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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1199 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 0.62]   [H-I: 23]   [23 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2156-3950
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
           publication information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members, and society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Blank page
    • Abstract: This page or pages intentionally left blank.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           information for authors
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members, and society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society
           Information
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members, and society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Foreword: Special Section on Addressing Signal and Power Integrity in
           Future Generation Systems—Part 2: Modeling Considerations
    • Authors: Wiren Dale Becker;Stefano Grivet-Talocia;
      Pages: 651 - 652
      Abstract: This Special Section is a collection of six articles highlighting the main directions that the researchers from academia and industry are exploring for managing signal and power integrity (SPI) through advanced modeling techniques. A previous Special Section (Part 1) on Addressing Signal and Power Integrity in Future Generation Systems presented eight papers in the two main categories of technological and design aspects. As in Part 1, the authors were selected by looking at the best papers presented at two major IEEE conferences dedicated to SPI topics that were held annually in the United States (EPEPS2015, San Jose, CA, USA) and Europe (SPI2016, Turin, Italy). Together, these two Special Sections give a good overview of leading research in advancing SPI in systems.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • High-Fidelity, High-Performance Computational Algorithms for Intrasystem
           Electromagnetic Interference Analysis of IC and Electronics
    • Authors: Zhen Peng;Yang Shao;Hong-Wei Gao;Shu Wang;Shen Lin;
      Pages: 653 - 668
      Abstract: Ever-increasing complexity in high-speed electronic devices and systems presents significant computational challenges in the numerical analysis in terms of desired accuracy, efficiency, and scalable parallelism. The objective of this paper is to investigate high-resolution, high-performance full-wave field solvers for scalable electromagnetic simulations of product-level integrated circuits (ICs) and electronics. The emphasis is placed on advancing parallel algorithms that are provably scalable facilitating a design-through-analysis paradigm, and enabling concurrent multiscale modeling and computation. The capability and the benefits of the algorithms are validated and illustrated through complex 3-D IC and electronics applications.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Characteristic Mode and Reduced Order Modeling at Low Frequencies
    • Authors: Qi I. Dai;Hui U. I. Gan;Qin S. Liu;Weng Cho Chew;
      Pages: 669 - 677
      Abstract: We present a stabilized theory to address the breakdown or inaccuracy issue for low-frequency (LF) characteristic mode analysis (CMA). At LFs, to properly preserve the governing quasi-static circuit physics, the eigenvalue decomposition technique is leveraged to formulate a stabilized eigenvalue problem regarding low-order CMs, which dominate the scattering, radiation, and energy storage properties of arbitrarily shaped conducting bodies. Several efficient schemes are introduced for the computation of the low-order CMs in the LF regime, including the augmented electric-field integral equation, the potential ( $mathbf {A}$ - $Phi$ )-based integral equation, and the Calderón multiplicative preconditioner. The LF stabilized CMA enables one to understand and interpret the behaviors of complicated conducting objects with a reduced “modal” representation at LFs, which offers an insightful tool for reduced order modeling in circuit design and analysis.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Variability Analysis via Parameterized Model Order Reduction and Numerical
           Inversion of Laplace Transform
    • Authors: Ye Tao;Behzad Nouri;Michel S. Nakhla;Mina A. Farhan;Ramachandra Achar;
      Pages: 678 - 686
      Abstract: A fast algorithm is presented for statistical analysis of large circuits with multiple stochastic parameters. The proposed method combines the merits of the parameterized model order-based techniques and numerical inversion of Laplace transform (NILT). The response of the reduced model at any given time point is expressed as a linear combination of the frequency-domain response at a relatively small number of predetermined complex frequency points. This eliminates the necessity for explicit representation of the dynamic model in the form of a set of differential equations. As a result, the moment vectors associated with frequency are excluded while forming the moments’ subspace, leading to much smaller reduced models. In addition, evaluation of the time-domain response of the reduced-order models using NILT is more efficient and highly parallelizable compared to time-stepping numerical integration techniques. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Big-Data Tensor Recovery for High-Dimensional Uncertainty Quantification
