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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
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Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
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Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
  [SJR: 0.616]   [H-I: 4]   [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2213-2902
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Failure investigation of a secondary super heater tube in a 140MW thermal
           power plant

    • Authors: Atanu Saha; H. Roy
      Pages: 57 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 8
      Author(s): Atanu Saha, H. Roy
      This article describes the findings of a detailed investigation into the failure of a secondary super heater tube in a 140MW thermal power plant. Preliminary macroscopic examinations along with visual examination, dimensional measurement and chemical analysis were carried out to deduce the probable cause of failure. In addition optical microscopy was a necessary supplement to understand the cause of failure. It was concluded that the tube had failed due to severe creep damage caused by high metal temperature during service. The probable causes of high metal temperature may be in sufficient flow of steam due to partial blockage, presence of thick oxide scale on ID surface, high flue gas temperature etc. rupture.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T22:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • Failure of 321 stainless steel heater tube in heavy crude oil

    • Authors: H.M. Shalaby; K. Ravindranath; N. Tanoli; B. Al-Wakaa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): H.M. Shalaby, K. Ravindranath, N. Tanoli, B. Al-Wakaa
      Failure investigation was done on a 321 stainless steel charge heater tube which failed in a refinery unit processing heavy crude oil. Crude oil was the charge in the radiant and convection sections; while saturated stripping steam is present in convection section. After a leak was detected, visual inspection revealed that nine convection tubes had black oil/coke deposits on their external surfaces. The deposits were seen on the first three rows of tubes. When one of the tubes was lightly ground at the black colored area, a circumferential crack was visually observed. The investigation revealed that long-term aging, coupled with localized deposition of salts and coke from the heavy crude led to sensitization of the tube surface layers. This in turn resulted in sulphidation of the internal surface grain boundaries, formation of grooves, and cracking of the material. Thus, cracking was intergranular in nature in the initial stage, but became transgranular at later stages. It was concluded that cracking was due to chloride stress corrosion cracking catalyzed by the presence of sulphur-bearing species. It was recommended that the desalter operation be improved and frequent decoking and scale removal be carried out, with emphasis on the convection section at the refinery.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T22:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.04.004
  • Forensic Investigation of a Failed Connecting Rod from a Motorcycle Engine

    • Authors: K. Bari; A. Rolfe; A. Christofi; C. Mazzuca; K.V. Sudhakar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): K. Bari, A. Rolfe, A. Christofi, C. Mazzuca, K.V. Sudhakar
      In the present work, a failed connecting rod from a motorcycle engine was investigated for the root cause of and possible mechanisms leading to its premature failure. In addition to finding the root cause, the expectation from this study was to possibly improve the existing designs or practices to avoid similar failures in future. These results were validated using a finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. A Scanning Electron Microscope was used for investigating the mechanisms of fracture modes, optical microscopy for studying the microstructures and visual inspection were primarily utilised to determine the root cause of the failure. In conclusion, it was determined that the root cause for the premature failure of the connecting rod was the presence of scale build-up inclusions, which led to micro cracking during fatigue loading of the component.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T22:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.05.002
  • Damage Analysis of the Forced Draft Fan Blade in Coal Fired Power Plant

    • Authors: M. Nurbanasari; T. Kristyadi; T.S. Purwanto; A. Maulana; R.R. Fadilah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): M. Nurbanasari, T. Kristyadi, T.S. Purwanto, A. Maulana, R.R. Fadilah
      The Forced Draft Fan (FDF) blade in a 300MW coal fired power plant that experienced catastrophic failure has been investigated. There were two main locations of the blade damage, namely damage at the root of the blade and the other one is at the third of the blade height. The FDF blade has been run for 5 years and before its failure, the FDF experienced high vibration (14mm/s). The forced draft fan is an axial flow fan horizontally in front of the boiler and the fan is single stage. Visual inspection, metallographic analysis, chemical composition and hardness test were carried out to find the cause of the failure. It is concluded that the material of the blade is cast Al-Si alloy (A356.0) that fits the requirements for FDF blade application, the failure of the third of the blade height is owing to the external particles collide to the leading edge of the blades causing erosion and notch. That notch acted as initial crack. The failure at the root blade was caused by broken fragments of the others damaged blades entered in between casing (stator) and the blade (rotor) so they obstructed the blade rotation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T17:56:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.04.005
  • Failure analysis of gas turbine first stage blade made of nickel-based

