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Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Color Research & Application
  [SJR: 0.406]   [H-I: 46]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0361-2317 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6378
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Color-emotion associations, designing color schemes for urban
           environment-architectural settings
    • Authors: Banu Manav
      Abstract: Color in urban design has become an important issue, each city may present different colors which help to define and describe its architectural features. In the study, color in urban design with architectural setting is studied, façade colors are analyzed with a specific emphasis on the following research questions; “Can color schemes be designed in respect to color-emotion associations?” and “Are color-emotion associations affective while designing architectural setting-urban environment?.” Non-color experts, 170 people, from different European and non-European countries were asked to match the most appropriate adjectives with the given street views in accordance to their color schemes. In the first step, the effect of color is identified in relation to architectural environment-urban setting, second the relative effect of color is studied as a component of the material. A categorical specification on color cognition and linguistic level of representation is attempted. The results can be a starting point to highlight the importance of preparing color schemes in regard to color-emotion associations. color schemes may also provide us an idea about image setting, especially at design process stage. In the study, keywords are linked as environment-response pairs; such as quiet, calming, lively, exclusive, reserved, and natural. Human psychophysical structure such as “warm-cool,” “heavy-light” in regard to visualizing certain colors are evaluated and described in terms of building materials.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T22:28:20.637386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22123
  • Publications briefly mentioned
    • PubDate: 2017-03-20T22:28:09.416676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22120
  • Editorial changes at color research and application
    • PubDate: 2017-03-20T22:28:03.737638-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22126
  • Research on the detection of fabric color difference based on T-S fuzzy
           neural network
    • Authors: Peng-Fei Li; Yu-Wei Ning, Jun-Feng Jing
      Abstract: T-S fuzzy neural network algorithm is used to establish the mapping relationship from the RGB space to the L*a*b* space, which avoids the complex process of color space conversion. Meanwhile, the block method is adopted to detect color difference of dyed fabric that is wide format and wide viewing angle. Color differences in different regions can be calculated with Color Measurement Committee color difference formula based on T-S fuzzy neural network. Experimental results are in accordance with the spectrophotometer measurement, which proves that T-S fuzzy neural network algorithm used in real-time color detection process is effective and feasible. Workers can make corresponding adjustment on-line according to the deviation to ensure the quality of fabric color and reduce the loss.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T23:20:52.017574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22113
  • Chromatic adaptation to illumination investigated with adapting and
           adapted color
    • Authors: Chanprapha Phuangsuwan; Mitsuo Ikeda
      Abstract: The state of chromatic adaptation was investigated by using the two-room technique. This technique involves a subject in a room who looks a white board in a separate test room through a window and judges the color of the window using the elementary color naming method. When the subject room is illuminated with a colored light and the test room with a white light, the window appears to be a very vivid color, for which the apparent hue depends on the color of the subject room. The color is referred to as the adapted color. The subject also evaluated the appearance of the illumination color of the subject room, which is called the adapting color. Two types of illuminating light in the subject room, fluorescent lamps with 7 colors and LED lamps with 19 colors, were employed. The adapting and the adapted colors were plotted on a polar diagram that was used in the opponent color theory, from which the hue angles were obtained. The hue angle difference between the two colors did not appear to be 180° except for one pair of adapting and the adapted colors, which implies that chromatic adaptation does not follow the opponent color concept. An improvement was achieved to explain the results by introducing complementary colors relation between the adapting and adapted color.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T23:20:38.094012-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22117
  • Color specification of two new resin composites and influence of
           stratification on their chromatic perception
    • Authors: Anna M. Gueli; Eugenio Pedullà, Stefania Pasquale, Giusy R. La Rosa, Ernesto Rapisarda
      Abstract: Accurate color reproduction in conservative dentistry is fundamental to the aesthetic success of the restorations. The need to specify the color objectively has been known for some years, and this article aims to make a contribution to this field. This work is part of a multidisciplinary research project, and it has a double aim. The first purpose was to measure the color differences between the two new composite resin restorative materials and the most used dental color scale. Measurements show some differences from color shades indicated by the manufacturers and those obtained from experimental data. The influence of different order of enamel and dentin layers on color perception was also investigated to evaluate clinical strategies useful to obtain desired result. Relevant differences are observed in the stratification of dentin and enamel discs especially for one of the two studied composites.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T23:20:36.396462-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22115
  • Performance of advanced color difference and CAM02-based formulas in
           prediction of the Crispening effect for reflective samples
    • Authors: Hamed Karimipour; Saeideh Gorji Kandi
      Abstract: The Crispening effect is defined as an increase in the perceived color difference of the two stimuli, when their color (chromaticity or luminance) is close to the background on which the two stimuli are compared. In this study, the amount of the Crispening effect for three achromatic backgrounds and also the performance of six different color difference formulas (CDFs) for prediction of this effect have been investigated, by preparing 85 sample pairs in 9 CIE's recommended color centers. Regarding the results, the maximum (50%) and the minimum (4%) amount of the Crispening effect belong to the gray and the purple centers, respectively. According to the results of a comparative test, the Crispening intensifies when two stimuli have just lightness difference instead of just chromaticity difference. The highest variation was for the gray samples, in which the amount of the Crispening effect increased from 35% to 65%. By using PF/3 and STRESS index, it is also concluded that CMC and CIEDE2000 perform better than CAM02-SCD and CAM02-UCS in prediction of the Crispening effect on the dark gray and gray backgrounds. According to the results, the significant differences between the performances of the CDFs disappear when the luminance of the background increases. Huang's power functions also do not improve these results significantly. Furthermore, the results indicate that the traditional L* equation used in CIELAB performs similar to the Whittle's formula in prediction of the Crispening effect for reflective samples, and no significant difference was obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T22:31:00.486291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22110
  • Evaluation of uncertainties for CIELAB color coordinates
    • Authors: Gerd Wübbeler; Joaquin Campos Acosta, Clemens Elster
