Authors:Joao Paulo N. Torres, Jorge Pereira First page: 1 Abstract: In waveguide photodetectors the bandwidth and the quantum efficiency may be specified almost independently because the absorption of light is in the longitudinal direction whereas the current flows in the transversal direction. Then, these devices may combine high bandwidth with high quantum efficiency. In this paper a detailed numerical analysis of the frequency response of waveguide photodetectors is presented. The calculations show that the capacitive effects limit the bandwidth but that by an appropriate choice of a series inductance the maximum bandwidth almost doubles. PubDate: 2017-07-18 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p1 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Koshun Suto First page: 7 Abstract: It is thought that quantum mechanics is the physical science describing the behavior of the electron in the micro world, e.g., inside a hydrogen atom. However, the author has previously derived the energy-momentum relationship which holds inside a hydrogen atom. This paper uses that relationship to investigate the relationships between physical quantities which hold in a hydrogen atom. In this paper, formulas are derived which hold in the micro world and make more accurate predictions than the classical quantum theory. This paper concludes that quantum mechanics is not the only theory enabling investigation of the micro world. PubDate: 2017-07-19 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p7 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Koshun Suto First page: 17 Abstract: In this paper, the author searches for a formula different from the existing formula in order to elucidate the nature of the fine structure constant a. The relativistic energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom is expressed as E_re,n and the momentum corresponding to that energy is taken to be P_re,n. Also, P_p,n is assumed to be the momentum of a photon emitted when an electron that has been stationary in free space transitions to the inside of a hydrogen atom. When n=1, the ratio of P_re,1 and P_p,1 matches with a. That is, P_p,1/Pre,1=a Also, the formula for the energy of a photon is E=hv. However, this formula has no constant of proportionality. If one wishes to claim that the energy of a photon varies in proportion to the photon's frequency, then a formula containing a constant of proportionality is necessary. Thus, this paper predicts that, in the natural world, there is a minimum unit of angular momentum h_vp smaller than the Planck constant. (The vp in h_vp stands for “virtual particle.”) If this physical constant is introduced, then the formula for the energy of the photon can be written as E=h_vp v/a. If h_vp exists, a formula can also be obtained which helps to elucidate the nature of the fine structure constant. PubDate: 2017-07-24 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p17 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Mohamed A. Elblbesy First page: 23 Abstract: Erythrocyte - erythrocyte adhesion (EEA) is of the large interest since it will effect directly on its function and interaction with other organs. Also, erythrocytes adhesion may arise erythrocytes aggregation which has a significant effect on the hemodynamic mechanism. The present study is aimed at examining the effect of erythrocytes mechanical properties on their adhesion. In addition, the impact of the physiological conditions around erythrocytes on their adhesion will be evaluated. A simple flow compartment technique built on inverted microscope was used to calculate adhesion number (AN) of erythrocytes which reflects the ability of erythrocytes to adhere to each other. AN was correlated strongly to shear rate and erythrocyte deformation index. Shape parameters of erythrocytes (Radius and volume) were found to play a major role in EEA. The concentration of the main plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin) were determined to have a significant effect on EEA. The results obtained in this study give the attention that other factors rather than particle diameter and work of adhesion may effect on erythrocytes adhesion. PubDate: 2017-07-24 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p23 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Joao Antonio Santos Dias Fonseca, Antonio Baptista, Ma Joao Martins, Joao Paulo N. Torres First page: 33 Abstract: Optical measuring systems came to offer new ways to determine distances, deformations or vibrations through more accurate and greater range methods. Technological progress has allowed a significant improvement of several components, including the optical ones. Thus, the development of essential measurement methods is crucial to keep up with technological advances.In this paper, the three basic methods of measurement are studied – triangulation, telemetry and interferometry, covering their main applications, advantages and disadvantages, and theoretically substantiating each of the methods. The results of simulation routines for each method are shown along this work. For the triangulation method we made two experiments which demonstrate the functioning of the method in measuring distances and surfaces.For the telemetry method, experimental setups were studied to apply the method of pulse telemetry and phase comparison telemetry to measure distances,Thus, it is intended to set up the basis for the future development of more complex methods. PubDate: 2017-07-24 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p33 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Gurcharn S. Sandhu First page: 44 Abstract: In this paper, we distinguish between the Doppler effects for spontaneously emitted photons and continuously emitted waves. Under certain plausible assumptions, electron orbits can be modeled for simple atomic systems and such studies show that all permissible electron trajectories correspond to elliptical orbits. From the conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum, in conjunction with the geometrical model of electron orbits, we derive the Doppler effect for spontaneously emitted photons that is quite different from the one used for continuously generated waves. All astronomical redshifts are currently interpreted by assuming the incoming radiation to be continuously emitted waves. Therefore, widely-observed redshift in radiation from most astronomical sources is interpreted to imply the expanding universe, along with cosmological expansion of space. However, for the spontaneously emitted photons, we show that the photons emitted in forward direction parallel to the emitter velocity get redshifted. That means, the astronomical redshift implies that the emission sources are moving towards the observer and our universe is not expanding. All high redshift astronomical objects are likely to be physically disrupted through dynamic instabilities or explosions and their high redshifts are associated with relativistic shock waves propagating towards the observer. Hence the proposed Doppler effect for the spontaneously emitted photons dismisses the cosmological expansion of space and supports a steady state universe. PubDate: 2017-07-26 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p44 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)

Authors:Jiri Stavek First page: 59 Abstract: The Double-Slit Experiment with individual electrons represents the central mystery of quantum mechanics and was voted by readers of Physics World as the most beautiful experiment in physics. In our trigonometric model we have divided the Young-Feynman double-slit interferometer into two zones: Aristotelian mixing chamber (the space between the entrance slit S0 and above the double-slit barrier with slits S1 and S2 where particles have been reflected (Euclid) and/or randomly deviated – parenklisis of Epicurus) and Plato’s projection chamber (the space below the double-slit barrier and above the projection screen). Aristotelian mixing chamber represents the classical hidden variable: individual particles have been reflected and/or randomly deviated in this zone and later pass through the double-slit barrier in such a way that they create probability distributions of single particles described by the very well known trigonometric relations. The double-slit barrier serves as a “self-organizing filter” for reflected and/or deviated individual particles and creates an order in the population densities among individual particles. For the experimental evaluation of this trigonometric model we propose to insert an internal and external “sfumato mirrors” for the quantitative manipulation of probability distributions of individual particles. The concept “sfumato” was inspired by the Old Master Leonardo da Vinci (see his picture Mona Lisa) (“sfumato” means “smoke”). Sfumato mirrors represent the classical observable variable and their influence on the resulting probability densities of individual particles can be trigonometrically described. Sfumato mirrors must not absorb any particles. In another experimental modification we can insert below one slit of the double-slit barrier an “absorption chiaroscuro mask” to fully remove those penetrating particles from the system and thus manipulate with the probability distribution observed with one opened slit (“chiaroscuro” means “light-dark”). It could be of interest to observe the resulting probability distribution of individual particles registered on the projection screen from one opened slit S1 or S2. The absorption chiaroscuro mask must not reflect particles back to the Aristotelian mixing chamber or to the Plato´s projection chamber. The results of these experiments will decide if we are just going up in a blind alley”. PubDate: 2017-07-26 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v9n4p59 Issue No:Vol. 9, No. 4 (2017)