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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2383 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
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Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Coastal Engineering
  [SJR: 1.999]   [H-I: 74]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-3839
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • A machine learning framework to forecast wave conditions
    • Authors: Scott C. James; Yushan Zhang; Fearghal O'Donncha
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Scott C. James, Yushan Zhang, Fearghal O'Donncha
      A machine learning framework is developed to estimate ocean-wave conditions. By supervised training of machine learning models on many thousands of iterations of a physics-based wave model, accurate representations of significant wave heights and period can be used to predict ocean conditions. A model of Monterey Bay was used as the example test site; it was forced by measured wave conditions, ocean-current nowcasts, and reported winds. These input data along with model outputs of spatially variable wave heights and characteristic period were aggregated into supervised learning training and test data sets, which were supplied to machine learning models. These machine learning models replicated wave heights from the physics-based model with a root-mean-squared error of 9 cm and correctly identify over 90% of the characteristic periods for the test-data sets. Impressively, transforming model inputs to outputs through matrix operations requires only a fraction ( < 1 / 1 , 000 th ) of the computation time compared to forecasting with the physics-based model.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in
           fringing reef environments
    • Authors: Christopher H. Lashley; Dano Roelvink; Ap van Dongeren; Mark L. Buckley; Ryan J. Lowe
      Pages: 11 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Christopher H. Lashley, Dano Roelvink, Ap van Dongeren, Mark L. Buckley, Ryan J. Lowe
      The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (R max and R 2% ) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (S IG and S SS ) and shoreline setup (<η>), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict R max and R 2% .

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • Hydrodynamic storm surge model simplification via application of land to
           water isopleths in coastal Louisiana
    • Authors: Christopher G. Siverd; Scott C. Hagen; Matthew V. Bilskie; DeWitt H. Braud; R. Hampton Peele; Robert R. Twilley
      Pages: 28 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Christopher G. Siverd, Scott C. Hagen, Matthew V. Bilskie, DeWitt H. Braud, R. Hampton Peele, Robert R. Twilley
      The Mississippi River Delta ranks the seventh largest delta in the world. It provides a habitat for the Louisiana seafood industry, navigation canals and rivers that support five of the 15 largest cargo ports by volume in the United States, and hurricane storm surge protection for coastal cities and oil and gas industry infrastructure that facilitates 90% of the outer continental oil and gas extraction. Due to substantial coastal wetland loss since 1900, the risk of damage to these industries and infrastructure has increased through time. The goal of this research is to develop a methodology to analyze the historical and future evolution of coastal hazards, such as hurricane storm surge, across a complex, low-lying coastal landscape. To accomplish this task, the change in coastal hazards is analyzed through historical changes in coastal wetlands. Specifically, isopleths, defined as lines on a map indicating a constant value of a given variable, are developed to describe areas of constant values of the ratio of land to water (L:W) across coastal Louisiana. In this analysis, a methodology is developed that utilizes land to water (L:W) isopleths to simplify the modern day Louisiana coastal landscape as represented in a state-of-the-art high resolution storm surge model. L:W isopleths are derived for the year 2010 and used to construct 36 storm surge models, each featuring variations of three distinct coastal zones: “High” (i.e. high wetland), “Intermediate” (i.e. wetland), and “Submersed” (i.e. region between open water and wetland). The ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code is used to compute water surface elevations and depth-averaged currents forced by hurricane wind and pressures from Hurricanes Rita, Gustav, and Katrina for each model. Peak water levels and volume of inundation are quantified within hydrologic unit code watersheds (HUC12) in order to compare storm surge models featuring high resolution and simplified coastal landscapes. A L:W isopleth permutation of 99%–90%–40%–1% with areas labeled “High” (99%–90%), “Intermediate” (90%–40%) and “Submersed” (40%–1%) is found to best represent simulated storm surge that most closely reproduces the high resolution storm surge model. Simulation results reveal the methodology developed in this analysis is effective in identifying an isopleth permutation that accurately simplifies a high resolution storm surge model. This result may lead to future analyses of the historical evolution of storm surge attenuation in the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) as well as other complex, low-lying deltas. These possibilities include developing storm surge models for the years 1930 and 1970, for instance, with the same isopleth permutation to examine the changes in storm surge attenuation through time. This analysis could also be applied in other similar low-lying coastal regions to conduct past and future analyses of the evolution of coastal hazards.