    • Authors: A.M. Kolagar; N. Tabrizi; M. Cheraghzadeh; M.S. Shahriari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): A.M. Kolagar, N. Tabrizi, M. Cheraghzadeh, M.S. Shahriari
      Various degradation mechanisms are characterized in gas turbine rotor blades due to service conditions such as: high temperature and stress. Failure of turbine blade can have the tremendous effects on the safety and performance of the gas turbine engine. This paper investigates a first stage turbine blade failure in a 6.5MW gas turbine. The blade is made of nickel-based superalloy, and the failure occurred in the airfoils after 6500hours of operation. Several examinations were carried out in order to identify potential failure reasons such as: visual examination, fractography and microstructural characterization used by optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The precipitated phases morphology (carbides and γ' (Ni3Al)) changed in the airfoil for example γ' resolved and re-deposited in addition to decomposition of carbides. Furthermore, the fracture surface exhibits the local melting occurred and re-solidified in the leading edge. From analysis and experimental results of this study, overheating is shown to be the main reason of blade failure.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T17:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.04.002
  • Overheated Pipe due to Scale: Field Failure Investigation and Finite
           Element Analysis

    • Authors: H. Sunandrio; H.A. Suhartono; Y. Prawoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): H. Sunandrio, H.A. Suhartono, Y. Prawoto
      Through a field failure investigation and finite element analysis, a study on overheated pipe due to scale was performed. The field failure samples were collected from primary reformer convection tube made of material based on ASTM A 335 grad P91 modified specification. The type of the object was a fin tube coil. The tube shows rupture with the shape of fish mouth accompanied by bulging. The analysis performed using finite element mimics the actual field conditions. It was discovered that long term overheating due to scale both at the outside and in the inside of the tube hinders the smooth heat transfer process. This consequently leads to poor heat transfer and violates the original design philosophy. Metallurgical evaluation proves this verdict. Furthermore, the finite element analysis also supports the conclusion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T17:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.04.003
  • Failure analysis of the fasten system of wheels used in mining pickup

    • Authors: A. Artigas; A. Monsalve; R. Colás; N.F. Garza-Montes-de-Oca
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): A. Artigas, A. Monsalve, R. Colás, N.F. Garza-Montes-de-Oca
      Regardless of their specific applications, all the vehicles used in mining operations are subjected to severe working conditions that reduce in a considerable amount, their active in-service life. In this work, the causes that promote failure of the fasten system and subsequent ejection of the wheels of passenger pickup trucks used in open-pit mines are analysed. By means of scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy analyses and hardness tests, it was found that failure of the fasten system is characterised by a series of synergetic steps that include, the plastic deformation of the lug nuts caused by deficient tightening practices, fatigue and plastic deformation of the bolts. When combined, these phenomena leaded to the formation of cracks that propagated in the radial direction of these elements. The reasons that promote the development of this kind of failure are presented and discussed in this investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T09:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.02.001
  • Failure analysis of Fire Resistant Fluid (FRF) piping used in hydraulic
           control system at oil-fired thermal power generation plant

    • Authors: Muhammad Akram; Muhammad Umair; Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman; Asim Iqbal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Umair, Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman, Asim Iqbal
      This is a case study regarding frequent forced outages in an oil-fired power generating station due to failure of fire resistant fluid (FRF) piping of material ASTM A-304. This analysis was done to find out the most probable cause of failure and to rectify the problem. Methods for finding and analyzing the cracks include nondestructive testing techniques such as visual testing (VT) and dye penetrant testing (PT) along with that periodic monitoring after rectification of problem. The study revealed that pitting and pit to crack transitions were formed in stainless steel piping containing high pressure (system pressure 115 bars) fire resistant fluid. However, after replacement of piping the pitting and cracking reoccurred. It was observed that due to possible exposure to chlorinated moisture in surrounding environment pitting was formed which then transformed into cracks. The research work discussed in this paper illustrates the procedure used in detection of the problem and measures taken to solve the problem.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T06:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2017.01.001
  • Root Cause Analysis (RCA) of Fractured ASTM A53 Carbon Steel Pipe at Oil
           & Gas Company

