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ENGINEERING (1209 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Color Research & Application
  [SJR: 0.406]   [H-I: 46]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0361-2317 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6378
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Noise segmentation for improving performance of Wiener filter method in
           spectral reflectance estimation
    • Authors: Alireza Mahmoudi Nahavandi
      Abstract: Noise is an indispensable part of an imaging system. For having acceptable performance of reflectance estimation from digital signals, noise effects should be controlled. In this study a new method based on segmentation of noise is presented. Simulation and real experiments on four reflectance data sets showed that noise segmentation improves Wiener filter estimation method. However, oversegmentation can have reverse effect on the reflectance estimation results.
      PubDate: 2018-01-07T23:52:35.801039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22200
  • Digitally reconstructing Van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles part 3:
           Determining the original colors
    • Authors: Eric Kirchner; Ivo van der Lans, Frank Ligterink, Muriel Geldof, Luc Megens, Teio Meedendorp, Kathrin Pilz, Ella Hendriks
      Abstract: In earlier articles, we determined the spatial distributions and concentrations of all pigments used by Van Gogh in his painting Field with Irises near Arles. The colors of some pigments are expected to have changed over time, especially those of chrome yellow, cochineal, and eosin lake. For all pigments in this painting, we made physical paint reconstructions by following historical sources on raw materials and production processes, and we determined their optical properties. We combined this with pigment concentration maps to reconstruct the original colors of the painting digitally. When substituting the reconstruction paints into the calculations, we found that technical-scientific data was not sufficient to resolve several issues. In those cases, discussions within the broad interdisciplinary team allowed us to make informed decisions. These issues refer to the representation of the sky area, and the original contributions of the red lake pigments to local colors. The digitally reconstructed colors of the painting show that due to discoloring of red lake pigments, the irises in the field have changed from a warm purple to purplish blue, and many pink spots in the field have turned to white. The range of yellows in the field has decreased and partly turned to dark brown. The digital reconstruction gives a better understanding of the color scheme used by Van Gogh when compared to remarks the artist made in letters when describing this painting. Also, the original color composition is seen to be aligned with color theories on which Van Gogh based his work.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T23:09:14.365762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22197
  • Toward improved aesthetics and data discrimination for treemaps via color
    • Authors: Yingtao Xie; Tao Lin, Rui Chen, Zhi Chen
      Abstract: In this article, we present a novel treemap coloring method which can help users to analyze visual data more easily. Our method overcomes two major limitations of existing treemaps in that they are either aesthetically unpleasing or unable to readily discriminate data blocks with close sizes. Our study indicates that the use of proper color schemes can surprisingly address these two seemingly uncorrelated limitations simultaneously. To improve the aesthetic value of a treemap, we apply the color aesthetic model to treemap generation. To better the degree of data discrimination of similar data, based on the principle of expansive and contractive colors, we propose a novel quantitative color-visually perceived area (C-VPA) model via experimental methods. Furthermore, we combine these two models to derive a genetic algorithm-based treemap coloring method. Our experimental results confirm the superiority of our method in terms of improved data discrimination and aesthetics of the treemaps.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T23:08:40.389945-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22196
  • A study on Fuzzy C-means application in Austronesian language cultural and
           creative product colors
    • Authors: Ming-Feng Wang
      Abstract: As culture has brought unlimited possibility and business opportunities, the countries propose the cultural and creative industry to strengthen the distinctive feature of their own, to distinguish the cultural differences of every country, and to avoid assimilation of powerful countries and neighbor countries, thereby revitalize the economy of that country. In countries affected by Austronesian culture, such as Taiwan and New Zealand, the rules by the Western colonial powers caused impact of different cultural uniqueness, which led to cultural differences. It is important to figure out the way to integrate exclusive cultures into diverse cultures in order to identify the cultural features of the country, promote the country's culture to others and realize the goal of the cultural and creative industry. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to provide the application of Fuzzy C-means on cultural and creative products for designers. Finally, through the result of the design of case, cultural and creative products developed from Taiwan and New Zealand, fulfilled the purpose that the theory has been realized in practice, and the products successfully entered the markets.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T23:07:43.838983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22195
  • Color matching of fiber blends: Stearns-Noechel model of digital rotor
           spun yarn
    • Authors: Rui Hua Yang; Rui Ye Han, Yu Zheng Lu, Yuan Xue, Wei Dong Gao
