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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2287 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1206 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 0.62]   [H-I: 23]   [26 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2156-3950
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
           publication information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Blank page
    • Abstract: This page or pages intentionally left blank.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           information for authors
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Packaging and Demonstration of Optical-Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Array for
           Operation at 4 K
    • Authors: Eivind Bardalen;Bjørnar Karlsen;Helge Malmbekk;Oliver Kieler;Muhammad Nadeem Akram;Per Ohlckers;
      Pages: 1395 - 1401
      Abstract: An optoelectronic module for operation at 4 K is developed, intended for use in pulse-driven Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer. Multiple InP/InGaAs photodiodes with customized optical fiber assembly were assembled on a single silicon carrier. Photodiodes were flip-chip bonded on the carrier using Au stud bumps, and laser-cut silicon fixtures were aligned and adhesively bonded to the carrier in order to attach pigtailed borosilicate ferrules. Optical simulations were performed to estimate the tolerance for fiber-chip misalignment. The photodiodes were bonded with an average misalignment of $8~\mu \text{m}$ , while the misalignment between the silicon fixture and the photodiodes after bonding was $13~\mu \text{m}$ . The electrical response to continuous-wave laser inputs was measured at room temperature and at 4 K by direct immersion in liquid helium. The results show that the assembly technique could facilitate a stable and efficient optical coupling. The individual photodiodes were able to deliver currents up to 12 mA at room temperature and 7 mA at 4 K.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • A Multilayer Power Inductor Fabricated by Cofirable Ceramic/Ferrite
           Materials With LTCC Technology
    • Authors: Yuanxun Li;Yunsong Xie;Ru Chen;Likun Han;Daming Chen;Hua Su;
      Pages: 1402 - 1409
      Abstract: A cofired hetero-laminated low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) power inductor device comprising cofirable NiCuZn ferrite body and Zn2SiO4 ceramic layers was designed, manufactured, and characterized. These produced LTCC power inductors were revealed to possess excellent characteristics including high inductance of $2.0~\mu \text{H}$ , small volume of 2 $\times1.2\times0.9$ mm3 (0805 packaging standard), low resistance of $0.20~\Omega $ , large current handling capability of 430 mA, low cost, and wide operating temperature range via a combination of characterization tools. Unlike the previously reported ceramic/ferrite hetero-laminates fabrication method, the process introduced in this paper involves no extra buffer layer or mechanical pressing sinter. Instead, a conventionally standard LTCC process was used for manufacturing these power inductors. To select the NiCuZn ferrite body with simultaneous high inductance and current handling capability for targeted power inductor design, the saturation magnetization and intrinsic coercivity of a variety of NiCuZn ferrite body prepared under different compositions, additives, and sintering conditions were carefully measured via vibrating sample magnetometer and under swept superpositioned dc magnetic field. Then, the power inductors with uniform sizes were mass produced using the selected NiCuZn body and Zn2SiO4 ceramic layers. The microstructure, magnetic element interdiffusion, interior circuit position, and inductance were detailed examined utilizing scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, industrial computerized tomography scan, and RF impedance/material analyzer.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Miniaturized Bandpass Filters as Ultrathin 3-D IPDs and Embedded Thinfilms
           in 3-D Glass Modules
    • Authors: Srikrishna Sitaraman;Vijay Sukumaran;Markondeya Raj Pulugurtha;Zihan Wu;Yuya Suzuki;Youngwoo Kim;Venky Sundaram;Joungho Kim;Rao R. Tummala;
      Pages: 1410 - 1418
      Abstract: This paper presents the modeling, design, fabrication, and characterization of an innovative and miniaturized thin-film bandpass filter with coupled spiral structures in ultrathin glass substrates (30– $100~\mu \text{m}$ ). This filter is demonstrated for two applications: 3-D integrated passive devices and embedded thinfilm filters in RF modules. A compact filter design was achieved through an integrated resonant structure that effectively utilizes the inductive and capacitive coupling between metal layers on either side of an ultrathin glass substrate or organic build-up layer. The designed filters (layout area 25 dB).