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • An experimental and numerical study of floating breakwaters
    • Authors: Erik Damgaard Christensen; Harry B. Bingham; Andreas Peter Skou Friis; Alexander Kruse Larsen; Karsten Lindegaard Jensen
      Pages: 43 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Erik Damgaard Christensen, Harry B. Bingham, Andreas Peter Skou Friis, Alexander Kruse Larsen, Karsten Lindegaard Jensen
      Breakwaters are used to provide sheltered areas for loading and unloading of ships, and coastal protection. Often the breakwaters are bottom mounted such as rubble mound breakwaters. However, there can be several advantages to use a Floating Breakwater (FB). Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study the effect of two different damping mechanisms of a floating breakwater. Three basic cross-sections of FBs were tested and analysed in 2D; a regular pontoon (RG), a regular pontoon with wing plates attached (WP), and a regular pontoon with wing plates and porous media attached to the sides (WP P100). The damping of the FB motions was due to wave radiation and viscous damping. The viscous damping originated mainly from vortex generation around the edges of the structure and due to energy loss inside the porous material attached to the vertical sides of the floating breakwater. Attaching wing plates to the floating breakwater significantly reduced the motion, which was also anticipated. When the porous sides were attached the motion of the FB increased compared to the (WP) cross-section, but the wave transmission was reduced. The possibility for incorporating the effect of the damping in the radiation/diffraction code WAMIT was assessed. The study showed that the cross section with wing plates reduced the motions of the breakwater to the largest extend, while the cross section with wing plates and porous media attached to the sides reduced the reflection and transmission most effectively.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • Directional wave-in-deck loading on offshore structures with porous and
           plated decks with supporting I-beams
    • Authors: Yu Chen; Yanling Wu; Anand Bahuguni; Johan Gullman-Strand; Xin Lv; Jing Lou; Weiwei Ren
      Pages: 79 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Yu Chen, Yanling Wu, Anand Bahuguni, Johan Gullman-Strand, Xin Lv, Jing Lou, Weiwei Ren
      Extreme wave impacts on decks of offshore structures with insufficient air gap may cause damage or even result in collapse with safety, economic, and pollution consequences. In this study, the impact loads on a fixed platform deck have been predicted numerically by employing a Navier-Stokes solver with the free-surface captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Three dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of wave-deck interactions were conducted for long-crested extreme waves. The simulations successfully captured the history of impact loads and evolution of free surface of the studied waves during its interaction with the platform deck. A detailed parametric analysis of wave-deck interactions showed significant differences in loads under various situations and confirmed the existence of large-magnitude loads as expected during impact. The presented results include a solid box and a more realistic case of under-deck beams with plated and porous decks, which provide a useful benchmark for predicting wave loading on platform decks under different incident wave directions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • Experimental validation of network modeling method on a three-modular
           floating platform model
    • Authors: Q.J. Shi; H.C. Zhang; D.L. Xu; E.R. Qi; C. Tian; J. Ding; Y.S. Wu; Y. Lu; Z.W. Li
      Pages: 92 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): Q.J. Shi, H.C. Zhang, D.L. Xu, E.R. Qi, C. Tian, J. Ding, Y.S. Wu, Y. Lu, Z.W. Li