      Abstract: Stearns-Noechel model was utilized as a primary reference to study color matching principles of digital rotor spun yarn. Three primary colored (red, yellow and blue) cotton fibers were used to spin blended yarns. Spectral reflectance of the two-component and three-component samples was measured with data color spectrophotometer. For these samples, the Stearns-Noechel model parameter M was determined. Four methods were employed to calculate the M value to improve accuracy of the model, 1.Classical method, named as M1; 2.Optimizing the M1 value obtained by the classical method considering the wavelength factor, named as M2; 3.Simplified M2 according to the linear correlation with the wavelength, named as M3; 4. Simplified M2 according to the segmentation correlation with the wavelength, named as M4. The study shows that average color difference of the two-component decreases from 2.7 to 1.48, and for three-component samples from 3.32 to 1.66, by using M2 instead of M1. While calculated using M3, the color difference of the two types of samples will be 1.73 and 2.19, correspondingly. This cannot meet color matching needs. As for M4, the average color difference of the two categories will be 1.54 and 1.91, better than the result obtained using M1 and M3, worse than M2.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:25:31.804627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22192
  • In memoriam Michel Cler (1938–2017)
    • Authors: Verena M. Schindler
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T23:51:10.792313-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22194
  • The relationship between container colors and the beauty benefits of skin
           care products
    • Authors: Ching-Chih Liao; Wen-Yuan Lee, Yu-Husan Lai, Li-Ying Wang
      Abstract: This study explored the best color selections to match the benefits of beauty products based on rankings obtained from an experimental perception of different skin care product containers. Gender (64 males, 75 females) and cultural (76 Taiwanese, 63 Malaysians) differences were also compared, aiming to explore color associations and emotional bonding by using psychophysical testing methods. A survey of 205 market samples showed that nearly half of the existing skin care product containers had a white body color. White appeared frequently on containers for skin whitening, firming, exfoliating, antiaging, and antiacne products. However, skin moisturizing products used an equal amount of white and blue on their containers. The psychophysical experiment results showed that participants felt that white best matched skin whitening products, red matched skin firming and antiaging products, blue matched skin moisturizing products, black matched exfoliating products, and green matched antiacne products. Neither gender nor cultural differences were found to be significant. Comparing the results with color emotion studies, it was found that (1) for color emotion weight, firming products were related to heaviness, whereas whitening products were connected to lightness; (2) for color emotion heat, whitening, moisturizing, exfoliating and antiacne products were aligned with coolness; and (3) for color emotion activity, product container colors were not related, except slightly for firming products. These findings suggest that psychological responses to color meaning are context- and experience-dependent, meaning that selection of colors to match beauty benefits is based more on people's expectations of the products than their color emotion response.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T05:01:17.368148-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22191
  • An online color naming experiment in Russian using Munsell color samples
    • Authors: Galina V. Paramei; Yulia A. Griber, Dimitris Mylonas
      Abstract: Russian color naming was explored in a web-based experiment. The purpose was 3-fold: to examine (1) CIELAB coordinates of centroids for 12 Russian basic color terms (BCTs), including 2 Russian terms for “blue”, sinij “dark blue”, and goluboj “light blue”, and compare these with coordinates for the 11 English BCTs obtained in earlier studies; (2) frequent nonBCTs; and (3) gender differences in color naming. Native Russian speakers participated in the experiment using an unconstrained color-naming method. Each participant named 20 colors, selected from 600 colors densely sampling the Munsell Color Solid. Color names and response times of typing onset were registered. Several deviations between centroids of the Russian and English BCTs were found. The 2 “Russian blues”, as expected, divided the BLUE area along the lightness dimension; their centroids deviated from a centroid of English blue. Further minor departures were found between centroids of Russian and English counterparts of “brown” and “red”. The Russian color inventory confirmed the linguistic refinement of the PURPLE area, with high frequencies of nonBCTs. In addition, Russian speakers revealed elaborated naming strategies and use of a rich inventory of nonBCTs. Elicitation frequencies of the 12 BCTs were comparable for both genders; however, linguistic segmentation of color space, employing a synthetic observer, revealed gender differences in naming colors, with more refined naming of the “warm” colors from females. We conclude that, along with universal perceptual factors, that govern categorical partition of color space, Russian speakers’ color naming reflects language-specific factors, supporting the weak relativity hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T05:40:56.690638-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22190
  • Supporting history of art with colorimetry: The paintings of Amadeo de
    • Authors: Cristina Montagner; João M.M. Linhares, Márcia Vilarigues, Maria João Melo, Sérgio M.C. Nascimento
      Abstract: Colour is a key element in paintings but its quantitative analysis is seldom used as an interpretative element in the context of the history of art. Here, we show how this can be accomplished by measuring and analyzing the colours of the paintings of the influential Portuguese painter Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918). His last paintings have been classified by art historians as the most successful and are considered a chromatically homogeneous nucleus in his career. However, there are no quantitative data supporting these considerations. To access this we compared 24 of his paintings (1911-17) using hyperspectral imaging data. From estimates of the number of colours that can be perceived in each painting we show that in the later works Amadeo has expanded the range of colours by including more hues and more levels of lightness. Moreover, the paintings dated from 1917 have similar chromatic distributions in colour space. This colorimetric analysis revealed to be an important tool that provides quantitative support to the hypothesis formulated by art historians.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:40:28.963759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22189
