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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2266 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1197 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1197 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Environmental Engineering
  [16 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2166-4633 - ISSN (Online) 2166-465X
   Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Removal of Orange 7 Dye from Wastewater Used by Natural Adsorbent of
           Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Reza Marandi,Seyedeh Marjan Bakhtiar SepehrRemoval of Orange 7 from wastewater using natural adsorbent of Moringa Oleifera seeds were investigated. The effects of some operational parameters such as pH, the amount of biosorbent, initial dye concentration and temperature were examined. The present study revealed optimum conditions for the removal process which included dose of biosorbent (0.4 g), initial dye concentration (20 mg/L), initial pH (6) and temperature (25°C). The Langmuir and Freundich isotherms were applied for describing the biosorption equilibrium. The process was represented by the Freundich isotherm with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The first-order, second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were implemented for demonstrating the biosorption mechanism and, as a result, intra-particle diffusion kinetics fitted best to the experimental data.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Finding Trends of Airborne Harmful Pollutants by Using Recurrence
           Quantification Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Marco A. Aceves-Fernandez.,Juan M. Ramos-Arreguín,J. Carlos Pedraza-Ortega,Artemio Sotomayor-Olmedo.,Saúl Tovar-ArriagaIn this work, the use of Recurrence Plots and Recurrence Quantification Analysis explores the changes in the non-linear behavior of harmful airborne particle concentration in four sites around London simultaneously. This research has been carried out for 6 years, using large datasets of raw data (hourly) for harmful particles such as CO, SO2, NO2, NO and Particulate Matter (PMx). Recurrence analysis has been shown to be a useful tool in many disciplines to find trends, rates and predictions. Nevertheless, it has not been shown before the feasibility of using these algorithms to extract information for pollution monitoring and control. Also, observations are made with the results and conclusions drawn from these observations, showing the feasibility of this approach in finding trends of airborne pollution.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • The Effects of Climate Changes on The Distribution and Spread of Malaria
           in Sudan

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Rasha A. Aal,Ayman A. ElshayebMany diseases in Africa such as malaria are known to be sensitive to climate factors there is a positive correlation between malaria, cholera and meningitis, and climatic elements. Regular limits of malaria allocation indicate that malaria could develop for several months in most areas of Sudan due to climate variables. The study found that the malaria cases related to temperature increasing was clearly recognized in the Northern State with 1.59% out of the state population. The highest endemic state was Blue Nile with 2.45% in the Rich Wet Savannah, and the lowest state of malaria infections was Western Darfur with 0.06% cases. The total of malaria infections in northern Sudan is 15.19% of 29 million population, the prevalence of malaria in southern Sudan was 24.5% of 9.5 million population (including 2004 and 2005 returnees) of those examined were infected. Whilst in Khartoum State the mean number of cases increased to reach 60869 in the study period 5.5 million of population as the largest inhibited state
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Metal Leaching Potential in Coal Fly Ash

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Kandarp K. Shivpuri,Lokeshappa B.,Deepak A. Kulkarni,Anil Kumar DikshitThermal power plants are the major source of electricity generation in India and most of them use pulverized coal as the fuel producing enormous quantities of coal fly ash every year. The method of disposal adopted is by wet sluicing in on-site fly ash ponds. This disposal in the form of dilute slurry has a high potential for leaching into the surrounding soil and groundwater. The coal fly ash contains trace metals like As, Cr, Zn, Cd, etc which are toxic in nature and thus, the wet disposal of coal fly ash has serious environmental concerns. This paper assesses the leaching potential of coal fly ash from six thermal power plants in Maharashtra, India. The maximum leachable quantities of some trace metals present in coal fly ash are computed by a Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) and results are compared with values obtained by Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure(TCLP).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Experimental Study of Influencing Factors and Kinetics in Catalytic
           Removal of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Nanopowder