      Abstract: CIELAB color coordinates are characteristics of visible object's spectra widely used in color science, and a reliable evaluation of the uncertainty associated with measured color coordinates is desirable. The calculation of CIELAB color coordinates requires the application of a nonlinear transformation. We consider two ways to calculate the uncertainty of CIELAB color coordinates that originates from the uncertainty of the observed spectrum. The first approach is based on a linearization of the nonlinear transformation and a propagation of variances and covariances. The second approach is a Monte Carlo procedure that completely accounts for the nonlinearity of the transformation. While the approach based on linearization results in analytical formulas, the adequacy of linearization ought to be checked and the proposed Monte Carlo method can serve as a reference method for this purpose. We illustrate such proceeding in a large range of scenarios and explore those cases for which the method based on linearization may safely be applied.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T04:10:34.953015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22109
  • Issue Information – TOC
    • Pages: 143 - 144
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T23:37:22.383276-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22081
  • In this issue
    • Pages: 145 - 147
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T23:37:22.457242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22112
  • About the authors
    • Pages: 147 - 149
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T23:37:22.572615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22111
  • Color separation for improved perceived image quality in terms of
           graininess and gamut
    • Authors: Paula Žitinski Elías; Daniel Nyström, Sasan Gooran
      Abstract: Multi-channel printing employs additional inks to improve the perceived image quality by reducing the graininess and augmenting the printer gamut. It also requires a color separation that deals with the one-to-many mapping problem imposed when using more than three inks. The proposed separation model incorporates a multilevel halftoning algorithm, reducing the complexity of the print characterization by grouping inks of similar hues in the same channel. In addition, a cost function is proposed that weights selected factors influencing the print and perceived image quality, namely color accuracy, graininess and ink consumption. The graininess perception is qualitatively assessed using S-CIELAB, a spatial low-pass filtering mimicking the human visual system. By applying it to a large set of samples, a generalized prediction quantifying the perceived graininess is carried out and incorporated as a criterion in the color separation. The results of the proposed model are compared with the separation giving the best colorimetric match, showing improvements in the perceived image quality in terms of graininess at a small cost of color accuracy and ink consumption. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-29T08:01:33.229328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22105
  • Background luminance and subtense affects color appearance
    • Authors: Pei-Li Sun; Hung-Chung Li, M. Ronnier Luo
      Abstract: Two psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate the color appearance under non-uniform surround conditions with variation of stimulus luminance, surround luminance, background luminance, background orientation, and background size. The results show that the background size and surround luminance influence the appearance intensively, but that the orientation of background pattern has little effect. A method to determine optimal parameters for the CIECAM02 color appearance model in lighting applications is proposed. An UGR-based model also is optimized for brightness estimation. The luminance of adapting field can be estimated by Gaussian-like functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-27T22:25:28.070672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22108
  • Light wavelengths of LEDs to improve the color discrimination in Ishihara
           test and Farnsworth Panel D-15 test for deutans
    • Authors: Shigeharu Tamura; Yosuke Okamoto, Seiji Nakagawa, Takashi Sakamoto, Masanori Ando, Yasushi Shigeri
      Abstract: This study was performed to determine significant light wavelengths to improve color discrimination ability of subjects with deutan. We conducted both the Ishihara test and the Farnsworth Panel D-15 test for subjects with deutan and normal color vision. Seven different LED lights from 450 to 660 nm and an additional D65 white lamp were utilized to change the lighting conditions, including the wavelength and intensity. The results of the Ishihara test and D-15 test showed that color identification of deutans was markedly improved with the longer wavelength LEDs regardless of the intensity of the additional D65 lamp. Notably, the error rates of deutans in the Ishihara test were
      PubDate: 2016-11-25T21:45:26.062632-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22106
  • Practical method for correcting heterochromatic stray light in
           dual-channel spectrographs for colorimetry
    • Authors: Kenji Imura; Yuzuru Yamamoto, Yohsuke Takebe, Yoshiroh Nagai
      Abstract: Measurements by spectrophotometers more or less suffer from heterochromatic stray light generated in their spectrometers. It is divided into near-band and off-band stray lights. While the former appears near the spectral band of the incident flux, the latter distributes broadly across the whole range and is far more problematic from colorimetric point of view. This article presents a practical method for correcting off-band stray light in dual-channel array spectrographs often built in modern spectrophotometers. Unlike most correction methods using a line spread function, the presented method estimates the distribution of off-band stray light across the array as the product of a device-specific stray light distribution and a total stray light intensity. The latter depends on both the spectral power distribution of an incident flux and a device-specific rate of change from the incident flux to the off-band stray light. For further simplification, the method replaces wavelengths by several bands dividing the visible range owing to the moderate spectral dependence of the above rate of change. With those simplifications, the method is practical, effective, and robust enough to work in an inexpensive hand-held spectrophotometer with the compact spectrograph which often suffers from off-band stray light. The performance of the method was evaluated with two dual-channel array spectrographs with and without 2nd-order-rejection filter. Specimen lights incident through ten different glass filters were measured and the errors caused by off-band stray light in the pixel outputs from the array were successfully corrected by the method. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T04:35:55.93509-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22101
  • Perception of gold materials by projecting a solid color on black
    • Authors: Midori Tanaka; Takahiko Horiuchi
      Abstract: Gold gives a unique luxurious impression and therefore golden objects are often desired. Since gold is an expensive metal, due to its rarity, it is not feasible to produce objects made of gold at reasonable prices. In this study, we have developed a simple representation method that makes real objects appear to be made of gold using projection mapping technology. In recent years, this technology has been extensively explored, mainly in the field of entertainment. Most of these studies were focused on technologies where a target image was superimposed onto an object. Our method, unlike the conventional approach, does not project a target gold image but simply projects a solid color onto an object, thereby giving the perception that the object is made of gold. We have conducted two psychophysical experiments to substantiate our representation method, using stimuli having the same color. Our results indicate that objects were more easily perceived as golden objects when a solid color was projected onto black objects rather than white objects. Furthermore, a few samples were perceived as metals, even though they were actually paper or fabric. These results suggest that when superimposing a solid color onto an object, a change in material type is perceived along with the change of its color. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between psychophysical evaluations on the perception of projected gold objects and the physical properties of the materials. The results show that the average and the standard deviation of reflectance generated by black objects can be considered factors that affect the perception of a gold-like color. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T04:35:54.146598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22107