  • The association between colors and emotions for emotional words and facial
    • Authors: Fumiyo Takahashi; Yasuhiro Kawabata
      Abstract: Color sensations are tied not only to other sensations, but also emotions. There have been many studies on this. One study regarding architectural color showed that colors were associated with mental status; for example, red relates to arousal, excitation, and stimulus. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how colors are evoked by emotions. The emotions were described both by emotional words and by schematic faces. Since facial expressions are accompanied by facial color, facial expressions should relate more closely to facial color than emotional words. Therefore, we used numerous color samples for our experiments to show discrimination sensitivity to stimuli in subtle differences of color. Some associations between colors and emotions were found, and the tendencies of associations were different among emotions. Anger, joy, surprise, sadness, and no emotion were connected to particular colors. The distribution of color responses in sadness was spread among bluish colors. The emotional tendencies, among anger, joy, surprise, and sadness, were similar in the two conditions of our experiment. However, in the schematic face condition, the color responses for all emotions were increased in the skin-colored samples. Thus, the context of the face elicited the color responses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T23:06:03.472144-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22186
  • Gender difference in color preference across cultures: an archetypal
           pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype
    • Authors: Valérie Bonnardel; Sucharita Beniwal, Nijoo Dubey, Mayukhini Pande, David Bimler
      Abstract: A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. The 35-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) questionnaires were also administered to explore possible links between personality traits, gender schemata, and color preferences. Results confirmed a gender difference in both cultures; participants collectively expressed a preference for cool over warm colors, while in addition females showed a preference for pink colors, with a warm bias for Indian females and a cool bias for British females. While these results extend gender difference to Indian culture and support the universality of an underlying pattern they also reveal a culture-specific contribution essentially observed in females. In British participants, color preference was correlated exclusively with BSRI scores in females and overwhelmingly with IPIP scores in males; this gender-specific pattern of correlation was not replicated in the Indian sample. Results point to an archetypal pattern of gender difference in color preference with a remarkable cross-cultural similarity in men and a subtle but significant cultural difference in women whose origin is yet to be explained.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T23:05:36.160842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22188
  • Identification and formalization of knowledge for coloring qualitative
           geospatial data
    • Authors: Mingguang Wu; Taisheng Chen, Guonian Lv, Menglin Chen, Hong Wang, Haoyu Sun
      Abstract: Creating a satisfying qualitative color scheme from scratch may be difficult for novice mapmakers and experts. A probability-based method is proposed to identify knowledge regarding qualitative color selection from readily available color schemes and formalize the discovered knowledge to assist in color creation. An unsupervised method to extract the general trends of color selection is presented, and the issue of qualitative color selection is translated into a multi-constraint optimization problem. A feasible solution for achieving the global optimum is then provided. A probability-based method is also proposed to match abstract color values with specific mapping features. This proposed approach is evaluated in a case study. The results of the case study suggest that the proposed method allows users to create qualitative color schemes more efficiently and confidently.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:25:52.881786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22183
  • The role of individual colour preferences in consumer purchase decisions
    • Authors: Luwen Yu; Stephen Westland, Zhenhong Li, Qianqian Pan, Meong Jin Shin, Seahwa Won
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test whether consumers' personal colour preferences (in an abstract sense rather than for a particular product) affect their intended product purchase decisions if they are given various colour choices. This work employs two experiments with visual components to investigate which colour a participant would choose if asked to select a product to purchase when there is a range of colours available. Two experiments were also designed to elicit a response about which colour each participant prefers (in an abstract sense). The study finds that personal colour preferences affect intended product-colour purchase decisions but that the extent of this varies from one product category to the next. Further analysis reveals that personal colour preferences are secondary to factors such as colour functionality and colour performance. This work presents new experimental data about the role of colour in product and product packaging on intended consumer purchase decisions. A conceptual framework, supported by the experimental findings, are understanding the relationship between individual colour preferences and product-choice colours, and more functional aspects of colour itself (such as the effect of colour on product's performance or functionality).