           of Process Variations
    • Authors: Zheng Zhang;Tsui-Wei Weng;Luca Daniel;
      Pages: 687 - 697
      Abstract: Fabrication process variations are a major source of yield degradation in the nanoscale design of integrated circuits (ICs), microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs), and photonic circuits. Stochastic spectral methods are a promising technique to quantify the uncertainties caused by process variations. Despite their superior efficiency over Monte Carlo for many design cases, stochastic spectral methods suffer from the curse of dimensionality, i.e., their computational cost grows very fast as the number of random parameters increases. In order to solve this challenging problem, this paper presents a high-dimensional uncertainty quantification algorithm from a big data perspective. Specifically, we show that the huge number of (e.g., $1.5 times 10^{27}$ ) simulation samples in standard stochastic collocation can be reduced to a very small one (e.g., 500) by exploiting some hidden structures of a high-dimensional data array. This idea is formulated as a tensor recovery problem with sparse and low-rank constraints, and it is solved with an alternating minimization approach. The numerical results show that our approach can efficiently simulate some IC, MEMS, and photonic problems with over 50 independent random parameters, whereas the traditional algorithm can only deal with a small number of random parameters.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • S-Parameter and Frequency Identification Method for ANN-Based
           Eye-Height/Width Prediction
    • Authors: Nikita Ambasana;Gowri Anand;Dipanjan Gope;Bhyrav Mutnury;
      Pages: 698 - 709
      Abstract: Design and analysis of high-speed SerDes channels primarily deal with ensuring signal integrity (SI) for desired electrical performance. SI is predominantly judged by time domain (TD) metrics: bit error rate (BER), eye-height (EH), and eye-width (EW). With increasing bit rates and stringent BER criteria, TD simulations are becoming compute-time-intensive. A full-factorial, cost-effective design space exploration for SI is made possible by learning-based mapping of frequency-domain S-parameter data to EH/EW. A major challenge in this mapping procedure is the identification of relevant S-parameter data, such as return loss, insertion loss, crosstalks, and the frequency points at which they are sampled. This paper outlines a methodology to identify the critical S-parameters at specific frequency points using information theory-based definition of data relevance using a fast correlation-based filter solution for feature selection. This technique is applied for identifying relevant features for generating artificial neural network-based prediction models of EH/EW within 2.5% accuracy for channels with high data rates and complex topologies.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Stable Model-Order Reduction of Active Circuits
    • Authors: Behzad Nouri;Michel S. Nakhla;Xu Deng;
      Pages: 710 - 719
      Abstract: Conventional model-order reduction techniques used in circuit simulation guarantee the passivity and, consequently, the stability of the reduced circuit provided that the original circuit is passive. This excludes a large class of circuits that are stable but not necessarily passive. In this paper, an algorithm is described that guarantees the stability of the reduced circuit by construction. Numerical examples are presented that validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Design and Realization of a Miniaturized DFB Diode Laser-Based SHG Light
           Source With a 2-nm Tunable Emission at 488 nm
    • Authors: Marcel Braune;Martin Maiwald;Bernd Eppich;Olaf Brox;Arnim Ginolas;Bernd Sumpf;Günther Tränkle;
      Pages: 720 - 725
      Abstract: We present a concept and the realization of a diode laser-based second harmonic generation (SHG) light source at 488 nm with the capability of a spectral tuning over 2 nm (83 cm $^{-1})$ and a stable SHG power at 30 mW. Wavelength tuning is carried out via a common heat sink temperature for the pump laser and the crystal for nonlinear frequency conversion. The compact diode laser module with a footprint of $25 times 5$ mm2 has no movable parts. This enables the implementation as an excitation light source into portable sensor systems such as handheld devices for in situ spectroscopic investigations.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Board-Level Thermal Cycling and Drop-Test Reliability of Large, Ultrathin
           Glass BGA Packages for Smart Mobile Applications
    • Authors: Bhupender Singh;Gary Menezes;Scott McCann;Vidya Jayaram;Urmi Ray;Venky Sundaram;Raj Pulugurtha;Vanessa Smet;Rao Tummala;
      Pages: 726 - 733
