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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1199 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Engineering Letters
  [SJR: 0.339]   [H-I: 8]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2093-9868 - ISSN (Online) 2093-985X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Spectrum analysis for assessing red blood cell aggregation using
           high-frequency ultrasound array transducer
    • Authors: Changhan Yoon
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate a spectrum analysis technique for detecting and monitoring red blood cell (RBC) aggregation using a high-frequency array transducer. To assess the feasibility of this approach, the backscattered radio-frequency signal from non-aggregated and aggregated RBC samples with two hematocrit levels were acquired by using a 30-MHz linear array transducer and analyzed in frequency domain. Three parameters such as spectral slope, midband fit and Y intercept were extracted in a static condition. Fresh porcine blood was used and degrees of aggregation were changed by diluting plasma concentration. From the experiments, it was demonstrated that the spectral slope related to a size of scatterer progressively declined as the level of aggregation increased; its mean values at hematocrit of 40% were 1.10 and −0.22 dB/MHz for RBCs suspended in isotonic phosphate buffered saline and solution with 70% plasma concentrations, respectively. For the midband fit and Y intercept, the mean values were increased by 9.1 and 46.4 dB, respectively. These results indicated that the spectrum analysis technique is useful for monitoring RBC aggregation and can be potentially developed for assessing aggregation in clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0034-3
       
  • Unified principles of thalamo-cortical processing: the neural switch
    • Authors: Urs Ribary; S. M. Doesburg; L. M. Ward
      Abstract: It has been reported that cross-frequency interactions may play an important role in local processing within thalamus and neocortex, as well as information transfer between subcortical and cortico-cortical brain regions. Strong commonalities in rhythmic network properties have been observed across recording techniques and task demands, but strong neuroscientific theories to situate such observations within a unified framework with direct relevance to explain neuropathologies remain scarce. Based on a comprehensive review of animal and human literature, we probe and introduce a neurophysiological framework to explain how coordinated cross-frequency and interregional oscillatory cortical dynamics underlie typical and atypical brain activation, and the formation of distributed functional ensembles supporting cortical networks underpinning perception and cognition. We propose that local regional activation by an external stimulus via a sensory pathway entails (1) attenuated alpha (8–14 Hz) and increased theta (4–8 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz) oscillatory activity, and (2) increased interactions among theta and gamma rhythms. These local dynamics also mediate the integration of activated neural populations into large-scale functional assemblies through neuronal synchronization. This comprehensive perspective into the animal and human literature indicates a further thinking beyond synchrony and connectivity and the readiness for more hypothesis-driven research and modeling toward unified principles of thalamo-cortical processing. We further introduced such a possible framework: “The ATG switch”. We also discussed evidence that alpha–theta–gamma dynamics emerging from thalamocortical interactions may be implicated and disrupted in numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0033-4
       
  • Modelling side to side intestinal anastomosis
    • Authors: Javier Civit; Fernando de la Portilla; Jose Luis Sevillano; Anton Civit
      Abstract: Side-to-side intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure where an incision is performed between two parallel segments of gut and then they are sutured together. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the standard surgical practice diameter used in anastomosis leads to undesirable closed circulatory flows which may be harmful to the gut tissue. A finite element model for the chyme flow in a side by side anastomosis with realistic user configurable parameters is developed and solved in a wide range of situations. We analyze the flow crossing the anastomosis, the normalized pressure difference in the gut section and the streamlines that show the presence or absence of closed flow regions for a set of surgically feasible anastomosis diameter values. In contrast with the findings of simpler analytical models, closed flows do not appear in any of these cases. The study shows that the current standard surgical practice where the anastomosis diameter is similar to the gut diameter does not lead to undesirable effects predicted by some simple analytical models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0032-5
       