  • Quantifying the suitability of CIE D50 and a simulators based on LED light
    • Authors: H.T. Gu; M.R. Pointer, X.Y. Liu, M. Ronnier Luo
      Abstract: In this study, two psychophysical experiments, colour-difference assessment and colour-appearance estimation, were conducted to investigate the perceived quality of four CIE illuminant simulators, including two simulators based on LED light sources. The perceived colour-differences of 30 metameric pairs, seen under the different simulators, were evaluated by 10 colour-normal observers using the gray scale method and the colour appearance of the colour inconstant sample in each pair assessed in a magnitude estimation method. Colorimetric measures revealed that LED simulators can achieve the desired quality according to the relevant ISO and CIE standards. The results of the experiments showed that an LED simulator outperformed the conventional fluorescent lamp-based simulator for the CIE illuminant D50 condition. In addition, an LED simulator worked almost equally well as a conventional simulator for simulating CIE illuminant A. These findings strongly indicated the good quality of LED simulators based on a limited number of channels, and the superiority of LED technology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T23:25:29.89007-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22098
  • Colour meaning and context
    • Authors: Seahwa Won; Stephen Westland
      Abstract: This study compares semantic ratings of colour samples (chips) with those of the same colours applied to a variety of objects. In total, 25 participants took part in the colour-meaning experiment, and assessed 54 images using five semantic scales. In Experiment 1, simplified images (coloured silhouettes) were used whereas in Experiment 2 real images were used. In this article, the terms “chip meaning” and “context meaning” are used for convenience. Chip meaning refers to the associated meanings when only isolated colour chips were evaluated while context meaning refers to colour meanings evaluated when colours were applied to a variety of product categories. Analyses were performed on the data for the two experiments individually. The results of Experiment 1 show relatively few significant differences (28%) between chip meaning and context meaning. However, differences were found for a number of colours, objects, and semantic scales i.e., red and black; hand wash and medicine; and masculine-feminine and elegant-vulgar. The results of Experiment 2 show more significant differences (43%) between chip meaning and context meaning. In summary, the context sometimes affects the colour meaning; however, the degree to which colour meanings are invariant to context is perhaps slightly surprising. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T04:50:28.071675-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22095
  • Color harmony in two-piece garments
    • Authors: Min Huang; Guihua Cui, Manuel Melgosa, Pedro A. García, Haoxue Liu, Yu Liu, M. Ronnier Luo
      Abstract: Using a categorical scale of 10 U, we have assessed color harmony in two-piece garments (jackets-trousers) considering a vicenarian and a quinquagenarian style. The experiment was performed by a panel of 59 Chinese observers (26 males and 33 females) with normal color vision and ages ranging 20–78 years, considering 300 color combinations for each of the two styles. For a given color combination, comparing results in the vicenarian/quinquagenarian styles for female/male observers, and observers below/above 45 years old, we found generally higher harmony scores for the vicenarian style, male observers, and observers older than 45 years. We found statistically significant differences (Welch two-sample t test, P 
      PubDate: 2016-11-10T06:40:36.556773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22099
  • Performance comparison of JPEG, JPEG 2000, and newly developed CSI-JPEG by
           adopting different color models
    • Authors: Muhammad Safdar; Ming Ronnier Luo, Xiaoyu Liu
      Abstract: The major issues of using less storage space and wanting higher transmission rates for information in the form of high quality color images was taken into consideration. Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate and compare performance of compression standard including JPEG 1992 and JPEG 2000, and a newly developed CSI-JPEG. The CSI-JPEG is an amalgamation of Cubic Spline Interpolation (CSI) with baseline JPEG 1992 algorithm. The performance of different image compression algorithms was evaluated using different color models/spaces in terms of compression rate, color accuracy, and visual quality. The results from three assessment methods consistently showed that JPEG 2000 and CSI-JPEG performed significantly better compared with JPEG 1992 for small color differences (in the range of acceptability). Moreover, the CAM02-UCS performed best among other selected models in terms of compression rate and image performance for all three image compression algorithms. The results from the visual assessment also confirmed this. It was also found that CIEDE2000 can be reliably used for assessing quality of compressed images with low levels of distortion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-11-08T02:27:35.767979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22100
  • Linear modeling of modern artist paints using a modification of the opaque
           form of Kubelka-Munk turbid media theory
    • Authors: Farhad Moghareh Abed; Roy S. Berns
      Abstract: A new model of turbid medium theory is proposed that combines the best parts of the opaque forms of Kubelka-Munk single and two constant models. This model introduces an impurity index, a spectrally nonselective scattering coefficient for each chromatic component. The new model is shown to have a convex, linear dependence on colorant concentration so that it can be used for colorant identification in high-resolution images of works of art while offering an extension to the single constant model that can predict the absorption and scattering of paints, both in mixture and pure (masstone) forms. The model was tested and validated using 28 matte acrylic dispersion paints, of the type used in modern painting. These paints had a wide range of absorption and scattering characteristics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:06:34.774076-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22086
  • Color of absence and presence: Reconsidering black in architecture
    • Authors: Ahenk Yılmaz
      Abstract: : This article explores the effects of using black on spatial experience by means of phenomenological analysis of its architectural examples with a special focus on Serpentine Gallery Pavilion designed by Peter Zumthor. Contrary to the growing interest in the color in contemporary architecture, black rarely found a place in architectural history and in studies on color design. Whereas, the distinct achromatic qualities of the color that appear highly self-contradictory swinging back and forth from absence to presence cover a wide range of potentials to be used in architectural design. Through insights delved into the spatial experience constructed around these qualities, this paper attempts to analyze how black is used as a design element in built environments. This analysis revolves around Zumthor s pavilion, which stood as a uniform black box on the expanse of green grass of London Kensington Gardens for more than three months in 2011. Encompassing various oppositions, the box built to surround a hortus conclusus, an enclosed garden inside, provided its visitors with a unique spatial experience depending predominantly on the combination of its form, tectonics and the qualities of its color, black. The phenomenological analysis of these qualities manifests that the architect utilized the contradictory characteristics of the color intentionally in order to create a complex and manifold spatial experience for visitors in and outside the box. In an interplay of absence and presence, momentary crystallizations of the vision of black provide architects with uncharted opportunities for creative use of color in the design of built environments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T22:20:26.588396-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22090
