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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (72 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 265)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 0.62]   [H-I: 23]   [28 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2156-3950
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • [Front cover]
    • Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
           publication information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           Information
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Foreword: Special Section on Recent Progress in the Electrical Design of
           Advanced Package and Systems (Part 2)
    • Authors: Ki Jin Han;Seungyoung Ahn;
      Pages: 509 - 510
      Abstract: Under the continuing motivation to follow up the recent progress in the electrical modeling and design, this Special Section includes articles that are the significantly extended versions of papers presented in the Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging and Systems Symposium held in Honolulu, HI, USA, from December 14 to 16, 2016. The seven articles in this Special Section made contributions mainly in the design research, indicating the increasing number of applications that require package-based system design considerations.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Electrical and Thermal Co-Design for High-Power FPGA Packages
    • Authors: Hong Shi;Siow Chek Tan;Jae-Gyung Ahn;Gamal Refai-Ahmed;Suresh Ramalingam;
      Pages: 511 - 518
      Abstract: This paper describes a systematic approach to design field-programmable gate array (FPGA) package for high-power applications. As the power consumption is up to multihundred watts, not only the heat dissipation becomes a challenge, but the temperature-induced reliability concerns also mount up in the high current and noise-sensitive packages. Two most profound phenomena are substrate electromigration (EM) and package decoupling capacitor time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB). The impact of EM is on maximum current-carrying capability, and impact of TDDB is on voltage noise suppression capability. However, we find both traditional static way of EM calculation and the legacy design considerations are oversimplified and insufficient for high-power products. In this paper, we report an enhanced methodology to derive substrate EM failure rate from composite current and temperature distributions. Moreover, we incorporate capacitor TDDB into the design flow to optimize capacitor lifetime for effective voltage noise suppression. In the end, we apply the electrical and thermal co-design to a 16-nm, 200-A, high-power FPGA meeting all current and dynamic noise specifications.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Modeling, Measurement, and Analysis of Audio Frequency Ground Integrity
           for a TDMA Smartphone System
    • Authors: Shinyoung Park;Jinwook Song;Subin Kim;Youngwoo Kim;Manho Lee;Joungho Kim;
      Pages: 519 - 530
      Abstract: In this paper, we first propose a modeling method of arbitrary-shaped multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) ground planes and chassis of smartphones in the audio frequency range (20 Hz–20 kHz). The model is proposed to quickly and accurately analyze audio frequency ground voltage noise at an audio circuit that is induced from a time-division multiple access (TDMA) RF power amplifier (PA) while it is switching at an audio frequency during a call. Conventional 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulation consumes enormous computation time and resources. However, the proposed method models the ground network as a resistive ground distribution network based on the finite-difference method and saves the computation time and resources. We verified the proposed modeling method by comparing ground noise coupling levels obtained from the proposed model, 3-D EM simulation, and measurement in the time and audio frequency domains. The proposed model showed 3.4% and 22.8% differences in the time domain and 3.8% and 14.8% differences at the 217-Hz fundamental frequency in the frequency domain, respectively, compared to 3-D EM simulation and measurement. Furthermore, we used the proposed model to analyze the ground noise coupling between audio circuits and TDMA RF PAs integrated on various designs of PCBs. To verify the correlation between the analysis and the actual performance degradation of audio circuits, we fabricated the PCBs, mounted commercial audio Delta–Sigma modulators and RF PAs, and measured the output of the modulators. The correlation is verified from the modulator on the PCB with the least ground noise coupling showing a spurious-free dynamic range 40.5 dB higher than the modulator on the PCB with the largest ground noise coupling.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Package Design Optimization for Intel SoC Xeon-D
