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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2279 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Engineering Letters
  [SJR: 0.339]   [H-I: 8]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2093-9868 - ISSN (Online) 2093-985X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Transscleral LED illumination pen
    • Abstract: Existing light sources for intraocular illumination are often bulky and expensive and pose a risk for the patient, because light guides are inserted in the eye through incisions and if the tip of these light guides get too close to the retina, the retina can be damaged photochemically within minutes or even seconds. Therefore a new, safe and simple device for intraocular illumination is developed and evaluated for its thermal and photochemical risks to the patient. It consists of a white LED which is integrated into a pen like holder. This device is pressed against the sclera by the physician who seeks for illumination during surgery or for diagnostic purposes. The LED light is transmitted through the sclera without the need for an incision. Considering the relevant standards, the device poses no harm to the patient, and in tests with the authors’ own eyes a sufficient intraocular illumination is reached. The proposed device is quite simple but easy to handle and very gentle for the patient.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
       
  • Sex differences of cognitive load effects on object-location binding
           memory
    • Authors: Jinsick Park; Ga In Shin; Young Min Park; In Young Kim; Dong Pyo Jang
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated where the sex differences of object-location binding memory performance were influenced by the cognitive load. We used the fractal objects version of the ‘What was where'’ task to measure object memory, location memory and objection-location binding memory. Cognitive load was controlled by task difficulty presented two sessions: one session randomly displayed three or four fractal objects (Session 34) and the other session four or five objects (Session 45). The results showed that females outperformed males on object-location binding memory. Interestingly, even when the four object trials were compared between Session 34 and Session 45, in which we believed that the level of difficulty was similar while cognitive load varied, the swap error of males was significantly increased in Session 45 compared to females. In conclusion, there may be sex differences in object-location binding memory and the males could be more sensitive about the cognitive load than females.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0038-z
       
  • Novel tailoring algorithm for abrupt motion artifact removal in
           photoplethysmogram signals
    • Authors: Limeng Pu; Pedro J. Chacon; Hsiao-Chun Wu; Jin-Woo Choi
      Abstract: Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals are widely used for wearable electronic devices nowadays. The PPG signal is extremely sensitive to the motion artifacts (MAs) caused by the subject’s movement. The detection and removal of such MAs remains a difficult problem. Due to the complicated MA signal waveforms, none of the existing techniques can lead to satisfactory results. In this paper, a new framework to identify and tailor the abrupt MAs in PPG is proposed, which consists of feature extraction, change-point detection, and MA removal. In order to achieve the optimal performance, a data-dependent frame-size determination mechanism is employed. Experiments for the heart-beat-rate-measurement application have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, by a correct detection rate of MAs at 98% and the average heart-beat-rate tracking accuracy above 97%. On the other hand, this new framework maintains the original signal temporal structure unlike the spectrum-based approach, and it can be further applied for the calculation of blood oxygen level (SpO2).
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0037-0
       
  • Real-time biofeedback device for gait rehabilitation of post-stroke
           patients
    • Authors: I-Hung Khoo; Panadda Marayong; Vennila Krishnan; Michael Balagtas; Omar Rojas; Katherine Leyba
      Abstract: In this work, we develop a device, called ‘Walk-Even’, that can provide real-time feedback to correct gait asymmetry commonly exhibited in post-stroke survivors and persons with certain neurological disorders. The device computes gait parameters, including gait time, swing time, and stance time of each leg, to detect gait asymmetry and provide corresponding real-time biofeedback by means of auditory and electrotactile stimulation to actively correct the user’s gait. The system consists of customized force-sensor-embedded insoles adjustable to fit any shoe size, electrotactile and auditory feedback circuits, microcontroller, and wireless XBee transceivers. The device also offers data saving capability. To validate its accuracy and reliability, we compared the gait measurements from our device with a commercial gait and balance assessment device, Zeno Walkway. The results show good correlation and agreement in a validity study with six healthy subjects and reliability study with seventeen healthy subjects. In addition, preliminary testing on six post-stroke patients after an 8-week training shows that the Walk-Even device helps to improve gait symmetry, foot pressure and forefoot loading of the affected side. Thus, initial testing indicates that the device is accurate in measuring the gait parameters and effective in improving gait symmetry using real-time feedback. The device is portable and low cost and has the potential for use in a non-clinical setting for patients that can walk independently without assistance. A more extensive testing with stroke patients is still ongoing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0036-1
       