      Abstract: Glass substrates are emerging as a key alternative to silicon and conventional organic substrates for high-density and high-performance systems due to their outstanding dimensional stability, enabling sub-5-μm lithographic design rules, excellent electrical performance, and unique mechanical properties, key in achieving board-level reliability at body sizes larger than 15 x 15 mm². This paper describes the first demonstration of the board-level reliability of such large, ultrathin glass ball grid array (BGA) packages directly mounted onto a system board, considering both their thermal cycling and drop-test performances. To investigate board-level reliability, glass BGA packages, 18.5 x 18.5 mm² in body size and 100 μm in thickness, were first designed and fabricated with a daisy-chain pattern. The glass test vehicles were fabricated at panel level, and then BGA balled by ball drop process with SAC105 solder balls, 250 μm in diameter at 400-μm pitch. After singulation, the glass packages were mounted onto printed circuit boards using standard surface mount technology assembly processes, and then subjected to reliability testing through thermal cycling and drop tests following JEDEC reliability standards. The effect of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of glass was evaluated by investigating low- and high-CTE glass substrates, with the CTEs of 3.8 and 9.8 ppm/°C, respectively. While all glass packages passed 1000 thermal cycles at -40/125 °C as predicted by thermomechanical modeling using the Engelmaier-Wild model, the fatigue life of high-CTE samples exceeded 5000 thermal cycles. In addition, 28/30 drop-test samples passed the required 40 and 200 drops on corner and inner circuits, respectively, with no clear effect of the glass CTE. The predominant failure modes were systematically identified for both relia-ility tests.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Interconnect Materials Enabling IGBT Modules to Achieve Stable
           Short-Circuit Failure Behavior
    • Authors: Jianfeng Li;Imran Yaqub;Martin Corfield;Christopher Mark Johnson;
      Pages: 734 - 744
      Abstract: Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules, which can fail to stable short-circuit mode, have major applications in electricity network-related fields. Sn-3.5Ag solder joints and sintered Ag joints for the die attachment and Mo, Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, Al, and Ag foils for the top side insert (TSI) material in press pack like single IGBT samples have been investigated using overcurrent and current passage tests. The results reveal that Sn-3.5Ag solder joints in combination with Sn-3.5Ag, Al, or Ag foils can be employed to achieve stable short-circuit failure mode, where the best results are achieved with Ag foils. This can be attributed to the formation of conductive networks/channels through the failed IGBT and good alignment between the residual TSI material and the failed IGBT.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Failure of Polymer Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors Under Elevated
           Temperature Humidity Environments
    • Authors: Anshul Shrivastava;Michael H. Azarian;Michael Pecht;
      Pages: 745 - 750
      Abstract: Polymer aluminum (PA) electrolytic capacitors have solid conductive polymers as electrolyte. Reliability of polymer capacitors at elevated temperature humidity is not well understood. Elevated temperature–humidity testing was performed on PEDOT PA electrolytic capacitors by two manufacturers, Nichicon and Nippon Chemi-Con. Both the companies are among the top suppliers of aluminum electrolytic capacitors worldwide. Two different dominant failure modes of increase in equivalent series resistance and increase in leakage current (LC) were found in the PA capacitors from the two different capacitor manufacturers. The capacitance value of the polymer capacitors remained stable during the test. In the subsequent analysis, a new failure mechanism that has not been previously reported in the literature was found that leads to the high LC failure of PA electrolytic capacitors. The criteria for evaluation for this new failure mechanism should be included during the part and manufacturer selection process.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Aerodynamic Performance of a Vibrating Piezoelectric Blade Under Varied
           Operational and Confinement States
    • Authors: Jason Stafford;Nicholas Jeffers;
      Pages: 751 - 761
      Abstract: This paper investigates the aerodynamic performance of a piezoelectrically actuated cantilever blade operating in the first mode of vibration. Bulk air-moving capability and local velocity field features have been experimentally measured for different operational conditions and blade confinement states. A testing facility has been developed to determine the pressure-flow rate characteristics of a vibrating blade and simultaneously conduct particle image velocimetry. Under high system resistance, similar to that found in densely packed electronics, flow reversal occurs at the blade outlet region analogous to stall. This is accompanied by increased local unsteadiness in the airflow being emitted. Local turbulence intensity increases by 50% between maximum flow rate and maximum efficiency operating points. The introduction of confinement around a vibrating blade reduces bulk air-moving capability significantly, with pressure rise and volumetric flow rate measured as low as 20% of what can be achieved for an unconfined blade. However, there is an accompanying change in spatial velocity distribution, which focuses the flow normal to the outlet. This has potentially beneficial uses for targeted electronics cooling applications. The findings identify the relationship between local and bulk airflow characteristics that ultimately provides information about the sensitivity of this type of air-moving device in practical installations.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Stress on the Electromigration Life of Solder