  • Non-magnetic compliant finger sensor for continuous fine motor movement
           detection
    • Authors: Anterpal Sandhu; Yasong Li; Nicholas Peatfield; Xin Yi Yong; Ryan D’Arcy; Carlo Menon; Teresa P. L. Cheung
      Abstract: A non-magnetic MEG compatible device has been developed that provides continuous force and velocity information. Combined with MEG, this device may find utility in characterizing brain regions associated with force and velocity relative to individual digits or movement pattern. 15 healthy right-handed participants were given visual cues to perform random finger movements on the prototype finger sensor for 21 s and then rest for 21 s (7 times). Respective finger flexion data were obtained, during 151-channel MEG brain scanning, by feeding the signal from finger sensor into four input Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) channels in the MEG hardware. The source activity was reconstructed in beta band using a Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamformer in the beta band. The ADC channels were used as regressors for a continuous time General Linear Model (GLM) and a Region of Interest (ROI) was identified to examine activity. MEG analysis showed bilateral activation in the primary motor cortex region. Because individual digits could be isolated in the ADC data, somatotopy of the fingers were observed consistent with the homunculus except pinky finger. The total span was calculated to be 5.5662 mm. The study confirms that the finger sensor is magnetically compatible with MEG measurements and may potentially provide a means to study complex sensorimotor functions. Improved isolation of individual digit information along with the use of machine learning algorithms can help retrieve more accurate results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0031-6
       
  • Design of a stimulation protocol to predict temperature distribution in
           subcutaneous tissue using the finite element model
    • Authors: Hyoun-Seok Myoung; Dong-Hyun Kim; Han-Sung Kim; Kyoung-Joung Lee
      Abstract: Moxibustion is a traditional Oriental medicine therapy that treats the symptoms of a disease with thermal stimulation. However, it is difficult to control the strength of the thermal or chemical stimulus generated by the various types and amounts of moxa and to prevent energy loss through the skin. To overcome these problems, we previously developed a method to efficiently provide RF thermal stimulation to subcutaneous tissue. In this paper, we propose a finite element model (FEM) to predict temperature distributions in subcutaneous tissue after radio-frequency thermal stimulation. To evaluate the performance of the developed FEM, temperature distributions were obtained from the FEM, and in vivo experiments were conducted using the RF stimulation system at subcutaneous tissue depths of 5 and 10 mm in the femoral region of a rabbit model. High correlation coefficients between simulated and actual temperature distributions—0.98 at 5 mm and 0.99 at 10 mm—were obtained, despite some slight errors in the temperature distribution at each depth. These results demonstrate that the FEM described here can be used to determine thermal stimulation profiles produced by RF stimulation of subcutaneous tissue.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0029-0
       
  • Ultrasound imaging and beyond: recent advances in medical ultrasound
    • Authors: Jongbum Seo; Young-sun Kim
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0030-7
       
  • Primary blast waves induced brain dynamics influenced by head orientations
    • Authors: Yi Hua; Yugang Wang; Linxia Gu
      Abstract: There is controversy regarding the directional dependence of head responses subjected to blast loading. The goal of this work is to characterize the role of head orientation in the mechanics of blast wave-head interactions as well as the load transmitting to the brain. A three-dimensional human head model with anatomical details was reconstructed from computed tomography images. Three different head orientations with respect to the oncoming blast wave, i.e., front-on with head facing blast, back-on with head facing away from blast, and side-on with right side exposed to blast, were considered. The reflected pressure at the blast wave-head interface positively correlated with the skull curvature. It is evidenced by the maximum reflected pressure occurring at the eye socket with the largest curvature on the skull. The reflected pressure pattern along with the local skull areas could further influence the intracranial pressure distributions within the brain. We did find out that the maximum coup pressure of 1.031 MPa in the side-on case as well as the maximum contrecoup pressure of −0.124 MPa in the back-on case. Moreover, the maximum principal strain (MPS) was also monitored due to its indication to diffuse brain injury. It was observed that the peak MPS located in the frontal cortex region regardless of the head orientation. However, the local peak MPS within each individual function region of the brain depended on the head orientation. The detailed interactions between blast wave and head orientations provided insights for evaluating the brain dynamics, as well as biomechanical factors leading to traumatic brain injury.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0027-2
       