  • Flickering exercise video produces mirror neuron system (MNS) activation
           and steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs)
    • Authors: Hyunmi Lim; Jeonghun Ku
      Abstract: The action of observing can be used as an effective rehabilitation paradigm, because it activates the mirror neuron system. However, it is difficult to fully use this paradigm because it is difficult to get patients to engage in watching video clips of exercise. In this study, we proposed a steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) based paradigm that could be used in a Brain Computer Interface, and examined its feasibility by investigating whether flickering video could activate the mirror neuron system and evoke SSVEPs at the same time. Twenty subjects were recruited and asked to watch the flickering videos at a rate of 20 Hz of upper limb motion and visual white noise, while an EEG signal was recorded. The mu rhythm (8–13 Hz) suppression and the SSVEP (19–21 Hz) evocation were analyzed from recorded EEG. The results showed that SSVEPs, evoked by the flickering stimulus, was observed in both conditions on O1 and O2, but the mu rhythm suppression on C3 and C4 was observed only in the exercise video condition. These results could signify that the flickering video is applicable for the BCI rehabilitation game, activating the mirror neuron system at the same time.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0035-2
       
  • Limitations and artifacts in shear-wave elastography of the liver
    • Authors: Matthew Bruce; Orpheus Kolokythas; Giovanna Ferraioli; Carlo Filice; Matthew O’Donnell
      Abstract: Recent studies have shown that real-time, two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE) can monitor liver fibrosis by measuring tissue elasticity (i.e., elastic modulus). Two clinical studies of 2D-SWE in the liver have shown that there are several practical issues that can compromise quantitation of liver tissue elasticity. Both general ultrasound (US) limitations and limitations in the 2D-SWE method itself resulted in significant variability in estimated liver elasticity. The most common US limitations were: poor acoustic window, limited penetration, and rib/lung shadows. The most common 2D-SWE limitations were: reverberations under the liver capsule, respiratory/cardiac motion, and vessel pulsation/loss of SWE signal. Based on these studies, scan protocols have been optimized to minimize the influence of these limitations on liver elasticity quantification. These refined protocols should move non-invasive SWE closer to becoming the preferred tool to diagnose and manage many chronic diseases of the liver.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0028-1
       
  • Spectrum analysis for assessing red blood cell aggregation using
           high-frequency ultrasound array transducer
    • Authors: Changhan Yoon
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate a spectrum analysis technique for detecting and monitoring red blood cell (RBC) aggregation using a high-frequency array transducer. To assess the feasibility of this approach, the backscattered radio-frequency signal from non-aggregated and aggregated RBC samples with two hematocrit levels were acquired by using a 30-MHz linear array transducer and analyzed in frequency domain. Three parameters such as spectral slope, midband fit and Y intercept were extracted in a static condition. Fresh porcine blood was used and degrees of aggregation were changed by diluting plasma concentration. From the experiments, it was demonstrated that the spectral slope related to a size of scatterer progressively declined as the level of aggregation increased; its mean values at hematocrit of 40% were 1.10 and −0.22 dB/MHz for RBCs suspended in isotonic phosphate buffered saline and solution with 70% plasma concentrations, respectively. For the midband fit and Y intercept, the mean values were increased by 9.1 and 46.4 dB, respectively. These results indicated that the spectrum analysis technique is useful for monitoring RBC aggregation and can be potentially developed for assessing aggregation in clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0034-3
       
  • Unified principles of thalamo-cortical processing: the neural switch
    • Authors: Urs Ribary; S. M. Doesburg; L. M. Ward
      Abstract: It has been reported that cross-frequency interactions may play an important role in local processing within thalamus and neocortex, as well as information transfer between subcortical and cortico-cortical brain regions. Strong commonalities in rhythmic network properties have been observed across recording techniques and task demands, but strong neuroscientific theories to situate such observations within a unified framework with direct relevance to explain neuropathologies remain scarce. Based on a comprehensive review of animal and human literature, we probe and introduce a neurophysiological framework to explain how coordinated cross-frequency and interregional oscillatory cortical dynamics underlie typical and atypical brain activation, and the formation of distributed functional ensembles supporting cortical networks underpinning perception and cognition. We propose that local regional activation by an external stimulus via a sensory pathway entails (1) attenuated alpha (8–14 Hz) and increased theta (4–8 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz) oscillatory activity, and (2) increased interactions among theta and gamma rhythms. These local dynamics also mediate the integration of activated neural populations into large-scale functional assemblies through neuronal synchronization. This comprehensive perspective into the animal and human literature indicates a further thinking beyond synchrony and connectivity and the readiness for more hypothesis-driven research and modeling toward unified principles of thalamo-cortical processing. We further introduced such a possible framework: “The ATG switch”. We also discussed evidence that alpha–theta–gamma dynamics emerging from thalamocortical interactions may be implicated and disrupted in numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0033-4
       