  • Color appearance modeling of bicolor striped woven fabrics considering
           neighboring color effects
    • Authors: Youngjoo Chae; John H. Xin, Tao Hua, Mei Luo
      Abstract: In this article, the effect of the spatial and colorimetric attributes of neighboring color on color appearance shift in bicolor striped woven fabrics is investigated. A total of 240 test/neighboring woven color combinations were constructed in four different striped paradigms. Each test color in the combinations was visually assessed by 12 observer panels with the use of the magnitude estimation method estimating the magnitude of perceptual color attributes lightness, colorfulness, and hue. The visual estimates obtained were analyzed statistically by employing correlation and simple regression methods, and, as a result, the following significant neighboring color effects were detected and individually defined: (1) neighboring color's size, lightness, colorfulness, and hue on test color's lightness, (2) neighboring color's colorfulness and hue on test color's colorfulness, and (3) neighboring color's hue on test color's hue. Furthermore, through multiple regression analysis, color appearance models by which the lightness, colorfulness, and hue of bicolor woven fabrics can be predicted were derived. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated by calculating the difference between the visually estimated and the predicted color appearances, using ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔECMC(2:1). Among all the derived models, the model producing the smallest mean error was chosen as a final model, and its great accuracy in color appearance predictions was verified through further statistical evaluation. It is envisaged that the findings of this research are of benefit to design textile products with bicolor striped woven fabrics to have desired color appearances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T22:15:31.053233-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22097
  • Optimization of a spectrally tunable LED daylight simulator
    • Authors: Minchen Wei; Biao Yang, Yandan Lin
      Abstract: Daylight simulators (i.e., D50, D55, D65, and D75 simulators) play an important role for industrial applications, such as surface color industry, recipe formulation, and graphic arts industry. Conventional light sources, including xenon lamps, tungsten-halogen lamps, and fluorescent lamps, have been used as daylight simulators. In this article, a genetic algorithm is employed to investigate optimized channels for each daylight simulator. It is found that at least six LED channels are required to produce high quality daylight simulators in terms of the CIE Metamerism Indices. Furthermore, it is possible to create a spectrally tunable daylight simulator using six LED channels with wavelengths of 357, 420, 474, 533, 595, and 660 nm. This wavelength combination with appropriate intensity combinations can produce D50, D55, D65, and D75 simulators with good performance, in terms of the CIE Metamerism Indices. The color appearance of various color samples or objects under such a daylight simulator is found to be very similar to those under a corresponding daylight illuminant. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T10:15:22.536191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22094
  • Aging analysis of a color facsimile binding for the 14th century
           manuscript “Registro Notarial de Torres”
    • Authors: Ana López-Montes; Francisco José Collado-Montero, Esther Castillo, Rosario Blanc, Domingo Campillo, Teresa Espejo
      Abstract: The re-use of older documents or parts of books to make covers for archive documents has been common practice throughout the history of books. Such is the case with the 14th Century Registro Notarial de Torres, the binding of which is a fragment of a parchment belonging to a Visigothic codex of extreme historical value. In this work, it was decided that the parchment binding of the notarial register should be conserved as a separate document, replacing it with a color facsimile. The article discusses the accelerated aging tests to determine the stability of the materials used in producing the facsimile. Differences in color, pH, and ink transfer were evaluated. The original appearance of the manuscript was successfully retained using the optimum choice of materials, and the fragment of parchment used as its original binding was preserved, thus safeguarding its physical integrity and its aesthetic and artifactual value. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-11T05:21:39.47835-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22093
  • Effects of age and ambient illuminance on visual comfort for reading on a
           mobile device
    • Authors: Hsin-Pou Huang; Li-Chen Ou, Yinqiu Yuan
      Abstract: A psychophysical experiment was carried out to investigate visual comfort for reading on an iPad under various illuminance levels, ranging from 50 lx to 1200 lx, in order to see whether and how the following variables can influence the visual comfort: observer's age, gender, the illuminance of ambient lighting, and the background colour in a document layout. A panel of 21 young and 22 older Taiwanese observers participated in the study. The paired comparison method was used for data collection and analysis. The experimental results show that for all lighting conditions, young observers tended to prefer reading documents that had a moderate CIELAB lightness difference between text and background, while older observers tended to prefer reading those with an extremely large lightness difference. The results also show that female observers tended to feel less comfortable than male observers when reading documents with an extremely large lightness difference. These findings were found not to be affected by the ambient illuminance. Regarding the influence of document background colour on visual comfort, the observers tended to feel more comfortable reading documents that had a gray background than reading those with a background colour of either white or black. It was also found that the visual comfort was slightly higher for positive polarity than for negative polarity, but the difference between the two settings was insignificant. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-10-06T23:04:44.437718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22089
  • Spectral reflectance reconstruction from RGB images based on weighting
           smaller color difference group
    • Authors: Bin Cao; Ningfang Liao, Haobo Cheng
      Abstract: A method to reconstruct spectral reflectance from RGB images is presented without priori knowledge of camera's spectral responsivity. To obtain the spectral reflectance of a pixel or region in images, this method assumes that reflectance is a weighted average of reflectances of samples in a selected training group, in which all samples have smaller color difference with that pixel or region. Four proposed weighting modes with different selected numbers of training samples were investigated. Among them, the inverse square weighting mode obtains the best performance, and it is not very sensitive to the selected training samples number. Experimental results show that all weighting modes outperform the traditional method in terms of root mean squared error and Goodness-of-Fit Coefficient between the actual and the reconstructed reflectances as well as color differences under the other light condition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T22:10:26.118949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22091
  • Precise capture of colors in cultural heritage digitization
    • Authors: Przemyslaw Korytkowski; Agnieszka Olejnik-Krugly