  • A wearable system for adaptation to left–right reversed audition tested
           in combination with magnetoencephalography
    • Authors: Atsushi Aoyama; Shinya Kuriki
      Abstract: Exposure of humans to unusual spaces is effective to observe the adaptive strategy for an environment. Though adaptation to such spaces has been typically tested with vision, little has been examined about adaptation to left–right reversed audition, partially due to the apparatus for adaptation. Thus, it is unclear if the adaptive effects reach early auditory processing. Here, we constructed a left–right reversed stereophonic system using only wearable devices and asked two participants to wear it for 4 weeks. Every week, the magnetoencephalographic responses were measured under the selective reaction time task, where they immediately distinguished between sounds delivered to either the left or the right ear with the index finger on the compatible or incompatible side. The constructed system showed high performance in sound localization and achieved gradual reduction of a feeling of strangeness. The N1m intensities for the response-compatible sounds tended to be larger than those for the response-incompatible sounds until the third week but decreased on the fourth week, which correlated with the initially shorter and longer reaction times for the compatible and incompatible conditions, respectively. In the second week, disruption of the auditory-motor connectivity was observed with the largest N1m intensities and the longest reaction times, irrespective of compatibility. In conclusion, we successfully produced a high-quality space of left–right reversed audition using our system. The results suggest that a 4-week exposure to the reversed audition causes optimization of the auditory-motor coordination according to the new rule, which eventually results in the modulation of early auditory processing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0026-3
       
  • Biological effects of blood–brain barrier disruption using a focused
           ultrasound
    • Authors: Mun Han; Yongki Hur; Jieun Hwang; Juyoung Park
      Abstract: With focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles, BBB can be transiently disrupted with a localized and non-invasive approach. BBB disruption induced by FUS has made progressions to move forward on delivery of therapeutic agents into a brain in a specific area of brain for better treatment of neurological diseases. In addition to be used as an improvement of drug delivery, BBB disruption has been found to induce biological effects such as a clearance of protein aggregation which cause Alzheimer’s disease, regulation of proteins which facilitate drug uptake, and modulation of neuronal function and neurogenesis. In this review, we discuss overview about the principles of BBB opening with FUS and milestones in these biological effects of FUS-induced BBB disruption.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0025-4
       
  • Application of computer-aided approaches to the PUMC classification of
           scoliosis
    • Authors: Junhua Zhang; Hongjian Li; Yufeng Zhang
      Abstract: Surgical planning for scoliosis relies on the classification of the spinal curve pattern. To improve the reliability of the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) classification system for scoliotic spinal curves, a computer-aided system is proposed and its reliability is evaluated. First, the reliability of curve measurements was improved by the computer-aided Cobb measurement approach. Second, judgmental errors were reduced by the computer program through the automation of the PUMC classification procedure. Four observers divided into an expert group and a resident group participated in the experiments. The kappa statistic was used to evaluate the variability. Classifications of 65 scoliotic cases by the four observers showed that with the computer’s aid, the average intraobserver and interobserver kappa values were improved from 0.86 to 0.93 and from 0.75 to 0.86, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed computerized system can assist a surgeon in the PUMC classification of scoliosis and is especially useful for inexperienced surgeons.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0022-7
       
  • A bench-top micro-CT capable of simulating head motions
    • Authors: Mohamed A. A. Hegazy; Mohamed Elsayed Eldib; Yang Ji Mun; Myung Hye Cho; Min Hyoung Cho; Soo Yeol Lee
      Abstract: Computational three-dimensional (3D) models of a dental structure generated from 3D dental computed tomography (CT) images are now widely used in digital dentistry. To generate precise 3D models, high-resolution imaging of the dental structure with a dental CT is required. However, a small head motion of the patient during the dental CT scan could degrade the spatial resolution of CT images to the extent that digital dentistry is no longer possible. A bench-top micro-CT has been built to evaluate the head motion effects on the dental CT images. A micro-CT has been built on an optic table with a micro-focus x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. A rotation stage, placed in between the x-ray source and the detector, is mounted on two-directional goniometers that can rotate the rotation stage in two orthogonal directions while the rotation stage is performing the CT scan. The goniometers can make object motions of an arbitrary waveform to simulate head tilting or head nodding. CT images of a phantom have been taken with and without introducing the motions, and the motion effects on the CT images have been evaluated. Object motions parallel to the detector plane have greater effects on the CT images than those against the detector plane. With the bench-top micro-CT, the motion effects have been visually seen at a tiny rotational motion as small as 0.3°. The bench-top micro-CT can be used to evaluate head motion effects on the dental CT images. The projection data, taken with the motion effects, would be used to develop motion artifact correction methods for a high-resolution dental-CT.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0023-6
       
