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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1209 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 237)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Coastal Engineering
  [SJR: 1.999]   [H-I: 74]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-3839
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Effects of dual wavenumber dispersion solutions on a nonlinear
           monochromatic wave-current field
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 130
      Author(s): David M. Kouskoulas, Yaron Toledo
      An analytical solution for quadratic nonlinear wave-current interactions is derived using a perturbation method. In contrast to existing formulations, it accounts for dual wavenumber solutions of the linear problem for a single frequency and their nonlinear interactions. It is demonstrated that even a small amount of energy present on the second solution will introduce significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the surface elevation. These differences include a shorter wavelength component moving with a lower wave celerity, nonlinear spatial focusing, and a mean water level that varies in space. The second solution is also shown to produce a mechanism which may easily result in localized violations of wave breaking criteria. These weakly nonlinear effects are expected to be relevant to a variety of engineering applications and physical processes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T13:05:36Z
       
  • Lagoon water-level oscillations driven by rainfall and wave climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 130
      Author(s): R. González-Villanueva, M. Pérez-Arlucea, S. Costas
      Barrier breaching and subsequent inlet formation represent critical processes that ensure the temporary or permanent connection and transference of water, nutrients, or living organisms between a lagoon and the open sea. Here, we investigate the conditions inducing natural barrier breaching through a 34 months monitoring program of water-level oscillations within a shallow lagoon and the adjacent nearshore, at the Northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, Louro lagoon. Seven natural openings were identified to have occurred during the three monitored wet seasons, from the 2009 to 2012, (Wet1, Wet2 and Wet3); four in the Wet1, two in the Wet2 and one in the Wet3. The openings were grouped in three types depending on the observed relation between the lagoon water-level (Lwl), the estimated berm height (Bh) and the water-level at the beach (Bwl): (i) openings by lagoon outflow, which include those characterized by Lwl higher than Bh and lower Bwl; (ii) openings by wave inundation, including those induced by Bwl higher than Bh, and (iii) mixed openings, which result from a combination of the two previous conditions. We observed that Lwl is modulated by the rainfall regime (Rf) and can be explained by the accumulated precipitation. We estimated applying runup equations to obtain Bh and Bwl which depend on the wave climate and tidal level. The inlet lifespan was found to be regulated by the wave climate and rainfall regime; in particular barrier sealing was associated with a sudden increase in wave period and a reduction in precipitation. This work proves that the natural openings could be predicted successfully with support to medium term water-level monitoring programs, which in turn may significantly contribute to strategic decision making for management and conservation purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T13:05:36Z
       
  • Wave runup video motion detection using the Radon Transform
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 130
      Author(s): Rafael Almar, Chris Blenkinsopp, Luis Pedro Almeida, Rodrigo Cienfuegos, Patricio A. Catalán
      A new method of runup detection from video imagery is introduced and validated at an energetic dissipative beach. The instantaneous waterline is detected from uprush and backwash by using the Radon Transform (RT). The method is compared to conventional color contrast method from RGB images and LiDAR measurements. In our observations, the RT shows better detection skill even for adverse conditions, such as those present on flat dissipative swash zones where contrast is reduced. Because the RT is a proxy of deeper waterline (∼0.1 m) it is less sensitive to lack of contrast due to sand saturation. Moreover, since it is based on motion detection, it is less sensitive to changes in lighting conditions. Overall, the RT offers an attractive alternative for long term automated detection of the runup.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T13:05:36Z
       
