies the southeastern extension of the Fort St. John Graben complex, and structural reactivations throughout the deposition of the D1 and D2 horizons played a major role in controlling the location of major sediment accumulations. The D1-D2 transition is characterized by the presence of silty shale beds. The presence of appreciable amounts of clay in the Montney is rare except for a few areas. These areas are interpreted to have been deposited under the influence of perennial deltaic systems. During the D1-D2 transition, silty shale beds indicate that there was a perennial river system running through the Hines Creek Graben sourcing the clays.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Conodont sequence biostratigraphy of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation
    • Authors: Henderson CM; Golding ML, Orchard MJ.
      Abstract: Conodonts have proven to be excellent index fossils to study the subsurface Montney Formation given their small size and regular occurrence in most marine facies. Twenty uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic conodont biozones are summarized and the sequence biostratigraphic framework provides a template demonstrating the correlation potential of the Montney Formation in the Peace River Basin from west-central Alberta to east-central British Columbia. The Montney Formation, which includes three 3rd order depositional sequences that are also recognized globally, naturally subdivides into Lower (Griesbachian-Dienerian; Induan), Middle (Smithian; lower Olenekian), and Upper Montney (Spathian; upper Olenekian). The Early Triassic is 4.8 m.y. in duration, but up to 200 k.y. of the latest Permian are included within the basal Montney. The ages of biozones and sequences are interpolated, but there is still considerable uncertainty in the ages for all levels, but for the base-Induan and base-Anisian.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
  • Palaeogeographic setting, lithostratigraphy, and sedimentary framework of
           the Lower Triassic Montney Formation of western Alberta and northeastern
           British Columbia
    • Authors: Zonneveld J; Moslow TF.
      Abstract: The subsurface Montney Formation records deposition through the Lower Triassic interval on the northwestern margin of the North American craton. Various evidence, including stratigraphic architecture, the presence of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic zircons and sediment geochemistry support the contention that the Montney is a product of deposition in a collisional retro-foreland basin setting.The Montney is formally divided into eight regionally extensive members on the basis of lithology, mineralogy and well log character. Three of these, the Lower Montney Member, Middle Montney Member and Upper Montney Member are similar to informal units used by industry geoscientists. The boundaries of these units coincide with major stage boundaries (Dienerian-Smithian and Smithian-Spathian). Three new members are provided for carbonate-dominated units in the Montney Formation. The Pocketknife Member, formerly referred to as the Claraia zone), consists of bituminous, planar-laminated siltstone with abundant thin-shelled bivalves and thin bioclastic packstone beds. It occurs interbedded with the Lower Montney Member. The Anten Coquina Member (formerly the informal coquinal dolomite middle member) occurs in the eastern part of the Montney basin (near the subcrop limit) and consists of bioclastic grainstone dominated by fragmentary, disarticulated bivalves, gastropods and lingulide brachiopods that occurs coincident with the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. The Altares Member consists of interbeds of bioclastic packstone and grainstone with bituminous dolomitic siltstone and occurs interbedded with the upper part of the Middle Montney Member in the west-central part of the basin. Two sandstone-dominated members are also named. The Calais Sandstone Member occurs near the base of the Montney and consists of well-sorted cross-stratified fine-grained sandstone. The LaGlace Sandstone Member occurs near the base of the Middle Montney Member. Both sandstone members are of turbidite origin and occur primarily within the Peace River embayment (sensu stricto) area.Dominated by subangular to subrounded quartz silt and a low overall proportion of clay and high proportion of detrital dolomite and feldspar, the Montney is compositionally and texturally unique in Western Canada. Although fine-grained siliciclastic sediment dominates, dolomite occurs throughout the Montney Formation and several regionally extensive bioclastic packstone and grainstone horizons occur. Montney deposition records a low-relief clastic ramp succession deposited in an arid coastal setting and includes units deposited in a variety of shallow marine and turbidite lobe / channel settings. The Montney’s unique mineralogical and textural composition is a function of both the demise of Palaeozoic carbonate-secreting organisms and deposition in an arid coastal setting fed by rare perennial, and abundant ephemeral, fluvial systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
    • PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
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