  • Dimensional contraction by principal component analysis as preprocessing
           for independent component analysis at MCG
    • Authors: M. Iwai; K. Kobayashi
      Abstract: We propose a noise reduction method for magnetocardiograms (MCGs) based on independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is useful to separate the noise and signal components, but ICA-based automatic noise reduction faces two main difficulties: the dimensional contraction process applied after the principal component analysis (PCA) used for preprocessing, and the component selection applied after ICA. The results of noise reduction vary among people, because these two processes typically depend on personal qualitative evaluations of the obtained components. Therefore, automatic quantitative ICA-based noise reduction is highly desirable. We will focus on the first difficulty, by improving the index used in the dimensional contraction process. The index used for component ordering after PCA affects the accuracy of separation obtained with ICA. The contribution ratio is often used as an index. However, its efficacy is highly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) it unsuitable for automation. We propose a kurtosis-based index, whose efficacy does not depend on SNR. We compare the two decision indexes through simulation. First, we evaluate their preservation rate of the MCG information after dimensional contraction. In addition, we evaluate their effect on the accuracy of the ICA-based noise reduction method. The obtained results show that the kurtosis-based index does preserve the MCG signal information through dimensional contraction, and has a more consistent behavior when the number of components increases. The proposed index performs better than the traditional index, especially in low SNRs. As such, it paves the way for the desired noise reduction process automation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0024-5
       
  • Ultrasonic transducers for medical diagnostic imaging
    • Authors: Wonseok Lee; Yongrae Roh
      Abstract: Over the past decades, ultrasound imaging technology has made tremendous progress in obtaining important diagnostic information from patients in a rapid, noninvasive manner. Although the technology has benefited from sophisticated signal processing technology and imaging system integration, much of this progress has been derived from the development of ultrasonic transducers that are in direct contact with patients. An overview of medical ultrasonic imaging transducers is presented in this review that describes their structure, types, and application fields. The structural components of a typical transducer are presented in detail including an active layer, acoustic matching layers, a backing block, an acoustic lens, and kerfs. The types of transducers are classified according to the dimensions of ultrasound images: one-dimensional array, mechanical wobbling, and two-dimensional array transducers. Advantages of each transducer over the other and the technical issues for further performance enhancement are described. Application of the transducers to various clinical imaging fields is also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0021-8
       
  • Geometrical characterization of the cavitation bubble clouds produced by a
           clinical shock wave device
    • Authors: Min Joo Choi; Gwansuk Kang; Jung Sik Huh
      Abstract: This study was to optically visualize the cavitation bubbles produced by a clinical shock wave and to look into their geometric features of the resulting cavitation bubbles in relation to the driving shock wave field. A clinical shock wave therapeutic system was taken for shock wave production. The shock wave induced cavitation bubbles were captured by a professional camera under the illumination of a micro-pulse LED light. The light exposure was set to last for the whole life time of bubbles from formation to subsequent collapses. It was shown that the cavitation bubbles appeared mostly in the vicinity of the focus. The bubbles became more and larger as approaching to the focus. The cavitation bubbles formed jet streams which became enlarged (stronger) as the shock wave device output setting increased. The bubble cloud boundary was reasonably fitted to an elongated ellipsoid characteristically similar to the acoustic focal area. The bubble clouds were enlarged as the output setting increased. The geometric features of the cavitation bubbles characteristically similar to those of the focusing acoustic field have potential to provide the therapeutic focal information without time consuming hydrophone measurements of the shock wave field causing damages of the expensive sensor. The present study is limited to the static afterimages of the cavitation bubbles and investigation including the bubble dynamics is suggested to deliver the more realistic therapeutic area of the shock wave therapy
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0017-4
       