  • A simplified physically-based model for coastal dike and barrier breaching
           by overtopping flow and waves
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 130
      Author(s): Weiming Wu, Honghai Li
      The simplified physically-based breach model, DLBreach, has been developed to simulate the overtopping breaching of coastal dikes and barriers, which can occur either from the sea side or the bay side. The breaching process is divided into two stages: intensive breaching and general inlet evolution, in which the flows are calculated using the weir flow equation and the Keulegan equation, respectively. The Keulegan equation is a simplified energy equation for steady nonuniform flow with local head loss due to channel contraction and expansion, revised herein by adding the wind driving force. Empirical formulas are adopted to calculate phase-averaged wave overtopping discharge, wave setup, and wind setup/setdown. The wave overtopping discharge is combined with the surge overflow discharge, and the wave setup and wind setup/setdown are added to the sea and bay water levels for the hydrodynamic and sediment routing. Alongshore sediment is considered as a source boundary condition for the non-equilibrium sediment transport model at the breach. The model has been tested using the 94’ field experiment of sea dike breaching by overflow in the Zwin Channel Estuary, a laboratory experiment of sea dike breaching initiated by wave overtopping, and a field observation of the eight-day breaching and closure event of the Mecox Inlet at eastern Long Island of New York during Sept. 10–18, 1985. The model results agree generally well with the measurements.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • Coupling cross-shore and longshore sediment transport to model storm
           response along a mixed sand-gravel coast under varying wave directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): Rafael J. Bergillos, Gerd Masselink, Miguel Ortega-Sánchez
      This paper investigates the profile response of a mixed sand-gravel deltaic beach (Playa Granada, southern Spain) forced by storm waves from varying directions. Beach morphology was monitored over a 36-day period with variable wave conditions, and profile response was compared to model predictions using the XBeach-G model and a longshore sediment transport (LST) formulation. XBeach-G was applied over 2-day periods of low energy, south-westerly (SW) storm and south-easterly (SE) storm conditions, and was coupled to LST using a parametric approach which distributes the LST across the swash, surf and nearshore zones. A calibrated wave propagation model (Delft3D) was used to obtain the inshore conditions required to drive the XBeach-G model and the LST formulation. The storm response is clearly influenced by the free-board (difference between the height of the berm and the total run-up) and is also strongly dependent on storm-wave direction, with the SW storm eroding the surveyed area, while the SE storm induced beach accretion. Model results indicate that XBeach-G on its own is capable of adequately reproducing the response of the beach under SW storm conditions ( B S S > 0.95 ), but not under SE storms due to the higher LST gradients at the study location. The combination of XBeach-G and LST fits the measured profiles reasonably well under both SW ( B S S > 0.96 ) and SE ( B S S > 0.88 ) storms, inspiring confidence in the coupled model to predict the storm response under varying wave conditions. The combined XBeach-G/LST model was applied to the entire 6.8-km deltaic coastline to investigate the impact of extreme SW and SE storm events, and the model results reiterate the importance of cross-shore and longshore sediment transport in driving coastal storm response at this location. The approach proposed in this work can be extended to other worldwide coasts highly influenced by both cross-shore and longshore sediment transport, such as beaches with different coastline orientations and/or forced by varying wave directions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • Coastal Risk Assessment Framework: Comparison of modelled fluvial and
           marine inundation impacts, Bocca di Magra, Ligurian coast, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Silvia De Angeli, Mirko D'Andrea, Giacomo Cazzola, Enrico Duo, Nicola Rebora
      The identification and classification of critical coastal areas is becoming more and more important from a coastal management point of view, especially considering future climate change. The standardized assessment of multiple hazards and their potential impacts is crucial, in terms of risk management, for those coastal areas where both marine and fluvial hazards can occur. Nevertheless, in Bocca di Magra (Liguria Region, Italy), where both coastal and fluvial flooding can occur, up until now the potential impacts from marine flooding have not been thought to be of importance; only the impact of fluvial flooding has been systematically analysed. Now, however, the Liguria Regional stakeholders have become interested in understanding the potential impact of marine inundations compared to fluvial inundations, applying the CRAF (Coastal Risk Assessment Framework) methodology developed inside the RISC-KIT project. The hazard modelling of coastal and fluvial inundations was used, together with exposure data, to evaluate the direct and systemic impacts generated by both flooding mechanisms separately. An End-User-driven Multi-Criteria Analysis was implemented to compare coastal and fluvial impacts on the same area. For an event with a 1 in 200 year return period, the CRAF predicts that fluvial inundation generates higher impacts, in comparison to the marine one. Even though the impacts in the coastal area are less, the impacted exposed elements are different from those impacted by fluvial inundation and none of them can be excluded from the analysis. This work highlights the need for regional managers to develop combined coastal-fluvial flooding assessments; such actions should be seen as a priority for flood disaster risk management in locations affected by both marine flooding and riverine flash flooding.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • Regional assessment of storm related overwash and breaching hazards on
           coastal barriers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Theocharis A. Plomaritis, Óscar Ferreira, Susana Costas
      Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss of life and damage to properties. Among the main processes behind such impacts on coastal barriers are the occurrence of overwash and breaching during storm events. In order to estimate potential losses associated with a particular event, the above processes must be properly parameterized. Here, we propose a novel methodology to estimate overwash and breaching hazards suitable for a regional scale analysis (Ø 100 km). For the overwash hazard assessment, the method is based on the application of the approach developed by Donnelly (2008) that allows the parametrisation of the overwash hazard considering both flow velocity and flow depth. Moreover, the inland extension of the associated hazard, which is critical to assess subsequent vulnerability, can also be estimated following this methodology. The proposed method requires the selection of a runup formula validated for the study area, a storm beach profile, a runup lens angle, and a percolation constant for infiltration. To assess the breaching, hazard, a new multivariable evaluation is proposed that allows ranking the potential of breaching. The multivariable evaluation combines overwash and erosion hazards as well as their extensions with the main morphological characteristics of the barrier, resulting in the breaching hazard index, that ranks from 0 to 5 (no breaching to inlet formation). Inland breaching extension is also relevant for the vulnerability assessment. The breaching extension can be estimated using historical or contemporary analogues of the nearest flood deltas. The developed approaches were applied to Ancão Peninsula (Algarve, Portugal) as a demonstration example. The advantages of the present approach are: adaptability to various environments where overwash and/or breaching processes are important, time efficiency on evaluating overwash and breaching hazards, and the assessment of hotspot areas at a regional scale.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • Introduction to the RISC-KIT web based management guide for DRR in
           European coastal zones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Nico Stelljes, Grit Martinez, Katriona McGlade
      This paper presents a new approach to guiding coastal stakeholders about making informed decisions about Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures and alternatives. As part of the RISC-KIT project and tool box, the paper presents a holistic DRR measure approach including the biophysical environment, governance aspects and practical examples from coastal areas in Europe and elsewhere. The guide (see: www.coastal-management.eu) is addressed to a wide variety of coastal stakeholders with a different level of knowledge about DRR measures with the aim to provide guidance and information. The paper gives an overview of the overall structure of the guide.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • The RISC-KIT storm impact database: A new tool in support of DRR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): P. Ciavola, M.D. Harley, C. den Heijer
      This paper presents a new storm impact database for European coastlines that facilitates the upload, browsing and download of a broad range of physical and impact information related to historical and recent marine storm events. The database is transparent in terms of open access to raw data and metadata, makes use of version control systems through the OpenEarth repository and promotes the use of international standards. A total of 298 storm events are currently stored in the database from the ten RISC-KIT case study sites, including historical events dating back to the sixteenth century. To demonstrate the application of the tool, examples of typical event data contained within the database as well as the ability of the database to identify impacts of events across regions are presented. It is envisaged that this database will expand beyond the ten case study sites, with the aim of promoting and greatly improving the collection and reporting of extreme hydro-meteorological events across Europe into the future.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T12:30:24Z
       
  • Clear-water scour and flow field alteration around an inclined pile
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): Vasileios Kitsikoudis, V.S. Ozgur Kirca, Oral Yagci, Mehmet Furkan Celik
      The present experimental study investigates the scour pattern and the near-wake flow field alteration around an emergent rigid cylinder, which is inclined towards the downstream direction. Three different inclination angles were tested separately, namely 14 ° , 30 ° , and 42 ° with respect to the wall-normal axis. The induced flow and scour patterns were assessed and compared with the well-known case of the emergent upright cylinder (inclination angle 0°). The experiments were conducted for steady flow conditions in a 26 m long recirculating flume and the flow velocity measurements were conducted with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. For the clear-water scour experiment, a false bed with a sand-pit was installed within the flume and a laser scanner was utilized to render a detailed representation of the scoured bed. The results show how the scouring gets mitigated with increasing inclination angle. Spatial distribution of time-averaged and fluctuation velocity patterns are presented, which exhibit that the vertical mixing gets significantly enhanced behind the inclined cylinder with increasing inclination angle, while the lateral mixing gets weakened at the upper flow region. An upward flow is seen at the immediate downstream of the inclined pile close to the bed, which becomes stronger with the inclination angle. Energy spectra as well as joint frequency distributions of velocity components were analyzed together with the time series, revealing that the inclination of the pile alters the wake significantly. The results further indicate that with increasing inclination angle the pile becomes more streamlined and the vortex shedding gets suppressed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:21:53Z
       
  • Bedload and suspended load contributions to breaker bar morphodynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): J. van der Zanden, D.A. van der A, D. Hurther, I. Cáceres, T. O'Donoghue, S.J.M.H. Hulscher, J.S. Ribberink
      This study presents measurements of sheet flow processes, grain sorting, and bedload plus suspended load transport rates around a medium-sand breaker bar in a large-scale wave flume. The results offer insights in effects of wave breaking on bedload and grain sorting processes and in the quantitative contributions by bedload and suspended transport to breaker bar morphodynamics. Sheet flow layer dynamics are highly similar to observations under non-breaking waves, revealing clear effects by velocity asymmetry but no evident effects by breaking-generated turbulence, bed slope, or the cross-shore non-uniform flow. The sheet flow layer thickness can be predicted using existing empirical formulations based on local hydrodynamic forcing. At locations covering the shoaling region up to the bar crest the cross-shore variation in bedload transport rates is explained by variations in wave shape (i.e. velocity skewness and asymmetry). At locations between bar crest and bar trough, bedload transport rate magnitudes correlate positively with bed slope and turbulent kinetic energy. Bedload and suspended load transport rates are of similar magnitude but of opposite sign. Bedload transport is onshore-directed and dominates in the shoaling zone, but after wave breaking, the offshore-directed suspended sediment transport increases in magnitude and exceeds bedload transport rates in the breaking and inner surf zones. Bedload and suspended load transport contribute notably differently to bed profile evolution: bedload transfers sand grains from the offshore slope to the bar crest and additionally leads to erosion of the shoreward bar slope and deposition at the bar trough, while suspended load transport induces an opposite pattern of erosion at the bar trough and accretion at the bar crest. Grain size analysis of suspended sediment samples reveals size-selective entrainment and vertical size segregation in the inner surf zone, but suggest size-indifferent entrainment and vertical mixing by energetic vortices in the breaking region. Size-selective transport by bedload and suspended load leads to a cross-shore coarsening of the bed from shoaling to inner surf zone, with local additional sorting mechanisms around the breaker bar due to bed slope effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:21:53Z
       