    • Authors: Qi Zhu;Srikrishnan Venkataraman;Chunfei Ye;Arun Chandrasekhar;César Méndez Ruiz;
      Pages: 531 - 537
      Abstract: Xeon-D brings the high performance of Xeon processors into a dense, low-power system-on-chip. This paper addresses the importance of cost–performance tradeoff analysis for the Xeon-D package. It describes how to determine the low-cost package factors (size, footprint, pin map, and layer count) without compromising the performance of the system. The 10-GbE signal integrity design and high-speed differential cost-performance optimization are discussed. Low-power architecture and package power delivery features including fully integrated voltage regulator are presented in this paper as well.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • On the Distortionless Propagation in Multiconductor Transmission Lines
    • Authors: Luigi Lombardi;Giulio Antonini;Maria De Lauretis;Jonas Ekman;
      Pages: 538 - 545
      Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the distortionless conditions for multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) with frequency-independent per-unit-length (p.u.l.) parameters. In fact, the well-known distortionless Heaviside condition is valid only for single-conductor transmission lines. The MTL is modeled using the delayed Green’s-function-based method recently proposed by the authors. In this method, the impedance matrix is described in terms of a rational part, which accounts for the low-frequency behavior, and a hyperbolic part, which determines the high-frequency response of the MTL. We find that the hyperbolic part is already distortionless at high frequency and that this property can be used to identify the p.u.l. parameters of the distortionless lossy MTL associated with the original line. To serve this purpose, the line is decoupled using a frequency-independent modal decomposition. The Heaviside condition can be enforced in the modal domain on each of the single-conductor decoupled lines. The features of the distortionless lines in the modal domain are preserved in the physical domain as a consequence of the real-valued similarity transform. The numerical results demonstrate that the new line completely characterizes the distortionless propagation of a generic MTL with frequency-independent p.u.l. parameters. The proposed formulation could be used in the optimization design process by enforcing the distortionless condition along with other design constraints.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Design and Analysis of the DC–DC Converter With a Frequency Hopping
           Technique for EMI Reduction
    • Authors: Hai Au Huynh;Youngbong Han;Sanghyeok Park;Jisoo Hwang;Eunseok Song;SoYoung Kim;
      Pages: 546 - 553
      Abstract: As more circuit functions are integrated within a single die or small integrated package, the number of electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems caused by dc–dc converters is growing. In this paper, the dominant electromagnetic emission source on the dc–dc converter is identified by analyzing the power spectrum of the nodes. The noise scanner method is applied to a packaged single-chip prototype dc–dc converter. The results show that the dominant source of electromagnetic emission is the switching node of the converter, not the output node. The frequency hopping technique (FHT) is applied to the dc–dc converter to reduce the emission at the switching node, and its effectiveness is analyzed mathematically and experimentally. The mathematical model of FHTs is proposed to analyze its effectiveness in reducing EMI, and the optimal design using the FHT and dead-time control is fabricated with 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS technology. The measured power spectrum reduction by using the optimal FHT design and dead-time control at the switching node is 16 dB. The EMI reduction amount of the proposed design measured by the IC-stripline method is 12.6 dB at the fundamental switching frequency.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • SMPS Ringing Noise Modeling and Managing Methodology for RFI Solutions in
           Mobile Platforms
    • Authors: Kiyeong Kim;Hwan-Woo Shim;Antonio Ciccomancini Scogna;Chulsoon Hwang;
      Pages: 554 - 561