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T23:05:41.428398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22180
  • Development of a novel tissue-mimicking color calibration slide for
           digital microscopy
    • Authors: Emily L. Clarke; Craig Revie, David Brettle, Michael Shires, Peter Jackson, Ravinder Cochrane, Robert Wilson, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Darren Treanor
      Abstract: Digital microscopy produces high resolution digital images of pathology slides. Because no acceptable and effective control of color reproduction exists in this domain, there is significant variability in color reproduction of whole slide images. Guidance from international bodies and regulators highlights the need for color standardization. To address this issue, we systematically measured and analyzed the spectra of histopathological stains. This information was used to design a unique color calibration slide utilizing real stains and a tissue-like substrate, which can be stained to produce the same spectral response as tissue. By closely mimicking the colors in stained tissue, our target can provide more accurate color representation than film-based targets, whilst avoiding the known limitations of using actual tissue. The application of the color calibration slide in the clinical setting was assessed by conducting a pilot user-evaluation experiment with promising results. With the imminent integration of digital pathology into the routine work of the diagnostic pathologist, it is hoped that this color calibration slide will help provide a universal color standard for digital microscopy thereby ensuring better and safer healthcare delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:00:51.06857-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22187
  • Identification of vivianite, an unusual blue pigment, in a sixteenth
           century painting and its implications
    • Authors: António João Cruz; Erica Eires, Luís Dias, Teresa Desterro, Carla Rego
      Abstract: Vivianite, a blue pigment employed in the past practically only in Northern and Central Europe, but with very limited use, was identified in an early sixteenth century painting, stylistically with Flemish features, from a church in Portugal. The identification of this iron phosphate mineral was made by SEM-EDS based on the atomic ratio between phosphorus and iron in layers of blue paint (area analysis) and in particles of these same layers (spot analysis). This painting, about which there is no document to prove its authorship, becomes the first case, known in detail, of a sixteenth century painting containing vivianite. Moreover, this find and the presence of a chalk ground, also identified, strongly support the hypothesis of being a Flemish painting.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:00:31.888702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22181
  • Does uniform color affect offside in association football'
    • Authors: Bjoern Krenn
      Abstract: Past research has documented an impact of sportswear color on performance and referees' judgments in combat and team sports. Amongst other things, it was argued that these effects may arise from differences in visibility. In this regard, the current study was aimed at questioning the impact of uniform color on offside judgments in association football. We analyzed the number of offside judgments for 1530 matches from the first and second division of the football league in Germany and recorded the color of shirts, shorts and stockings for both teams. Data analyses revealed that attacking teams wearing black shirts and black stockings were accompanied by fewer offside decisions. In contrast, defending teams wearing black or green kits were accompanied by increased offside judgments against the opposing teams. Thus, it seems that black and green kits yielded favourable offside judgments. Regarding the low color contrast with green uniforms on a green lawn and the lower detection rate of dark colors the results suggest that green and black kits are less visible, which may impede players' visual detection. The results emphasise the importance of analyzing the role of uniform color in the context of offside decisions to ensure fair play and equal opportunities of winning.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T04:55:35.062934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22184
  • Uncertainty evaluation and propagation for spectral measurements
    • Authors: Franko Schmähling; Gerd Wübbeler, Udo Krüger, Benjamin Ruggaber, Franz Schmidt, Richard D. Taubert, Armin Sperling, Clemens Elster
      Abstract: The measurement of the spectral power distribution (SPD) of a radiation source by array spectroradiometers is a technique that is widely used. In many applications, quantities that are derived from the SPD by a weighted integral over a wavelength interval are of interest. These integral quantities ought to be accompanied by a reliable uncertainty statement, for example, to assess conformity with prescribed limits or in order to judge the consistency of results obtained at different laboratories. We have developed a generally applicable Monte Carlo procedure for evaluating the uncertainty of spectral measurements. The procedure naturally accounts for correlations in the SPD which turn out to be crucial. Means are provided to handle and transfer these large-scale correlation matrices easily. The proposed approach is illustrated by the determination of the SPD of colored LEDs from array spectroradiometer measurements, together with the derived CIE 1931 color coordinates. MATLABTM software implementing the proposed analysis procedure is made available.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T22:50:41.591537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22185
  • Application of the nondestructive second derivative spectrophotometry to
           eliminate the effect of substrate in identification of madder used in
           Persian carpets
    • Authors: Sarvenaz Ghanean; Mansoureh Ghanbar Afjeh
      Abstract: The handmade Persian carpet is famous worldwide not only for its elegant design and artistic structure, but also for its brilliant color harmony and incomparable raw materials. Various natural dyes accompanied by different mordants are used on various woolen yarns to obtain a wide range of unrepeatable shades for carpet. In this article, as a first step, the diversity of the undyed woolen yarns used in Persian carpets was statistically investigated by implementation of the Principle Component Analysis. Then the second derivative of Kubelka-Munk function of samples dyed with madder was considered to reach a pattern for identifying madder. The results show that, although the spectral reflectance of different selected woolen yarns has at least 3 dimensions, all derivative curves are qualitatively very similar with the same minimum and maximum peaks at 510 and 605 nm, respectively. The findings are confirmed when various types of madder were used in the dyeing process. As a result, it is shown that the nondestructive derivative spectrophotometry is able to identify madder on alum mordanted woolen yarns used in Persian carpets and to eliminate the effect of substrate. It is a useful technique for preservation, conservation, and dissemination of the Persian carpet.