  • Automatic error correction using adaptive weighting for vessel-based
           deformable image registration
    • Authors: Jing Ren; Mark Green; Xishi Huang; Anwar Abdalbari
      Abstract: In this paper, we extend our previous work on deformable image registration to inhomogenous tissues. Inhomogenous tissues include the tissues with embedded tumors, which is common in clinical applications. It is a very challenging task since the registration method that works for homogenous tissues may not work well with inhomogenous tissues. The maximum error normally occurs in the regions with tumors and often exceeds the acceptable error threshold. In this paper, we propose a new error correction method with adaptive weighting to reduce the maximum registration error. Our previous fast deformable registration method is used in the inner loop. We have also proposed a new evaluation metric average error of deformation field (AEDF) to evaluate the registration accuracy in regions between vessels and bifurcation points. We have validated the proposed method using liver MR images from human subjects. AEDF results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the maximum registration errors when compared with the previous method with no adaptive weighting. The proposed method has the potential to be used in clinical applications to reduce registration errors in regions with tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0020-9
       
  • Simulation of an optimized technique based on DS-CDMA for simultaneous
           transmission of multichannel biosignals
    • Authors: Daniel Tchiotsop; Adélaïde Nicole Kengnou Telem; Didier Wolf; Valérie Louis-Dorr
      Abstract: Telemedicine is becoming increasingly, with applications in many areas of healthcare, such as home telecare of the elderly, diagnosis at a distance and robotic surgery. The simultaneous transmission of several leads of biomedical signals should be considered in telemedicine, given the many benefits it brings. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a multiple access technique that enables users to transmit independent information simultaneously within the same bandwidth. The direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) is a variant of the CDMA technique in which a pseudorandom sequence having a higher bandwidth than the information signal is used to modulate the information signal directly. Biomedical signals are confidential; thus, their transmission must be secured. In this paper we propose a protocol similar to DS-CDMA for the simultaneous transmission of all of the leads of some multichannel biomedical signals. We assigned orthogonal codes to different leads of a signal. The convolution of each lead with the code gives a signal spread over a broad frequency band. All of the spread signals are then mixed to produce a single composite signal. This composite signal is frequency modulated, amplified and transmitted. At the reception, inverse functions to the previous are developed to perform demodulation, demultiplexing and extraction of the physiological signals transmitted. We used the discrete Walsh functions as codes. The results obtained are satisfactory, even in situations where the noise disturbances are significant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0018-3
       
  • MEG and EEG dipole clusters from extended cortical sources
    • Authors: Manfred Fuchs; Jörn Kastner; Reyko Tech; Michael Wagner; Fernando Gasca
      Abstract: Data from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) suffer from a rather limited signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to cortical background activities and other artifacts. In order to study the effect of the SNR on the size and distribution of dipole clusters reconstructed from interictal epileptic spikes, we performed simulations using realistically shaped volume conductor models and extended cortical sources with different sensor configurations. Head models and cortical surfaces were derived from an averaged magnetic resonance image dataset (Montreal Neurological Institute). Extended sources were simulated by spherical patches with Gaussian current distributions on the folded cortical surface. Different patch sizes were used to investigate cancellation effects from opposing walls of sulcal foldings and to estimate corresponding changes in MEG and EEG sensitivity distributions. Finally, white noise was added to the simulated fields and equivalent current dipole reconstructions were performed to determine size and shape of the resulting dipole clusters. Neuronal currents are oriented perpendicular to the local cortical surface and show cancellation effects of source components on opposing sulcal walls. Since these mostly tangential aspects from large cortical patches cancel out, large extended sources exhibit more radial components in the head geometry. This effect has a larger impact on MEG data as compared to EEG, because in a spherical head model radial currents do not yield any magnetic field. Confidence volumes of single reconstructed dipoles from simulated data at different SNRs show a good correlation with the extension of clusters from repeated dipole reconstructions. Size and shape of dipole clusters reconstructed from extended cortical sources do not only depend on spike and timepoint selection, but also strongly on the SNR of the measured interictal MEG or EEG data. In a linear approximation the size of the clusters is proportional to the inverse SNR.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0019-2
       
