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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2266 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (181 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1197 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1197 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 0.62]   [H-I: 23]   [23 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2156-3950
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
           publication information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
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    • Abstract: This page was intentionally left blank
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           information for authors
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           Information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Foreword: Special Section on Electrical Contacts
    • Authors: Ronald A. Coutu;Ravi Mahajan;
      Pages: 315 - 316
      Abstract: Welcome to the Special Topics Section dedicated to the 2015 Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts. This Special Section contains six high-quality papers that comprehensively describe the state of the art and potential future directions for topics of great interest to our readers. The Editor-in-Chief (EIC), in consultation with the other EICs, Associate Editors (AEs), and domain experts, selects the topics for the Special Sections, and a Guest Editor or AE (GE/AE) who is a leading expert in the technical area then directs the solicitation and peer review of the papers. In cases where the GE/AE is also an author, the EIC is responsible for the peer review to avoid any real or perceived conflicts of interest.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Electric–Thermal Performance of High-Power Contact Systems
           With the Voltage–Temperature Relation
    • Authors: Michael Gatzsche;Nils Lücke;Steffen Großmann;Tom Kufner;George Freudiger;
      Pages: 317 - 328
      Abstract: Researchers and engineers use the voltage–temperature ( VT ) relation to calculate the maximum temperature of electric contacts from contact voltage drop and thus evaluate their performance. However, researchers found deviations from the VT relation for large contact systems when heat dissipation to the environment becomes significant. We investigated the applicability of the VT relation to high-power contact systems with spring-loaded contact elements. Such connections with rated normal currents of several kiloamperes and short-time withstand currents of several tens of kiloamperes are used in high-voltage switchgear. We loaded a connector cooled by a potent variable water cooling system with continuous ac up to 6.7 kA to create a multitude of thermally symmetric and asymmetric steady-state operating points. However, temperature differences in the contact system remained below 20 K. Temperature differences calculated with the VT relation were 23% higher than the measured values, but nevertheless deliver an assessment of the maximum contact system temperature valid for engineering purposes. In the case of a 1-s, 20-kA short-circuit current, a transient temperature rise occurs in the contact system. We numerically calculated the development of the spatial temperat re distribution over time and found significant differences to the electric–thermal steady state. While contacts react very quickly and even oscillate with twice the line frequency on ac load, the contact element and conductor continuously heat up and do not reach the steady state.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Finite-Element Contact Modeling of Rough Surfaces Applied to Au-Coated
           Carbon Nanotube Composites
    • Authors: Hong Liu;John W. McBride;
      Pages: 329 - 337
      Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used to improve the lifetime of the electrical contact of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches. The surface, usually gold-coated, demonstrates a complex structure. Due to the lateral gaps between the nanotubes, the sputtered gold penetrates into the top part of the CNT to a limited thickness and is supported by the rest of the CNT. The surface also presents a much higher roughness than metal surfaces. Based on the nanoindentation test, a finite-element smooth-contact model has been developed, and it was shown that the surface was best modeled as a bilayered structure. In this paper, roughness is considered in contact modeling. It is shown that roughness plays an important role in the contact behavior, and that the material properties, such as Young’s modulus and hardness estimated from the nanoindentation tests, need to be reevaluated. It is also shown with finite element method (FEM) that the force–displacement behavior of the composite depends on the location of the indentation test.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Small Weight Percentages of Bi and Systematic Coefficient of
           Thermal Expansion Variations on Sn Whiskering
    • Authors: Michael J. Bozack;Erica K. Snipes;George T. Flowers;
      Pages: 338 - 344
