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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2269 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (181 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1201 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (389 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Engineering Letters
  [SJR: 0.339]   [H-I: 8]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2093-9868 - ISSN (Online) 2093-985X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Ultrasonic transducers for medical diagnostic imaging
    • Authors: Wonseok Lee; Yongrae Roh
      Abstract: Over the past decades, ultrasound imaging technology has made tremendous progress in obtaining important diagnostic information from patients in a rapid, noninvasive manner. Although the technology has benefited from sophisticated signal processing technology and imaging system integration, much of this progress has been derived from the development of ultrasonic transducers that are in direct contact with patients. An overview of medical ultrasonic imaging transducers is presented in this review that describes their structure, types, and application fields. The structural components of a typical transducer are presented in detail including an active layer, acoustic matching layers, a backing block, an acoustic lens, and kerfs. The types of transducers are classified according to the dimensions of ultrasound images: one-dimensional array, mechanical wobbling, and two-dimensional array transducers. Advantages of each transducer over the other and the technical issues for further performance enhancement are described. Application of the transducers to various clinical imaging fields is also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0021-8
       
  • Geometrical characterization of the cavitation bubble clouds produced by a
           clinical shock wave device
    • Authors: Min Joo Choi; Gwansuk Kang; Jung Sik Huh
      Abstract: This study was to optically visualize the cavitation bubbles produced by a clinical shock wave and to look into their geometric features of the resulting cavitation bubbles in relation to the driving shock wave field. A clinical shock wave therapeutic system was taken for shock wave production. The shock wave induced cavitation bubbles were captured by a professional camera under the illumination of a micro-pulse LED light. The light exposure was set to last for the whole life time of bubbles from formation to subsequent collapses. It was shown that the cavitation bubbles appeared mostly in the vicinity of the focus. The bubbles became more and larger as approaching to the focus. The cavitation bubbles formed jet streams which became enlarged (stronger) as the shock wave device output setting increased. The bubble cloud boundary was reasonably fitted to an elongated ellipsoid characteristically similar to the acoustic focal area. The bubble clouds were enlarged as the output setting increased. The geometric features of the cavitation bubbles characteristically similar to those of the focusing acoustic field have potential to provide the therapeutic focal information without time consuming hydrophone measurements of the shock wave field causing damages of the expensive sensor. The present study is limited to the static afterimages of the cavitation bubbles and investigation including the bubble dynamics is suggested to deliver the more realistic therapeutic area of the shock wave therapy
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0017-4
       
  • Automatic error correction using adaptive weighting for vessel-based
           deformable image registration
    • Authors: Jing Ren; Mark Green; Xishi Huang; Anwar Abdalbari
      Abstract: In this paper, we extend our previous work on deformable image registration to inhomogenous tissues. Inhomogenous tissues include the tissues with embedded tumors, which is common in clinical applications. It is a very challenging task since the registration method that works for homogenous tissues may not work well with inhomogenous tissues. The maximum error normally occurs in the regions with tumors and often exceeds the acceptable error threshold. In this paper, we propose a new error correction method with adaptive weighting to reduce the maximum registration error. Our previous fast deformable registration method is used in the inner loop. We have also proposed a new evaluation metric average error of deformation field (AEDF) to evaluate the registration accuracy in regions between vessels and bifurcation points. We have validated the proposed method using liver MR images from human subjects. AEDF results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the maximum registration errors when compared with the previous method with no adaptive weighting. The proposed method has the potential to be used in clinical applications to reduce registration errors in regions with tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0020-9
       