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Self-Packaged, Low-Loss, Planar Bandpass Filters for Millimeter-Wave
           Application Based on Printed Gap Waveguide Technology
    • Authors: Milad Sharifi Sorkherizi;Ahmed A. Kishk;
      Pages: 1419 - 1431
      Abstract: A new concept of printed planar technology is introduced for the realization of low-loss bandpass filters in millimeter band. The new technology is self-packaged, and the insertion loss shows meaningful improvement compared to microstrip (MS) filters. The designs are based on the ridge gap waveguide (RGW), which is composed of printed parallel-plate waveguide surrounded by beds of mushrooms that suppress the signal around the waveguide. Several examples are designed, optimized, and measured. All-pole bandpass filters and filters with finite transmission zeros are proposed and studied. The performance of the proposed designs is compared to MS filters with different packaging options. In addition, an efficient transition from MS to printed RGW is designed and used in the circuits. The proposed circuits are low-cost and realizable using conventional printed circuit board technology. Measured results show good agreement with the analyses.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Highly Reliable and Highly Reflective Ag Metallizing of a Sapphire Surface
           of an LED Die
    • Authors: Shuji Shioji;Teppei Kunimune;Masafumi Kuramoto;Katsuaki Suganuma;
      Pages: 1432 - 1439
      Abstract: Previously, we reported the introduction of the low-temperature, pressure-less Ag direct bonding method, which has a high bond strength. In spite of this, when Ag was deposited directly on the sapphire surface of a GaN-based light-emitting diode die as a reflective layer, there were still some remaining problems with unreliable adhesion. Hence, this paper focuses on improving adhesion of Ag to sapphire by modifying the properties of Ag. Specifically, doping oxide into an Ag layer is investigated. As a result, excellent improvements in adhesion, and particularly in thermal shock resistance, are achieved. A similar effect is observed with various oxides. Additionally, oxide-doped Ag films have a high reflectivity that is almost equal to pure Ag. It is proposed that the adhesion improvement is caused by the formation a pseudotransition layer at the interface between the sapphire substrate and the Ag layer; oxide and Ag coexist in the pseudotransition layer.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Energy and Exergy Analysis of Modular Data Centers
    • Authors: Rehan Khalid;Aaron P. Wemhoff;Yogendra Joshi;
      Pages: 1440 - 1452
      Abstract: The data center industry focuses on initiatives to reduce its enormous energy consumption and to minimize its adverse environmental impact. Modular data centers provide considerable operational flexibility in that they are mobile and are manufactured using standard containers. This paper develops steady-state energy and exergy destruction models for modular data centers with the open-source EnergyPlus software package. Three different cooling approaches are examined: direct expansion (DX) cooling, evaporative cooling (direct evaporative cooling, DEC, in this study), and free air cooling (air-side economization in this study). This paper shows that for hot and arid climates like those in the southwestern U.S., augmenting DX cooling with evaporative and free air cooling can result in energy savings of up to 38% and 36%, respectively. This paper also applies exergy analysis to suggest that the Energy Reuse Effectiveness of the data center increases with decreasing ambient (outdoor) temperature and increasing server inlet–outlet temperature difference. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the use of passive cooling techniques (e.g., DEC and free air cooling) decrease data center heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning energy consumption, except in extremely hot and humid climates.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of Polymer Composite-Induced Passive Radiation Cooling in
           Thermal Management of LED Emitters and Modules: Impact on Hotspot
    • Authors: Linjuan Huang;Yu-Chou Shih;Frank G. Shi;
      Pages: 1453 - 1458