      Abstract: In Part A of this paper, we have investigated how small, controlled amounts of Bi influence Sn whiskering. Three custom Sn–Bi sputter targets of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% Bi (by weight) were used to generate \sim 2000 Å Sn films on Si substrates. The samples were incubated at room temperature (RT) followed by thermal cycling ( - 40  T  125^{\circ }text{C} ) to accelerate whisker growth. The control group was not thermal cycled. Whisker densities dramatically dropped to zero as the concentration of Bi increased to 2.0% for the RT specimens (100-day incubation). However, subsequent thermal cycling turned ON whisker growth ( \sim 25 000 whiskers/cm ^{math\rm {math\bf {2}}} ) in all the three Bi% cases. Thus, Bi additions suppress whiskering during RT incubation, but the same films readily grow whiskers during thermal cycling. In Part B, a systematic range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) variations between the substrate and Sn (pure, i.e., no Bi or Pb) were investigated to determine the effect on whisker growth. CTEs close in value to Sn ( 0  {%}\Delta text {CTE}  25 ) were Al, Ag, and brass; intermediate in value to Sn ( 25  {%}\Delta text {CTE}  75 ) were Zn, Ni, and Ta; and far in value to Sn ( 75  {%}\Delta text {C E}  100 ) were semiconductors Si, GaAs, and InP. A thickness of 0.5 \mu text{m} of sputtered Sn was deposited on each coupon. The thermal cycling range was −40 °C to 125 °C, with 2-h ramps and 4-h dwells, for a total of 12 h per cycle. A second, comparative set of specimens underwent isothermal annealing at 100 °C. All the samples were incubated for 37 days (74 cycles) before observation. The results show that samples with a % \Delta text {CTE} 75 % had drastically higher whisker densities (when cycled) compared to those with % \Delta text {CTE}  75 %. There appears to be a critical activation (or nucleation) threshold CTE mismatch that “turns ON” whisker growth when using semiconductors as substrates.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Improving Gold/Gold Microcontact Performance and Reliability Under
           Low-Frequency AC Through Circuit Loading
    • Authors: Tod V. Laurvick;Ronald A. Coutu;
      Pages: 345 - 353
      Abstract: This paper investigates the performance and reliability of microcontacts under low-frequency and low-amplitude ac test conditions. Current microcontact theory is based on dc tests adapted to RF applications. To help better apply dc theory to RF applications, frequencies between 100 Hz to 100 kHz were experimentally investigated. Microcontacts designed to conduct performance and reliability measurements were used, which in prior dc testing typically lasted for 100 million cycles or more. Under ac loads, at similar power levels, eight devices were tested under cold-switching conditions, and only one was still operational at 10 million cycles. The effect of external circuitry on dc loaded devices was also considered. The experimental data were presented for dc conditions, which demonstrated that both a parallel capacitance with a microcontact and a series inductance were highly detrimental. For all six tested devices, failure occurred typically in 100 thousand cycles or less. However, utilizing series resistive/capacitive circuits as well as parallel resistor/inductive resulted in improved performance, with only one device of the four tested failing prematurely, but those that lasted showed less variation in measure contact resistance throughout the lifetime of the device. Two devices were tested with passive contact protection using parallel and series resistances, and both devices lasted for the full test duration. Finally, the effects of applying circuit protection to microcontacts and repeating ac test conditions were investigated. Reliability and device lifetime were extended significantly (9.1% success rate without protection was increased to 87% success rate). It was also observed in several instances that devices that failed showed subtle signs of variance during contact closure measurements in the range of 5–30 \mu N, indicating a possible means for accurately predicting device failure. For these failed devices, notable physical damage was observed using a scanning electron microscope.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Hybrid DC Circuit Breaker Feasibility Study
    • Authors: Dirk Bösche;Ernst-Dieter Wilkening;Hendrik Köpf;Michael Kurrat;
      Pages: 354 - 362
      Abstract: Recently, a growing number of dc systems exist based on the development of electrical energy consumption. For low-voltage dc grids, switching devices are needed that have to meet technically sophisticated requirements. These devices have to handle fault currents of several hundred amperes and system voltages up to 1000 V. A typical dc circuit breaker has to provide low on-state losses, light weight, and small volume. On the way toward fulfilling these requirements, hybrid circuit breakers can represent the optimal solution. A hybrid dc circuit breaker combines the advantages of mechanical contacts and semiconductors. In this paper, such a device has been designed and constructed using a commercial switch and electronic components in the laboratory. The breaking performance of this experimental prototype has been investigated, and thus the interruption of the nominal and failure currents in the case of different time constants can be identified. The investigated hybrid switching device has been optimized in order to maximize the switching capacity and the protection of the semiconductors.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Contact Welding Mechanism With Bounce Arc on Ag and Cu Contacts in
           Low-Voltage Switches
    • Authors: Katsuki Hotta;Takashi Inaguchi;
      Pages: 363 - 370