  • Simulation of an optimized technique based on DS-CDMA for simultaneous
           transmission of multichannel biosignals
    • Authors: Daniel Tchiotsop; Adélaïde Nicole Kengnou Telem; Didier Wolf; Valérie Louis-Dorr
      Abstract: Telemedicine is becoming increasingly, with applications in many areas of healthcare, such as home telecare of the elderly, diagnosis at a distance and robotic surgery. The simultaneous transmission of several leads of biomedical signals should be considered in telemedicine, given the many benefits it brings. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a multiple access technique that enables users to transmit independent information simultaneously within the same bandwidth. The direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) is a variant of the CDMA technique in which a pseudorandom sequence having a higher bandwidth than the information signal is used to modulate the information signal directly. Biomedical signals are confidential; thus, their transmission must be secured. In this paper we propose a protocol similar to DS-CDMA for the simultaneous transmission of all of the leads of some multichannel biomedical signals. We assigned orthogonal codes to different leads of a signal. The convolution of each lead with the code gives a signal spread over a broad frequency band. All of the spread signals are then mixed to produce a single composite signal. This composite signal is frequency modulated, amplified and transmitted. At the reception, inverse functions to the previous are developed to perform demodulation, demultiplexing and extraction of the physiological signals transmitted. We used the discrete Walsh functions as codes. The results obtained are satisfactory, even in situations where the noise disturbances are significant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0018-3
       
  • MEG and EEG dipole clusters from extended cortical sources
    • Authors: Manfred Fuchs; Jörn Kastner; Reyko Tech; Michael Wagner; Fernando Gasca
      Abstract: Data from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) suffer from a rather limited signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to cortical background activities and other artifacts. In order to study the effect of the SNR on the size and distribution of dipole clusters reconstructed from interictal epileptic spikes, we performed simulations using realistically shaped volume conductor models and extended cortical sources with different sensor configurations. Head models and cortical surfaces were derived from an averaged magnetic resonance image dataset (Montreal Neurological Institute). Extended sources were simulated by spherical patches with Gaussian current distributions on the folded cortical surface. Different patch sizes were used to investigate cancellation effects from opposing walls of sulcal foldings and to estimate corresponding changes in MEG and EEG sensitivity distributions. Finally, white noise was added to the simulated fields and equivalent current dipole reconstructions were performed to determine size and shape of the resulting dipole clusters. Neuronal currents are oriented perpendicular to the local cortical surface and show cancellation effects of source components on opposing sulcal walls. Since these mostly tangential aspects from large cortical patches cancel out, large extended sources exhibit more radial components in the head geometry. This effect has a larger impact on MEG data as compared to EEG, because in a spherical head model radial currents do not yield any magnetic field. Confidence volumes of single reconstructed dipoles from simulated data at different SNRs show a good correlation with the extension of clusters from repeated dipole reconstructions. Size and shape of dipole clusters reconstructed from extended cortical sources do not only depend on spike and timepoint selection, but also strongly on the SNR of the measured interictal MEG or EEG data. In a linear approximation the size of the clusters is proportional to the inverse SNR.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0019-2
       
  • Microbubbles used for contrast enhanced ultrasound and theragnosis: a
           review of principles to applications
    • Authors: Hohyeon Lee; Haemin Kim; Hyounkoo Han; Minji Lee; Sunho Lee; Hongkeun Yoo; Jin Ho Chang; Hyuncheol Kim
      Abstract: Ultrasound was developed several decades ago as a useful imaging modality, and it became the second most popular diagnostic tool due to its non-invasiveness, real-time capabilities, and safety. Additionally, ultrasound has been used as a therapeutic tool with several therapeutic agents and in nanomedicine. Ultrasound imaging is often used to diagnose many types of cancers, including breast, stomach, and thyroid cancers. In addition, ultrasound-mediated therapy is used in cases of joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Microbubbles, when used as ultrasound contrast agents, can act as echo-enhancers and therapeutic agents, and they can play an essential role in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated therapy. Recently, various types of ultrasound contrast agents made of lipid, polymer, and protein shells have been used. Air, nitrogen, and perfluorocarbon are usually included in the core of the microbubbles to enhance ultrasound imaging, and therapeutic drugs are conjugated and loaded onto the surface or into the core of the microbubbles, depending on the purpose and properties of the substance. Many research groups have utilized ultrasound contrast agents to enhance the imaging signal in blood vessels or tissues and to overcome the blood–brain barrier or blood-retina barrier. These agents are also used to help treat diseases in various regions or systems of the body, such as the cardiovascular system, or as a cancer treatment. In addition, with the introduction of targeted moiety and multiple functional groups, ultrasound contrast agents are expected to have a potential future in ultrasound imaging and therapy. In this paper, we briefly review the principles of ultrasound and introduce the underlying theory, applications, limitations, and future perspectives of ultrasound contrast agents.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0016-5
       