      Abstract: In mobile platforms, RF interference issues caused by the switched-mode power supply (SMPS) ringing noise often arise in the on-the-go mode and the charging mode of the interface power management integrated circuits. In this paper, we introduce the modeling method for the SMPS ringing noise in the conventional two-level dc–dc converters and then, based on the modeling insight from the two-level dc–dc converter, we investigate and validate the modeling of the SMPS ringing noise in the three-level buck converters, which are newly adopted SMPSs for fast charging in mobile devices. To reduce such noise, we propose the novel SMPS noise-managing methodologies that handle the printed-circuit-board-level design optimization in mobile devices.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Pinwheel Meander-Perforated Plane Structure for Mitigating Power/Ground
           Noise in System-in-Package
    • Authors: Youngbong Han;Hai Au Huynh;SoYoung Kim;
      Pages: 562 - 569
      Abstract: In this paper, a small electromagnetic bandgap structure that is suitable to be integrated into system-in-package is designed. The proposed structure, which is named as pinwheel perforated plane (PMPP), consists of meander line, mushroom-type patch, and the extended ground structure that is called a pinwheel. The proposed structure comprises three layers: top, middle, and ground. Moreover, the size of the proposed unit cell is 2.44 mm $times ,, 2.44$ mm. The 3-D electromagnetic simulation results reveal that the cascaded $1times 2$ PMPP structure generates a stopband frequency of 3.35–28.17 GHz at a suppression depth of −40 dB. The power/ground noise suppression effect is confirmed by dispersion analysis from 3-D electromagnetic solver eigenmodes. Signal and power co-simulations are also performed to validate its integrity.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Wet-Etched Three-Level Silicon Interposer for 3-D Embedding and Connecting
           of Optoelectronic Dies and CMOS ICs
    • Authors: Chenhui Li;Ripalta Stabile;Teng Li;Barry Smalbrugge;Gonzalo Guelbenzu de Villota;Oded Raz;
      Pages: 570 - 577
      Abstract: Ultracompact optical submodules for parallel optical interconnects are demonstrated based on a three-level silicon interposer, which is fabricated through a low-cost wet etching process. Using three steps of wet etching of silicon, a multilevel cavity is formed for embedding and flip-chipping optical and electrical dies, and opening optical through-silicon vias. In order to reduce thermal coupling between CMOS and GaAs dies, a 50- $mu text{m}$ thermal isolation air gap is formed between dies as a part of the assembly concept, and thermal simulations and experiments are carried to validate its effectiveness. Based on this 3-D packaging concept, compact 4 mm $times6$ mm, 10-Gb/s 12-channel transmitter and receiver submodules are fully assembled and tested. Clear and uniform eye patterns for both modules are captured at 10 and 15 Gb/s for every channel. Bit error rate (BER) testing is also performed. Both transmitter and receiver submodules show uniform BER curves, with receiver sensitivity spreading less than 1 dB at a BER lower than 10−12. Also, crosstalk for both modules is tested, yielding only a 0.1- and 0.8-dB additional penalty for transmitter and receiver, respectively.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Compact Dual-LED Packaging With a 3-D Free-Form Lens for Uniform
           Rectangular Illumination
    • Authors: Chengshiun Liou;Chingfu Tsou;
      Pages: 578 - 587
      Abstract: This paper presented a novel silicon-based dual light-emitting-diode (LED) packaging module with a 3-D free-form lens, using a silicon micromachined substrate and silicone dispensing process to achieve uniform rectangular illumination. The specific encapsulated lens was formed by using the interaction of the interfacial tension between the silicone material and a petal-like submount substrate at an appropriate curing temperature. Lens shaping and its optical characteristics were simulated and evaluated using Surface Evolver and TracePro software, respectively. The simulation results showed that the surface profile of the lens structure was highly dominated by the boundary conditions of a petal-like structure. Experiments demonstrated a typical free-form lens with a sag height of 2.8 mm and a convex-top curvature of 1.4 mm formed when a volume of 15 mm3 silicone encapsulation was dispensed onto the petal-like substrate with an inscribed rectangle of $2 times 4$ mm2. When applying a driving current of 0.1 A on the packaged LED, the projected lighting patterns at a distance of about 0.8 m presented a rectangle-like shape with good uniformity at a large projection size of $1.7 times 0.7,,text{m}^{2}$ . These results confirmed that this approach could be applied to dual-LED packaging and implied that uniform rectangular illumination is suitable for indoor applications with improved lighting efficiency.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Packaging-Induced Range Tunability of Tactile Sensors for Physiological