  • Selecting coastal hotspots to storm impacts at the regional scale: a
           Coastal Risk Assessment Framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): C. Viavattene, J.A. Jiménez, O. Ferreira, S. Priest, D. Owen, R. McCall
      Managing coastal risk at the regional scale requires a prioritization of resources along the shoreline. A transparent and rigorous risk assessment should inform managers and stakeholders in their choices. This requires advances in modelling assessment (e.g., consideration of source and pathway conditions to define the probability of occurrence, nonlinear dynamics of the physical processes, better recognition of systemic impacts and non-economic losses) and open-source tools facilitating stakeholders' engagement in the process. This paper discusses how the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) has been developed as part of the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts Toolkit (RISC-KIT). The framework provides two levels of analysis. A coastal index approach is first recommended to narrow down the risk analysis to a reduced number of sectors which are subsequently geographically grouped into potential hotspots. For the second level of analysis an integrated modelling approach improves the regional risk assessment of the identified hotspots by increasing the spatial resolution of the hazard modelling by using innovative process-based multi-hazard models, by including generic vulnerability indicators in the impact assessment, and by calculating regional systemic impact indicators. A multi-criteria analysis of these indicators is performed to rank the hotspots and support the stakeholders in their selection. The CRAF has been applied and validated on ten European case studies with only small deviation to areas already recognised as high risk. The flexibility of the framework is essential to adapt the assessment to the specific region characteristics. The involvement of stakeholders is crucial not only to select the hotpots and validate the results, but also to support the collection of information and the valuation of assets at risk. As such, the CRAF permits a comprehensive and systemic risk analysis of the regional coast in order to identify and to select higher risk areas. Yet efforts still need to be amplified in the data collection process, in particular for socio-economic and environmental impacts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:21:53Z
       
  • Stability of scour protection due to earthquake-induced liquefaction:
           Centrifuge modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): D.E. Escribano, A.J. Brennan
      A key aspect of permanent offshore structures is protection against scour. This is typically in the form of a blanket of coarse gravel or cobbles surrounding the structure. These coarse particles are selected for their high resistance to being displaced by strong currents and thus protect the underlying finer sand particles from scour. However, in the event of an earthquake, the foundation sand may be susceptible to some degree of liquefaction. This research investigates the effects of seismic-induced liquefaction over a scour blanket, and if sinking is inhibited by some combination of the additional effective stress imposed by the gravel together with the interlocking resistance that develops when coarse particles are subjected to relative displacements. In order to evaluate the stability of scour protection blankets, a programme of physical modelling was carried out, involving the assessment of different configurations of stone layers over a liquefiable material, and a monopile-type foundation. Models were subjected to scaled base shaking equivalent to earthquake loading. A mass-balance of particle sinkage showed that a filter layer was critical for maintaining the integrity of the armour stones. Based on displacement and pore water pressure measurements, it was found that the presence of the scour protection blankets improved the response of the liquefiable sand under seismic loading, and even inhibited the occurrence of liquefaction. This implies that a well-designed scour protection blanket can assist in protecting against earthquake effects also.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T12:17:18Z
       
  • Validation of the coastal storm risk assessment framework along the
           Emilia-Romagna coast
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Clara Armaroli, Enrico Duo
      The Italian coasts are threatened by coastal flooding and erosion. The Emilia-Romagna region coastline is exposed to marine storms because of its low-lying nature and massive urbanization. Regional managers need comprehensive tools for coastal storm risk assessment. The RISC-KIT Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) provides a conceptual framework, which includes hazard, exposure and vulnerability evaluation, to implement a screening process able to identify littoral zones that can be classified as hotspots (Phase 1) and to successively rank the identified hotspots to select the most critical ones (Phase 2). This study includes the results of the implementation of CRAF Phase 1 in the Emilia-Romagna coast. The method is based on a Coastal Index approach, calculated for 1 km length coastal sectors, applied taking into account both hazard and exposure indicators. The general methodology was partly modified thanks to the strong collaboration with the End-User (Servizio Geologico Sismico e dei Suoli, SGSS) which provided data, suggestions and comments at every step of the implementation. The SGSS also provided data to validate the outcomes of the CRAF methodology. Thus, the critical areas identified by the CRAF were compared with historical (1946–2010) storm impacts, resulting in a reasonable agreement between the identified hotspots.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T12:17:18Z
       