  • Microbubbles used for contrast enhanced ultrasound and theragnosis: a
           review of principles to applications
    • Authors: Hohyeon Lee; Haemin Kim; Hyounkoo Han; Minji Lee; Sunho Lee; Hongkeun Yoo; Jin Ho Chang; Hyuncheol Kim
      Abstract: Ultrasound was developed several decades ago as a useful imaging modality, and it became the second most popular diagnostic tool due to its non-invasiveness, real-time capabilities, and safety. Additionally, ultrasound has been used as a therapeutic tool with several therapeutic agents and in nanomedicine. Ultrasound imaging is often used to diagnose many types of cancers, including breast, stomach, and thyroid cancers. In addition, ultrasound-mediated therapy is used in cases of joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Microbubbles, when used as ultrasound contrast agents, can act as echo-enhancers and therapeutic agents, and they can play an essential role in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated therapy. Recently, various types of ultrasound contrast agents made of lipid, polymer, and protein shells have been used. Air, nitrogen, and perfluorocarbon are usually included in the core of the microbubbles to enhance ultrasound imaging, and therapeutic drugs are conjugated and loaded onto the surface or into the core of the microbubbles, depending on the purpose and properties of the substance. Many research groups have utilized ultrasound contrast agents to enhance the imaging signal in blood vessels or tissues and to overcome the blood–brain barrier or blood-retina barrier. These agents are also used to help treat diseases in various regions or systems of the body, such as the cardiovascular system, or as a cancer treatment. In addition, with the introduction of targeted moiety and multiple functional groups, ultrasound contrast agents are expected to have a potential future in ultrasound imaging and therapy. In this paper, we briefly review the principles of ultrasound and introduce the underlying theory, applications, limitations, and future perspectives of ultrasound contrast agents.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0016-5
       
  • Statistical non-parametric mapping in sensor space
    • Authors: Michael Wagner; Reyko Tech; Manfred Fuchs; Jörn Kastner; Fernando Gasca
      Abstract: Establishing the significance of observed effects is a preliminary requirement for any meaningful interpretation of clinical and experimental Electroencephalography or Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. We propose a method to evaluate significance on the level of sensors whilst retaining full temporal or spectral resolution. Input data are multiple realizations of sensor data. In this context, multiple realizations may be the individual epochs obtained in an evoked-response experiment, or group study data, possibly averaged within subject and event type, or spontaneous events such as spikes of different types. In this contribution, we apply Statistical non-Parametric Mapping (SnPM) to MEG sensor data. SnPM is a non-parametric permutation or randomization test that is assumption-free regarding distributional properties of the underlying data. The method, referred to as Maps SnPM, is demonstrated using MEG data from an auditory mismatch negativity paradigm with one frequent and two rare stimuli and validated by comparison with Topographic Analysis of Variance (TANOVA). The result is a time- or frequency-resolved breakdown of sensors that show consistent activity within and/or differ significantly between event or spike types. TANOVA and Maps SnPM were applied to the individual epochs obtained in an evoked-response experiment. The TANOVA analysis established data plausibility and identified latencies-of-interest for further analysis. Maps SnPM, in addition to the above, identified sensors of significantly different activity between stimulus types.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0015-6
       
  • Advances in ultrasound elasticity imaging
    • Authors: Sung Jae Kwon; Mok Kun Jeong
      Abstract: The most troublesome of ultrasonic B-mode imaging is the difficulty of accurately diagnosing cancers, benign tumors, and cysts because they appear similar to each other in B-mode images. The human soft tissue has different physical characteristics of ultrasound depending on whether it is normal or not. In particular, cancers in soft tissue tend to be harder than the surrounding tissue. Thus, ultrasound elasticity imaging can be advantageously used to detect cancers. To measure elasticity, a mechanical force is applied to a region of interest, and the degree of deformation measured is rendered as an image. Depending on the method of applying stress and measuring strain, different elasticity imaging modalities have been reported, including strain imaging, sonoelastography, vibro-acoustography, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, supersonic imaging, and strain-rate imaging. In this paper, we introduce various elasticity imaging methods and explore their technical principles and characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0014-7
       
 
 
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