      Abstract: A workflow for the color reproduction of digital still images for the purpose of cultural heritage digitization is presented. An analysis was performed to determine the effect of RAW to TIFF transformation; RGB to CIE L*a*b* transformation; white balancing; use of standard color spaces: sRGB, AdobeRGB (1998), ProPhoto RGB, eciRGBv2; custom DCP, and ICC profiles assigning. For the analysis, Color Checker Classic and Digital Color Checker SG targets were used. The precision of the color reproduction was checked against FADGI and Metamorfoze standards. We demonstrate that to obtain high color fidelity reproduction, white balancing and a custom ICC profile are necessary, while DCP profiling could be omitted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-09-22T22:10:22.50712-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22092
  • A comprehensive model of colour appearance for related and unrelated
           colours of varying size viewed under mesopic to photopic conditions
    • Authors: Shou Ting Wei; Ming Ronnier Luo, Kaida Xiao, Michael Pointer
      Abstract: CIE has recommended two previous appearance models, CIECAM97s and CIECAM02. However, these models are unable to predict the appearance of a comprehensive range of colours. The purpose of this study is to describe a new, comprehensive colour appearance model, which can be used to predict the appearance of colours under various viewing conditions that include a range of stimulus sizes, levels of illumination that range from scotopic through to photopic, and related and unrelated stimuli. In addition, the model has a uniform colour space that provides a colour-difference formula in terms of colour appearance parameters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-21T22:25:54.541381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22078
  • Color management for enhancing the performance of superfine nylon ink jet
           printing with reactive dyes inks
    • Authors: Guan Fanglan; Zhang Luoyu, Li Yinghui
      Abstract: The challenge for the inkjet printing textiles is that the colors reproduction quality of printed output is an accurate match to the original artwork. Actual evidence from art workers with digital print facilities reveals that they regularly encounter problems in this area. This article concerns the initial stages of an investigation into color accuracy in digitally printed superfine nylon under low temperature plasma pretreatment in order to get a accuracy and color-increased superfine nylon digital prints. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T02:35:44.736854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22077
  • Ways to define a tristimulus value
    • Authors: Michael H. Brill
      Abstract: Tristimulus values are spectrum integrals, involving a test light, that predict the quantities of three primary lights that when mixed together will match the test light. As described widely elsewhere, tristimulus values depend on the selected primary lights. However, tristimulus values are invariant to change of the integrand's domain (e.g., from wavelength to frequency), and also to change of range (e.g., from quanta to energy units). Starting with that invariance, this tutorial note explains how to transform the factors in the tristimulus-value integrand so as to obtain consistency among these representations of the tristimulus value. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T02:35:42.037074-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22079
  • Feasibility of using digital color imaging devices for the determination
           of cationic dyes compatibility
    • Authors: Saeed Salimian; Haleh Khalili, Hossain Izadan, Sohail Shahamatjoo
      Abstract: In the present research, the compatibility of dyes was evaluated using a scanner by the application of the method proposed by Khalili and Amirshahi, which had been proved as a novel and accurate method for evaluating the compatibility behavior of dye mixtures. A dip-test method was employed to dye samples, compatibility panels, in binary combinations of cationic dyes on acrylic fibers. In order to use the scanner, first the device was colorimetrically characterized using a regression technique. The tristimulus values obtained from the scanner were, then, used for the reconstruction of the reflectance of the compatibility panels by principal component analysis. Next, the reconstructed reflectance of the panels were transferred to the corresponding K/S spectra and the Khalili and Amirshahi proposed method applied to the spectra in order to obtain the percentage variance (PV), which is the criterion of the dye compatibility. The comparison between the PVs obtained from the scanner and the corresponding one calculated by the spectrophotometrically measured reflectance of the compatibility panels showed a very significant correlation of the compatibility results regarding Pearson correlation coefficients and their K values. It was concluded that due to the smoothness of the reconstructed spectra and the performance of the PCA method of the reconstruction, which manifest itself in the good spectral reconstruction, the scanner method joined with the Khalili and Amirshahi proposed method can reliably be used for the determination of dye mixtures compatibility by a dip test. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T22:51:53.66265-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22074
  • A new manufacturable filter design approach for spectral reflectance
    • Authors: Alireza Mahmoudi Nahavandi; Mohammad Amani Tehran
      Abstract: Selection of the best possible filter set among a set of available filters is the obvious method of increasing dimension of camera signals for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are also methods that are focusing on the filter design regardless of noticing to the constructability of the designed filters. This study shows that direct optimization of physical variables of filter manufacturing technique is more reliable than indirect approach of designing and then physical manufacturing of the designed filters. Direct optimization of the transmission-controlling primaries in filter manufacturing process would guarantee having the designed filters in reality. Combination of some solvent dyes was used as the spectral transmission matching system for filter manufacturing. As a conventional technique, filters were designed and best possible dye concentrations that match the desired filters were calculated. As an alternative approach, filters were also designed using direct optimization of dyes concentrations. The results showed that direct optimization of dye concentrations exhibits better performance in comparison with the conventional technique. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T07:05:26.226738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22075
  • A similarity-based cross-language comparison of basicness and demarcation
           of “blue” terms
    • Authors: David Bimler; Mari Uusküla
      Abstract: To investigate linguistic and perceptual boundaries within the “blue” region of the color gamut, we analyzed sorting data from speakers of six languages who sorted color stimuli by similarity. Two of these languages, Russian and Italian, are thought to have a separate basic color term and category for “light blue,” distinguishing it from “blue,” and the third was English, which lacks this distinction. There has been less study of the possible basicness of “light blue” terms in the other three languages: Lithuanian and Estonian (both spoken in Baltic states) and Udmurt (a linguistic enclave in North Russia). Sorting data from each sample of speakers were analyzed with principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling, reducing them to a pattern of interstimulus similarities. In addition, color-naming data were collected for five of the languages and confirmed that sorting responses were not simply a reflection of the words used by subjects to label the stimuli. A “clustering index” was created, quantifying the extent of light/dark blue separation and the strength of any category boundary between them; this was low for English-language participants but high for Russian and Italian. Udmurt and Lithuanian values were also high, whereas Estonian responses were closer to English. Thus, when clustering of blue stimuli is used as an additional indicator of basicness, the results are compatible with earlier evidence that “light blue” is a separate basic color category in Russian and Italian, and further indicate that light blue terms are basic in Udmurt and Lithuanian, but not Estonian. It may be that “blue” categories are especially susceptible to splitting into two under the influence of linguistic contact. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T07:05:02.703943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22076