  • Numerical and experimental investigation of hydrodynamic performance of a
           cylindrical dual pontoon-net floating breakwater
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): Chunyan Ji, Yong Cheng, Ke Yang, Gaidai Oleg
      The use of a simple, inexpensive, and effective type of floating breakwater is increasingly becoming a necessity in shoreline and marine structure protection. This study concerns the hydrodynamic behavior of a dual pontoon floating breakwater (DPFB) when attached to one or more rows of plane net by using physical and numerical models. A two-dimensional (2D) fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) based on a time higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) and mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) approach is applied to obtain numerical solutions. In the model, Darcy's law is used to represent the porous media of the fluid-net interaction, and some auxiliary functions are introduced, instead of an iterative process using the acceleration potential method. Mesh regridding and interpolation combined with a double collocation node technique are implemented to tackle the mismatch between the meshes on the free surface and the wet body surface. In addition, the numerical model is verified with a series of corresponding experimental tests. Numerical solutions and measurement tests are executed to systematically examine the dependence of the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient and motion responses on the design parameters, such as net number, net porosity, net height, wavelength and wave amplitude. It is found that the new floating breakwater exhibits a better performance with the optimal design parameters as compared with traditional DPFB, especially for long period and large amplitude waves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Solitary wave-induced forces on horizontal circular cylinders: Laboratory
           experiments and SPH simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): Francesco Aristodemo, Giuseppe Tripepi, Domenico Davide Meringolo, Paolo Veltri
      This work deals with an experimental and numerical study on the horizontal and vertical hydrodynamic forces induced by solitary waves on submerged horizontal circular cylinders. Laboratory tests were performed in the wave flume of the University of Calabria. A battery of pressure transducers was mounted along the external contour of a cylinder placed at half water depth, while four wave gauges were located close to the cylinder and an ultrasonic sensor behind the paddle to measure its displacement. From the numerical viewpoint, a diffusive weakly-compressible SPH model was adopted. To prevent spurious flows near the cylindrical contour, a packing algorithm has been applied to initialize the SPH fluid particles. The acoustic components occurring in the numerical pressure field were filtered through the application of Wavelet Transform. Experimental and numerical analyses were performed in the inertia-dominated regime where these force components are more relevant than the drag and lift ones. The deviation from the fully inertia regime was highlighted in the simulations by the occurrence of a couple of asymmetric vortices behind the cylinder. The good agreement between experimental and SPH forces and kinematics at the cylinder has allowed the numerical calibration of the hydrodynamic coefficients in the Morison and transverse semi-empirical equations by different time-domain methods. For engineering purposes, we propose simple empirical formulas based on the knowledge of wave amplitude to calculate the hydrodynamic coefficients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Tsunami-induced scour around monopile foundations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 129
      Author(s): Bjarke Eltard Larsen, David R. Fuhrman, Cüneyt Baykal, B. Mutlu Sumer
      A fully-coupled (hydrodynamic and morphologic) numerical model is presented, and utilized for the simulation of tsunami-induced scour around a monopile structure, representative of those commonly utilized as offshore wind turbine foundations at moderate depths i.e. for depths less than 30 m. The model is based on solutions to Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with two-equation k − ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspended load descriptions forming the basis for sea bed morphology. The model is first validated for flow, bed shear stresses, and scour within a steady current, where a generally excellent match with experimentally-based results is found. A methodology for maintaining and assessing hydrodynamic and morphologic similarity between field and (laboratory) model-scale tsunami events is then presented, combining diameter-based Froude number similarity with that based on the dimensionless wave boundary layer thickness-to-monopile diameter ratio. This methodology is utilized directly in the selection of governing tsunami wave parameters (i.e. velocity magnitude and period) used for subsequent simulation within the numerical model, with the tsunami-induced flow modelled as a long sinusoidally-varying current. The flow, sediment transport, and scour processes beneath up to ten tsunami waves are simulated in succession. These illustrate a generally accumulative scour process i.e. a relatively rapid scour induced by the leading wave, with an additional build-up of the scour depth during additional trailing waves. The resulting scour seems to approach an equilibrium value after sufficient time duration, which corresponds reasonably to that predicted by existing steady-current scour depth expressions, after accounting for the finite boundary layer thickness induced by the unsteady tsunami wave, i.e. it is important to incorporate both current-like, as well as wave-like aspects of the long tsunami event. Based on the simulated results, a simple methodology for predicting the tsunami-induced scour depth in engineering practice is finally developed. This methodology is demonstrated to match the predicted scour development for all of the simulated flows considered, ranging from the series of transient tsunami waves to the steady-current limit.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Three-dimensional modeling of wave-induced residual seabed response around
           a mono-pile foundation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): H.Y. Zhao, D.-S. Jeng, C.C. Liao, J.F. Zhu
      Recently, behavior of large-diameter mono-pile foundations for offshore wind turbines under long-term cyclic wave loading has attracted great attentions from coastal engineers. In this study, a three-dimensional integrated numerical model is developed to investigate the wave-induced seabed response around a monopile foundation. In the model, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used for the mean fluid flow, while the Biots consolidation equations are used for the solid-pore fluid interaction in a porous seabed. The monopile is considered as a single phase medium and behaves under a linear elastic law. To reproduce the residual soil behavior under cyclic shearing induced by ocean waves as well as structural rocking motions, a poro-elastoplastic model is adopted, in which the consolidation analysis of seabed foundation under gravitational forces including the body force of structure is pre-assessed and incorporated. The present numerical framework was first validated against several laboratory experiments and obtaining fairly good agreements. Based on the proposed model, failure of monopile foundation caused by liquefaction due to the buildup of pore water pressure under cyclic shearing is investigated. Numerical results indicate that the potential areas for residual pore pressure development and the resulting liquefaction are most pronounced in the vicinity of the monopile following the wave propagation direction, which is caused by waves as well as the rocking motion of the structure induced by the wave impact. Parametric studies indicate that there is no possibility of generating soil liquefaction below the pile bottom in the vicinity of the mono-pile even under large waves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of turbulent wave boundary layers under
           irregular coastal waves
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Jing Yuan, Sunil Manohar Dash
      In this study full-scale experiments of wave boundary layers under irregular coastal waves are conducted using an oscillatory water tunnel. The flow conditions cover two rough bottoms, three types of wave shapes, i.e. sinusoidal, skewed and asymmetric waves, and two types of irregular-wave sequences. The instantaneous turbulent velocity fields are measured with a 2-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry system. The measured turbulence statistical values show that the residual turbulence at the end of wave cycle can persist into the next wave cycle, until the next cycle's self-produced turbulence becomes sufficiently strong. Consequently, the Reynolds-averaged flow at the beginning of a wave cycle can behave as if the flow “memorizes” the previous wave cycle. However, this memory effect quickly vanishes, and therefore does not have a significant influence on some key boundary layer characteristics, e.g. bottom shear stress. For irregular wave boundary layers with skewed and asymmetric free-stream velocities, the measured mean current and the associated mean bottom shear stress confirm the existence of a well-known boundary layer streaming due to the imbalance of turbulence between the two halves of a wave cycle, and the measurements of bottom shear stress of individual waves closely resemble those for periodic-wave conditions. These experimental results suggest that modeling irregular wave boundary layers in a wave-by-wave manner is plausible.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • High-resolution monitoring of wave transformation in the surf zone using a
           LiDAR scanner array
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Kévin Martins, Chris E. Blenkinsopp, Hannah E. Power, Brittany Bruder, Jack A. Puleo, Erwin W.J. Bergsma
      Understanding of breaking and broken waves is key for the prediction of nearshore sediment transport and coastal hazards, however the difficulty of obtaining measurements of highly unsteady nearshore waves has limited the availability of field data. This paper reports on a novel field experiment designed to capture the time-varying free-surface throughout the surf and swash zones was conducted on a dissipative sandy beach using an array of 2D LiDAR scanners. Three scanners were deployed from the pier at Saltburn-by-the-Sea, UK for a 6 day period to monitor the surface elevation of nearshore waves from the break point to the runup limit at temporal and spatial resolutions (order of centimetres) rarely achieved in field conditions. The experimental setup and the procedure to obtain a continuous time series of surface elevation and wave geometry is described. A new method to accurately determine the break point location is presented and compared to existing methodologies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • An experimentally validated approach for evaluating tsunami inundation
           forces on rectangular buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): A.S.J. Foster, T. Rossetto, W. Allsop
      This paper presents an experimentally validated, closed-form set of equations for predicting forces on rectangular buildings impinged by nominally unsteady tsunami inundation flows. The shallow water waves that drive the tsunami inundation flows described in this paper are generated using a novel tsunami simulator, uniquely capable of generating very long period waves featuring the characteristic draw-down of real-world tsunami. We describe an experimental study of the forces acting on a rectangular building occupying 10–80% of a channel, fixed in a free-surface-channel flow driven by shallow water waves with periods of 20–240 s. An idealised topography and a 1:50 Froude scale are adopted. A one dimensional model based upon open-channel flow principles is proposed for unsteady flows driven by prototype tsunami waves, providing empirical estimates for drag and hydrostatic coefficients. It is observed that the pressure field around the buildings is hydrostatic irrespective of the flow being steady or unsteady. An empirically derived force prediction equation, dependent upon the Froude number of the incoming flow and blocking fraction is presented, which provides good agreement with the experimental results. The equations presented in this paper will provide engineers, tsunami modellers, and risk evaluation experts with a convenient method of tsunami inundation force determination without recourse to computationally expensive multi-scale numerical models.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Experimental modeling of horizontal and vertical wave forces on an
           elevated coastal structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Hyoungsu Park, Tori Tomiczek, Daniel T. Cox, John W. van de Lindt, Pedro Lomonaco
      A large-scale physical model was created in Oregon State University's Large Wave Flume to collect an extensive dataset measuring wave-induced horizontal and vertical forces on an idealized coastal structure. Water depth was held constant while wave conditions included regular, irregular, and transient (tsunami-like) waves with different significant wave heights and peak periods for each test. The elevation of the base of the test specimen with respect to the stillwater depth (air gap) was also varied from at-grade to 0.28 m above the stillwater level to better understand the effects of raising or lowering a nearshore structure on increasing or decreasing the horizontal and vertical wave forces. Results indicate that while both horizontal and vertical forces tend to increase with increasing significant wave height, the maximum and top 0.4% of forces increased disproportionally to other characteristic values such as the mean or top 10%. As expected, the horizontal force increased as the test specimen was more deeply submerged and decreased as the structure was elevated to larger air gaps above the stillwater level. However, this trend was not true for the vertical force, which was maximized when the elevation of the base of the structure was equal to the elevation of the stillwater depth. Small wave heights were characterized by low horizontal to vertical force ratios, highlighting the importance of considering vertical wave forces in addition to horizontal wave forces in the design of coastal structures. The findings and data presented here may be used by city planners, engineers, and numerical modelers, for future analyses, informed coastal design, and numerical benchmarking to work toward enabling more resilient nearcoast structures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Extreme wave groups in a wave flume: Controlled generation and breaking
           onset
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Eugeny Buldakov, Dimitris Stagonas, Richard Simons