      Abstract: This paper describes a basic mechanism of contact welding formed by bounce arc upon contact making, based on experiments and analytical simulation of thermal conduction in the contact. We measured the weld force after every contact making in a low-voltage condition (200 V ac). The arc current was set to 60–500 A using a reactor load, the arc duration was within 0.12–2.42 ms, and the contact materials were pure silver (99.99%) and copper (99.9%). In this condition, we clarified that the weld force increases depending on arc energy supplied to the contact surface. We also measured the melted area on the contact surface and clarified the area dependence on the arc energy. Considering the tensile strength of the contact material, we found that the real welded area corresponds to about 25%–40% of the melted area. We concluded that the evaporation of contact material is a significant factor in reduction of the welded area.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Moisture Effects on NCF Adhesion and Solder Joint Reliability of
           Chip-on-Board Assembly Using Cu Pillar/Sn–Ag Microbump
    • Authors: Youngsoon Kim;Taeshik Yoon;Tae-Wan Kim;Taek-Soo Kim;Kyung-Wook Paik;
      Pages: 371 - 378
      Abstract: Electronic devices as well as electronic packaging technology have required higher speed, I/O capability, and density. To meet these requirements, flip-chip solder bumps interconnection combined with reflow assembly process has been a widely used. In spite of the many advantages of flip-chip solder bump joints, there is a limitation for less than 100 \mu text{m} fine pitch interconnection due to the solder bump bridging during the assembly process. Therefore, nonconductive films (NCFs) and Cu pillar/Sn–Ag microbump interconnection become a promising interconnection solution for fine pitch assembly. However, NCFs technology has some problems for flip-chip assembly. Epoxy-based NCF can easily absorb moisture, causing delamination reliability problem at moisture environment. In order to solve the interconnection, the NCF adhesion should be enhanced. Silane coupling agent (SCA) was added to NCFs to secure the microbump joint reliability for chip-on-board assembly by increasing the adhesion strength in the pressure cooker test. After the humidity test, the NCFs’ modulus and Tg were increased by adding SCA content. Moreover, the measured adhesion strength and energy showed similar results after the humidity test that higher SCA content showed high adhesion strength and energy than lower SCA content and unmodified NCF at the interface between NCF and solder resist of the printed circuit board substrate. The bump joint lifetime of 5wt% SCA NCF was longer than 1wt% SCA and unmodified NCF after the humidity test. In this paper, we report results of our investigations on effects of employing SCA in NCF composition for improved moisture resistance.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Corrections to Graham’s Law of Effusion for Predicting Leak Rates
           Through Hermetic Seals
    • Authors: William W. Lim;David R. McKenzie;Gregg J. Suaning;
      Pages: 379 - 386
      Abstract: Graham’s law of effusion has been used for decades to facilitate the prediction of the flow rates of gases penetrating into hermetically sealed devices. Typically, a trace gas such as He is used as a measure of gas flow into or out of a device. He flow is then related via Graham’s law to the flow of an unwanted gas, and this in turn is used to predict the service lifetime of the device based on the maximum allowable leak rate. As hermetically sealed devices become smaller and lower leak rates are required, there is evidence to suggest that Graham’s law is inaccurate. We evaluate Graham’s law by measuring the flow rates of noble gases (He, Kr, and Xe) and diatomic gases (D2 and N2) through realistic leaks. Our findings indicate that Graham’s law is not always accurate, and the incorporation of a relative tangential momentum accommodation coefficient into Graham’s law leads to improved correlation between different gases and thus improved predictions of service lifetime.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • PCB Embedded Semiconductors for Low-Voltage Power Electronic Applications
    • Authors: Daniel J. Kearney;Slavo Kicin;Enea Bianda;Andrej Krivda;
      Pages: 387 - 395
      Abstract: Power conversion applications in the low voltage (LV) range (≤ 1.2 kV)—such as three-phase inverters—are required to operate at higher efficiencies, higher ambient temperatures, increasingly smaller form factor, and higher power density. Up to now, most research has focused on voltages up to 650 V for printed circuit board (PCB) embedded power electronics. This research evaluates a novel three-phase invertor module based on six insulated gate bipolar transistors and six diodes rated to 1.2 kV and 25 A each. This unique module is compared to the Semikron MiniSKiiP 23AC126V1. This paper considers some key details of the PCB embedding assembly process, a comparative switching performance assessment, measurement of thermal resistance, comparative lifetime, and electric insulation. First, a detailed outline of the package is presented including the top- and bottom-side metallization and the copper interconnect technology. The switching performances of both modules are compared for turn-ON and turn-OFF currents for a waveform at 600 V and 25 A at 150 °C. A finite-element-method thermal simulation demonstrates up to 44% lower thermal resistance for the PCB embedded package than that of the traditional wire-bonded direct bonded copper (DBC) package for an identical applied current and cooling condition. Furthermore, both packages are active power cycled to failure with the PCB embedded package demonstrating superior lifetime to the traditional DBC module. Finally, the maximum breakdown limit and the onset of partial discharge with the embedded PCB module are reported for both aged and non-aged conditions. The overall findings identify the promising application of PCB embedded power electronics for LV power conversion.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Electrothermal Evaluation of Single and Multiple Solder Void Effects on