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Marziyeh Salehi,Hassan Hashemipour,Mohammad MirzaeeIn this research, degradation of methylene blue as a dye pollutant was investigated in the presence of TiO2 nanopowders using photolysis and sonolysis systems separately and simultaneously. Effect of different parameters such as catalyst dosage, initial concentration of dye, UV power, pH and type of catalyst on the removal efficiency was ascertained. The results showed that basic pH is proper for the photocatalytic removal of the dye. Furthermore higher UV power and lower initial concentration of dye leads to higher removal percent. Moreover TiO2 showed more photocatalytic activity than ZnO in the nanopowder form. The experimental kinetic data followed the pseudo-first order model in both photocatlytic and sonophotocatalytic processes but the rate constant of sonophotocatalysis is higher than it at photocatalysis process. Finally the reaction order of the rate law respect to nanocatalyst dosage in photocatalysis process is obtained 1.45. High activation energy of this process shows its high sensitivity to temperature.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Effects of Some Selected Spices on Some Biochemical Profile of Wister
           Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nwaichi E. O.,Igbinobaro O.,Nwaichi E. O.,Igbinobaro O.The influences on the biochemical profiles by three medicinal plant parts used by pregnant women in the southern part of Nigeria, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Piper guineense, and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated through a feeding study using Albino Whistar rats. The study revealed that extracts decreased the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in treated rats and is attributable to the presence of hypolipidemic agent in the extracts. This shows that the extracts could reduce cardiovascular risk factor. Also, plasma levels of Potassium statistically decreased in the rats treated with T. tetraptera, P. guineense, and X. Aethiopica. This finding is suggestive of a hypokalaemic effect. Two major liver enzymes, ALT and AST plasma levels significantly decreased in the order X. Aethiopica> T. Tetraptera> P. Guineense and P. Guineense> X. Aethiopica> T. Tetraptera for ALT and AST respectively. These findings suggest effective potential to lower hepatotoxic effects by the spices.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Decolorization of Anaerobically Digested Molasses Spentwash by Coagulation

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Mrityunjay Singh Chauhan,Anil Kumar DikshitTreatment of molasses spentwash has always posed a challenge to the environmental engineers. Problem becomes more difficult in the countries like India where more harsh environmental parameters of spentwash on one hand and limitation of treatment cost on the other is crude reality. Inability to grow micro-organisms in undiluted spentwash further limits the options. In this work, various options of coagulation were tried as primary treatment to make spentwash fit for further biological treatment without dilution. Poly aluminium chloride(PAC) was found to be the best coagulant.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Study on Conservation and Management of Cotton Pygmy-Goose Population in
           Assam (India)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sanjib Upadhyaya,Prasanta Kr. SaikiaThe Cotton Pygmy-goose, Nettapus coromandelianus coromandelianus Gmelin though a native bird of our the South Asian locality, the number being found in fluctuating since the first study made in this concern. The present study was conducted to have a detailed look over the factors responsible for the population decline in certain wetlands in Assam, India, from June 2006 to January 2011. The multifold anthropogenic pressures as well as the other natural pressures on the species are responsible for the steep decrease of its population in the study area. The present study deals with an assessment of problems and prospects of the conservation of the Cotton Pygmy-goose in Eastern plain of Assam during 2006-2011.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Spatial Variability of Some Chemical and Physical Soil Properties in Nesho
           Mountainous Rangelands

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  H. Kavianpoor,A. Esmali Ouri,Z. Jafarian Jeloudar,A. KavianSoil is a suitable place for vegetation and plant growth, while this valuable investment is not preserved, shortage of food, erosion and damage natural resources will be respected. Soil is a heterogeneous, diverse and dynamic system and investigation of its temporal and spatial changes is essential. In this paper spatial variability of some chemical and physical soil properties were investigated in mountainous rangelands of Nesho, Mazandaran province, Iran. From the study area 110 soil samples were sampled by a systematic sampling strategy at 0 to 30 cm depth below the surface on a regular grid spacing of 30 × 30 m2 with different vegetation cover and all the samples were transported to laboratory. Then soil chemical and physical parameters including Acidity (pH), Electrical conductivity, CaCO3, Bulk density, Particle density, total phosphorus, total Nitrogen, available potassium, Organic matter, Saturation moisture, Soil texture (percentage of sand, silt and clay), Sodium, Calcium, magnesium were measured in laboratory. After data normalization, classical statistical analysis were used to describe soil properties and geo-statistical analysis were used to illustrate spatial correlation of soil characteristics and by using interpolating techniques of maps spatial distribution of these properties was prepared. Results indicated that in the study area saturation moisture and percentage of Sand had highest and lowest spatial correlation respectively.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Sustainable Electronic Waste Management and Recycling Process