           Signal Monitoring Applications
    • Authors: Shichao Yue;Yang Qiu;Walied A. Moussa;
      Pages: 588 - 596
      Abstract: Packaging-induced performance changes of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) usually are detrimental in the device development. This paper presents a methodology of tuning the force range of a designated MEMS tactile sensor for broader application potentials by packaging this millinewton-level force sensor with different polymers. The force range of the tactile sensor has been enhanced from 30 mN to 400 mN and 100 N, respectively, which are more than tenfolds or 1000 folds of its original capability, by ruggedizing with the polydimethylsiloxane and polyurethane. Numerical analysis and experimental characterization have verified the tuned force range by these two packaging approaches. Three potential applications for the physiological signal monitoring have been revealed by preliminary emulation test results, including emulated lip pressure measurement, heart rate monitoring, and the finger strength evaluation. This methodology sheds light on reconciling the sensitivity changes induced by the packaging phase from defects to merits for broader application potentials in the MEMS development, accelerating the fabrication flow and lowering the cost with the reusability of concurrent devices.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Forced Convective Air-Cooling Effect on Electronic Components of Different
           Geometries and Orientations at Flow Shedding Region
    • Authors: Rajendran Senthil Kumar;S. Jayavel;
      Pages: 597 - 605
      Abstract: The recent technological developments in electronics and product miniaturization demand high-performance thermal management to secure the reliability and the operating characteristics of the components. The present 2-D numerical study investigates heat transfer characteristics of different geometries of electronic components such as capacitors, resistors, condensers, and pin fin heat sinks and the additional effect of their optimized orientation in the confined forced convective air-cooling arrangement. The flow confinement effect is induced by preferring the blockage ratio (channel height/characteristic length of various geometries) to be 4. A finite volume-based flow solver is used to solve flow and energy equations. The resulting flow and heat transfer characteristics of various geometries studied from pressure contour, temperature contour, total drag coefficient, total pressure drop, Strouhal number, and volume goodness factor, and local and average Nusselt numbers for various Reynolds numbers such as 200, 400, 600, and 800. The average forced convection heat transfer enhancement depends on profoundly attached flow velocity, not on flow shedding. As per the thermal hydraulic performance, 45° tilted square front cum segment is the best among geometries considered for the analysis at this confinement.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Theory of Thermal Time Constants in GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors
    • Authors: Kevin R. Bagnall;Evelyn N. Wang;
      Pages: 606 - 620
      Abstract: Due to the high dissipated power densities present in GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in high-power radio frequency applications, thermal analysis and thermal management of these devices are important in achieving their full potential. In this paper, we present a fundamental study of the transient thermal behavior of GaN HEMTs to aid in understanding the complex contributions of multidimensional thermal spreading, multiple epitaxial layers, multiple gate fingers, and thermal boundary resistance to the temperature rise. This complex behavior cannot be accurately described by one or two thermal time constants. Rather, a broad spectrum of time constants from ~1 ns up to several milliseconds are present in the device due to aggressive multidimensional thermal spreading from the narrow region of power dissipation next to each HEMT gate through the substrate, die attach, and package. In order to accurately model the temperature response, at least one time constant per decade over the timescale of interest is required. These findings are crucial in developing an intuitive understanding of the transient thermal behavior of GaN HEMTs and properly accounting for transient temperature rise in electrothermal modeling of high-power GaN-based amplifiers.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Influence of Buffer-Gas Pressure Inside Micro Alkali Vapor Cells on the
           Performance of Chip-Scale SERF Magnetometers
    • Authors: Lei Wu;Jintang Shang;Yu Ji;Qi Gan;Ching-Ping Wong;
      Pages: 621 - 625