  • Statistical non-parametric mapping in sensor space
    • Authors: Michael Wagner; Reyko Tech; Manfred Fuchs; Jörn Kastner; Fernando Gasca
      Abstract: Establishing the significance of observed effects is a preliminary requirement for any meaningful interpretation of clinical and experimental Electroencephalography or Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. We propose a method to evaluate significance on the level of sensors whilst retaining full temporal or spectral resolution. Input data are multiple realizations of sensor data. In this context, multiple realizations may be the individual epochs obtained in an evoked-response experiment, or group study data, possibly averaged within subject and event type, or spontaneous events such as spikes of different types. In this contribution, we apply Statistical non-Parametric Mapping (SnPM) to MEG sensor data. SnPM is a non-parametric permutation or randomization test that is assumption-free regarding distributional properties of the underlying data. The method, referred to as Maps SnPM, is demonstrated using MEG data from an auditory mismatch negativity paradigm with one frequent and two rare stimuli and validated by comparison with Topographic Analysis of Variance (TANOVA). The result is a time- or frequency-resolved breakdown of sensors that show consistent activity within and/or differ significantly between event or spike types. TANOVA and Maps SnPM were applied to the individual epochs obtained in an evoked-response experiment. The TANOVA analysis established data plausibility and identified latencies-of-interest for further analysis. Maps SnPM, in addition to the above, identified sensors of significantly different activity between stimulus types.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0015-6
       
  • Advances in ultrasound elasticity imaging
    • Authors: Sung Jae Kwon; Mok Kun Jeong
      Abstract: The most troublesome of ultrasonic B-mode imaging is the difficulty of accurately diagnosing cancers, benign tumors, and cysts because they appear similar to each other in B-mode images. The human soft tissue has different physical characteristics of ultrasound depending on whether it is normal or not. In particular, cancers in soft tissue tend to be harder than the surrounding tissue. Thus, ultrasound elasticity imaging can be advantageously used to detect cancers. To measure elasticity, a mechanical force is applied to a region of interest, and the degree of deformation measured is rendered as an image. Depending on the method of applying stress and measuring strain, different elasticity imaging modalities have been reported, including strain imaging, sonoelastography, vibro-acoustography, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, supersonic imaging, and strain-rate imaging. In this paper, we introduce various elasticity imaging methods and explore their technical principles and characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0014-7
       
  • Focused ultrasound treatment for central nervous system disease:
           neurosurgeon’s perspectives
    • Authors: Won Seok Chang; Jin Woo Chang
      Abstract: The concept of focused ultrasound (FUS) and its application in the field of medicine have been suggested since the mid-20th century. However, the clinical applications of this technique in central nervous system (CNS) diseases have been extremely limited because the skull inhibits efficient energy transmission. Therefore, early application of FUS treatment was only performed in patients who had already undergone invasive procedures including craniectomy and burr hole trephination. In the 1990s, the phased array technique was developed and this enabled the focus of ultrasonic energy through the skull, and in conjunction with another technique, magnetic resonance thermal monitoring, the possibility of applying FUS in the CNS was further strengthened. The first clinical trial using FUS treatment for CNS diseases was performed in the early 21st century in patients with glioblastoma, which consists of highly malignant primary brain tumors. However, this trial resulted in a failure to make lesions in the tumors. Various causes were suggested for this outcome including different acoustic impedances across heterogeneous intracranial tissue (not only brain tissue, but also fibrous or tumor tissue). To avoid the influence of this factor, the targets for FUS treatment were shifted to functional diseases such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, and psychiatric disease, which usually occur in normal brain structures. The first trial for functional diseases was started in 2010, and the results were successful as accurate lesions were made in the target area. Nowadays, the indication of FUS treatment for functional CNS diseases is gradually widening, and many trials using the FUS technique are reporting good results. In addition to the lesioning technique using high intensity FUS treatment, the possibility of clinical application of low intensity FUS to CNS disease treatment has been investigated at a pre-clinical level, and it is expected that FUS treatment will become one of the most important novel techniques for the treatment of CNS diseases in the near future.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0013-8
       