      Abstract: Effectiveness of polymer composite-induced passive radiation cooling in thermal management of LED emitters and modules is elucidated by numerical simulations coupled with key experimental observations. Specifically, various polymer-filler composites coated on the board of LED emitters and modules are investigated for their effectiveness in reducing the board as well as junction temperature. It is demonstrated that a maximum temperature drop of 11 °C can be achieved for the single chip-on-board LED emitter with 10-W input power. Moreover, for the linear LED module, a reduction of 14.53 °C is observed in the peak junction temperature of LED emitters with 1-W input power in the light bar. The polymer composite coating is also demonstrated to significantly boost the uniformity of temperature distribution and to reduce the risk of hotspot. Some of the key simulation results are further examined to be consistent with analytical modeling. Significant implications of the present polymer composite-induced passive radiation cooling results to the challenging thermal design of electronic devices with limited space are also discussed.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Hotspot Size Effect on Conductive Heat Spreading
    • Authors: Hongtao Alex Guo;Kris F. Wiedenheft;Chuan-Hua Chen;
      Pages: 1459 - 1464
      Abstract: Solid heat spreaders, particularly those made of copper or graphite, are often benchmark solutions for hotspot thermal management. In this paper, we present exact and approximate analytical solutions of steady-state hotspot cooling with a planar heat spreader, which is subjected to adiabatic conditions except for a hotspot centered at the top surface and a constant temperature at the bottom surface. The approximate solution bridges exact solutions at two limits of hotspot size: infinitesimal hotspot at the center and uniform heat flux across the spreader. The approximate solution accounts for variable hotspot size and anisotropic thermal conductivity in a compact form, which is useful for estimating thermal parameters such as conduction shape factor and effective thermal conductivity.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Integrated Circuit Cooling Using Heterogeneous Micropin-Fin Arrays for
           Nonuniform Power Maps
    • Authors: Thomas E. Sarvey;Yuanchen Hu;Craig E. Green;Peter A. Kottke;David C. Woodrum;Yogendra K. Joshi;Andrei G. Fedorov;Suresh K. Sitaraman;Muhannad S. Bakir;
      Pages: 1465 - 1475
      Abstract: As microelectronic system density continues to increase, cooling with conventional technologies continues to become more challenging and is often a limiter of performance and efficiency. The challenge arises due to both large heat fluxes generated across entire chips and packages, and localized hotspots with even higher heat flux. In this paper, nonuniform micropin-fin heat sinks are investigated for the cooling of integrated circuits with nonuniform power maps. Four heterogeneous micropin-fin samples were fabricated and tested in single-phase experiments with deionized water to investigate the effectiveness of local micropin-fin clustering for the cooling of hotspots. Cylindrical and hydrofoil micropin-fins were tested, as well as two types of heterogeneous arrays: those with pin-fins clustered directly over the hotspot and those with the high density cluster spanning the entire width of the channel to prevent flow bypass around the cluster. Samples were tested with a uniform nominal heat flux of 250 W/cm2 as well as a hotspot heat flux of 500 W/cm2. Local micropin-fin clustering was found to be an effective method of reducing local thermal resistance with a modest pressure drop penalty.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Analysis of Power-Ground Planes Taking
           Into Account Decoupling Capacitors
    • Authors: Ping Li;Li Jun Jiang;Hakan Bağcı;
      Pages: 1476 - 1485
      Abstract: In this paper, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is developed to analyze the power-ground planes taking into account the decoupling capacitors. In the presence of decoupling capacitors, the whole physical system can be split into two subsystems: 1) the field subsystem that is governed by Maxwell’s equations that will be solved by the DGTD method, and 2) the circuit subsystem including the capacitor and its parasitic inductor and resistor, which is going to be characterized by the modified nodal analysis algorithm constructed circuit equations. With the aim to couple the two subsystems together, a lumped port is defined over a coaxial surface between the via barrel and the ground plane. To reach the coupling from the field to the circuit subsystem, a lumped voltage source calculated by the integration of electric field along the radial direction is introduced. On the other hand, to facilitate the coupling from the circuit to field subsystem, a lumped port current source calculated from the