    • Authors: M.A. Khattak; N. Zareen; Anique Mukhtar; S. Kazi; Amena Jalil; Zaheer Ahmed; Miraj Muhammad Jan
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): M.A. Khattak, N. Zareen, Anique Mukhtar, S. Kazi, Amena Jalil, Zaheer Ahmed, Miraj Muhammad Jan
      Incident involving failures of ASTM A53 carbon steel (CS) pipe, connected to pressure safety valve (PSV) and carrying raw gas has caused serious supply disruption. Study was performed to identify the most probable cause of the pipe failure. The study conducted by reviewing the existing design, construction data and pipe material analysis using non-destructive techniques such as VT, PT, MT and UT along with metallographic, hardness and microscopic analysis. The investigation revealed that excessive material loss has occurred in both failure and its adjacent regions due to abrasive grinding, resulting in the formation of a through thickness flaw. These grindings were performed to accommodate the pre-installed piping spool to avoid alteration in the pipe position. RCA demonstrated that this rapid thinning of the steel pipe body later led to its failure. Metallurgical study using photomicrograph shows that the morphology of the steel material was consistent and did not show any evidence of internal corrosion or micro fractures. Further damage to the surface of already excessively reduced thickness occurred due to nominal pipe vibration and atmospheric effect during service. The research work described in the paper has a significant meaning to recognize root cause of such failures in CS pipes and through given recommendations to eliminate future such happenings.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:28:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Metallurgical Failure Analysis of a Cracked Aluminum 7075 wing internal

    • Authors: Morteza Soltani Tajabadi
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Morteza Soltani
      Internal angles are used to strengthen Aircrafts center box corners where the wing is attached to the airframe. There are 16 angles in Airbus A300s wing box. On the right side, rear spur, and lower flange area of the center wing box, one of these angles had been cracked with a length of 28mm. This crack has decreased residual strength of the part under allowed values and resulted to a rupture in the rear spur lower cap. Several reports of the same occurrences in other Airbus A300 air crafts, highlight the importance of finding the causes of this failure. Detailed optical and SEM, plus 4 other metallurgical tests were conducted on the failed angle. Finally, it was concluded that Corrosion Fatigue was the main reason which itself comes from manufacturing, maintenance, metallurgical,and geometric reasons as were discussed in this study.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T04:45:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Failure analysis of a half-shaft of a Formula SAE Racing car

    • Authors: A.V. Guimaraes; P.C. Brasileiro; G.C. Giovanni; L.R.O. Costa; L.S. Araujo
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): A.V. Guimaraes, P.C. Brasileiro, G.C. Giovanni, L.R.O. Costa, L.S. Araujo
      The formula SAE is a competition among students worldwide, where they are challenged to design, build and test a small formula-type racing car, following rules and specifications defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). In the present analysis a premature failure of a half-shaft of the transmission system of a racing car occurred after circa 100km of use. The fractured component was analyzed by means of metallographic, chemical and mechanical analysis, fractography and finite element analysis. The results show that the alloy steel bar used for the half-shaft did not follow specifications, with a consequent lower strength and resulting in a material with insufficient loading capacity and fatigue resistance. As a consequence, the fracture process was a confluence of torsional fatigue crack propagation and overload ductile fracture through the spline section of the half-shaft.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T04:45:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Failure Analysis of a Diesel Generator Connecting Rod