  • Estimation and suppression of side lobes in medical ultrasound imaging
           systems
    • Authors: Sung Jae Kwon; Mok Kun Jeong
      Abstract: This paper estimates the side lobe levels from the received echo data, and proposes and compares three types of filters that can be used to suppress them in an ultrasound image. Ultrasound echo signals from the off-axis scatterers can be modeled as a sinusoidal wave whose spatial frequency in the lateral direction of a transducer array varies as a function of the incident angle. The received channel data waveform due to side lobes have a spatial frequency of an integer plus a half. Doubling the length of the channel data by appending zeros and taking the discrete Fourier transform of the elongated data makes the spatial frequency of the channel data due to side lobes become an integer. Thus, it is possible to estimate the complex amplitude of the side lobes. Adding together all the channel data of the estimated side lobes, we can obtain the side lobe levels present in ultrasound field characteristics. We define the summed value as a quality factor that is used as a parameter of side lobe suppression filters. Computer simulations as well as experiments on wires in a water tank and a cyst phantom show that the proposed filters are very effective in reducing side lobe levels and that the amount of computation is smaller than that of the minimum variance beamforming method while showing comparable performance. A method of estimating and suppressing side lobes in an ultrasound image is presented, and the performance of the proposed filters is found to be viable against the conventional B-mode imaging and minimum variance beamforming methods.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0002-3
       
  • Erratum to: A real time surface electromyography signal driven prosthetic
           hand model using PID controlled DC motor
    • Authors: Retheep Raj; Rejith Ramakrishnan; Karingannikalam Subramanian Sivanandan
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0011-x
       
  • Contrast-enhanced dual mode imaging: photoacoustic imaging plus more
    • Authors: Sungjo Park; Unsang Jung; Seunghyun Lee; Donghyun Lee; Chulhong Kim
      Abstract: Conventional biomedical imaging modalities in wide clinical use, such as ultrasound imaging, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, can provide morphological, anatomical, and functional information about biological tissues. However, single mode imaging in conventional medicine provides only limited information for definitive diagnoses. Thus, combinational diagnosis using multiple imaging modalities has become increasingly important. Recently, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has gained significant attention, and several PAI prototypes have been used in clinical trials. At the same time, PAI has been tested in combination with conventional imaging modalities. For all these imaging modalities, various contrast-enhancing agents have been developed for various purposes. In this review article, we will focus on recent progress in developing dual mode contrast agents for PAI in combination with other conventional imaging modalities.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0006-z
       
  • Clinical application of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for
           uterine fibroids
    • Authors: Young-sun Kim
      Abstract: HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) ablation is an emerging therapeutic modality that induces thermal coagulative necrosis of biological tissues by focusing high-energy ultrasound waves onto one small spot. This technique is at various stages of clinical applications in several organs. However, it has increasingly been used in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, a common condition affecting women. Since its first clinical use for symptomatic uterine fibroids, this technique has been recognized for safety, satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in symptom control, uterus-preserving ability, radiation-free nature, and because of the fact that it does not require hospitalization. Owing to its numerous benefits, HIFU ablation is currently one of the major therapeutic options for symptomatic uterine fibroids. In this review, several aspects ranging from the physical principle of HIFU to the long-term outcomes are summarized from the perspective of the clinical application for uterine fibroids.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0012-9
       