circuit equation is introduced, which serves as an impressed current source for the field subsystem. With these two auxiliary terms, a hybrid field-circuit matrix equation is established, which enables the field and circuit subsystems are solved in a synchronous scheme. Furthermore, the arbitrarily shaped antipads are considered by enforcing the proper wave port excitation using the magnetic surface current source derived from the antipads supported electric eigenmodes. In this way, the S-parameters corresponding to different modes can be conveniently extracted. To further improve the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in handling multiscale meshes, the local time-stepping marching scheme is applied. The proposed algorithm is verified by several representative examples.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Reduction of Shielding-Box Volume Using SPP-Like Transmission Lines
    • Authors: Hao Chi Zhang;Wen Xuan Tang;Jie Xu;Shuo Liu;Jun Feng Liu;Tie Jun Cui;
      Pages: 1486 - 1492
      Abstract: To overcome the problem of external disturbance, the shielding-box technology is widely used in most modern electrical circuits and systems, especially at high frequencies. However, for traditional microwave planar transmission lines (TLs), it is very difficult to reduce the volume of the shielding box because of the potential interference between the shielding box and propagating electromagnetic (EM) fields. Here, based on the tight field confinements of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), we propose a method to reduce the shielding-box volume from the physical point of view. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the EM signals on planar SPP TLs have better propagation performance than those on traditional microstrip lines with the same size and separation to the shielding box. Hence, we achieve a compact shielding box and provide a potential solution to improve the packaging technologies.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Glass-Interposer Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure With Defected Ground
           Plane for Broadband Suppression of Power/Ground Noise Coupling
    • Authors: Youngwoo Kim;Jonghyun Cho;Kyungjun Cho;Junyong Park;Subin Kim;Dong-Hyun Kim;Gapyeol Park;Srikrishna Sitaraman;Pulugurtha Markondeya Raj;Rao R. Tummala;Joungho Kim;
      Pages: 1493 - 1505
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose glass-interposer (GI) electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure with defected ground plane (DGP) for efficient and broadband suppression of power/ground noise coupling. We designed, fabricated, measured, and analyzed a GI-EBG structure with DGP for the first time. The proposed GI-EBG structure with DGP is thoroughly analyzed using the dispersion characteristics and estimated stopband edges, $f_{L}$ and $f_{U}$ . We experimentally verified that the proposed GI-EBG structure with DGP achieved power/ground noise isolation bandgap (below −30 dB) between $f_{L}$ of 5.7 GHz and $f_{U}$ of 11 GHz. Estimation of $f_{L}$ and $f_{U}$ using dispersion analysis, full 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and measurement results achieved good correlation. Effectiveness of the proposed GI-EBG structure with DGP on suppression of the power/ground noise coupling to high-speed through glass via (TGV) channel is verified with 3-D EM simulation. As a result, the proposed EBG structure successfully and efficiently suppressed the power/ground noise coupling and improved the eye diagram of the TGV channel. Lastly, we embedded thin alumina film in the proposed EBG structure and achieved even broader power/ground noise suppression between 2.1 and 14.7 GHz.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • 30-GHz High-Frequency Application of Screen Printed Interconnects on an
           Organic Substrate
    • Authors: Ying Ying Lim;Yee Mey Goh;Manabu Yoshida;Tung Thanh Bui;Masahiro Aoyagi;Changqing Liu;
      Pages: 1506 - 1515