      Abstract: Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) optical atomic magnetometers are facing the challenges of dramatic decrease of sensitivity when the alkali vapor cells become small. This paper focuses on the sensitivity improvement of the chip-scale atomic magnetometer (CSAM) by changing buffer-gas pressures inside the microfabricated vapor cells. The rubidium vapor cells with three different buffer-gas pressures were tested in the SERF magnetometer. The influences of vapor cell temperature and pumping laser power on the device sensitivity are also characterized for further optimization. Results show that the three atomic vapor cells, with $N_{2}$ buffer-gas pressure of 0.20, 0.88, and 2.35 amg, have sensitivities of 900, 500, and 150 fT/Hz1/2, respectively. Results indicated that when the alkali vapor cells continue to be smaller, high buffer-gas pressure would provide an effective way to reduce the wall collision and improve the performance of CSAMs.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Thermal-Dynamic Stability Analysis for the Enclosed Isolated-Phase Bus Bar
           Based on the Subsegment Calculation Model
    • Authors: You Jiaxin;Wu Yang;Wang Lei;Liao Xiaoyu;Liang Huimin;Bao Longqing;
      Pages: 626 - 634
      Abstract: As a part of the power system, the stability of the enclosed isolated-phase bus bar (EIPB) plays an important role in the working safety of the power system. Usually, the dynamic-thermal stability of EIPB is analyzed by the theoretical analysis or the finite-element method (FEM). The dynamic stability can be calculated by 2-D model. For the complex structure and huge size of EIPB, large synchronous generator-side EIPB in power system is rarely analyzed. In this paper, a new co-simulation method of EIPB is studied. The subsegments EIPB model based on FEM is established, and the temperature distribution in joint surfaces is transmitted. The method is applied to a certain type of EIPB in power system. The FEM model is simulated. The temperature distribution of EIPB under certain cooling condition is also calculated. Based on the thermal results, the dynamic stability of EIPB is calculated to analyze the electrodynamic force under short-circuit condition. In addition, the feasibility and the validity of the method are proved by the test EIPB.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Design and Packaging of an Eye-Shaped Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output
           Antenna With High Isolation for Wireless UWB Applications
    • Authors: Richa Chandel;Anil Kumar Gautam;Karumudi Rambabu;
      Pages: 635 - 642
      Abstract: This paper presents a bandwidth enhanced, compact, multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with high isolation for modern wireless ultrawideband (UWB) applications. The proposed antenna consists of two simple eye-shaped slot radiators, and in order to enhance isolation, the proposed antenna uses a rectangular-shaped ground plane with an extruded T-shaped stub. The antenna characteristics such as the S-parameters, realized gain, surface current distributions, and radiation patterns are investigated. Furthermore, the diversity performance of MIMO antenna in terms of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), and multiplexing efficiency is also studied. The designed antenna shows the impedance bandwidth of 17.2 GHz (from 2.8 to 20 GHz) with a compact size of $18times 36$ mm2. The antenna possesses a low mutual coupling of less than −20 dB over the operating band, the ECC and the DG are less than 0.02 and greater than 9.95 dB, respectively. The prototype is fabricated and tested for impedance and radiation characteristics. The proposed antenna when installed on a printed circuit board with a standard size, with USB connector, and device housing and various other types of housing show good performance. The proposed MIMO/diversity antenna can be a good candidate for portable UWB applications.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • $Q$+ +2-D+and+3-D+RF+Inductors+in+Glass+Packages&rft.title=Components,+Packaging+and+Manufacturing+Technology,+IEEE+Transactions+on&rft.issn=2156-3950&rft.date=2018&rft.volume=8&rft.spage=643&rft.epage=652&rft.aulast=Yun;&rft.aufirst=Min&rft.au=Min+Suk+Kim;Markondeya+Raj+Pulugurtha;Venky+Sundaram;Rao+R.+Tummala;Hobie+Yun;">Ultrathin High- $Q$ 2-D and 3-D RF Inductors in Glass Packages
    • Authors: Min Suk Kim;Markondeya Raj Pulugurtha;Venky Sundaram;Rao R. Tummala;Hobie Yun;
      Pages: 643 - 652