    • Authors: C. Juarez; F. Rumiche; A. Rozas; J. Cuisano; P. Lean
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): C. Juarez, F. Rumiche, A. Rozas, J. Cuisano, P. Lean
      This paper presents the results of a failure analysis investigation conducted in a connecting rod from a Diesel engine used in the generation of electrical energy. The investigation included an extensive analysis of the con-rod material as well as the fracture zone. The investigation involved the following experimental procedures and testing techniques: visual inspection, fractography, magnetic particle inspection, chemical analysis, tensile and hardness testing, metallography, and microanalysis. The connecting rod was fabricated from an AISI/SAE 4140 low alloy steel; chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructure were appropriate for the application. The connecting rod fractured at the body in a section close to the head; the origin of the fracture was located at the con-rod lubrication channel. The lubrication channel exhibited an area containing a tungsten based material, presumably from a machining tool, embedded in its surface as a result of a deficient manufacturing process. This area acted as nucleation site for cracks that propagate through the connecting rod section by a fatigue mechanism, reducing its section and finally producing its catastrophic failure.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Failure analysis of tube-to-tubesheet welded joints in a shell-tube heat

    • Authors: Long Liu; Ning Ding; Junbo Shi; Na Xu; Weimin Guo; Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 7
      Author(s): Long Liu, Ning Ding, Junbo Shi, Na Xu, Weimin Guo, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
      Failure analysis was carried out on a tube-to-tubesheet welded joint of a shell-tube heat exchanger to confirm its failure mechanism. The collected evidence suggests that the failure of the tube-to-tubesheet welded joint was induced by fatigue. Under the morphology analysis, the fracture surface exhibit obvious fatigue crack propagation traces. Fatigue striations were observed clearly in the propagation zone. Detecting results showed that chemical composition and mechanical properties of the tubes was consistent with the standard requirements for the 304 stainless steel. The metallographic test showed that the microstructure of both the tube and tubesheet were normal. However, serious defects were found at the tube-to-tubesheet welded joint. The fatigue crack initiated from the defects at the tube-to-tubesheet welded joint. The periodic load might come from the resonant vibration of the tube or the changes in temperature and pressure of the fluid inside the heat exchanger. Bad welding and unsuitable expansion position of the tubes at the tube-to-tubesheet might give rise to the formation of initial cracks.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Investigation of a Columbus, Ohio Train Derailment Caused by Fractured

    • Authors: Frank Zakar; Erik Mueller
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Frank Zakar, Erik Mueller
      On July 11, 2012 an eastbound Norfolk Southern train derailed 17 cars within the city limits of Columbus, OH. Three of the cars that derailed were carrying over 86000 gallons of denatured ethanol. Once breached, the ethanol in the tank cars ignited, fueling a large fire. The derailment led to the evacuation of over 100 people and cost over $1.2 million. This paper will detail the on-scene response and failure analysis performed by the NTSB Materials Laboratory, focusing on the recovered rail that contained 25 transverse detail fractures.

      PubDate: 2016-04-21T04:59:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Analysis of the Failure of an Offshore Compressor Crankshaft

    • Authors: William Harris; Keith Birkitt
      Pages: 50 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): William Harris, Keith Birkitt
      During the inspection of a North Sea oil and gas platform a crack was identified on the crankshaft of a compressor. Subsequently, the component was decommissioned and a failure examination undertaken to determine the mechanism of failure. The crankshaft was analysed using a range of inspection, measurement and fractographic techniques. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) indicated that the crack extended for the majority of the shaft length, rotating through approximately 225 degrees of the shaft's circumference. Laser scanning verified the dimensions and concentricity of the crankshaft were in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. On sectioning the crack and forcing it open, complex fracture features were revealed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine these features as well as the surface of the crankshaft. The investigation determined that the mechanism of failure of the crankshaft was probably corrosion fatigue, initiating from localised corrosive attack on the crankshaft's surface.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T18:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Damage Analysis of Choke Bean Used in an Oil-Gas Well