      Abstract: Printed conductive traces on flexible substrates offer many potential applications in the area of wearable electronics, ranging from search and rescue operations to health and physiological monitoring. The literature abounds on the effect of sintering conditions on the dc electrical resistivity of printed traces, due to the applications considered which fall in the lower frequency domain (megahertz range). There is a growing interest to investigate wireless body area networks for wearable electronics operating in the higher frequencies, due to the advantages involved. At present, there is a little information available on the radio frequency performance of printed interconnects, and this work seeks to investigate the effect of the paste property on the dc conductivity and high-frequency performance ( $\le 30$ GHz) of interconnects. The results obtained suggest that paste leveling has a significant influence on the dc electrical performance. In addition, the dc conductivity values are possibly affected by the adhesion of the paste onto the particular substrate during the printing process, which was observed to have a significant effect on the quality and thicknesses of the traces printed. Last, the influence of the dc conductivity on the high-frequency performance of interconnects is investigated, where the measured results are validated with simulation results.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Novel Active Bandpass Switchplexer for RF Transceiver Front-End
    • Authors: Yo-Shen Lin;Ting-Wei Liang;Ya-Chun Huang;Wei-Fan Hsia;Chien-Fong Wu;Ping-Chieh Wang;Chiou-Wen You;Yu-Hsuan Chung;
      Pages: 1516 - 1530
      Abstract: In this paper, the design of RF transceiver front-end using a novel multifunction microwave circuit is proposed. By designing one arm of the proposed active bandpass switchplexer as a bandpass power amplifier (PA) and the other arm as a single-to-balanced bandpass low-noise amplifier (LNA), the resulted multifunctional microwave filtering device thus effectively integrates the functions of single-pole-double-throw RF switch, bandpass filter, balun, PA, and LNA. In this way, all the function blocks between the antenna and up/down converters of a single-band time-division duplex transceiver front-end can be integrated into a single circuit. Compared to the previous works on multifunction microwave circuit designs, the proposed active bandpass switchplexer features the highest number of integrated functions. A printed circuit board-based design example of the proposed active bandpass switchplexer is presented to validate the proposed design concept and to demonstrate the performance achieved.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Reconfigurable Bandpass Filter With Resonators in Cul-De-Sacs for
           Producing Notches
    • Authors: Seunggoo Nam;Boyoung Lee;Beyoungyoun Koh;Juseop Lee;
      Pages: 1531 - 1542
      Abstract: We present a new design method for bandpass filters capable of adjusting center frequencies, bandwidths, and notches. For designing such filters, filter topologies employing frequency-tunable resonators in cul-de-sacs are developed. The cul-de-sac resonators are mainly responsible for constructing notches, while the resonators in main paths form passbands. For verifying the presented design method, we have designed two bandpass filters. Each filter consists of two different resonator types: microstrip-line resonators for forming passbands and substrate-integrated waveguide resonators for producing notches. The measured results of the two designed filters show that frequency-tunable notches can be placed next to the passbands without producing unwanted resonant peaks that are usually observed in bandpass-bandstop filter cascades. This indicates that the filters designed using the presented topologies can replace bandpass-bandstop filter cascades.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Negative Group Delay Phenomenon Analysis in Power Divider: Coupling Matrix
    • Authors: Girdhari Chaudhary;Yongchae Jeong;
      Pages: 1543 - 1551
      Abstract: This paper presents a negative group delay (NGD) phenomenon analysis of a power divider using the coupling matrix approach. The proposed power divider can provide an arbitrary power division ratio with a minimal effect on group delay variations. From the analysis, it is found that the proposed circuit can provide positive group delay (PGD) and NGD through different transmission paths. The NGD can be generated without a lumped resistor and can be controlled by source-resonator coupling and unloaded-quality factor ( $Q_{u})$ of resonators. For experimental validation, power dividers with PGD and NGD of 0.3 and −1 ns, respectively, were designed and fabricated. The measurement results agreed well with the simulation and the predicated values. The proposed power divider topology is useful for the performance improvement of microwave circuits and systems.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Fabrication of Copper Electrode on Flexible Substrate Through Ag+-Based
           Inkjet Printing and Rapid Electroless Metallization