      Abstract: Embedded inductors in ultrathin glass substrates were modeled, designed, fabricated, and characterized. Various 2-D and 3-D topologies were explored to obtain the tradeoffs in inductance density, quality ( ${Q}$ ) factor, size, and self-resonant frequency (SRF). Single-layer spiral inductors were modeled and designed to formulate an inductor library that is optimized for high inductance densities. These include variations in the number of turns, conductor linewidth and spacing, and the ratios of inner diameter and outer diameter of the spiral. In order to optimize the inductor topology for higher ${Q}$ factors, various types of 3-D topologies with 300- $mu text{m}$ glass were studied through modeling, fabrication, and model validation. Inductance densities, ${Q}$ , and SRF were measured for various topologies. Higher inductance densities of 10–20 nH/mm2 with a ${Q}$ factor of 30–40 are obtained for spiral inductors on glass, making them more suitable for module miniaturization when ${Q}$ -factor requirements are not stringent. For higher ${Q}$ factors, 3-D solenoid and daisy-chain topologies are found to be more suitable in spite of their low inductance densities of 3 nH/mm2, making them a better choice for applications where better channel selectivity, precise phase-switching, and lower insertion loss are needed.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Compact Selective Bandpass Filter With Wide Stopband for TETRA Band
           Applications
    • Authors: Vinay Kumar Killamsetty;Biswajeet Mukherjee;
      Pages: 653 - 659
      Abstract: A selective miniaturized bandpass filter with wide stopband for TETRA band applications is presented in this paper. Basic resonator used in the filter construction is an open stub-loaded-short-circuited stepped-impedance resonator, which has the inherent property of having harmonics far from the fundamental mode. The high selectivity of the filter is obtained by virtue of the transmission zeros around the passband. The transmission zeros are generated because of the mixed electric and magnetic coupling between the resonators and the feedline structures. The selective filter has a miniaturized size of $0.078lambda _{g}times 0.082lambda _{g}$ with a wide stopband extended up to 4.91 times the operating frequency.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Novel Microstrip-Based Simplified Approach for Fast Determination of
           Substrate Permittivity
    • Authors: Nilesh Kumar Tiwari;Surya Prakash Singh;M. Jaleel Akhtar;
      Pages: 660 - 669
      Abstract: This paper presents a simple and fast microstrip transmission line method for the broadband radio frequency characterization of dielectric substrate materials. The proposed method utilizes only the magnitude of the S-parameters of the microstrip line at certain discrete frequency points. The technique is thus free from the phase uncertainty problem, which is the main concern in conventional broadband microwave characterization techniques. Additionally, the proposed method does not require the 50- $Omega $ microstrip line to be designed on the test sample, and hence prior knowledge of the approximate substrate permittivity is not required, unlike earlier proposed planar methods. The scheme presented in this paper is based on the derivation of a novel closed-form relationship to determine the real part of the substrate permittivity from the measured reflection coefficient. The loss tangent of the substrate material is obtained from the numerical model based on the transmission coefficients of designed microstrip line. The proposed method is validated numerically using the 3-D electromagnetic solver CST Microwave Studio. For the experimental validation, the microstrip structure of arbitrary impedance is fabricated on the test substrate, and its complex permittivity is retrieved using the proposed scheme in terms of S-parameters measured with the network analyzer. The extracted permittivities of standard samples using both simulated and the experimental data agree well with their reference values available in the literature.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • SMT Solder Joint Inspection via a Novel Cascaded Convolutional Neural
           Network
    • Authors: Nian Cai;Guandong Cen;Jixiu Wu;Feiyang Li;Han Wang;Xindu Chen;
      Pages: 670 - 677
      Abstract: Due to the excellent self-learning ability of deep learning, we propose a novel deep-learning-based method to inspect surface-mount technology (SMT) solder joints in this paper. In contrast to the state-of-the-art learning-based methods in which low-level features are extracted before learning, our method directly implements the inspection task without low-level feature extraction, which is based on a novel cascaded convolutional neural network (CNN). Three kinds of CNNs with different network parameters compose the proposed cascaded CNN. First, one kind of CNN is employed to adaptively learn the regions of interest (ROIs) of SMT solder joint images. Then, both the learned ROIs and the entire solder joint images are fed into the other two kinds of CNNs, respectively. Finally, inspection results are achieved by the learned cascaded CNN. Comparison experiments indicate that our proposed method can achieve more excellent inspection performance for SMT solder joints than that of the state-of-the-art methods.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • An Accurate Experimental Determination of Effective Strain for