      PubDate: 2017-09-23T01:00:23.492854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22182
  • Handling translucent specimens in an opaque Kubelka–Munk Environment
    • Authors: Thomas P. Tomsia; Hugh S. Fairman
      Abstract: Computer-color matching usually employs a subset of Kubelka–Munk equations which require that each specimen analyzed be at complete hiding. This set of equations is preferred because they are simpler than their counterpart equations that operate at incomplete hiding. On the other hand, in coatings and plastics very often colorant specimens must be utilized that, either because of their nature or concentration, fail to qualify as being at complete hiding. This communication examines techniques for handling such cases and makes recommendations for obtaining the theoretical opaque reflectance of the specimens from measurements over both black and white. In addition, the article recommends a new relationship that more aptly characterizes the contrast ratios required than previous methods have done.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T22:05:24.043265-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22173
  • Cognitive performance and emotion are indifferent to ambient color
    • Authors: Christoph von Castell; Daniela Stelzmann, Daniel Oberfeld, Robin Welsch, Heiko Hecht
      Abstract: Folklore has it that ambient color has the power to relax or arouse the observer and enhance performance when executing cognitive tasks. We picked a number of commercially available colors that allegedly have the power to alter cognitive performance and the emotional state, and exposed subjects to them while solving a battery of cognitive tasks. The colors were “Cool Down Pink”, which is said to produce relaxing effects and reduce effort, “Energy Red”, allegedly enhancing performance via increased arousal, “Relaxing Blue”, which is said to enhance attention and concentration, as well as white as a control. In a between-subjects design, a total of 170 high school students carried out five tasks (number series completion, mental rotation, and memory for word categories, word pairs, and geometrical figures) while exposed to one of the four colors. The emotional state of the subjects was measured before the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The ambient colors did not have the predicted effects, neither on cognitive performance nor on the emotional state of the participants.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T22:16:57.006964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22168
  • Multi-wavelength excitation method for measuring FWA-treated paper
    • Authors: Kenji Imura; Yoshiroh Nagai
      Abstract: Colorimetric properties of fluorescent materials depend on the SPD of the illumination. That is why most standards for evaluating them specify the illuminations, which are often hard-to-realize daylight illuminants. The presented method using commercially available LEDs enables accurate enough colorimetric measurements of FWA-treated papers or prints on them illuminated by the specified illuminant. The total spectral radiance factor of a fluorescent specimen, from which most colorimetric values are derived, consists of the luminescent spectral radiance factor and the spectral reflectance factor. This method separately estimates those of FWA-treated paper to add up to the total spectral radiance factor. The luminescent spectral radiance factor is obtained by estimating the SPD of luminescence excited by the specified illuminant as the weighted sum of the multiple SPDs of luminescence excited by the respective narrow band LED emissions at different wavelengths. The LEDs and their weights are determined optimally for generally used papers. The spectral reflectance factor is derived from the estimated SPD of the radiation with fluorescence excluded from the paper illuminated by visible illumination. The method was applied with five different illumination systems each using two or three narrow band LEDs in the excitation range. They were evaluated by measuring the total spectral radiance factors by D50 of seven FWA-treated papers and CMYK prints on four papers. The derived colorimetric values were compared to the respective references by the ideal D50.