           Low-Voltage Si MOSFET Behavior in Forward Bias Conditions
    • Authors: Son Ha Tran;Laurent Dupont;Zoubir Khatir;
      Pages: 396 - 404
      Abstract: Solder void thermal effects on power module performance and reliability were investigated a long time ago. The final goal is to determine void acceptability criteria or to remove them. Our approach is not to offer a more efficient method for neglecting void formation, but to suggest a method for optimizing void thresholding from multiphysical viewpoint. The major achievement is in the complete combination of modeling, experiments, and optimization for void effect evaluation purpose. Especially, for the first time, a real new highly coupled and detailed 3-D FEM electrothermal model of low-voltage silicon MOSFET and the bonding wires in steady state has been introduced. For the single-void case, the simulation results highlight local void effects on thermal performance of MOSFET in the void area. However, no significant consequence on electrical performance is observed. Besides, the model shows a high dependence between void effects and back-side metallization parameters. Electrical and thermal measurements performed on various single-void configurations of experimental MOSFET prototypes offer a good agreement with the numerical results. The study is then expanded to the multivoid case. The criticality of multivoids corresponds to that of the most critical single void if the voids are not coalesced. These results offer an idea for a more optimized void inspection method in production line.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Thermal-WLP: A Transient Thermal Simulation Method Based on Weighted
           Laguerre Polynomials for 3-D ICs
    • Authors: Sheng Liu;Cheng Wang;Zhengyong Yu;Wanchun Tang;Wei Zhuang;
      Pages: 405 - 411
      Abstract: Thermal issue becomes a key challenge in 3-D integrated circuits (3-D ICs) due to their highly integrated and compact design. To give a fast and accurate prediction of the transient temperature field, a new unconditional stable scheme for heat conduction equation is proposed in this paper. This method, thermal-weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLP), uses WLPs as basis functions and Galerkin’s method as a testing procedure, to eliminate the time variables of the temperature field. Thus, a marching-on-in-order scheme can be obtained, which is more efficient on computation than those marching-on-in-time schemes of conventional numerical methods, especially for 3-D ICs with complex structures. Two examples of the transient thermal problems in 3-D ICs are presented, and the numerical results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions
    • Authors: H. Conseil-Gudla;Z. Staliulionis;M. S. Jellesen;M. Jabbari;J. H. Hattel;R. Ambat;
      Pages: 412 - 423
      Abstract: Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined parameters such as openings in the enclosure (drain holes, intentional openings or leak) and sealing and casing material. Related corrosion reliability issues due to humidity buildup have been evaluated using an interdigitated surface insulation resistance pattern placed inside the enclosure during exposure. The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Delay Extraction-Based Modeling Using Loewner Matrix Framework
    • Authors: Mohamed Sahouli;Anestis Dounavis;
      Pages: 424 - 433
      Abstract: This paper presents a method to obtain delay rational macromodels of electrically long interconnects from tabulated frequency data. The proposed algorithm first extracts multiple propagation delays and splits the data into single delay regions using a time-frequency decomposition transform. Then, the attenuation losses of each region are approximated using the Loewner matrix approach. The resulting macromodel is a combination of delay rational approximations. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate efficiency of the proposed method compared to traditional Loewner where the delays are not extracted beforehand.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Integrated Thermal and Power Delivery Network Co-Simulation Framework for
           Single-Die and Multi-Die Assemblies
    • Authors: Yang Zhang;Muhannad S. Bakir;
      Pages: 434 - 443
      Abstract: This paper presents a thermal and power delivery network (PDN) co-simulation framework for single-die and emerging multi-die configurations that incorporates the interactions between temperature, supply voltage, and power dissipation. The temperature dependencies of wire resistivity and leakage power are considered, and the supply voltage dependencies of power dissipation are modeled. Starting with a reference power dissipation, the framework is capable of evaluating the temperature distribution and PDN noise simultaneously and eventually updating the power dissipation based on the thermal and supply voltage distributions. The simulation results of an example two-tier 3-D stack show that prior models considering only part of the interactions between temperature, supply voltage, and power dissipation have a maximum error of 7.66%, 9.79%, and 4.64% in IR-drop, transient power supply noise, and temperature, respectively.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Sharp-Rejection Wideband Bandstop Filter Using Stepped Impedance
           Resonators
    • Authors: Fu-Chang Chen;Run-Shuo Li;Jie-Ming Qiu;Qing-Xin Chu;