           Heterogeneous Electronic Packages With Digital Image Correlation Method
    • Authors: Yuling Niu;Van-Lai Pham;Jing Wang;Seungbae Park;
      Pages: 678 - 688
      Abstract: This paper presents an accurate experimental method to determine the effective strain for the advanced electronic packages with heterogeneous structure or multiple composite layers when the out-of-plane deformation has evident effects on the in-plane strain quantification. The experimental results rely on the 3-D digital image correlation (DIC) technique, a full-field optical measurement method. Several advantages make this technique a perfect choice for characterizing the effective strain for electronic packages, especially for the heterogeneously designed packages that are likely to have large warpage after reflow process. In order to generate the effective strain with the consideration of warpage and thickness effects, an improved data process algorithm for 3-D DIC is introduced to obtain the neutral plane strain. The result was validated analytically and numerically based on the Timoshenko beam theory and finite-element method. The effectiveness and necessity of this paper are demonstrated by applying the results into a practical multilayer package and forecasting the accurate behavior under thermal loading.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Wire Defect Recognition of Spring-Wire Socket Using Multitask
           Convolutional Neural Networks
    • Authors: Xian Tao;Zihao Wang;Zhengtao Zhang;Dapeng Zhang;De Xu;Xinyi Gong;Lei Zhang;
      Pages: 689 - 698
      Abstract: As a critical electrical connector component in the modern industrial environment, spring-wire sockets and their manufacture quality are closely relevant to equipment safety. These types of defects in a component are difficult to properly distinguish due to the defect similarity and diversity. In such cases, defect types can only be determined using cumbersome human visual inspection. To satisfy the requirements of quality control, a machine vision apparatus for component inspection is presented in this paper. With a brief description of the apparatus system design, our emphasis is put on the defect recognition algorithm. A multitask convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed for detecting those ambiguous defects. Compared with the image processing method in machine vision, the defect inspection problem is converted into object detection and classification problems. Instead of breaking it down into two separate tasks, we jointly handle both aspects in a single CNN. In addition, data augmentation methods are discussed to analyze their effects on defects recognition. Successful inspection results using the presented model are obtained using challenging real-world defect image data gathered from a spring-wire socket module inspection line in an industrial plant.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Machine-Learning Approach in Detection and Classification for Defects in
           TSV-Based 3-D IC
    • Authors: Yu-Jung Huang;Chung-Long Pan;Shin-Chun Lin;Mei-Hui Guo;
      Pages: 699 - 706
      Abstract: A through-silicon via (TSV) is a conducting copper nail, which provides an electrical connection through a substrate, and is expected to be used extensively to provide high-speed interconnects between the top and bottom of an active die. However, some TSV structural defects such as pinholes and voids are difficult to capture as they commonly affect TSV performance parameters rather than TSV logical function. In order to electrically detect failures, it is necessary to study and analyze electrical characteristics of defects in advance. Testing TSV interconnects for manufacturing defects poses major challenges, and new design-for-test techniques are needed. Here, a novel nondestructive defect detection method using machine learning (ML) is proposed in order to detect void, short, and open defects in TSV-based 3-D ICs. A supervised ML approach is used to build a classification model from training S-parameter data sets containing the defected TSV and the normal TSV. The performance of the random forest classifier is tested for various amounts of void, short, and open defects in TSV-based 3-D-stacked ICs with satisfactory results.
      PubDate: April 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
       
 
 
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