      Extreme waves in random seas are usually breaking or close to breaking. Understanding the kinematics and evolution of such waves is important for determining loads on offshore structures. Controlled repeatable generation of realistic breaking waves in wave flume experiments is a difficult but important task. It is rather easy to generate an arbitrary breaking wave, but to the authors' knowledge there is no methodology for accurate generation of a wave group with a pre-defined spectrum related to a modelled sea state with spilling breaking at a prescribed position. Such waves can be used to model extreme breaking waves in a random sea and their interaction with structures. This paper offers such a methodology. The key feature of the method is the application of an iterative focussing procedure to a linearised amplitude spectrum rather than to a full nonlinear spectrum. The linearised spectrum is obtained using a harmonics separation technique and the general derivation of the method is given for an arbitrary number of components. The procedure is applied to generate focussed wave groups with amplitudes increased in small steps until local crest breaking occurs. As a result, the highest non-breaking waves and weakly breaking waves are generated for otherwise identical conditions. The methodology is applied for four different wave spectra of the same peak frequency: JONSWAP, Pierson-Moskowitz, wide and narrow band Gaussian. It is found that steepness of the limiting breaking wave depends strongly on the choice of wave group spectrum. The results demonstrate that neglecting spectral properties of design waves may lead to misrepresentation of their breaking behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Wavenumber-frequency analysis of landslide-generated tsunamis at a conical
           island. Part II: EOF and modal analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Giorgio Bellotti, Alessandro Romano
      In this paper the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method is applied to extract from the experimental data, related to landslide-tsunamis around the coast of a conical island, the spatial modes that contribute to the wave field. For each mode the wavenumber and the frequency are calculated by analyzing the shape along the coast and the time function. The relevant modes are then compared with those obtained through numerical eigenanalysis of the long wave equation around the considered island. It was possible to associate each EOF mode with some eigenvectors and the corresponding eigenfrequencies, both on the basis of the spatial shape, the wavenumber calculated along the coast and the frequency. Results confirm that landslide-generated waves propagate along the coast as trapped edge waves and the zero-th order mode is the most important. Further of exploring the physics, it is believed that this paper can be of use as some of the most relevant and straightforward techniques for modal identification are applied to the same problem and dataset.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Morphological hysteresis in the evolution of beach profiles under
           sequences of wave climates - Part 1; observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): T.E. Baldock, F. Birrien, A. Atkinson, T. Shimamoto, S. Wu, D.P. Callaghan, P. Nielsen
      Novel series of experiments are presented that demonstrate morphological hysteresis in the evolution to equilibrium of beach profiles under sequences of different wave climates. The experiments were conducted in a wave flume at medium scale using both monochromatic and random waves, representing 2D conditions. Beach profiles were obtained with high spatial resolution at frequent intervals with a laser profiler, from which shoreline location, bar position and sediment transport rates were derived. Experiments were conducted for sequences of wave climates, where a sequence comprised of 6–13 sequential tests, each commencing with the beach profile from the preceding test. Each test was run until equilibrium conditions were obtained and had a constant wave height, increased or decreased relative to the preceding test. Cyclical conditions were also included, with erosive and accretive wave conditions of short durations alternating through multiple cycles, so that equilibrium conditions were not reached during a test. With a sequence of increasing wave heights, the relationship between the shoreline position and the bulk cross-shore sediment transport, at equilibrium, was non-monotonic, indicating a maximum in the landward sediment transport rate. For test series comprised of a sequence of increasing wave heights followed by a sequence of decreasing wave heights, morphological hysteresis was observed in the equilibrium shoreline position and bulk cross-shore sediment transport, such that shoreline recession, or offshore transport, continued in some instances after reductions in wave height. This is inconsistent with classical equilibrium type shoreline evolution models. However, when equilibrium conditions were not reached, in the cyclic sequences, no such morphological hysteresis was observed and a dynamic equilibrium is reached. The morphological hysteresis occurs because of the decay, stranding, or increased relative depth, of the breaker bar following a reduction in wave height, often in conjunction with a new breaker bar generated by further offshore transport in the inner surf zone. Similar sequences of morphological response are evident in field data and larger scale tests in the literature. Finally, it is shown that the morphological hysteresis can be explained using the classical equilibrium beach state model of Wright et al. (1985) by introducing the concept of a subsequent alternate active beach state, which may occur following a change in wave conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Managing coastal erosion under climate change at the regional scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 128
      Author(s): Alexandra Toimil, Inigo J. Losada, Paula Camus, Pedro Díaz-Simal
      This study presents a comprehensive methodology that addresses climate change–induced coastal erosion at the regional scale O (100 km). The use of climate data with high space-time resolution enabled the reconstruction of the shoreline response to cross-shore forcing both historically and throughout the twenty-first century. Cross section–based equilibrium models were combined to assess beach erosion induced by local waves, storm surge, astronomical tide and mean sea-level rise. The approach incorporates the potential impacts that tidal inlets could have on the long-term evolution of adjacent beaches as sink terms in the beaches’ budget. The methodology provides probabilistic estimates of coastline recession while accounting for sea level rise uncertainty, both of which are essential aspects for establishing adaptation priorities and efficient fund allocation. The outlined assessment was undertaken on 57 sandy beaches along a 345 km coastline stretch in Asturias, a region in the northwest of Spain open to the Atlantic.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • A framework to include the (inter)dependencies of Disaster Risk Reduction
           measures in coastal risk assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Lydia Cumiskey, Sally Priest, Nikolay Valchev, Christophe Viavattene, Susana Costas, Joseph Clarke
      Effective coastal risk management often involves the selection and appraisal of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures. Such measures, however, are rarely implemented in isolation and their (inter)dependencies need to be considered to assess the overall contribution to risk reduction. This paper presents a framework that utilises a pathway-based approach to consider such (inter)dependencies. The framework identifies measures that have the potential to directly influence risk reduction (primary measures) at the individual/household level and how these relate to the implementation of other measures (non-primary). These two types of measures are linked using intermediate pathway factors, which aggregate to the effective uptake and/or operation of primary measure(s) and subsequently represent the direct influence on risk reduction when included in a risk assessment. The approach is demonstrated utilising two coastal risk examples. The case of Varna Bay, Bulgaria highlights a pathway, which explores how developing a coastal Early Warning System (EWS), can enable assets to be moved and saved prior to an event. The Praia de Faro, Portuguese application provides an example of how local risk awareness meetings can support the uptake of property raising to protect against erosion. Past experience, poor trust in authorities, house type/feasibility, transient population and strong community networks are identified as key influencing variables across both cases. The process of considering the (inter)dependencies between measures has potential to lead to improved decision-making and strategy building. The framework developed is flexible in nature and can be applied in many different situations; however, it is one step towards accounting for these (inter)dependencies at the individual/household level. Ex-ante or ex-post survey data, expert judgement and literature have been used to estimate these factors. However, in many cases this good quality data is not available, and is something that national level monitoring strategies, along with the research community, must address.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Managed realignment to mitigate storm-induced flooding: A case study in La
           Faute-sur-mer, France
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Jean-Rémy Huguet, Xavier Bertin, Gael Arnaud
      Storm-induced coastal flooding is among the most destructive natural disasters while climate change together with increased populations along the coast will enhance the associated risk. This study presents the comparison of conventional coastal defense schemes against managed realignment schemes in La Faute-sur-Mer, a small village located in the central part of the Bay of Biscay that was severely impacted during Xynthia in 2010. This comparison relies on a 2DH fully coupled modeling system for the North East Atlantic Ocean, with a resolution ranging from 30 km to 5 m locally around the studied site. The comparison with available data reveals that water levels and flooding associated with Xynthia are well reproduced, with root mean squared errors below 0.2 m, and a fit measurement of 0.84, respectively. Numerical results show that the dikes maintained and raised after Xynthia won't be sufficient to protect the city against a future extreme event comparable to Xynthia in 2100 due to sea level rise. On the opposite, managed realignment and the creation of buffer zones in surrounding pastures would decrease maximum water levels up to locally more than 1.0 m, and prevent from any flooding in La Faute-sur-Mer. The optimal design and the applicability of such measures for la Faute-sur-Mer but also any other estuarine environment are finally discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Using participatory Multi-Criteria Assessments for assessing disaster risk
           reduction measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Karina Barquet, Lydia Cumiskey
      This paper introduces a participatory Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) methodology developed through the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts – Toolkit (RISC-KIT) project and implemented in nine case studies in Europe. The purpose of the MCA was to bridge the disciplinary divide between engineering sciences and social sciences, facilitate the communication and dissemination of local coastal risk assessments and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures' evaluation to a broad range of actors. The process addressed the importance of integrating scientific knowledge with stakeholders’ knowledge to understand and assess the possible social, political and economic implications of different DRR measures, which could foster or hinder successful implementation. The paper discusses the methodological aspects and implementation of the approach which included visualizing risk reduction of DRR measures using paper-based cards to support interaction and negotiation among participants to select preferred strategic alternatives (SA), and a participatory MCA where stakeholders evaluated the SA against three (self-weighted) criteria: feasibility, acceptability and sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • The Tordera Delta, a hotspot to storm impacts in the coast northwards of
           Barcelona (NW Mediterranean)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): J.A. Jiménez, M. Sanuy, C. Ballesteros, H.I. Valdemoro
      The Catalan coast, as most of the developed Mediterranean coastal zone, can be characterized as a high-risk area to the impact of storms due to the large concentration of values together with the dominance of eroding shorelines. In consequence, any long-term coastal management scheme must include a risk analysis to permit decision makers to better allocate resources. This can be done in a nested approach in which hotspots are first identified along the coast at a regional scale and secondly, they are further analysed to produce dedicated risk reduction strategies. In this work, we apply the methodology developed within the RISC-KIT project for identifying and analysing coastal hotspots in the Catalan coast as a test for applying it to Mediterranean conditions. Obtained results show that this methodology is very efficient in identifying hotspots of storm-induced flooding and erosion at a regional scale. The adoption of the response approach resulted in the direct assessment of the hazards' probability distributions, which allowed for the selection of the severity of the hotspots to be identified. When a given coastal stretch behaves as a hotspot for both hazards, it is identified as a very highly-sensitive area to storm impacts. In the study area, the Tordera Delta possesses this condition of very high “hotspotness.” This has been demonstrated by the large and frequent damages suffered by the site during the past decades. The paper analyses different aspects related to the risk management of this area, including stakeholder actions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Testing RISC-KIT's integrated approach for assessing Disaster Risk
           Reduction measures on the coast of Kristianstad, Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Karina Barquet, Sarah K. Dickin, Jan Jaap Meijer, Ali Dastgheib
      This article reflects upon the experiences of testing the Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts – toolKIT (RISC-KIT), an integrated approach composed of five different methodologies, in the municipality of Kristianstad, Sweden. The aim of this article is to highlight both the importance and complexities of integrated approaches in coastal management. The experiences documented through the case of Kristianstad highlight the benefits of combining hazard estimations and participatory approaches to understand risk, impacts of coastal hazards, and potential solutions; and the challenges of mainstreaming risk assessment approaches across contexts. We argue that integrated approaches can be effective for triggering local dialogue, disseminating information, and achieve greater ownership and local acceptance of Disaster Risk Reduction measures, but that involvement of local actors requires careful design and planning. The experiences documented when pilot-testing RISC-KITs integrated approach argue for increased co-production of knowledge in coastal management projects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:10:37Z
       