    • Authors: Zheng Zhang;Qingyi Liu;Xiaoxu Pan;Qizhi Wang;Fei Su;
      Pages: 762 - 767
      Abstract: The electromigration (EM) of a solder ball under high-current stressing causes it damage and reduces its service life. Previous studies suggest that the EM life of solder can be improved by properly selecting the solder stress property (compressive or tensile) at the corners where the electron current enters and exits, but complete and relevant research on this proposition is absent. In this paper, we investigated this proposition systematically with experiments and finite element simulations. The experimental results show that the mean time to failure of solder under EM is slightly greater if the stresses at the electron current entrance and exit are compressive instead of tensile. The simulation results show that the increasing rate of the vacancy density at the cathode corner will be the lowest if the stress at the cathode is compressive and the stress at the anode is tensile. The reverse case produced the highest rate of increasing vacancy density, while the other two cases of identical cathode/anode stress types were intermediate, as verified in the experiments. However, the differences in the increasing rate of vacancy density under different stress types were not obvious, and the influence of stress on the EM life of a 0.3-mm-diameter solder ball is negligible. Further investigation found that pre-existing stresses at any two corners of solder may have an effect on the EM life of the solder only when its size is under $10~mu text{m}$ . In summary, our investigation provides guidance to improve the reliability of solder under EM.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Interrupting Characteristics of Paralleled SF6 Circuit Breakers With a
           Highly Coupled Split Reactor
    • Authors: Ze Guo;Xingwen Li;Haibo Su;Yu Zhang;Yihong Wu;Shenli Jia;Yong Wang;Le Gu;
      Pages: 768 - 776
      Abstract: Paralleled high-voltage SF6 circuit breakers with a highly coupled split reactor (HCSR) could realize the function of automatic current-sharing and current-limiting. Aiming at investigating the arc characteristics of paralleled SF6 circuit breakers with an HCSR, the single-phase tests for the paralleled high-voltage SF6 circuit breakers with an HCSR were carried out, including the opening and closing–opening operations. The influence of the capacitor paralleled to one of the breaks was studied. A mathematical model was developed for the paralleled high-voltage SF6 circuit breakers with an HCSR by coupling the equivalent circuit equations into the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) arc model through the embedded codes, laying the foundation for the further research. The variation of the short-circuit currents in the branches during the breaking process was analyzed in detail. The current-sharing and current-limiting effects are quite satisfying. The temperature distribution of both arc chambers was presented. The calculated results were in agreement with the experimental results to some extent.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • LTCC Out-of-Phase Filtering Power Divider Based on Multiple Broadside
           Coupled Lines
    • Authors: Xiu Yin Zhang;Xiao-Feng Liu;Yuan Chun Li;Wan-Li Zhan;Qing Yuan Lu;Jian-Xin Chen;
      Pages: 777 - 785
      Abstract: This paper presents a compact microwave out-of-phase filtering power divider in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The proposed device is composed of three resonators and an isolation resistor. One resonator is symmetrically coupled with the other two by employing multiple broadside coupled lines. Utilizing the transmission line theory, the magnitude and phase characteristics are addressed. Theoretical analysis indicates the proposed circuit provides two signal paths with bandpass responses and 180° phase difference. Also, the realization of the isolation between two output ports is analyzed. For validation, a filtering power divider with out-of-phase outputs is designed, fabricated, and measured. It occupies a compact area of $3.1 times 3.2 times 1.6$ mm3. Comparisons of the measured and simulated results are presented to verify the theoretical method.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Compact Embedded Dual-Element Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna
           Combining Sierpinski and Minkowski Fractals