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  S. ChatterjeeElectronics waste is becoming a major global issue. Huge accumulation of e-waste and their recycling through primitive means for extraction of precious metals are real concern in the developing countries due to presence of hazardous materials in e-waste. Recycling of e-waste through appropriate technologies is, however, considered to be a profitable business as the printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain the precious metals (including gold, silver etc.). The present recycling cost in developed country is, however, not viable, and thereby, huge volume of e-waste is being exported to the developing countries like India, China, Brazil etc., where manpower is in-expensive and enforcement of environmental laws is not so stringent. This article has proposed an outsourcing model where equal participation of the organised and unorganised sector is ensured to make the e-waste management business a profitable one. The main motivation of the units in unorganised sector is to extract the precious metals like gold, silver and copper from the printed circuit board (PCB). The unscientific and unhygienic methods, used for extracting the metals, are harmful to the workers and the environment. This practice needs to be discouraged by providing alternative earning mechanism of the unorganised operators for the collected materials. In the proposed approach, unorganised operators will concentrate on collection, disassembly, segregation of e-waste, whereas, organised sector will concentrate on processing the PCBs to extract precious metals. The 95-97% of the e-waste by weight contains metal, glass and plastics, which can easily be dissembled and segregated manually without damaging environment; whereas, the rest 3-5% by weight of e-waste actually consists of PCBs/connectors, need environmentally friendly recycling techniques to manage. The major segregated materials from e-waste include metals, glass and plastic parts can be managed through the conventional recycling practices used in municipality waste management by organized smelters and re-processors. The segregated PCB and connectors will be pulverized by professional agency to make homogenous powder and assessment of assay content of the powder will be done to know the worth of the PCBs. Once the right price is decided, unorganised sector can sell the PCBs to the organised recyclers for further process. This approach will allow the organised recyclers to concentrate only on processing PCBs, which requires technologies, specialized skills and expertise. The said approach will eradicate the unhygienic practice prevailing in unorganised units in developing countries and thereby will stop polluting environment, soil, water, and will also protect the health of the worker. Once the outsourced model is established, the recycling of e-waste business will again be viable. It will also ensure the higher yield of metal recovery from e-waste as well as minimum landfill.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Quality Assessment of Aba River Using Heavy Metal Pollution Index

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Amadi Akobundu N.Increased industrial expansion and population in Aba has lead to huge generation of wastes and their disposal has resulted to air, land and water pollution. This study examined the degree of heavy metal contamination of Aba River in southeastern Nigeria. Heavy metals such as Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, As and Pb were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the result compared with the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. The pollution load index between the heavy metals in the river produced the following output: Fe> Zn> Cu> Mn> Ni> Cr> Pb> As> Cd. The metals exhibited a good linear correlation coefficient and the application of factor analysis on the data revealed three sources of pollution arising from the various human activities taking place along the river channel. The findings indicate that the water needs some degree of treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Treatment of Municipal Landfill Leachate by Oxidants

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Shabiimam M. A.,Anil Kumar DikshitLandfilling is the one of the least expensive method for disposal of municipal solid waste. Hence, about 90% of MSW is disposed in open dumps and landfills unscientifically, creating problems to public health and the environment. The leachate generated from the municipal landfill contains organic and inorganic pollutants and several heavy metals, which makes it unsuitable for discharge in natural bodies without any prior treatment. In this study, matured landfill leachate was treated by various oxidation and combination of advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide, sodium persulfate, Fenton’s oxidation and ultrasonication-hydrogen peroxide. Fenton’s process exhibited the best COD, TOC and color removals(74% COD, 76% TOC and 80% color respectively) while hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate alone showed much lesser TOC reduction(35% and 39% respectively).
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Electrical Conductance of Cu (NO3)2 with Kryptofix - 222 in Mixed ( MeOH
           – DMF) Solvents at Different Temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  E. A. Gomaa,B. M. Al-JahdalliOn using conductometric technique, the apparent association constant (KA) of Cu (NO3)2 were measured in mixed MeOH-DMF mixed solvents at 0, 20, 40, and 100% MeOH (by volume) and different temperatures (298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15K) in absence and presence of Kryptofix - 222[ 4, 7, 13, 16, 21, 24 – hexaoxa – 1.10 – diazo – bicycle – (8, 8, 8) Hexa cosane]. From the experimental results, the molar conductivities (∧) were calculated and limiting molar conductivites (∧0) were calculated by using Shedlovsky and Fouss – Kraus extrapolation methods. The molar solvated (∨), Van der Waals (∨w), electrostriction (∨e) and apparent molar () volumes were evaluated. The free energy of association (), free energy necessary for complexation (), enthalpy () and entropy () were determined. New equation for the calculation of association constant were used and all the results were discussed.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Railway Route Design in Desert Areas