      PubDate: 2017-09-03T23:15:49.292529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22166
  • Correspondence analysis of color–emotion associations
    • Authors: Mitsuhiko Hanada
      Abstract: Emotions are often associated with colors, but what mediates color–emotion associations is not fully understood. This study examined associations between colors and emotions using correspondence analysis. The hypothesis that emotions are associated with colors through the correspondence between the hue circle and the circumplex model of emotion/affect was tested. Participants viewed 40 colors and reported a word that expressed an emotion that they associated with or felt in response to each color. Participants' responses were aggregated into a contingency table of colors and emotion words, and a correspondence analysis was conducted. An eight-dimensional biplot was obtained. The first and second dimensions were related to hue, and the hue configuration was similar to colors' spectral trajectory in the CIE xy space or the CIELAB a*b* color space. The configuration of emotions was not consistent with the circumplex model of emotion, which rejected the above hypothesis. The associations in dimensions 1 and 2 appeared to be mediated by the perceived temperature of colors and emotions. In dimensions 3–6, dimensions that seemed to reflect secondary associations based on cultural convention or personal experiences (such as white with emotionless and purity and blue with depression) were obtained. These results also demonstrated the usefulness of correspondence analysis for analyzing color–emotion associations due to its ability to reveal the underlying statistical structure of associations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T00:53:41.05815-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22171
  • Digitally reconstructing van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles part 2:
           Pigment concentration maps
    • Authors: Eric Kirchner; Ivo van der Lans, Frank Ligterink, Muriel Geldof, Art Ness Proano Gaibor, Ella Hendriks, Koen Janssens, John Delaney
      Abstract: Colors in many paintings of great art historical value have changed over time, due to the combined effects of natural ageing, accumulated surface grime, and materials added during later conservation treatments. The physical restoration of the colors in such paintings is not possible. This article describes one part of work done to digitally restore the colors of van Gogh's painting Field with Irises near Arles, dating from May 1888. We have used multispectral reflectance data to estimate absorption K and backscattering S parameters of Kubelka-Munk 2-constant theory. This was done for all 13 pigments known to have been used by van Gogh in this painting, and based on this the concentration maps for each of these pigments were calculated. We validated the calculated concentration maps in several ways. For some pigments, we were able to predict spots on the painting where the pigment is expected to occur in unmixed form based on visual examination. For several other pigments, the concentration maps could be shown to agree with XRF data. Finally, for some other pigments the concentration maps were supported by additional evidence from microscopic examinations, remarks in van Gogh's letters and from early color reproductions. For the 1.7 million pixels for which multispectral data is available, the average color difference between the calculated and measured spectral reflectance curves is CIEDE2000 = 1.05. This further confirms that the Kubelka-Munk calculations are well suited to describe the variety of spectral reflectance on the painting.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T06:56:00.004214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22164
  • Digitally reconstructing Van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles. Part 1:
    • Authors: Eric Kirchner; Ivo van der Lans, Frank Ligterink, Ella Hendriks, John Delaney
      Abstract: Varnish layers applied to paintings often discolor as they age, upsetting the original colour relationships intended by the artist. The removal of aged varnish layers using physical and chemical means is a highly skilled and often time-consuming operation, which is not lightly undertaken. There are many aspects under consideration before embarking upon such treatment, including the visual result inferred by spot cleaning tests. In this article, we develop a technique for digital removal of discolored varnish that can help to envisage how a painting will look following cleaning treatment. The digital technique was applied to Vincent van Gogh's painting Field with Irises near Arles (May 1888), in parallel to the painting actually being cleaned, which allowed direct validation of the method developed. In the new method, we utilized not only hyperspectral data from parts of the painting with and without the varnish, but also experts' identification of spots on the painting where unmixed white pigment has been applied. The physical model that we use is based on Kubelka-Munk two-constant theory, commonly used to model the optical properties of paint. We show that with this model it is possible to determine the transmittance and reflectance of the varnish layer as function of wavelength. Results from previous studies confirm the calculated values. With the new method, we created a high-resolution digital image of the painting, as it would look after varnish removal, at a moment when the actual varnish was still present on the painting. The new method may help conservators and others involved in decisions made regarding issues of varnish removal from paintings, or may help to visualize the colors of a painting without discolored varnish in cases where its physical removal cannot be safely accomplished and so is not an option.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T03:25:50.906886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22162
  • Red color in flags: a signal for competition*
    • Authors: Tengxiao Zhang; Shiyu Feng, Buxin Han, Si Sun
      Abstract: The color-in-context theory and ecological valence theory suggest that color preference depends on the context and ecological object that define the psychological meanings of colors. The present study was conducted to identify the preference for the color red in national flags across the world. We explored 192 national flags across the world and found that red was the most frequently used color. Through a systemic examination of symbolic meanings behind use of the color red in flags, it was also found that the color red was often attached with an aggressive connotation. In contrast, the flags of the selected international collaborative organizations did not appear to prefer red. These results support the hypothesis of “red flag preference” in real-world competitive contexts. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T08:10:33.31004-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22165
  • Colour meaning and consumer expectations
    • Authors: Seahwa Won; Stephen Westland