  • Investigating the personality associations evoked by single colors: An
           exploratory study
    • Authors: Zhiming Wu; Tao Lin
      Abstract: Despite the crucial role of color appearance in forming first impressions, it is still not clear how color evokes personality associations—that is, a color-personality association (CPA). This study aims to propose a method for quantifying the relationships between color attributes and CPAs for single colors. Specifically, we first collected the CPAs of five traits evoked by single colors (i.e., extraverted–introverted, moody–unemotional, agreeable–disagreeable, organized–disorganized, and wide interests–narrow interests) in a carefully controlled experiment. Then, multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were adopted to predict these CPAs based on three color attributes (lightness, chroma, and hue). Our results showed that (1) the personality associations could be evoked by colors and perceived consistently by observers; (2) the relationships between the color attributes and the CPAs could be well quantified by separately conducting MLR analyses in different regions of hue (i.e., red, green, blue, and yellow regions); and (3) both lightness and chroma were significant predictors in almost all predictive models and they might have different relative importance or directions of effect when predicting the CPAs in different regions of hue, even for the same trait. This study improves the understanding of how color evokes personality associations and takes the first step toward developing the method for predicting the CPAs for multicolor combinations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 2016
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T06:20:33.374514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22073
  • A new method to evaluate a corresponding colors dataset based on its two
           derived transforms
    • Authors: Shengyan Cai; Qianwen Chen, Haifeng Wang
      Pages: 150 - 155
      Abstract: Corresponding colors datasets are crucial in the study of chromatic adaptation transformations (CATs). A transform can be derived from a corresponding colors dataset. In this article, a second transform is derived by exchanging the two groups of tristimulus values of a dataset. Based on the two transforms a new method is proposed to evaluate a corresponding colors dataset. The evaluation criteria include the prediction difference between the two transforms and their prediction errors with visual results altogether. By the new method, nine superior datasets and four inferior datasets were picked from the 25 solo existing datasets. The research also included mixing different solo datasets and investigated their effectiveness. The results show that mixed datasets comprised of datasets with same illuminants and media have a certain value to derive CATs. Finally, 10 superior transforms derived in the experiment were compared with the four CATs recommended by the CIE. The results indicate that three of four CATs recommended by the CIE are superior to any sharpening transform derived in this experiment, but CIECAT94 is inferior to any one of them conversely. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 150–155, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-05-03T22:51:02.189425-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22058
  • An adaptive color similarity function suitable for image segmentation and
           its numerical evaluation
    • Authors: Rodolfo Alvarado-Cervantes; Edgardo M. Felipe-Riverón, Vladislav Khartchenko, Oleksiy Pogrebnyak
      Pages: 156 - 172
      Abstract: In this article, we present an adaptive color similarity function defined in a modified hue-saturation-intensity color space, which can be used directly as a metric to obtain pixel-wise segmentation of color images among other applications. The color information of every pixel is integrated as a unit by an adaptive similarity function thus avoiding color information scattering. As a direct application we present an efficient interactive, supervised color segmentation method with linear complexity respect to the number of pixels of the input image. The process has three steps: (1) Manual selection of few pixels in a sample of the color to be segmented. (2) Automatic generation of the so called color similarity image (CSI), which is a gray level image with all the gray level tonalities associated with the selected color. (3) Automatic threshold of the CSI to obtain the final segmentation. The proposed technique is direct, simple and computationally inexpensive. The evaluation of the efficiency of the color segmentation method is presented showing good performance in all cases of study. A comparative study is made between the behavior of the proposed method and two comparable segmentation techniques in color images using (1) the Euclidean metric of the a* and b* color channels rejecting L* and (2) a probabilistic approach on a* and b* in the CIE L*a*b* color space. Our testing system can be used either to explore the behavior of a similarity function (or metric) in different color spaces or to explore different metrics (or similarity functions) in the same color space. It was obtained from the results that the color parameters a* and b* are not independent of the luminance parameter L* as one might initially assume in the CIE L*a*b* color space. We show that our solution improves the quality of the proposed color segmentation technique and its quick result is significant with respect to other solutions found in the literature. The method also gives a good performance in low chromaticity, gray level and low contrast images. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 156–172, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T02:25:58.208722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22059
  • A new device color gamut boundary description algorithm based on irregular
    • Authors: Zhang Yin; Jiang Yongwen, Lin Maohai
      Pages: 173 - 181
      Abstract: The description of device color gamut is very important for color gamut mapping, which plays an important role in cross-media color reproduction. To get a more accurate color gamut boundary, several gamut boundary description (GBD) methods have been presented in the past; however, many problems still exist in the current algorithm (e.g., accuracy and speed). In this study, we propose a new device GBD method based on irregular segmentation and evaluate it against other GBD algorithms. In the irregular segmentation method, the device color gamut is divided into the high-chroma and the low-chroma color parts, and the high-chroma parts are divided into more segments through the CIELAB a*b* plane when calculating color gamut descriptors. After that, in each segment, the radii between the color points and the center point are calculated. For the color points located in the high-chroma parts, the color point with the biggest radius is selected as the gamut boundary descriptor, and for that in the low-chroma parts, if the corresponding outer segments are empty, the color point with the biggest radius is selected as the gamut boundary descriptor. Then, the gamut boundary descriptors are visualized in CIELAB color space using triangulation method. Finally, the irregular segmentation method is evaluated in contrast with other GBD methods using gamut mismatch index. The results show that the irregular segmentation method performs better in accuracy and has smaller variance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 173–181, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-04-28T21:31:13.834259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22052
  • Effect of classification by competitive neural network on reconstruction
           of reflectance spectra using principal component analysis
    • Authors: Abbas Hajipour; Ali Shams-Nateri
      Pages: 182 - 188
      Abstract: The best way to describe a color is to study its reflectance spectrum, which provide the most useful information. Different methods were purposed for reflectance spectra reconstruction from CIE tristimulus values such as principal components analysis. In this study, the training samples were first divided into 3, 6, 9, and 12 subgroups by creating a competitive neural network. To do that, L*a*b*, L*C*h or L*a*b*C*h were introduced to neural network as input elements. In order to investigate the performance of reflectance spectra reconstruction, the color difference and RMS between actual and reconstructed data were obtained. The reconstruction of reflectance spectra were improved by using a six or nine-neuron layer with L*a*b* input elements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 182–188, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T22:31:40.284601-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22050