  • Rheological study of hyaluronic acid derivatives
    • Authors: Michael Chernos; Dana Grecov; Ezra Kwok; Siziwe Bebe; Oladunni Babsola; Tassos Anastassiades
      Abstract: The viscoelastic properties of four novel, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid derivatives were investigated and compared to the parent hyaluronic acid compound. Briefly, all derivatives were synthesized by first deacetylating the parent hyaluronic acid. One sample was left as such, while two others were reacytelated. The final compound, of particular interest for its anti-inflammatory properties, was butyrylated. The compounds were dissolved in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and studied at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Shear thinning behaviour was observed for all compounds, however, derivative samples had a lower viscosity than the parent compound at high shear rates. Viscoelastic properties were also observed to decrease as a result of the derivative preparation method. It is believed that these changes are primarily caused by a decrease in hyaluronic acid molecular weight. By increasing the concentration of the anti-inflammatory compound, it may be possible to modulate the viscoelastic properties to more closely resemble those of commercial viscosupplements. As a result, an anti-inflammatory derivative of hyaluronic acid may potentially improve upon existing viscosupplements used to treat patients who are susceptible to flare up.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0010-y
       
  • Adaptive common average reference for in vivo multichannel local field
           potentials
    • Authors: Liu Xinyu; Wan Hong; Li Shan; Chen Yan; Shi Li
      Abstract: For in vivo neural recording, local field potential (LFP) is often corrupted by spatially correlated artifacts, especially in awake/behaving subjects. A method named adaptive common average reference (ACAR) based on the concept of adaptive noise canceling (ANC) that utilizes the correlative features of common noise sources and implements with common average referencing (CAR), was proposed for removing the spatially correlated artifacts. Moreover, a correlation analysis was devised to automatically select appropriate channels before generating the CAR reference. The performance was evaluated in both synthesized data and real data from the hippocampus of pigeons, and the results were compared with the standard CAR and several previously proposed artifacts removal methods. Comparative testing results suggest that the ACAR performs better than the available algorithms, especially in a low SNR. In addition, feasibility of this method was provided theoretically. The proposed method would be an important pre-processing step for in vivo LFP processing.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0004-1
       
  • On predicting epileptic seizures from intracranial electroencephalography
    • Authors: Yongseok Yoo
      Abstract: This study investigates the sensitivity and specificity of predicting epileptic seizures from intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG). A monitoring system is studied to generate an alarm upon detecting a precursor of an epileptic seizure. The iEEG traces of ten patients suffering from medically intractable epilepsy were used to build a prediction model. From the iEEG recording of each patient, power spectral densities were calculated and classified using support vector machines. The prediction results varied across patients. For seven patients, seizures were predicted with 100% sensitivity without any false alarms. One patient showed good sensitivity but lower specificity, and the other two patients showed lower sensitivity and specificity. Predictive analytics based on the spectral feature of iEEG performs well for some patients but not all. This result highlights the need for patient-specific prediction models and algorithms.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0008-5
       
  • A review of low-intensity focused ultrasound for neuromodulation
    • Authors: Hongchae Baek; Ki Joo Pahk; Hyungmin Kim
      Abstract: s The ability of ultrasound to be focused into a small region of interest through the intact skull within the brain has led researchers to investigate its potential therapeutic uses for functional neurosurgery and tumor ablation. Studies have used high-intensity focused ultrasound to ablate tissue in localised brain regions for movement disorders and chronic pain while sparing the overlying and surrounding tissue. More recently, low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) that induces reversible biological effects has been emerged as an alternative neuromodulation modality due to its bi-modal (i.e. excitation and suppression) capability with exquisite spatial specificity and depth penetration. Many compelling evidences of LIFU-mediated neuromodulatory effects including behavioral responses, electrophysiological recordings and functional imaging data have been found in the last decades. LIFU, therefore, has the enormous potential to improve the clinical outcomes as well as to replace the currently available neuromodulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial current stimulation. In this paper, we aim to provide a summary of pioneering studies in the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation including its underlying mechanisms that were published in the last 60 years. In closing, some of potential clinical applications of ultrasonic brain stimulation will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0007-y
       