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Jabbar-Ali Zakeri,Maryam ForghaniDeveloping transportation infrastructures is the main condition for sustainable development of different regions of a country. In Asian, African & American countries such as , and , in rail transportation network development, railway, inevitably, cross through desert areas and dry lands. These areas have their own typical problems & difficulties among which high temperature, dryness, existing of flowing sands, and… can be mentioned. Flowing sand is one of the serious problems of Railways during operation. For this, it is necessary to gain more recognition on flowing sand movement case including identification sand removal basins (zone), wind blowing direction, and its intensity during year, determining sand movement corridors and recognizing sedimentation basins, when designing the route. Experience shows that crossing railway through flowing sand removal basins as well as sedimentation basins, practically, jeopardize train operation and threatening running safety. Using modern methods to confront and/or halter flowing sands while imposing more costs does not provide sufficient reliability. Therefore, at least as a design necessity and obligation, it is proposed that to prohibit construction of railway crossing through sand removal & sedimentation basins. And railway should merely cross through flowing sands moving corridors the way that flowing sands may be haltered.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Evaluation of Spatial and Seasonal Variations in Groundwater Quality at
           Kolar Gold Fields, India

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Piyush Gupta,Surendra Roy Underground gold mining at Kolar Gold Fields (KGF), Karnataka, was carried out for more than a century, which disturbed the groundwater aquifers. In addition, leaching from mill tailings dumps has also been contaminating groundwater in this area. The aim of the study was to assess the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purpose. A detailed survey was carried out within a 10 km radius of KGF and 12 borewells, being used for domestic purposes, were identified for groundwater sampling. The samples were collected from each borewell in each season and analysed for different water quality parameters. It was found that pH, total suspended solids, nitrate, arsenic, fluoride, cyanide, sulphate, alkalinity and sodium in groundwater were within the regulatory limits whereas other parameters exceeded the norms. Water quality index (WQI) was evaluated to know the overall quality of groundwater for each borewell for different seasons. Multiple regression model was developed for prediction of WQI and the performance of the model was assessed. Methods for the treatment of groundwater have also been suggested in this paper.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Production of Xanthan employing Xanthomonas campestris using
           Sugarcane Molasses

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Murugesan A. G.,Dhevahi B.,Gowdhaman D.,Bala Amutha K.,Sathesh Prabu C.Xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris from pre-treated sugarcane molasses (acidified molasses and acidified aerated molasses) was investigated. The optimization of xanthan yield was done at different pH, temperature, and incubation time for both the pre-treated sugarcane molasses. Maximum yield was achieved in 1% acidified molasses and acidified aerated molasses with 1% yeast extract as nitrogen source for 3 days of incubation time at 30℃. The precipitation of xanthan gum was done after 48 hours and the yield was high in acidified molasses and acidified aerated molasses comparing to acidified sugarcane molasses. Xanthomonas campestris produced xanthan yield of 12.23 g/l using acidified molasses and acidified aerated molasses. This fermentation study has an advantage over some other manufacturing processes with its use of agro industrial wastes as the raw material, allowing the increased xanthan production.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Nonlinear Correlation Model in the Assessment of Screen Printing Indoor
           Pollution