  • Correction of second-order-diffraction errors in spectrophotometry
    • Authors: Zhiling Xu; Michael H. Brill
      Pages: 189 - 192
      Abstract: Conventional diffraction gratings are designed so that most of the light striking the grating is diffracted toward the “first-order beam” direction, but in practice, some of the light may be diffracted towards the “second-order beam” direction, so that the light striking a particular sensor pixel may be a combination of both first- and second-order components. This causes errors in the output of diffraction-grating based UV–visible spectrometers. A new method has been developed to correct such errors by calibrating the optical system with a UV-excluded standard (such as an orange tile) and a UV-included standard (such as a white tile). These two calibrations can predict the relationship between first-order-only signals and first-and-second-order combined signals at sensor pixels (nominal wavelengths) where there is second-order light, and thus help correct the second-order diffraction error. This compensation method applied on the reflectance measurement of a set of color ceramic tiles showed significant improvement on the accuracy of the result. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 189–192, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T02:00:38.53298-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22060
  • An exploration of malayalam basic and nonbasic color terms during a color
           naming task and in naturalistic narratives
    • Authors: Rinu Nambiar
      Pages: 193 - 202
      Abstract: Languages show variations in their basic color terms [Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1969]. Evidence for languages that have or lack basic color terms mainly comes from standardized naming tasks [The World Color Survey. Stanford, CA: CSLI; 2010]. In this article, we take a somewhat different perspective on the issue of color naming in languages. Starting from a language, Malayalam, with a limited number of basic color terms, and thus with a mixed color naming system, we ask how language users behave when they are asked to produce spontaneous narratives in a communicative setting in which color is manipulated systematically. Do narrators behave as predicted by naming task results and grammars, or do they behave (systematically) differently' In this article, we explore how two different color naming settings affect the expression of colors that have basic color terms in contrast with nonbasic terms. For this purpose, a color naming task was administered to validate basic and nonbasic color terms in Malayalam. The result showed that Malayalam has six colors considered simple color terms (e.g., chuvappu ‘red’) and five complex color terms (e.g., tavittu-niram brown “color of rice bran”). This result was used to develop eight short stories in two color term conditions. The color terms extracted out from “naturalistic narratives” were more varied than those that were predicted by the color naming task. In the Malayalam primary color condition, respondents often used complex constructions rather than simple color terms only [e.g., chuvappu niram(ulla)]. In the secondary color condition, respondents, as expected, used more complex constructions, but they also avoided complex constructions in interesting ways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 193–202, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-04-14T23:56:41.49863-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22051
  • A Cross-cultural comparison of saturation, vividness, blackness and
           whiteness scales
    • Authors: Yoon Ji Cho; Li-Chen Ou, Ronnier Luo
      Pages: 203 - 215
      Abstract: In a typical Euclidean three-dimensional colour space such as CIELAB, the ‘third-dimension’, such as CIELAB chroma, has long been criticized as being confusing and difficult to understand for naïve observers and it had relatively poor consistency in visual assessments. As an attempt to find a promising replacement to existing ‘third-dimension’, two psychophysical experiments were conducted in this study using naïve observers. In the first experiment, 24 Korean observers assessed 48 NCS colour chips in terms of bright, light-heavy, active-passive, fresh-stale, clean-dirty, clear, boring, natural-not natural, warm-cool, intense-weak, saturated, vivid-dull, distinct-indistinct, full-thin and striking. According to experimental results, ‘saturated’ and ‘vivid-dull’ were found to highly correlate with CIELAB chroma and were thus regarded as good candidates to become alternatives to existing ‘third-dimension’. In the second experiment, 40 Korean and 68 British observers assessed more than 100 samples in terms of saturation, vividness, blackness and whiteness. Thus, observers assessed 120 samples for saturation, vividness and whiteness. For blackness, 110 samples were assessed. In both experiments, the colour samples were presented in a viewing cabinet and assessed individually. Principal component analysis identified two components that were associated with CIELAB lightness and chroma. In general, there was a similarity between the visual results of the British and Korean observers. High correlation coefficients were found for the following comparisons: predicted values of Berns' depth model versus the present ‘saturation’ response; Berns' clarity versus ‘vividness’ response; Berns' vividness versus ‘blackness’ response; and CIELAB lightness versus ‘whiteness’ response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 203–215, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T22:40:43.386861-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22065
  • A computational model simulating the mental function of multicolor
           aesthetic evaluation
    • Authors: Siyuan Fang; Keiichi Muramatsu, Tatsunori Matsui
      Pages: 216 - 235
      Abstract: In this research, a computational model that simulates the mental function of multicolor aesthetic evaluation through backpropagation neural networks was constructed. Helmut Leder's psychological model served as the theoretical framework. We determined the macro-architecture of the computational model through two psychological experiments using the semantic differential (SD) method. The aesthetic score of a multicolor stimulus is defined as the inverse of its factor score on the factor “Pleasure” extracted in the first experiment, and each of the three factors extracted in the second experiment—i.e., “Stability,” “Heaviness,” and “Presence”—is regarded as a simple perceptual feature. The genetic algorithm was then employed to optimize the hidden layer node number, the learning rate, and the momentum constant of each neural network. In two simulation tests, this computational model exhibited some predictive power, implying that the model can be regarded as a relatively successful approximation of the psychological mechanism of multicolor aesthetic evaluation. In addition, the results of the second simulation also show that the perceptual feature “Heaviness” possesses the principal impact on the aesthetic evaluation of multicolor objects, whereas the other two perceptual features “Stability” and “Presence” have a minor influence. The heavier and/or more stable a multicolor object is perceived to be, the less aesthetically pleasing it is. Conversely, the stronger the sense of matter presence a multicolor object elicits, the more aesthetically appealing it is. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 216–235, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T22:26:16.576739-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22067
  • Effect of particle size on pigments colour
    • Authors: Anna M. Gueli; Guido Bonfiglio, Stefania Pasquale, Sebastiano O. Troja
      Pages: 236 - 243