  • Generation and propagation of ship-borne waves - Solutions from a
           Boussinesq-type model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): C. Gabriel David, Volker Roeber, Nils Goseberg, Torsten Schlurmann
      Ship-borne waves are of significant interest for the design of port and waterway infrastructure and the maintenance of its surrounding environment. Computation of these nonlinear and dispersive waves has mainly been focusing on their near-field generation as a fluid-body interaction problem. This study presents an approach for the computation of ship waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance with phase-resolving and depth-averaged equations. To support a wide range of applicability, the paper deals with the evolution of the vessel wedge compared to an analytical solution for sub-to supercritical speeds and the assessment of wave patterns from a broad range of pressure term dimensions, including cross-references to findings in other studies. The conducted numerical experiments showcase the typical response of a Boussinesq-type model to a simplified moving pressure disturbance and identify the main factors and criteria for ship-wave propagation in the far-field of a vessel. Finally, a unique field dataset underlines the capability of an extended Boussinesq-type model to compute the propagation of vessel waves over an irregular bathymetry.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T00:52:27Z
       
  • An analytical model for preliminary assessment of dredging-induced
           sediment plume of far-field evolution for spatial non homogeneous and time
           varying resuspension sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Marcello Di Risio, Davide Pasquali, Iolanda Lisi, Alessandro Romano, Massimo Gabellini, Paolo De Girolamo
      In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to assess the dispersal of resuspended sediments and related water quality problems due to dredging operations. This paper presents an analytical model aimed to predict the temporal evolution and spatial distribution in the far field of the suspended sediments concentration increase related to dredging activities or open water sediments disposal. In particular, whatever the dredging source strength and geometry can be considered to define the suspended sediments concentration leaving the immediate vicinity of the resuspension source. Indeed, a feature of the model is the removing of the hypotheses of continuous source and steady state, peculiar to the majority of available theoretical models. Hence, the proposed model is able to describe different dredging resuspension sources and to provide the temporal and spatial picture of the resulting plume. Of course, some hypotheses have to be assumed in order to make possible to achieve the analytical solution of the governing equation: the model is two dimensional in the horizontal plane; the ambient currents are assumed to be homogeneous in space and slowly time varying; the turbulent diffusion coefficients and flocculent settling velocity are homogeneous in space; the water depth is constant; the domain is infinite. Even with its limitations, the model is still able to provide a worst case preliminary assessment of sediments plume migration very useful to guide more detailed numerical analysis and to select the more appropriate simulation scenarios. The analytical model is detailed in order to be used for numerical model testing purposes. A series of practical applications is described through the paper (i) to catch the general features of the involved far field phenomena, (ii) to compare the model results to those of previous researches and (iii) to provide a series of benchmark cases useful for the testing of numerical models. The proposed model may be also used as a first rough prediction of the area affected by plume dispersion by considering different dredging scenarios (i.e. different equipment and operational techniques and forced by site-specific environmental conditions), and thus to provide a basis for more sophisticated modeling aimed to support dredging projects planning and management.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:12:04Z
       