    • Authors: Duggirala Venkata Kiran;Dileep Sankaranarayanan;Biswajeet Mukherjee;
      Pages: 786 - 791
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel embedded dual-element rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) combining Sierpinski and Minkowski fractals is proposed to reduce the size and for wideband applications. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, a DR1 with dielectric material Rogers RT6010 $varepsilon _{r1}= 10.2$ is embedded concentrically inside the DR2. DR2 is a rectangular ring with dielectric material FR-4 $varepsilon _{r2}= 4.3$ The proposed antenna offers a wide impedance bandwidth of around 3.52 GHz (66%) for $S_{11} < -10 dB$ at a resonant frequency of 3.85 GHz. Experiments have been conducted up to the second iteration of fractal with various indentation factors. Two modes have also been investigated that show presence of both ${T!E}_{11delta }^{Z}(0 < delta$ ≤ 1) ${T!E}_{11delta }^{Z}(0 < delta$ ≤ 1) like modes. The peak gain of proposed antenna is 6.74 dBi at 6.25 GHz. The measured gain is above 5.13 dBi in the frequency range from 3.5 to 7.02 GHz (impedance bandwidth) of operation.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Liquid Crystal Leaky-Wave Antennas With Dispersion Sensitivity Enhancement
    • Authors: Shuang Ma;Guo-Hui Yang;Daniel Erni;Fan-Yi Meng;Lei Zhu;Qun Wu;Jia-Hui Fu;
      Pages: 792 - 801
      Abstract: A novel design, fabrication, and packaging technology is proposed for liquid crystal (LC)-based beam-scanning leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). Different from conventional ones, extra dispersion sensitivity enhancement (DSE) components are introduced to increase the slope of effective phase constant versus frequency of LWAs and, hence, the beam scanning range. CST MW Studio software package is used to validate the design method. It is shown that, by adding the DSE components, the electrical beam scanning range is extended by more than 56% in the Ku satellite communication band, where good impedance matching and balanced condition are kept for both extreme tuning states of LCs. Prototypes of the designed LC-composite right/left-handed LWAs with and without the DSE components are fabricated and measured. The fabrication methodology incorporating printed circuit board and precision metal processing technology ensures the mechanical stability, flexible design, perfect packaging, and low cost. Finally, the feature-selective validation technique validates that the measured and simulated results are in good agreement.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Pressure-Compensated Chip Attach: A Low-Stress Silicon Bump Reflow Process
    • Authors: Sudarshan Rangaraj;Kris Frutschy;Rajen Dias;Bob Sankman;
      Pages: 802 - 805
      Abstract: Assembly of silicon onto FR4-based organic substrates using flip-chip process continues to pose substantial thermomechanical challenges largely due to the disparate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of silicon and substrate. In flip-chip packaging, this CTE mismatch causes mechanical stresses in the chip-to-substrate interconnection bumps and the mechanically fragile interlayer dielectric (ILD) within the chip, leading to fracture and delamination. A novel process called pressure-compensated chip attach (PCCA) is presented, where the silicon chip is attached to the substrate by reflowing the solder bumps while maintaining the chip and substrate in a controlled hydrostatic pressure environment. Experiments show that the new PCCA process reduced the silicon test-chip warpage by 40% and eliminated ILD cracking.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Performance Analysis of Double EWMA Controller Under Dynamic Models With
           Drift
    • Authors: Qingsong Gong;Genke Yang;Changchun Pan;Yuwang Chen;Moonsang Lee;
      Pages: 806 - 814
      Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on the performance of the double exponentially weighted moving average (DEWMA) controller applied to a first-order dynamic input–output model with process drift. Under a general process disturbance, based on Jury test, the necessary and sufficient conditions involving model parameters, the estimated process gain, and weighting factors are established to ensure that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. In addition, we explore why we should use the DEWMA controller to adjust the process rather than the single exponentially weighted moving average controller when the process drifts considerably. Later, under the stability condition, the control performance analysis of the closed-loop system is performed in terms of the asymptotical variation and the transient deviation. Then, an optimization model is established to figure out the appropriate weighting factors for reducing the overall variation of the process output during the process of operation. Finally, extensive simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical analysis in the context of chemical mechanical polishing process.
      PubDate: May 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 5 (2017)
       
 
 
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