      Abstract: Deciding a colour for a product is a significant task for designers to attract consumer attention and communicate brand messages. It requires an initial analysis that explores consumer expectations within the sector, and this information is then used to inform development of a product design. This article discusses the application of the product colour development process during the initial phase of product design. Using a case study approach, one particular product category—a dishwashing liquid product was selected based on the suggestion from a leading U.K. consumer goods manufacturing company that colour is a major design factor for this product category. In the first phase of the study, interviews and an online survey were carried out with consumers (to explore what elements are important when they purchase a washing-up liquid product). In the second phase of the study, a colour meaning experiment was conducted to explore possible colours for dishwashing liquid packaging using a semantic differential method. The results show that yellowish and bluish green colours evoke positive responses while saturated and dark green colours are perceived more negatively.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T08:10:28.816944-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22167
  • Three-dimensional color prediction modeling of single- and double-layered
           woven fabrics
    • Authors: Youngjoo Chae; Tao Hua, John H. Xin
      Abstract: In this research, the three-dimensional structural and colorimetric modeling of three-dimensional woven fabrics was conducted for accurate color predictions. One-hundred forty single- and double-layered woven samples in a wide range of colors were produced. With the consideration of their three-dimensional structural parameters, three-dimensional color prediction models, K/S-, R-, and L*a*b*-based models, were developed through the optimization of previous two-dimensional models which have been reported to be the three most accurate models for single-layered woven structures. The accuracy of the new three-dimensional models was evaluated by calculating the color differences ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔECMC(2:1) between the measured and the predicted colors of the samples, and then the error values were compared to those of the two-dimensional models. As a result, there has been an overall improvement in color predictions of all models with a decrease in ΔECMC(2:1) from 10.30 to 5.25 units on average after the three-dimensional modeling.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T09:05:27.782832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22149
  • Similarities and differences between male and female novice designers on
           color-concept associations for warnings, action required, and signs and
           equipment status messages
    • Authors: Annie W. Y. Ng; Alan H. S. Chan
      Abstract: This research examined the male and female novice designers toward color associations for the concepts used for ‘warnings’, ‘action required’, and ‘signs and equipment status’ through a questionnaire-based study. A total of 178 Hong Kong Chinese final year undergraduate design students (89 males and 89 females) participated in the study. The test used required the participants to indicate their choice of one of nine colors to associations with each of 38 concepts in a color-concept table, so that any one color could be associated with any one of the concepts. For both male and female groups of novice designers, chi-square tests revealed a strong color association for each concept tested in this study (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T00:16:20.41875-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22163
  • The “C test” for tritan discrimination
    • Authors: Ross Littlewood Franzco; Francine Hyde Doba
      Abstract: BackgroundThe aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a clinical standard capable of generating ordinal measures of monocular tritan discrimination.DesignA novel pseudoisochromatic plate test was developed, called the “C test.” It contains 10 progressively desaturated plates arranged in perceptually distinct steps that provide a standard for analyzing the threshold for tritan discrimination. The most difficult plate that can be detected is the “C score.” Relevant diagnostic findings including the C score, Logmar acuity, Pelli-Robson score, and LOCS III lens grading were prospectively recorded in 568 eyes.MethodsA total of 355 normal eyes were selected for statistical analysis.Main outcome measuresThe correlations between C score, Logmar acuity, and Pelli-Robson score with LOCS III grading were analyzed with Spearman rank analysis.ResultsThe strongest correlations were between the Logmar acuity with posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (0.68), the C score with nuclear colour (NC) (–0.58), and the Logmar acuity with NC (0.57). The lower normal limit for the C score was 9 in pseudophakes and phakic eyes with NC  3. A comparison of C score distribution between three distinct age ranges of pseudophakic eyes (n = 136) showed no significant variation (P = .486). The Spearman rank correlation between C score and Logmar acuity was 0.028, and between C score and Pelli-Robson score was 0.012.ConclusionThe normal limit for the C score used under 800 Lux is 9 when NC 
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T22:36:13.693968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22155
  • Camera characterization for improving color archaeological documentation
    • Authors: Adolfo Molada-Tebar; José Luis Lerma, Ángel Marqués-Mateu
      Abstract: Determining the correct color is essential for proper cultural heritage documentation and cataloging. However, the methodology used in most cases limits the results since it is based either on perceptual procedures or on the application of color profiles in digital processing software. The objective of this study is to establish a rigorous procedure, from the colorimetric point of view, for the characterization of cameras, following different polynomial models. Once the camera is characterized, users obtain output images in the sRGB space that is independent of the sensor of the camera. In this article we report on pyColorimetry software that was developed and tested taking into account the recommendations of the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE). This software allows users to control the entire digital image processing and the colorimetric data workflow, including the rigorous processing of raw data. We applied the methodology on a picture targeting Levantine rock art motifs in Remigia Cave (Spain) that is considered part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Three polynomial models were tested for the transformation between color spaces. The outcomes obtained were satisfactory and promising, especially with RAW files. The best results were obtained with a second-order polynomial model, achieving residuals below three CIELAB units. We highlight several factors that must be taken into account, such as the geometry of the shot and the light conditions, which are determining factors for the correct characterization of a digital camera.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T22:36:02.507371-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22152
  • Long-term changes in Japanese women's facial skin color
    • Authors: Kumiko Kikuchi; Chika Katagiri, Hironobu Yoshikawa, Yoko Mizokami, Hirohisa Yaguchi