  • Cross-shore variability and vorticity dynamics during wave breaking on a
           fixed bar
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): L. Chiapponi, M. Cobos, M.A. Losada, S. Longo
      In the present experiments a volumetric particle-tracking system (V3V from TSI Inc.) allowed the measurement of the velocity fields generated by regular breaking waves past a fixed bar on a 1:10 rigid plane slope. The measurement volume extended from the wave crest to a portion of the domain below the wave trough, with two sets of monochromatic wave trains with different periods and heights. The aim of the present work is the quantification of the terms in the vorticity balance equation by including all the terms in a fully 3D approach. A possible new vorticity generation mechanism is revealed, that is amplified by the geometry of the laboratory flume and that awaits experimental validation in 3D wave tanks and in the field. The results are new and original and represent a data set for the comprehension of the effects of a submerged berm, for developing conceptual models of vorticity and for the calibration of numerical codes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:12:04Z
       
  • A parametric model for dry beach equilibrium profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jorge Díez, Adolfo Uriarte, Verónica Cánovas, Raúl Medina
      Predictions of dry beach morphologies are extensively required in coastal research for multiple purposes -e.g., dune erosion forecasting, inundation heights determination and beach fill design optimization. In this paper, we introduce and test a parametric model that describes the equilibrium shape of the dry beach in the cross-shore direction, i.e., an equation for the dry beach equilibrium profile. The model consists of a three-parameter equation formed by two terms: an exponential that defines the foreshore and berm morphology, plus a linear term that defines the slope from the berm to the landward limit as a planar far field behaviour. The three morphological parameters that shape the equation are related to the nearshore wave climate (Hs and Tp) and the sediment characteristics (d50) in a form which is consistent with previous knowledge of dry beach morphodynamics, thus proposing the runup driver ( H L ) 1 / 2 and the dimensionless fall velocity Ω as the fundamental variables defining the equation parameters. We tested the predictive capacity of the model against an independent data set from Narrabeen Beach, which, depending on longshore location and the time of year, offers beach modal states ranging from dissipative to reflective. The exponential term of the equation correctly explains the foreshore and berm morphology under mean wave climate, and the linear term predicts the slope of the asymptotic-planar segment, all with good correlation coefficients (∼0.95) between modelled cross-shore transects and observations. The proposed model helps in defining the main shapes of subaerial beach profiles over the long term and it may also be useful as a coastal management tool for predicting dry beach morphologies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:12:04Z
       