  • Advances in ultrasound elasticity imaging
    • Abstract: The most troublesome of ultrasonic B-mode imaging is the difficulty of accurately diagnosing cancers, benign tumors, and cysts because they appear similar to each other in B-mode images. The human soft tissue has different physical characteristics of ultrasound depending on whether it is normal or not. In particular, cancers in soft tissue tend to be harder than the surrounding tissue. Thus, ultrasound elasticity imaging can be advantageously used to detect cancers. To measure elasticity, a mechanical force is applied to a region of interest, and the degree of deformation measured is rendered as an image. Depending on the method of applying stress and measuring strain, different elasticity imaging modalities have been reported, including strain imaging, sonoelastography, vibro-acoustography, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, supersonic imaging, and strain-rate imaging. In this paper, we introduce various elasticity imaging methods and explore their technical principles and characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Clinical application of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for
           uterine fibroids
    • Abstract: HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) ablation is an emerging therapeutic modality that induces thermal coagulative necrosis of biological tissues by focusing high-energy ultrasound waves onto one small spot. This technique is at various stages of clinical applications in several organs. However, it has increasingly been used in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, a common condition affecting women. Since its first clinical use for symptomatic uterine fibroids, this technique has been recognized for safety, satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in symptom control, uterus-preserving ability, radiation-free nature, and because of the fact that it does not require hospitalization. Owing to its numerous benefits, HIFU ablation is currently one of the major therapeutic options for symptomatic uterine fibroids. In this review, several aspects ranging from the physical principle of HIFU to the long-term outcomes are summarized from the perspective of the clinical application for uterine fibroids.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • A review of low-intensity focused ultrasound for neuromodulation
    • Abstract: s The ability of ultrasound to be focused into a small region of interest through the intact skull within the brain has led researchers to investigate its potential therapeutic uses for functional neurosurgery and tumor ablation. Studies have used high-intensity focused ultrasound to ablate tissue in localised brain regions for movement disorders and chronic pain while sparing the overlying and surrounding tissue. More recently, low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) that induces reversible biological effects has been emerged as an alternative neuromodulation modality due to its bi-modal (i.e. excitation and suppression) capability with exquisite spatial specificity and depth penetration. Many compelling evidences of LIFU-mediated neuromodulatory effects including behavioral responses, electrophysiological recordings and functional imaging data have been found in the last decades. LIFU, therefore, has the enormous potential to improve the clinical outcomes as well as to replace the currently available neuromodulation techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial current stimulation. In this paper, we aim to provide a summary of pioneering studies in the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation including its underlying mechanisms that were published in the last 60 years. In closing, some of potential clinical applications of ultrasonic brain stimulation will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Focused ultrasound treatment for central nervous system disease:
           neurosurgeon’s perspectives
    • Abstract: The concept of focused ultrasound (FUS) and its application in the field of medicine have been suggested since the mid-20th century. However, the clinical applications of this technique in central nervous system (CNS) diseases have been extremely limited because the skull inhibits efficient energy transmission. Therefore, early application of FUS treatment was only performed in patients who had already undergone invasive procedures including craniectomy and burr hole trephination. In the 1990s, the phased array technique was developed and this enabled the focus of ultrasonic energy through the skull, and in conjunction with another technique, magnetic resonance thermal monitoring, the possibility of applying FUS in the CNS was further strengthened. The first clinical trial using FUS treatment for CNS diseases was performed in the early 21st century in patients with glioblastoma, which consists of highly malignant primary brain tumors. However, this trial resulted in a failure to make lesions in the tumors. Various causes were suggested for this outcome including different acoustic impedances across heterogeneous intracranial tissue (not only brain tissue, but also fibrous or tumor tissue). To avoid the influence of this factor, the targets for FUS treatment were shifted to functional diseases such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, and psychiatric disease, which usually occur in normal brain structures. The first trial for functional diseases was started in 2010, and the results were successful as accurate lesions were made in the target area. Nowadays, the indication of FUS treatment for functional CNS diseases is gradually widening, and many trials using the FUS technique are reporting good results. In addition to the lesioning technique using high intensity FUS treatment, the possibility of clinical application of low intensity FUS to CNS disease treatment has been investigated at a pre-clinical level, and it is expected that FUS treatment will become one of the most important novel techniques for the treatment of CNS diseases in the near future.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Contrast-enhanced dual mode imaging: photoacoustic imaging plus more