      Abstract: The historical pigments, contrary to modern ones, are not constituted by particles having all the same size and this influences the colour of the paint layers. The hiding power and colouring power of a pigment depends, in fact, on its particle size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of particle size on optical characterization of paintings in terms of reflection of light and related colour specification. Starting from the qualitative observation, we have attempted to quantify the pigments colour variations induced by grinding and then attributable to granularity. Powdered pigments of principal colours have been selected in specific particle size range by mechanical sieving. The measurements were performed both on pigment pellets and on paintings realized with binder casein. All samples were characterized by an optical and colorimetric point of view through spectrophotometric analysis and for the surface morphological observation through scanning electron microscopy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 236–243, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T03:50:45.045208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22062
  • Digital printing of acrylic fabric with cationic dyes using conventional
           inkjet printer
    • Authors: Sajjad Fashandi
      Pages: 244 - 249
      Abstract: A special printing ink formulation based on cationic dyes is developed for digital printing of acrylic fabrics using a conventional inkjet printer. In order to investigate the contribution of color gamut boundary of printer colorants to printing efficiency, customized color targets containing 3164 color patches in 25 different hues were generated. The printed color patches were then fixed through steaming for 30 minutes followed by washing with hot soap and water and finally drying. To show the influence of dye fixation on colorimetric changes as well as color gamut boundary of samples, the L*a*b* values of color patches before and after fixation process were compared. Results demonstrate that color saturation of samples is enhanced dramatically after the dye fixation process. In fact, 3D color gamut of color patches has been drastically expanded as a direct consequence of adsorption to absorption transition. Additionally, dye fixation changes the structure of printed image from halftone superimposed dots to contone superimposed dyes. Strictly speaking, during fixation process, colors inside the halftone dots diffuse through the interfacial area to make the individual printed dots integrated. This is in analogy to the chromogenic photography films and dye-sublimation thermal transfer processes by which contone images are produced. Moreover, dye fixation improves the washing fastness of digitally printed acrylic fabrics to the level comparable with the traditional screen printing method. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 244–249, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T22:26:16.310758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22066
  • Automatic detection of layout of color yarns of yarn-dyed fabric. Part 3:
           Double-system-Mélange color fabrics
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao, Bugao Xu, Wei Li
      Pages: 250 - 260
      Abstract: Automat layout detection of color yarns is necessary for weaving and producing processes of yarn-dyed fabrics. This study presents a novel approach to inspect the layout of color yarns of double-system-mélange color fabrics automatically, which is Part III of the series of studies to develop a computer vision-based system for automatic inspection of color yarn layout for yarn-dyed fabrics. The inspection of single-system-mélange color fabrics has been realized in Part I of the series of studies. Integrating the projection-based region segmentation method proposed in Part I and the FCM-based stepwise classification method proposed in Part II, the proposed approach is composed of three steps: (1) fabric region segmentation, (2) fabric region selection, and (3) layout of color yarns recognition. In the first step, the fabric regions are segmented by the projection-based region segmentation method. In the second step, the reasonable fabric regions are selected by analyzing their color histograms and comparing their weft color's frequency. In the third step, the layout of color yarn is recognized by the FCM-based stepwise classification method, and the precise layouts of color warps and wefts are produced. The experimental analysis proved that the proposed method can recognize the layout of color yarns of double-system-mélange color fabrics correctly by testing four different color fabrics and three pieces of same yarn-dyed fabrics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 250–260, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-27T22:45:39.630167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22068
  • Understanding responses to materials and colors in interiors
    • Authors: Begüm Ulusoy; Nilgün Olguntürk
      Pages: 261 - 272
      Abstract: This article investigates the free associations of materials and colors in the context of interior architecture. Materials and colors rarely appear alone in interiors; therefore, in the scope of this study, the researchers explored material pairs and color pairs in addition to single materials and single colors. To elicit free associations from these interior design elements, 192 randomly selected volunteers participated in an experiment using a group of material (fabric, timber, plasterboard) and color (red, green, white) models under controlled conditions. The results contribute to an increased understanding of the associations between the concepts of materials and colors in interiors. While, each model was associated with sensory descriptors, only some models were associated with symbolic or affective descriptors. Single materials were related to different descriptors in interiors on their own, but when they were paired they were associated with fewer affective descriptors. The results showed that color pairs were always associated with all types of descriptors with an exception of red and green color pair, which was not mentioned with affective descriptors. The study findings are expected to be beneficial for interior architects, architects, product designers and researchers who want to shape and investigate a user's experience of interiors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 261–272, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-07-09T01:10:29.645167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22072
  • An intelligent system for fashion colour prediction based on fuzzy C-means
           and gray theory
    • Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao; Chu-Hsuan Lee, Rong-Qi Chen, Chih-Huang Yen
      Pages: 273 - 285
      Abstract: For design and manufacturing industries, to be able to capture the fashion trend is an essential factor that leads to winning a sale. However, colour predicting process in many organizations is not visible to the public. In order to provide colour trend to industries in advance, a predicting method is proposed in this study. In the method, the fuzzy c-means was used to separate the collected colour data, then the minimum mean-square error was used to place the similar colour clusters within different time point together and the gray model was adopted for prediction. In order to verify the prognostication of the system, four data announced by Pantone from spring 2014 to fall, 2015 were taken as the predicted samples and the colour for spring 2016 was predicted to compare with that in Pantone spring, 2016. The results show that the system has a high accuracy for predicting colour. The residual modified model constructed with the colour samples rearranged with MMSE has the best-predicted result that ranged from 83.3% to 99.4%. It indicates that the result obtained with the rearranged samples is higher than that without rearrangement. Besides, the accuracy of the gray predicted results with residual modification would be more precise than the one without residual modification. Moreover, the value of mean squared error is quite low, which was ranged from 0.000025 to 0.0277. Therefore, the current intelligent predicting system satisfies the criteria of capturing colour in trend for enterprises. Moreover, it enables industries to make decisions for selecting the colour trend. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 42, 273–285, 2017
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T07:22:14.879141-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/col.22057
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