    • Authors: H.M. Tawancy; Luai M. Alhems
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): H.M. Tawancy, Luai M. Alhems
      A choke bean used in an oil-gas field has catastrophically failed during operation. It is shown that that the damage has been caused by leakage of the corrosive and abrasive drilling fluid. The choke bean adapter made of carbon steel has been corroded and embrittled by hydrogen ingress leading to its fracture in the presence of stresses created by the pressure of accumulated fluid at the bottom section. On the other hand, the choke corner body made of stainless steel has been damaged by abrasive wear of its outer surface.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T19:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Analysis of a Failed Rocker Arm Shaft of a Passenger Car Engine

    • Authors: G.A. Nassef; A. Elkhatib; Mostafa Yakout
      Pages: 10 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): G.A. Nassef, A. Elkhatib, Mostafa Yakout
      This paper investigates the failure of a rocker arm shaft of a passenger car. The shaft failed by brittle fracture across one of the four holes supporting the shaft into the cylinder head. The running distance of the engine just before failure was 40626 kilometres. Visual examinations of etched sections of the failed shaft and a new one revealed four distinct zones of darker etching appearance. These zones correspond to the four locations where the rocker arms fit the shaft. Microscopic observations of the failed shaft revealed that the four dark-etching areas are surface hardened zones of martensitic microstructure. Furthermore, scanning the microstructure along the failed shaft showed that the heat treatment was so mistakenly extended by excessive heating sothat the structure of the shaft near the supporting holes contains considerable content of martensite phase. This conclusion has been confirmed by the results of hardness measurements along the surface of the shaft. Microscopic investigations of the failed shaft revealed the presence of microcracks close to the supporting holes. These cracks may have been induced in the shaft by the non-uniform cooling during quenching in the course of heat treatment, or may be nucleated by repeated loading during service. This premature failure has occurred by the rapid crack propagation because of the lower fracture toughness of the martensite.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T22:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Fracture failure analysis of 4Cr13 stainless steel linkages in circuit

    • Authors: Wang-ping Wu
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): W.U. Wang-ping
      In this study, the fracture failure of the 4Cr13 stainless steel linkage components in circuit breakers was studied. The microstructure and morphology of fracture surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. A micro-Vickers tester measured the hardness of the components. The tensile strength and strain of the components were determined by a universal testing machine. The results show that fracture failure mode was quasi-cleavage fracture, and some dimples and edges of cleavage were present on the fracture surface. The substandard sample exhibited higher hardness than the standard sample. The high hardness could cause the strong rigidity and less toughness, which was not helpful to bend the samples to form hook structure. The heat treatment influenced the mechanical properties of the 4Cr13 components. With increasing the tempering temperature, the hardness of the component was decreased when the quenching temperature was kept stable.

      PubDate: 2016-01-25T23:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Failure analysis of a 316L stainless steel femoral orthopaedic implant

    • Authors: Benjamin Gervais; Aurelian Vadean; Maxime Raison; Myriam Brochu
      Pages: 30 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Benjamin Gervais, Myriam Brochu, Aurelian Vadean, Maxime Raison
      This study presents a failure analysis of a femoral orthopaedic implant. This implant is a locking compression plate that was fixed to a broken femur using two types of screws: locking and compression screws. The study elucidates the causes of an in situ premature failure of the plate and screws. Chemical analysis, hardness tests, and microstructural analysis confirmed that the implant was manufactured from cold-worked stainless steel 316L. The macro and micro fractographic analyses revealed that the failure mechanism was high-cycle fatigue and that the implant underwent approximately 106 loading cycles before failure. A finite element analysis of the assembly indicated that the crack initiation sites are located in the region where the highest stresses are observed. This numerical analysis confirmed that walking induces the loading condition needed for this specific failure. According to this loading condition and to the material properties, the stress amplitude that initiated and propagated the crack is estimated to be in the range of 400MPa. Several considerations, both mechanical and medical, are discussed in order to explain the failure and to improve the durability of the system. From an engineering perspective, implant geometry and installation procedure could be optimized in order to reduce the stress concentrations that developed near the crack origin.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T22:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Fracture analysis of a low pressure steam turbine blade