    • Abstract: Conventional biomedical imaging modalities in wide clinical use, such as ultrasound imaging, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, can provide morphological, anatomical, and functional information about biological tissues. However, single mode imaging in conventional medicine provides only limited information for definitive diagnoses. Thus, combinational diagnosis using multiple imaging modalities has become increasingly important. Recently, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has gained significant attention, and several PAI prototypes have been used in clinical trials. At the same time, PAI has been tested in combination with conventional imaging modalities. For all these imaging modalities, various contrast-enhancing agents have been developed for various purposes. In this review article, we will focus on recent progress in developing dual mode contrast agents for PAI in combination with other conventional imaging modalities.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Simulation of an optimized technique based on DS-CDMA for simultaneous
           transmission of multichannel biosignals
    • Abstract: Telemedicine is becoming increasingly, with applications in many areas of healthcare, such as home telecare of the elderly, diagnosis at a distance and robotic surgery. The simultaneous transmission of several leads of biomedical signals should be considered in telemedicine, given the many benefits it brings. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a multiple access technique that enables users to transmit independent information simultaneously within the same bandwidth. The direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) is a variant of the CDMA technique in which a pseudorandom sequence having a higher bandwidth than the information signal is used to modulate the information signal directly. Biomedical signals are confidential; thus, their transmission must be secured. In this paper we propose a protocol similar to DS-CDMA for the simultaneous transmission of all of the leads of some multichannel biomedical signals. We assigned orthogonal codes to different leads of a signal. The convolution of each lead with the code gives a signal spread over a broad frequency band. All of the spread signals are then mixed to produce a single composite signal. This composite signal is frequency modulated, amplified and transmitted. At the reception, inverse functions to the previous are developed to perform demodulation, demultiplexing and extraction of the physiological signals transmitted. We used the discrete Walsh functions as codes. The results obtained are satisfactory, even in situations where the noise disturbances are significant.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Microbubbles used for contrast enhanced ultrasound and theragnosis: a
           review of principles to applications
    • Abstract: Ultrasound was developed several decades ago as a useful imaging modality, and it became the second most popular diagnostic tool due to its non-invasiveness, real-time capabilities, and safety. Additionally, ultrasound has been used as a therapeutic tool with several therapeutic agents and in nanomedicine. Ultrasound imaging is often used to diagnose many types of cancers, including breast, stomach, and thyroid cancers. In addition, ultrasound-mediated therapy is used in cases of joint inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Microbubbles, when used as ultrasound contrast agents, can act as echo-enhancers and therapeutic agents, and they can play an essential role in ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated therapy. Recently, various types of ultrasound contrast agents made of lipid, polymer, and protein shells have been used. Air, nitrogen, and perfluorocarbon are usually included in the core of the microbubbles to enhance ultrasound imaging, and therapeutic drugs are conjugated and loaded onto the surface or into the core of the microbubbles, depending on the purpose and properties of the substance. Many research groups have utilized ultrasound contrast agents to enhance the imaging signal in blood vessels or tissues and to overcome the blood–brain barrier or blood-retina barrier. These agents are also used to help treat diseases in various regions or systems of the body, such as the cardiovascular system, or as a cancer treatment. In addition, with the introduction of targeted moiety and multiple functional groups, ultrasound contrast agents are expected to have a potential future in ultrasound imaging and therapy. In this paper, we briefly review the principles of ultrasound and introduce the underlying theory, applications, limitations, and future perspectives of ultrasound contrast agents.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
       