      Abstract: It has been suggested that skin color changes not only with advancing age but also with the times. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in Japanese women's facial skin color over 25 years, as well as the changes in skin pigmentation that affect skin color. First, skin color changes in terms of Munsell color values were investigated. A total of 3181 Japanese women residing in the greater Tokyo area were enrolled, and datasets were collected using spectrophotometers, designated as the 1991, 2001, 2005, and 2015 data. The mean Munsell hue, value, and chroma were calculated for each measurement year. Next, the concentrations of melanin and hemoglobin were calculated from spectral data, to investigate changes in skin pigmentations. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to verify that the suggested changes in skin pigmentations brought about skin color changes. As a result, skin color significantly changed toward high lightness, low saturation, and high yellowness from the 1991 data to the 2001 data. From the 2005 to 2015 data, the skin color distribution shifted toward lower saturation and increased redness. In addition, the concentration of hemoglobin decreased significantly from the 1991 data to the 2001 data, while the melanin concentration decreased significantly from the 2005 data to the 2015 data.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:40:56.738525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22153
  • Improving color reproduction accuracy of an OLED-based mobile display
    • Authors: Eric Kirchner; Ivo van der Lans, Esther Perales, Francisco Martínez-Verdú
      Abstract: For improving color reproduction accuracy of mobile displays, we recently developed a generic model for device-specific display characterization model that also accounts for the influence of illuminance from ambient light. In the present article, this MDCIM model (Mobile Display Characterization and Illumination Model) is applied to a Samsung Galaxy S4 display, representing OLED displays. The performance of the model was tested by determining the values of all model parameters using publicly available technical data only. We organized visual tests under various ambient illuminance levels from 600 to 3000 lux. Seven observers compared the color of displayed images with the color of physical samples. With the MDCIM method, the quality of the color match was shown to improve considerably as compared to using only device-independent encoding color space. On a five-point scale to quantify color reproduction accuracy, the MDCIM resulted in more than 1 unit improvement at 1000 lux illuminance. At lower and higher illuminance, the improvement was even larger. Color reproduction accuracy was found to be at least reasonable, according to the subjective assessment of visual observers, for more than 75% of the samples when using the MDCIM method, but only 20% or less when using the common device-independent encoding color space.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T22:55:27.75697-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22148
  • Impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators on whiteness
           specification for surface colors
    • Authors: Minchen Wei; Siyuan Chen
      Abstract: The impact of spectral power distribution of daylight simulators (ie, D65 simulators) on surface whiteness specification was investigated by focusing on how CIE whiteness and tint values of 8 whiteness samples with fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) vary under different D65 simulators. Large variations in both whiteness (∼16 points) and tint (∼1.6 points) are observed under the D65 simulators above BB grade, as characterized using the CIE metamerism index. However, it is found the variations of the whiteness and tint values are smaller under the D65 simulators whose radiant power in the UVA band (ie, 300-340 nm) was within ±30% in comparison to CIE standard D65 illuminant, as defined in BS 950, which may be a better alternative for evaluating the quality of a D65 simulator for surface white specification using CIE whiteness and tint formulas. The findings also suggest the necessity to fine-tune or revise the CIE whiteness and tint formulas to characterize the surface whiteness under nonperfect D65 simulators or arbitrary light sources.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T01:50:53.449453-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22150
  • Do red prices also work online': An extension of Puccinelli et al.
    • Authors: Ellen Van Droogenbroeck; Leo Van Hove, Steven Cordemans
      Abstract: In a recent article, Puccinelli et al. examine the effect of the color in which prices appear in print flyers on consumers' perceived savings. Puccinelli et al. find that the effect is moderated by gender: unlike female consumers, men think they are being offered a better deal when prices are presented in red than when they are presented in black. The advertisements with prices in red also put men in a more positive state. This note replicates Puccinelli et al.'s main experiment in a different context (online vs. print) and in a different cultural setting (Belgium vs. the USA). In line with Puccinelli et al., we find that men perceive the online store with red prices as offering better value. But, intriguingly, it does not appear to make men feel more positively. One possible explanation is that red prices work differently online.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10T01:50:19.749166-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22147
  • Image color adjustment for harmony with a target color
    • Authors: EunJin Kim; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
      Abstract: Although a number of methods have been developed for image adjustment in various applications, very little work has been done in the context of visual design. In this regard, this article introduces a novel and practical context of image color adjustment and develops a method to adjust an image for harmony with a target color. The experiment with designers revealed that designers made significant changes in hue dimension, and preferred to promote color similarity between the image and the target color. Based on insights from designers, we proposed a method to achieve a harmonious combination of an image and a color element by increasing the hue similarity between them. The result of a user test revealed that our method is particularly useful for images with nonliving objects but less effective for images involving human skin, foods, and so on. It is expected that the practical context investigated in this study can promote a variety of related studies that satisfy the tangible needs of industries and academia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-28T22:55:35.161753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22144
  • Issue Information – TOC
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:24:07.049343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22174
  • In this issue
    • Pages: 3 - 5
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:24:07.424955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22193
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