    • Authors: Ernst Plesiutschnig; Patrick Fritzl; Norbert Enzinger; Christof Sommitsch
      Pages: 39 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Ernst Plesiutschnig, Patrick Fritzl, Norbert Enzinger, Christof Sommitsch
      Cracks were analysed at the root of the third blade row of low-pressure steam turbine blades of different natural frequencies. The root cause of the fatigue crack initiation was pitting corrosion of the forged ferritic/martensitic X20Cr13 material. Metallographic investigations, finite element analysis and fracture mechanics analysis combined with experimental data from the literature are used to evaluate crack propagating stresses to discuss the operating conditions. The calculations show that corrosion pits at the root of the turbine blade increase the local stresses above yield strength. Excitation of natural frequencies by changing the rotor speed are not responsible for the crack propagation. The centrifugal load and superimposed bending load caused by unsteady steam forces are responsible for the crack propagation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-17T01:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Research on the failure of the induced draft fan's shaft in a power boiler

    • Authors: Jinfeng Du; Jun Liang; Lei Zhang
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Jinfeng Du, Jun Liang, Lei zhang
      The failure of the induced draft fan's shaft in a power boiler was been analyzed. The performances of material applied satisfied the design requirement. The order torsional vibration showed anomaly at the shaft's smallest diameter for the design condition and the actual radius of that chamfer less than the design radius caused more significant stress concentration. The additive effect of the abnormal torsional vibration and the higher stress concentration induced the microcrack's initiation along the network pearlite's interface. The vibration and the alternating torsional loading in the induced draft fan's service led to crack growing along the different direction and fracture presenting the typical ratchet-like characteristic.

      PubDate: 2016-02-17T01:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Stress corrosion cracking in Type.316 plates of A heat exhanger

    • Authors: S.H. Khodamorad; N. Alinezhad; D. Haghshenas Fatmehsari; K. Ghahtan
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): S.h. Khodamorad, N. Alinezhad, D. haghshenas Fatmehsari, K. Ghahtan
      In Jam petrochemical complex (JPC), Iran, the plates (ASTM A.240 Type.316) of some heat exchangers have been damaged due to the occurrence of cracks at the sitting place of gaskets. A comprehensive failure analysis including the chemical analysis, visual inspection, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cracks spread over the plates together with the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the corrosion products and the measurement of chloride and sulfide ions content of the process water were employed for the examination of the failure mode and its causes. The obtained results indicate the building-up of the chloride and sulfide ions at the crevices between plates and gaskets at high temperature leads to stress cracking corrosion (SCC) of the plates. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of chloride and sulfide in the media hastens the SCC failure in the heat exchanger plates.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T13:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Failure analysis of mixed mode crack growth in heavy duty truck frame rail

    • Authors: Vinay N. Rao; Jeffrey W. Eischen
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Vinay N. Rao, Jeffrey W. Eischen
      A failure analysis investigation was performed on a fractured heavy duty truck frame rail obtained during endurance track testing. The fracture observed was on the frame web within the torque rod connection to the rear drive axle of the vehicle. This section of frame experiences multi-axial loading conditions including out-of-plane bending, twisting and shear under road loads. Metallographic examination revealed micro-cracks on the edges of an open hole located in an area of high stress concentration. This manufacturing defect acted as a stress raiser and resulted in fatigue crack initiation. Simulation of crack growth on frame rail using dynamic loads from a full vehicle model was completed. After careful analysis it was concluded that the failure occurred due to an aggressively drilled open hole which created small crack initiations in a high stress-state location of the frame. This resulted in extensive curvilinear crack growth under dynamic loads of the vehicle.