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Jelena Kiurski,Ljubo Nedović,Savka Adamović,Ivana Oros,Jelena Krstić,Ilija Kovačević,Lidija ČomićThe correlation models were applied to assess the mutual dependencies of the ozone concentrations on the sampling time and sampling points as an extension of our previous investigations. There is no significant mutual dependence, but there are some observable linear and non-linear correlations with sampling time. Correlation of ozone concentration on sampling time is linear at two sampling points (6 and 5) and is expressed by equation: y = - 0.0171x + 0.1329 for sampling point 6. At the other sampling points (1 and 3) nonlinear correlations are expressed by third degree polynomials, y = 0.0061x3 – 0.0934x2 + 0.4335x + 0.0967 (sampling point 1), y = 0.0035x3 – 0.0520x2 + 0.2182x + 0.9887 (sampling point 3). All calculations have been done in the program MATHEMATICA, version 7.0, at 4 correct decimals. Nonlinear correlation model can be successfully used in the assessment of indoor polluted gases distribution in screen printing facility.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Simulation of NOx Concentration of Dhaka City by Regional Air
           Model

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  A. A. Masrur Ahmed,Jahir Bin AlamIn this paper, an attempt has been taken to develop a software to predict the existing NOx concentration in Dhaka region and to validate the software compared with manual calculation for the data collected from DOE. The integrated model based on C++ was applied for six locations of Dhaka city (non industrial points) - Farmgate, Mirpur, Mohakhali, Malibag, Dhanmodi-2 and Gulshan-1 and the average concentration of NOx for these six locations were simulated as 106.593, 84.898; 96.481; 80.548; 124.503; and 68.975 μg/m3respectively. The average deviation between software analyzed results and DOE measured results was 3-7%. It is also found that other pollutant matter such as SOx, CO, SPM make this condition most critical ultimately.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Decolourization of Polyaluminium Chloride and Fungal Sequencing Batch
           Aerobic Reactor Treated Molasses Spentwash by Ozone

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sanjay S. Singh,Anil Kumar DikshitMolasses spentwash from distilleries is characterized by high COD and color. The treatment of distillery spentwash by coagulation with polyaluminium chloride(PAC) followed by biological treatment with fungal sequencing batch aerobic reactor(FSBAR) resulted in 87% decolorization. To achieve further decolorization, ozonation of treated distillery spentwash was carried out at different ozone doses and contact times. It was found that pH had a negligible effect on decolourization. The optimum ozone dose was found to be 4.75 g/L at application rate of 3.8 g/h for 30 min with corresponding decolorization being 66%. The overall decolorization obtained by the combined treatment(PAC treatment, FSBAR and Ozonation) was 96% and the total COD removal was 81%.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Geophysical Method of Investigating Groundwater and Sub-Soil Contamination
           – A Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  G. O. Emujakporue,C. N. Nwankwo Geophysical methods can be helpful in mapping areas of contaminated soil and groundwater. Electrical resistivity surveys were carried out at a site of shallow hydrocarbon contamination in Ahoada, South-South Nigeria. This was aimed at evaluating the subsoil conditions and groundwater quality of the area three years after the post-spill clean-up exercise. The geophysical investigation involved the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique using the Schlumberger configuration and the horizontal profiling method. The data from the two different approaches correlate well, and the generated profiles of the acquired data helped to map the contaminant plume, which was delineated as an area of high interpreted resistivities. The VES result shows that the subsurface layers up to a depth of 49 m is of moderate to high resistivity values (>200 Ώm) that may affect crops and groundwater development in the study area. However good aquifer can still be obtained from the depth of 30 m and above.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Gibbs Free Energies, Enthalpies and Entropies of Transfer for Reference
           Ions Ph4 As+ and Ph4 B- in Mixed DMFA-H2O Solvents at Different
           Temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Esam A. Gomaa The thermodynamic data (Gt , Ht and TSt ) of transfer for tetraphenylarsonium-tetraphenylborate (Ph4AsBPh4) from water to mixed dimethylformamide (DMFA)-H2O solvents were estimated from the experimental solubility and calorimeter measurements. The experiments were done at three different temperatures 288.15, 298.15 and 308.15 K. Also the thermodynamic parameters were divided into reference anion and cation following the asymmetric deviation and their values, were discussed. Dividing all the thermodynamic functions between the cation and anion by using 1.064 factors we obtain their individual functions. The reference ion values can be easily used for evaluating the different thermodynamic parameters of any ion that contains in its counterion tetraphenyl cation or anion . By using the data given here the thermodynamic parameters for some single ion can be estimated for following their behaviour in environment. The single ion thermodynamics are helpful for predicting, explaining and mechanisms suggesting. Theoretical and engineering chemistry are in need for experimental single ion parameters for the comparison with that calculated by different solvation theories.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Characterization of Odorants in an Air Wet Scrubber Using Direct Aqueous
           Injection-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (DAI-GC-MS) and Solid Phase
           Extraction (SPE-GC)