  • Improved treatment of non-stationary conditions and uncertainties in
           probabilistic models of storm wave climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Gareth Davies, David P. Callaghan, Uriah Gravios, Wenping Jiang, David Hanslow, Scott Nichol, Tom Baldock
      A framework is presented for the probabilistic modelling of non-stationary coastal storm event sequences. Such modelling is required to integrate seasonal, climatic and long-term non-stationarities into coastal erosion hazard assessments. The framework is applied to a study site on the East Australian Coast where storm waves are found to exhibit non-stationarities related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and seasonality. The impact of ENSO is most prominent for storm wave direction, long term mean sea level (MSL) and the rate of storms, while seasonal non-stationarity is more ubiquitous, affecting the latter variables as well as storm wave height, duration, period and surge. The probabilistic framework herein separates the modelling of ENSO and seasonal non-stationarity in the storm wave properties from the modelling of their marginal distributions, using copulas. The advantage of this separation is that non-stationarities can be straightforwardly modelled in all storm wave variables, irrespective of whether parametric or non-parametric techniques are used to model their marginal distributions. Storm wave direction and steepness are modelled with non-parametric distributions whereas storm wave height, duration and surge are modelled parametrically using extreme value mixture distributions. The advantage of the extreme value mixture distributions, compared with the standard extreme value distribution for peaks-over-threshold data (Generalized Pareto), is that the statistical threshold becomes a model parameter instead of being fixed, and so uncertainties in the threshold can be straightforwardly integrated into the analysis. Robust quantification of uncertainties in the model predictions is crucial to support hazard applications, and herein uncertainties are quantified using a novel mixture of parametric percentile bootstrap and Bayesian techniques. Percentile bootstrap confidence intervals are shown to non-conservatively underestimate uncertainties in the extremes (e.g. 1% annual exceedance probability wave heights), both in an idealized setting and in our application. The Bayesian approach is applied to the extreme value models to remedy this shortcoming. The modelling framework is applicable to any site where multivariate storm wave properties and timings are affected by seasonal, climatic and long-term non-stationarities, and can be used to account for such non-stationarities in coastal hazard assessments.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • On the relation between the direction of the wave energy flux and the
           orientation of equilibrium beaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ahmed I. Elshinnawy, Raúl Medina, Mauricio González
      The Equilibrium beach planform concept has been widely used in recent years as an engineering tool for modeling shoreline changes, designing new beaches and for stability studies of existing ones. It defines the final shape of a beach on a scale of years, which is important for solving erosion problems and for the design of nourishment projects. Throughout the literature, the planform final shape, hereinafter denoted as the Static Equilibrium Beach Orientation (SEBO), is obtained based on the direction of the mean wave energy flux of whole waves impinging on the coast. This paper investigates the effect of beach sediment size and the Shape of the Directional Distribution (SDD) of the energy flux of the wave climate on the direction that dictates the (SEBO). The study employs field data from 32 beaches along the Spanish coast and available long-term databases of directional wave climates. Initiation of sediment motion due to wave action is taken into account in order to filter the directional wave climate to consider only waves that are capable of moving the sediment. The results indicate that the direction of the mean energy flux of filtered waves is more appropriate for the determination of the (SEBO) than that of whole waves. Additionally, the results confirm the importance of both the filtration process of the local directional wave climate and the usage of the whole directional spectra in stability studies and coastal engineering practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • Long-crested wave generation and absorption for SPH-based DualSPHysics
           model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): C. Altomare, J.M. Domínguez, A.J.C. Crespo, J. González-Cao, T. Suzuki, M. Gómez-Gesteira, P. Troch
      The present work presents a fully comprehensive implementation of wave generation and active wave absorption for second-order long-crested monochromatic and random waves in a WCSPH-based (Weakly Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) model. The open-source code DualSPHysics is used for the scope. The numerical flume resembles a physical wave facility, so that, the moving boundaries mimic the action of a piston-type wavemaker. The second-order wave generation system, capable of generating both monochromatic (regular) and random (irregular) waves, is implemented jointly with passive and active wave absorption. A damping system is defined as solution for passive absorption and is used to prevent wave reflection from fixed boundaries in the numerical flume. The use of active wave absorption allows avoiding spurious reflection from the wavemaker. These implementations are validated with theoretical solutions and experimental results, in terms of water surface elevation, wave orbital velocities, wave forces and capacity for damping the re-reflection inside the fluid domain.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • Hydraulic stability of rock armors in breaking wave conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Maria P. Herrera, M. Esther Gómez-Martín, Josep R. Medina
      Armor layers of mound breakwaters are usually designed with empirical formulas based on small-scale tests in non-breaking wave conditions. However, most rubble mound breakwaters are constructed in the depth-induced breaking zone, where they must withstand design storms having some percentage of large waves breaking before reaching the structure; in these cases, the design formulas for non-breaking wave conditions are not fully valid. To characterize double-layer rock armor damage in breaking wave conditions, 2D physical model tests were carried out with a bottom slope m = 1/50. In order to develop a simple method to determine the wave parameters in the depth-induced breaking zone, experimental wave measurements were compared to the numerical estimations given by the SwanOne model. An analysis was conducted to select the best characteristic wave height to estimate rock armor damage when dealing with depth-induced breaking waves; the spectral significant wave height, H m0 , estimated at a distance of 3h s seaward from the structure toe, was found to be the most adequate. A new hydraulic stability formula is proposed for double-layer rock armors in breaking wave conditions, considering the observed potential 6-power relationship between the equivalent dimensionless armor damage and the H m0 at 3h s seaward distance from the structure toe.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • A new two-step projection method in an ISPH model for free surface flow
           computations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Haihua Xu, Pengzhi Lin
      In this study, we propose a new two-step projection method in connection with an ISPH model. Compared to the traditional ISPH model that uses the future time step pressure to calculate the intermediate velocity, in the present study the pressure at both current time step and future time step is employed. In addition, the velocity and pressure obtained at the end step of the projection method are re-projected onto the updated particle locations using an interpolation method. While the use of current time step pressure provides a better energy conserving property of the numerical scheme, the interpolation smooths the velocity field and ensures a more stringent constraint for incompressibility condition. The accuracy of the model is further enhanced by implementing C2 consistency kernel approximation for variable and derivative calculation. The model is first calibrated by using the still water and liquid sloshing tests. It is then validated against a series of benchmark tests of linear wave and solitary wave propagation in constant water depth, followed by the case of nonlinear wave transformation over a submerged breakwater. The numerical results are compared to available theories, experimental data, and previously published simulation results. It is shown that the present model can achieve a much better energy conservation than the traditional ISPH model, even with the use of a much larger time step.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • Parameterization of nearshore wave front slope
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Chi Zhang, Qingyang Zhang, Jinhai Zheng, Zeki Demirbilek
      This study presents an empirical parameterization of wave front slope angle used in the characterization of shoaling and breaking waves in nearshore environment. A large amount of experimental datasets is analyzed for determining possible values of the wave front slope angles. Results indicate that the slope angle increases with wave shoaling and decreases when wave breaks. For the data used here, the maximum slope angle is around 0.8 rad at the breakpoint. Two empirical formulas developed based on data analysis establish relationships between the wave front slope angle and other parameters of engineering interest. Specifically, the first formula expresses the local wave front slope angle as a function of the local wave parameters. The applicability of this formula to regular and random shoaling and breaking waves is verified using extensive datasets. The second formula defines the critical wave front slope angle for wave breaking as a function of the relative water depth and bed slope. This formula is shown applicable to both the first and second breakpoints for regular wave breaking over sloping and barred beaches. A combination of these two formulas provides estimates of the incipient breaking wave heights which are in good agreement with independent experimental data.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • Tsunami inundation variability from stochastic rupture scenarios:
           Application to multiple inversions of the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 127
      Author(s): Nobuhito Mori, P. Martin Mai, Katsuichiro Goda, Tomohiro Yasuda
      We develop a framework for assessing the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics for stochastic physics-based scenarios of mega-thrust subduction earthquakes. The method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake, and tested against observed inundation maps at several locations along the Tohoku coast, using 11 different, previously published, rupture models for this devastating tsunamgenic earthquake. The earthquake rupture models differ in fault dimension (length and width), geometry (dip, strike and top-edge depth), as well as asperity characteristics (slip heterogeneity on the fault plane). The resulting source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for an M w9 mega-thrust subduction earthquake in the Tohoku region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the inundation variability. The numerical results indicate a strong influence of the reference source models on inundation variability, and demonstrate significant sensitivity of inundation to the details of the rupture realization. Therefore, relying on a single particular earthquake rupture model as a representative case when varying earthquake source characteristics may lead to under-representation of the variability of potential scenarios. Moreover, the proposed framework facilitates the rigorous development of critical scenarios for tsunami hazard and risk assessments, which are particularly useful for tsunami hazard mapping and disaster preparedness planning.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T19:00:39Z
       
  • Nearshore placement of a sand dredged mound
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 126
      Author(s): Ernest R. Smith, Felice D'Alessandro, Giuseppe R. Tomasicchio, Joseph Z. Gailani
      As a part of the Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER) Program, movable-bed physical model experiments were performed at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Centre's (ERDC), Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) to investigate the fate and evaluate the benefits of nearshore-placed dredged material. The resulting bathymetry was measured with detailed surveys, the migration of the mound was quantified and comprehensive observations of hydrodynamics were obtained. The potential suitability of dredged material placement in the nearshore/surf zone was demonstrated after 10 h of oblique wave attacks. It has been shown that, as the mound was located at the edge of the surf zone, very likely wave breaking induced horizontal circulation may be dominant. A downdrift accretion of the submerged beach was observed, which is due to the transport of part of the sediment suspended by breakers at the mound and captured by the longshore currents. The experiments provided useful validation data for numerical morphological models.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T11:59:12Z
       
 
 
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