  • Ultrasound imaging and beyond: recent advances in medical ultrasound
    • Authors: Jongbum Seo; Young-sun Kim
      PubDate: 2017-04-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0030-7
       
  • Biological effects of blood–brain barrier disruption using a focused
           ultrasound
    • Authors: Mun Han; Yongki Hur; Jieun Hwang; Juyoung Park
      Abstract: With focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles, BBB can be transiently disrupted with a localized and non-invasive approach. BBB disruption induced by FUS has made progressions to move forward on delivery of therapeutic agents into a brain in a specific area of brain for better treatment of neurological diseases. In addition to be used as an improvement of drug delivery, BBB disruption has been found to induce biological effects such as a clearance of protein aggregation which cause Alzheimer’s disease, regulation of proteins which facilitate drug uptake, and modulation of neuronal function and neurogenesis. In this review, we discuss overview about the principles of BBB opening with FUS and milestones in these biological effects of FUS-induced BBB disruption.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0025-4
       
  • Ultrasonic transducers for medical diagnostic imaging
    • Authors: Wonseok Lee; Yongrae Roh
      Abstract: Over the past decades, ultrasound imaging technology has made tremendous progress in obtaining important diagnostic information from patients in a rapid, noninvasive manner. Although the technology has benefited from sophisticated signal processing technology and imaging system integration, much of this progress has been derived from the development of ultrasonic transducers that are in direct contact with patients. An overview of medical ultrasonic imaging transducers is presented in this review that describes their structure, types, and application fields. The structural components of a typical transducer are presented in detail including an active layer, acoustic matching layers, a backing block, an acoustic lens, and kerfs. The types of transducers are classified according to the dimensions of ultrasound images: one-dimensional array, mechanical wobbling, and two-dimensional array transducers. Advantages of each transducer over the other and the technical issues for further performance enhancement are described. Application of the transducers to various clinical imaging fields is also reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0021-8
       
  • Geometrical characterization of the cavitation bubble clouds produced by a
           clinical shock wave device
    • Authors: Min Joo Choi; Gwansuk Kang; Jung Sik Huh
      Abstract: This study was to optically visualize the cavitation bubbles produced by a clinical shock wave and to look into their geometric features of the resulting cavitation bubbles in relation to the driving shock wave field. A clinical shock wave therapeutic system was taken for shock wave production. The shock wave induced cavitation bubbles were captured by a professional camera under the illumination of a micro-pulse LED light. The light exposure was set to last for the whole life time of bubbles from formation to subsequent collapses. It was shown that the cavitation bubbles appeared mostly in the vicinity of the focus. The bubbles became more and larger as approaching to the focus. The cavitation bubbles formed jet streams which became enlarged (stronger) as the shock wave device output setting increased. The bubble cloud boundary was reasonably fitted to an elongated ellipsoid characteristically similar to the acoustic focal area. The bubble clouds were enlarged as the output setting increased. The geometric features of the cavitation bubbles characteristically similar to those of the focusing acoustic field have potential to provide the therapeutic focal information without time consuming hydrophone measurements of the shock wave field causing damages of the expensive sensor. The present study is limited to the static afterimages of the cavitation bubbles and investigation including the bubble dynamics is suggested to deliver the more realistic therapeutic area of the shock wave therapy
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0017-4
       
  • Automatic error correction using adaptive weighting for vessel-based
           deformable image registration
    • Authors: Jing Ren; Mark Green; Xishi Huang; Anwar Abdalbari
      Abstract: In this paper, we extend our previous work on deformable image registration to inhomogenous tissues. Inhomogenous tissues include the tissues with embedded tumors, which is common in clinical applications. It is a very challenging task since the registration method that works for homogenous tissues may not work well with inhomogenous tissues. The maximum error normally occurs in the regions with tumors and often exceeds the acceptable error threshold. In this paper, we propose a new error correction method with adaptive weighting to reduce the maximum registration error. Our previous fast deformable registration method is used in the inner loop. We have also proposed a new evaluation metric average error of deformation field (AEDF) to evaluate the registration accuracy in regions between vessels and bifurcation points. We have validated the proposed method using liver MR images from human subjects. AEDF results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the maximum registration errors when compared with the previous method with no adaptive weighting. The proposed method has the potential to be used in clinical applications to reduce registration errors in regions with tumors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13534-017-0020-9
       
 
 
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