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nawaf Abu-Khalaf,Kim F. HaselmannOne of the biological methods to reduce odours emission from livestock buildings is bioscrubber. Characterization (identification and quantification) of key odorants from an air wet scrubber in livestock buildings is presented. The key odorants represent five chemical groups, i.e. sulphides, alcohols, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), phenols and indoles. Direct aqueous injection (DAI) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods were used for sample preparation before injecting the samples into the gas chromatography. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used for identification and quantification of samples prepared by DAI and SPE. The SPE method had a high recovery (i.e. 89-100%). However, DAI showed a better linearity, a lower limit of detection (LOD) and a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) than the SPE method. The DAI method was preferred for identification and quantification as it is cheaper, easier to handle, without sample preparation and highly applicable. For at least two odorants, i.e. phenol and 1-butanol, LOD and LOQ were below literature values for odorants detection limits in livestock buildings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to verify the identification of odorants, prepared by DAI, according to their m/z values.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Accuracy Assessment
           of Existing Land Use Map a Case Study of Enugu Area, South-Eastern Nigeria
           

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Onunkwo-A A,Nwankwo G. IUzoije A. P,Okereke C. NIt is suspected that continuous building collapses within Enugu area is due to faulty landuse map. This work aims at employing geographic information system principles to assess the validity of the existing landuse map of Enugu area. Three landuse options were considered (Industrial, residential and waste). The study was undertaken using Arc view 3.2a academic, Excel Statistical Software and autocard software of GIS. A total of 12 landuse determinants were selected as thematic data layers and basic factors influencing the choice of industrial, residential and waste disposal landuses. Soil characteristics and geology were integrated into the thematic maps to facilitate the weighting of the basic determinants. The thematic layers were weighted on a scale of 0% - 100% and 0-2 inclusive, using the criteria obtained from field work and laboratory investigation. The thematic layers for each landuse were subjected to overlay using arc view software overlay model builder. The operation yielded three (3) different landuse maps (Industrial, residential and wasted disposal,) which were further superimposed to produce a composite landuse map useful for regional and urban planning. Correlation with existing landuse map, exposed a lot of limitations of the existing landuse map. All the residential and industrial areas of the existing landuse map fall within the low capacity areas of the present study. Areas selected as open space by the existing landuse map correspond to the areas of industrial and residential land uses of the present study. Areas limited for use by the present study due to hazards of flooding, landslide, fault and gully erosion were not considered by the existing landuse map, rather they were mapped out for industrial, residential and partly as open space. The existing landuse map has no provision for waste disposal. The present study shows that areas to the West, Southwest and Southeast are highly suitable for industrial and residential landuses. The limitations of the existing landuse map exposed by the present study must have accounted for the cases of building collapses in the area.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Effects on Global Surface Temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  M.A. El-Borie,M. Abd-Elzaher,A. Al ShenawyIt is a clear fact that the Earth's climate has been changing since the pre-industrial era, especially during the last three decades. This change is generally attributed to two main factors: greenhouse gases (GHGs) and solar activity changes. However, these factors are not all-independent. Furthermore, contributions of the above-mentioned factors are still disputed. The aim of this paper is relation in the longer time (1880-2011), between changer of global surface temperature (GST), and solar geomagnetic activist represented by sunspot number (Rz) and geomagnetic indices (aa , Kp ), and to what degree they are connected. The geomagnetics aa are more effective on global surface temperature than solar activity. Furthermore, the global surface temperature are strongly sensitive to the 21.3-yr, 10.6-yr, and 5.3-yr variations that observed in the considered geomagnetic and sunspot spectra. The present changes in aa geomagnetics may reflect partially some future changes in the global surface temperatures.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Comparism of Adsorption Behaviour of Caryota Rumphia na Flower and Goat
           Hooves to Lead and Manganese Ions in Aqueous Solution