    • Authors: Wen-Ran Cai;Yan-Qiu Chen;Yu Liu;Xiong Jin;Yong-Qiang Deng;Yong-Zhe Zhang;Jie Zhang;Hui Yan;Wei-Lian Gao;Jun Mei;Woon-Ming Lau;
      Pages: 1552 - 1559
      Abstract: Thin film electrodes on a flexible substrate have attracted significant interests from the community for developing flexible and wearable electronics. A prompted routine for inkjet printing conductive patterns on a flexible plastic substrate is developed in this study, in which silver ion-based catalytic ink is utilized as a seed layer for electroless copper metallization in room temperature. Through optimization of Ag+ ink composition and printing process parameters, the pattern definition and continuity of electroless plated Cu have been improved. The resistivity at the same order of $10^{-6} \,\Omega \,\cdot \text {cm}$ as bulk copper is achieved, and the adhesion has passed a variety of mechanical tests. Comprehensive characterizations of the printed samples at various processing stages are carried out and presented in this paper.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Low-Temperature Cu–Cu Direct Bonding Using Pillar–Concave Structure in
           Advanced 3-D Heterogeneous Integration
    • Authors: Yu-Tao Yang;Tzu-Chieh Chou;Ting-Yang Yu;Yu-Wei Chang;Tai-Yuan Huang;Kai-Ming Yang;Cheng-Ta Ko;Yu-Hua Chen;Tzyy-Jang Tseng;Kuan-Neng Chen;
      Pages: 1560 - 1566
      Abstract: Low-temperature Cu–Cu bonding utilizing pillar and concave on silicon substrate with and without polymer layer is successfully implemented at 200 °C under atmospheric pressure. Finite-element method (FEM) simulations on stress and deformation generated during bonding process are also presented in order to discuss their influence on bonding result of several pillar diameters and of concave sidewall angles originating from the manufacturing process. The alteration of parameters in FEM simulations would also be investigated to enhance the bonding outcome. The parameters include the diameter of pillar, the sidewall angle of concave, the shape of the concave opening, the addition of extra polymer layer under Cu concave layer, the bonding temperature, and the pitch of the pillar–concave structure. The implementation of Cu–Cu bonding using pillar–concave structure could have a prospective effect on existing packaging methods in semiconductor industry with benefits of applicability to various sorts of substrates and low bonding temperature.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • Aluminum–Copper Ribbon Interconnects for Power Devices
    • Authors: Christoph Luechinger;Raymond Chen;Jason Fu;Bernard Poncelet;Orlando Valentin;Todd J. Walker;Tao Xu;
      Pages: 1567 - 1577
      Abstract: Robust bonding of bilayer aluminum–copper ribbons was developed. Bond lifetime improvements in power cycling of a factor 4 or greater compared to aluminum ribbons were experimentally demonstrated. The copper portion of these bilayer materials, its properties, and the interface with the aluminum layer make processing these ribbons more challenging than processing aluminum ribbons. A review of the equipment functions, particularly the bond head and the ultrasonic transducer; the development of appropriate consumables, particularly the bond tool and cutter; and more robust bond process profiles were required to minimize the likelihood of die damage. This approach enables the bonding yields required in high-volume production while simultaneously achieving the desired bond reliability improvement in power cycling. Methods were developed to study and control the bond formation stages and to explore the die damage limits in the various bond profile phases. As part of the bond process development, a power cycling station was constructed to submit bonds to accelerated stress testing. The information collected from power cycling was linked to the bonds’ properties after bonding. From this testing, the characteristics of improved bond process sequences and of bond tool designs were deduced. Ribbons with different aluminum-to-copper thickness ratios were tested in terms of reliability under power cycling and process yield. This “cause and effect” approach enabled a significant yield loss reduction while maintaining the bond reliability improvement over aluminum ribbon close to the factor expected based on the ribbon material properties.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
  • CPMT Society Has a Name CHange
    • Pages: 1578 - 1578
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Sept. 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 9 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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