  • A new approach for multi-channel surface EMG signal simulation
    • Authors: Yong Ning; Yingchun Zhang
      Abstract: Simulation models are necessary for testing the performance of newly developed approaches before they can be applied to interpreting experimental data, especially when biomedical signals such as surface electromyogram (SEMG) signals are involved. A new and easily implementable surface EMG simulation model was developed in this study to simulate multi-channel SEMG signals. A single fiber action potential (SFAP) is represented by the sum of three Gaussian functions. SFAP waveforms can be modified by adjusting the amplitude and bandwidth of the Gaussian functions. SEMG signals were successfully simulated at different detected locations. Effects of the fiber depth, electrode position and conduction velocity of SFAP on motor unit action potential (MUAP) were illustrated. Results demonstrate that the easily implementable SEMG simulation approach developed in this study can be used to effectively simulate SEMG signals.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0009-4
       
  • Spectral extrapolation for ultra-wide band radio frequency
           super-resolution tumor localization in the breast
    • Authors: T. Northardt; D. Kasilingam
      Abstract: The use of ultra-wide band (UWB) radio frequency (RF) as an alternative to x-ray mammography for the detection and localization of breast tumors has been an area of focused research over the last decade. Unlike x-rays, UWB RF is non-ionizing and poses no risk of inducing cancer in examined patients. However, the reduction in operating frequency of UWB RF compared to x-rays results in much poorer localization when using classical space-time adaptive signal processing. This work investigates the synergistic use of a temporal signal spectrum extrapolation technique and contemporary basis pursuit de-noising (BPDN) beamforming to achieve medically relevant tumor localization accuracy within a heterogeneous simulated breast volume. If the beamforming process is viewed as a matched filtering operation, the spectrum extrapolation technique artificially increases the bandwidth of the received signal to afford much sharper correlations and hence contributing to increased localization accuracy. BPDN also contributes to increased localization accuracy by employing L1-norm constraints which shows marked clutter suppression effects in this context.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0001-4
       
  • Study of variable magnetic field and endoscope on peristaltic blood flow
           of particle-fluid suspension through an annulus
    • Authors: Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti; Ahmed Zeeshan
      Pages: 242 - 249
      Abstract: Purpose In this article, the effects of variable magnetic field and endoscope on peristaltic motion of non-Newtonian blood flow of particle-fluid suspension through an annulus have been studied. The non-uniform annulus having incompressible, irrotational and electrically conducting fluid which is filled with rigid particles of different shapes. An assumption of long wavelength and zero Reynolds number approximation is applied to model the governing flow problem. A sinusoidal wave is traveling on the outer tube whereas the inner tube is considered as rigid and moving with a constant velocity. Methods The expressions of velocity (u f , u p ) and pressure gradient have been obtained analytically and closed form solutions are presented. Numerical computation has been performed using symbolic computational software “Mathematica” to calculate the expressions for pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Results and Conclusions The influence of all the physical parameters is discussed for pressure rise and friction forces. It is found that pressure rise increases due to the influence of magnetic field. It is also observed that friction forces for outer tube have greater magnitude as compared to friction forces for the inner tube. When the fluid depicts non- Newtonian behavior, then the pressure rise also diminishes. Moreover, the presence of particles in a fluid tends to resist the pressure. Higher values of Hartmann number diminish the friction forces significantly, however the friction forces for outer tube has greater magnitude as compared to inner tube. The present results are also presented for Newtonian fluid by taking λ 1 →0, as a special case of our study.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-016-0226-2
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2016)
       
 
 
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