      PubDate: 2016-04-06T22:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5-6 (2016)
  • Assessment of circumferential cracks in hypereutectic Al-Si clutch

    • Authors: M. Haghshenas; J. Jamali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): M. Haghshenas, J. Jamali
      As in situ natural composites with silicon phase acting as the reinforcing phase, Al-Si alloys are among most commonly used aluminum alloys in automotive applications (i.e. engine component). Silicon contributes to the strength of Al-Si alloys through load transfer from the Al matrix to the hard (rigid) Si phase in the microstructure (load-carrying capacity). Casting parameters (i.e. solidification rate, elemental segregation, secondary dendrite spacing…) as well as the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents in Al-Si alloys (i.e. morphology of Si particles, intermetallic compounds, secondary dendrite spacing) contribute directly to the mechanical response and failure (or fracture) behavior of the alloy within the service. In hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e. B390.0), distribution of coarse pre-eutectic Si particle mainly contribute to stress concentration, crack initiation and propagation during the actual service condition. In the present paper, the parameters contribution to the formation of the circumferential cracks in clutch housings made of die cast hyper-eutectics B390.0 Al-Si alloys are assessed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Casting variable, cooling rate, their effect on the cracks as well some of the possible causes are also discussed in detail.

      PubDate: 2016-12-16T06:38:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.11.003
  • Failure analysis of a first stage IN738 gas turbine blade tip cracking in
           a thermal power plant

    • Authors: Sushila Rani; Atul Agrawal Vikas Rastogi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Sushila Rani, Atul K. Agrawal, Vikas Rastogi
      This research paper deals with the investigation of causes of failure of the first stage gas turbine blade of 30MW gas turbine having tip cracks at the trailing as well as leading edge. This blade is made of nickel based super alloy IN738LC, having directional solidified grain structure and contains aluminide coating (Pt–Al2) by diffusion process. The main focus of the paper is evaluation of tip crack at the trailing edge and further degradation of blade coating. The investigations included the visual observations, material composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fatigue mode evaluation through ANSYS, Finite Element Software. During examination of the failed blade, it is found that the blade surface is completely degraded due to overheating. Corrosion pits are formed on the blade surface, these pits act as a notch to produce stress concentrations and cracks is initiated due to fatigue which further propagate due to hot corrosion. It is also reported that the Al-Pt coating is completely degraded, heavily oxidized. From these investigations, it is concluded that the failure of gas turbine blade takes place due to the combined effect of surface degradation caused by overheating, oxidation, hot corrosion and degradation of coating heavily oxidized.

      PubDate: 2016-12-09T03:43:03Z
  • Bayesian analysis of low-cycle fatigue failure in printed wiring boards

    • Authors: Rong Pana; Xinyue Xu; Joseph Juarez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Rong Pana, Xinyue Xu, Joseph Juarez
      In this study, a low-cycle fatigue experiment was conducted on printed wiring boards (PWB). The Weibull regression model and computational Bayesian analysis method were applied to analyze failure time data and to identify important factors that influence the PWB lifetime. The analysis shows that both shape parameter and scale parameter of Weibull distribution are affected by the supplier factor and preconditioning methods Based on the energy equivalence approach, a 6-cycle reflow precondition can be replaced by a 5-cycle IST precondition, thus the total testing time can be greatly reduced. This conclusion was validated by the likelihood ratio test of two datasets collected under two different preconditioning methods Therefore, the Weibull regression modeling approach is an effective approach for accounting for the variation of experimental setting in the PWB lifetime prediction.

      PubDate: 2016-11-18T17:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.11.001
  • Report on fractures of trilayered all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses

    • Authors: Renan Belli; Susanne S. Scherrer; Ulrich Lohbauer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
      Author(s): Renan Belli, Susanne S. Scherrer, Ulrich Lohbauer
      Three cases of trilayered fixed dental prostheses fractured in vivo are fractographically analyzed to identify causes of failure. In all cases fractures initiated from a preexistent crack/defect in the zirconia framework produced previous to the fusion firing of a lithium disilicate veneering ceramic. In 2 cases zirconia framework pre-cracks were found to have been infiltrated with the intermediate glass that diffused therein during sintering. These reports highlight the susceptibility of zirconia to grinding damage and its role in limiting the lifetime of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses.

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T16:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csefa.2016.10.001
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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