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Egila J.N,Jimoh T. O,Ifunanya G.N,Dayo OThe adsorption of Pb2+ and Mn2+ ions by cellulosic (Caryota rumphiana flower) and keratinous (Goat hooves) materials was investigated in order to compare their adsorptive capability. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 30℃ and the effect of initial metal ion concentrations and contact time were evaluated. Pb2+ and Mn2+ ions attained equilibrium within 60 and 120 minutes respectively for both cellulosic and keratinous material. The equilibrium data fitted the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. This study demonstrated that Caryota rumphiana flower and Goat hooves could be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove Pb2+ and Mn2+ ions from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Comparison of the Heating Values of Various Types of Fuel from Non-Wood
           Raw Materials

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Zoilo González,Manuel Javier Feria,Fátima Vargas,Alejandro RodríguezThe combustion of waste fractions from the use of pruning of olive and orange trimmings used in the production of pulp for paper have been studied and the results were compared with those of other non-wood materials (Hesperaloe funifera, empty fruit bunches from oil palm, and banana trees), also used in the paper industry.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Analysis of Data From Ambient PM10 Concentration Monitoring in Volos in
           the Period 2005-2010

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  A. Stamatelos,Zogou O.This paper presents the results of a monitoring campaign for ambient PM10 concentrations in Volos, Greece in the period 2005-2010. The aim is to give an overview of the evolution of particulate pollution, discuss effects of the micro-climate and demonstrate that PM10 monitoring may be carried out with low-cost measurement instruments at a community level. Statistical processing of the 2009-2010 measurement data indicates a negative correlation of PM10 with ambient air temperature and a positive correlation with relative humidity. Low PM10 concentrations are associated with E to SE winds and high concentrations with NW to N winds. Daily variation of particulate matter concentrations follows well established patterns with peaks at 09:00-10:00 and 23:00-24:00. The operation of an expanded PM10 monitoring network is under way.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Wind Energy Potential Estimation in Pirgulu Region

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Ulviyya MammadovaBesideother innate resources Pirgulu has rich wind energy potential. Renewable energy application in the surrounding villages next to Pigulu preserve is possible after having estimated the local potential, due to the existing methods the ensurating of wind energy parameters and proceeding of these data have been realized. Average annual amount of windy, windless and total wind energy potential were determined in the region. Also the quantity of windy days possessing more than 15 m/sec wind speed in the territory. Finally wind energy potential map was established in electron version using arc-view program.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Greenhouse Experimental Methods Towards in-situ Burial and Restoration of
           Contaminated Sites in Submerged Wetlands

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Alice BenzecryAs a result of commercial and industrial activities conducted in the absence of environmental regulations and enforcement in the past, sediments contaminated by organic compounds, heavy metals, and other potentially toxic chemicals have accumulated in many of the world’s deepwater and wetland environments. These sediment-borne contaminants can eventually become incorporated into aquatic food webs and adversely affect ecological receptors like benthic organisms and fish, and ultimately pose a risk to human health. This laboratory research tested a commercial product AquaBlokTM (patented, composite-aggregate technology comprised of a solid core, an outer layer of clay material, and polymers) as an in-situ capping technology that could be used to remediate and/or manage contaminated sediments in the New Jersey Hackensack Meadowlands, a superfund site. In a greenhouse setting, tubs containing representative Meadowland marsh soil and water were capped with AquaBlok. This research not only examined the potential use of this product as an in-situ capping material and possible substrate for flora colonization, but also examined the improvements of the same patented, clay mineral-based composite aggregate technology (SubmerSeedTM) as an alternative to traditional means of wetland plant propagation. At the end of a two-year period, both the sediment/cap and vegetation plant tissues were examined for metallic contaminants (including Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn). Overall, capping provided a less contaminated substrate. Results indicated that AquaBlok cap alone did not allow contaminants in the sediment below to breakthrough. Nevertheless, vegetation colonization was restricted to a limited number of plant species. Furthermore, plants growing in AquaBlok were less robust with lower dry weight and smaller root system than plants growing in uncapped sediments despite the fact that their tissue contained smaller amounts of metallic contaminants. The improvements of the clay mineral-based composite aggregate technology (SubmerSeeds) as an alternative to traditional means of plant propagation worked very well in successfully delivering aquatic plant seeds into permanently inundated conditions.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Biosorption of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solutions by Prunus
           