      Pages: 444 - 449
      Abstract: A novel wideband bandstop filter is proposed in this paper. Using one uniform impedance resonator and two stepped impedance resonators, five transmission zeros are introduced in the stopband. Appropriate positioning of these zeros ensures the high selectivity and flat rejection level of the stopband. The bandwidth of the filter can be conveniently controlled by the characteristic impedances of the connecting lines and resonators. A complete analytic analysis is proposed to fully control the positions of transmission zeros, and the design equations and design rules for the bandstop filter are given in detail by using the lossless transmission line model. To illustrate the concept, a wideband bandstop filter with center frequency at 2 GHz and rejection level below 20 dB is fabricated. Theoretical, simulated, and measured results are found in good agreement with each other, and the measured 20-dB rejection bandwidth is as wide as 150%.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Thermocompression Bonding Parameters on Cu Pillar/Sn-Ag
           Microbump Solder Joint Morphology Using Nonconductive Films
    • Authors: Hyeong Gi Lee;Ji-Won Shin;Yong-Won Choi;Kyung-Wook Paik;
      Pages: 450 - 455
      Abstract: In this paper, wafer-level preapplied nonconductive films (NCFs) were used to interconnect the Cu pillar/Sn-Ag microbumps for 3-D through silicon via vertical interconnection. Thermocompression bonding is a common method to interconnect chips to substrates using NCFs, and thermocompression bonding time should be reduced to increase the bonding productivity. Therefore, isothermal bonding method without heating and cooling process in bonding profile was introduced to reduce the bonding time. Solder joints bonded by an isothermal bonding method were compared to those joints bonded by a conventional ramp-up bonding method that was consist of heating, bonding, and cooling process. Final joint gap was decreased using an isothermal bonding method due to higher heating rate, and solder joint morphology was also changed according to the final solder joint gap. Furthermore, solder joint should have enough contact area to substrate metal pads without solder wetting on the Cu pillar sidewall to avoid reliability problems by Sn consumption at the solder joint. Effects of isothermal bonding parameters were investigated in terms of the bonding pressure, temperature, and time to optimize the isothermal bonding parameters for good solder joint. As bonding pressure and bonding temperature increased, solder joint gap decreased because final joint gap was determined by bonding pressures and dynamic viscosity of NCFs. Isothermal bonding times can be reduced to 10 s, because the degree-of-cure of NCFs could be over 90% after 2.2 s. As a summary, solder joint bonded with NCFs using optimized isothermal bonding parameters showed excellent bump joint resistances and solder wetting on substrate metal pads.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of Temporary Bonding and Laser Release Using Polyimide
           and a 300-nm Photolysis Polymer System for High-Throughput 3-D IC
           Applications
    • Authors: Chuan-An Cheng;Tsung-Yen Tsai;Yu-Hsiang Huang;Chien-Hung Lin;Chia-Lin Lee;Shan-Chun Yang;Kuan-Neng Chen;
      Pages: 456 - 462
      Abstract: A new temporary bonding technology with an ultrafast laser-release process of less than 20 s is presented, where a 300-nm-thick photolysis polymer and polyimide are served as the release layer and adhesive layer, respectively. The submicrometer-thick polymer has the feature of high absorption of a 355-nm laser in contrast to polyimide during debonding procedures. In addition, the thin release layers of high chemical resistance and mechanical strength demonstrate their feasibility for handling process. Electrical characteristics of the devices before and after the laser-release process are investigated, showing no degradation. Thus, this technology scheme demonstrates its potential for temporary bonding and release in 3-D integration applications.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Demonstration of RF and Microwave Passive Circuits Through 3-D Printing
           and Selective Metalization
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Byford;Mohd Ifwat Mohd Ghazali;Saranraj Karuppuswami;Brian L. Wright;Premjeet Chahal;
      Pages: 463 - 471
      Abstract: The ultimate goal of this paper is to print radio frequency (RF) and microwave structures using a 3-D platform and to pattern metal films on nonplanar structures. To overcome substrate losses, air core substrates that can readily be printed are utilized. To meet the challenge of patterning conductive layers on complex or nonplanar printed structures, two novel self-aligning patterning processes are demonstrated. One is a simple damascene-like process, and the other is a lift-off process using a 3-D printed lift-off mask layer. A range of microwave and RF circuits are designed and demonstrated between 1 and 8 GHz utilizing these processes. Designs are created and simulated using Keysight Advanced Design System and ANSYS High Frequency Structure Simulator. Circuit designs include a simple microstrip transmission line (T-line), coupled-line bandpass filter, circular ring resonator, T-line resonator, resonant cavity structure, and patch antenna. A commercially available 3-D printer and metal sputtering system are used to realize the designs. Both simulated and measured results of these structures are presented.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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