    A vium Leaves

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Nidá M. Salem,Ahlam M. Farhan,Akl M. AwwadA new biosorbent from Prunus avium (sweet cherry) leaves was used to remove cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions. The biosorption of cadmium(II) was found to be dependent on solution pH, initial metal ion concentrations, biosorbent dose, and contact time. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed by two widely used two-parameters, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir model gave a better fit than the Freundlich model. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the cadmium ions followed well pseudo-second-order model. It was concluded that Prunusavium leaves powder can be used as an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Thermal Conversion of Waste Plastics (HDPE, PP and PS) to Produce Mixture
           of Hydrocarbons

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Moinuddin Sarker,Mohammad Mamunor Rashid,Mohammed Molla,Muhammad Sadikur RahmanThermal conversion process was applied with three types of waste plastic mixture and waste plastics mixture to liquid hydrocarbon fuel production in present of oxygen under laboratory Labconco fume hood without adding any kind of catalyst. Utilization of the process described can reduce the impact of waste plastics significantly. Thermal decomposition of the most common plastics such as high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrenes (PS) has been conducted to produces a mixture of hydrocarbons. The thermal process applied of mixed waste plastics using a steel reactor at 25- 430℃ has been investigated. The reactor was connected with standard condensation unit with water circulator system. Waste plastics are broken down into shorter chain hydrocarbon compounds from long chains during the thermal conversion process without adding catalyst or chemical. Produced fuel was analysis by using GC/MS, FT-IR and DSC and from GC/MS analysis result showed hydrocarbon chain range C3 to C28 into fuel and produce fuel can be use as feed stock refinery or power plant for electricity generation or can use for internal combustion engine.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • Acid Rain and Its Effects on the Lakes of Fars County in Iran

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Sohrab AbdollahiOne of the main environmental issue these days is acid rain and its effects on the human and environment. Acid rain effects are more dominant in countries such as United States, Canada, and Europe due to acidic nature of soils in some parts of their lands as well as heavy pollution resulted from vast industrial activities which are conducted through these countries. Contrary to these facts, Iran situation regarding acid rain is totally different and in spite of high pollution in cities and industrial areas, the water of lakes and streams are not acidic. Data collected in this research show that the pH and alkalinity of the lake water and soils are almost high. Some of the lakes in Fars County are dried and the rest are not in normal situation. Lakes of Barmshoor, Droodzan, and Haftbarm have pH around 7.93 -8.07 and alkalinity around 186 to 220 mg/L CaCO3. The soils around the lakes have pH in the range of 7.69-7.89 and alkalinity 208-235 mg/L CaCO3. Therefore both the soil and the water have high alkaline buffer capacity to resist acid rain because; most part of the Fars County consist of calcite, dolomite and some alkaline salts. Pollution load indexes for Al, Zn and Cu for both lake water and related soils are close to one (1.063-1.54) which means no considerable metal pollutions are created by acid rain in Fars County. In fact, high pH and alkalinity of the water and soil make metal salts mostly insoluble and limit the availability of the free metals. The pH changes of rain water show gradual increase of pH during raining. If the sample of rain water is left alone, its pH decreases by residence time.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
  • An Investigation of Temperature Variation at Soil Depths in Parts of
           Southern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication year:  2011Source:American Journal of Environmental Engineering,  Volume  1,  Number  1  Cyril Nwankwo,Difference OgagarueVariations in soil temperature at depths have been investigated in different parts of Southern Nigeria. Measurements were carried out at different lithologies and at different times with the aid of a soil thermometer over a three-week period. Readings were taken in three major lithologies which include clay, sand and sandy loam. The daily soil temperature for clayey soil ranges from 27.7℃ – 28.9℃ with a simple mean of 28.3℃; 28.2℃– 29.1℃ for sandy soil and 28.3℃ – 29.0℃ for loamy soil. The mean temperature for all soil types is 28.7℃, indicating that these soils are favourable for farming. A feature of the results is that soil temperature varies more randomly in the sandy soil than the other soil types. The results can be valuable in planning and developing soil tillage practices and other agricultural activities in the areas studied.
      PubDate: 10/17/2012 17:19:51
       
 
 
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