      This paper reports an experimental verification of a network modeling method that is recently proposed for forecasting responses of multi-modular floating platforms in regular waves. A three-dimensional network modeling method is presented, which includes the geometric effect of connectors and permits nonlinear dynamic analysis of the floating system. In the validation study, a three-modular floating platform model is fabricated for experimental test in wave basin. Both the linear model and nonlinear model of the network modeling method are examined in the collation of the hydro-elastic method and experiment test. The responses of modules and loads of connectors are employed for the comparison study. The results show that the linear model of the network modeling method is the closest to the test results and outperforms over the nonlinear model and the hydro-elastic method. The possible reasons of the discrepancy in the results of the different methods are discussed. This work validates that the network modeling method is reliable.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • A practical scheme of vibration monitoring and modal analysis for caisson
           breakwater
    • Authors: So-Young Lee; Thanh-Canh Huynh; Jeong-Tae Kim
      Pages: 103 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 137
      Author(s): So-Young Lee, Thanh-Canh Huynh, Jeong-Tae Kim
      In this study, a practical vibration analysis approach to obtain the dynamic characteristics of an in-situ caisson breakwater under the ambient wave load is presented. Firstly, a scheme of vibration monitoring and modal analysis is designed for the caisson breakwater. The limits of vibration monitoring on the caisson system is examined based on sensor placement and excitation source. An output-only modal analysis approach which combines the time-domain stochastic subspace identification method and the frequency domain decomposition method is designed to estimate modal parameters from wave-induced ambient vibration signals. Secondly, in-situ tests on a real caisson breakwater are described. Acceleration signals recorded under ambient wave-induced excitation are experimentally analyzed for a few caisson units under sea-level variation. Finally, experimental modal analyses are performed on the measured acceleration signals to evaluate the practicality of the proposed scheme. The numerical modal analysis of the caisson-foundation system was also conducted to support the experimental mode identification result. Relative modal responses of three adjacent caisson units are analyzed to estimate relative differences in dynamic characteristics due to their structural conditions. Also, the effect of water-level variation on modal parameters such as natural frequencies, modal damping and mode shapes is analyzed from the in-situ vibration records of a single caisson unit.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
       
  • Large impulsive forces on recurved parapets under non-breaking waves. A
           numerical study
    • Authors: M. Castellino; P. Sammarco; A. Romano; L. Martinelli; P. Ruol; L. Franco; P. De Girolamo
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): M. Castellino, P. Sammarco, A. Romano, L. Martinelli, P. Ruol, L. Franco, P. De Girolamo
      This paper describes 2-D numerical simulations of velocity and pressure fields generated by non-breaking waves on a vertical breakwater with a recurved parapet wall. The influence of the geometrical characteristics of the parapet is investigated. An impulsive pressure force is identified and discussed with respect to the pure vertical wall case. This force is generated by the seaward flow confinement induced by the surging wave crest. We refer to this impulsive impact as “confined-crest impact”. A large part of the vertical wall is affected by an impulsive increase in pressure caused by pulsating wave, compared to the case where the parapet is completely vertical. The maximum values of the impulsive pressures are localized under the recurved parapet. The total force increase on the entire structure may be significant when compared to the pure vertical wall case.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Effects of submerged berms on the stability of conventional rubble mound
           breakwaters
    • Authors: D. Celli; D. Pasquali; P. De Girolamo; M. Di Risio
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): D. Celli, D. Pasquali, P. De Girolamo, M. Di Risio
      Berms deployed at the toe of conventional breakwaters may be needed to reduce bottom settlements and to limit scour in front of the structure due to coastal currents. In the mean time, they may be effective in increasing the stability of the armor layer and also in minimizing the wave overtopping discharge compared to straight sloped conventional breakwaters without a berm. This research aims to provide a new design criterion for the armor layer of conventional breakwaters with submerged berms marked by small thickness compared to water depth. Indeed, past researches focused on the influence of relatively high berms on the stability of the armor layer. The design of the berm itself is not tackled herein. The effects of submerged berms on the incident waves transformation have been evaluated by means of a numerical model, validated by using experimental data. Then, a parametric correction factor of the incident significant wave height at the toe of the structure is provided and included in well established design criteria. The experimental comparison confirms the reliability of the proposed method by highlighting the importance to use design criteria within their validity ranges, in order to avoid an unsafe dimensioning of the armor elements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Wave attenuation across a tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay
    • Authors: M.R. Foster-Martinez; J.R. Lacy; M.C. Ferner; E.A. Variano
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): M.R. Foster-Martinez, J.R. Lacy, M.C. Ferner, E.A. Variano
      Wave attenuation is a central process in the mechanics of a healthy salt marsh. Understanding how wave attenuation varies with vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions informs models of other marsh processes that are a function of wave energy (e.g. sediment transport) and allows for the incorporation of marshes into coastal protection plans. Here, we examine the evolution of wave height across a tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay. Instruments were deployed along a cross-shore transect, starting on the mudflat and crossing through zones dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia pacifica. This dataset is the first to quantify wave attenuation for these vegetation species, which are abundant in the intertidal zone of California estuaries. Measurements were collected in the summer and winter to assess seasonal variation in wave attenuation. Calculated drag coefficients of S. foliosa and S. pacifica were similar, indicating equal amounts of vegetation would lead to similar energy dissipation; however, S. pacifica has much greater biomass close to the bed (<20 cm) and retains biomass throughout the year, and therefore, it causes more total attenuation. S. foliosa dies back in the winter, and waves often grow across this section of the marsh. For both vegetation types, attenuation was greatest for low water depths, when the vegetation was emergent. For both seasons, attenuation rates across S. pacifica were the highest and were greater than published attenuation rates across similar (Spartina alterniflora) salt marshes for the comparable depths. These results can inform designs for marsh restorations and management plans in San Francisco Bay and other estuaries containing these species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Infragravity swash parameterization on beaches: The role of the profile
           shape and the morphodynamic beach state
    • Authors: Paula Gomes da Silva; Raúl Medina; Mauricio González; Roland Garnier
      Pages: 41 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): Paula Gomes da Silva, Raúl Medina, Mauricio González, Roland Garnier
      A field campaign was undertaken at Somo beach in northern Spain, with the aim of understanding the processes involved in the generation of low frequency swash. Taking the parameterization presented in earlier studies as a starting point, a novel empirical model was defined based on a database which included datasets from Somo beach and from 9 other experiments. This new parameterization was obtained by relating the horizontal cross-shore component of the infragravity swash to the foreshore slope and the morphodynamic beach state through the non-dimensional fall velocity parameter. The role of previous sea states when determining the morphodynamic beach state was also assessed. A strong correlation between low frequency oscillations and the morphology of the beach was verified, resulting in a substantial improvement over existing infragravity swash predictions proposed in the literature.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Modelling the effect of suspended load transport and tidal asymmetry on
           the equilibrium tidal sand wave height
    • Authors: W. van Gerwen; B.W. Borsje; J.H. Damveld; S.J.M.H. Hulscher
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): W. van Gerwen, B.W. Borsje, J.H. Damveld, S.J.M.H. Hulscher
      Tidal sand waves are rhythmic bed forms found in shallow sandy coastal seas, reaching heights up to ten meters and migration rates of several meters per year. Because of their dynamic behaviour, unravelling the physical processes behind the growth of these bed forms is of particular interest to science and offshore industries. Various modelling efforts have given a good description of the initial stages of sand wave formation by adopting a linear stability analysis on the coupled system of water movement and the sandy seabed. However, the physical processes causing sand waves to grow towards equilibrium are far from understood. We adopt a numerical shallow water model (Delft3D) to study the growth of sand waves towards a stable equilibrium. It is shown that both suspended load transport and tidal asymmetry reduce the equilibrium sand wave height. A residual current results in asymmetrical bed forms that migrate in the direction of the residual current. The combination of suspended load transport and tidal asymmetry results in predicted equilibrium wave heights comparable to wave heights found in the field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Numerical analysis of wave-induced poro-elastic seabed response around a
           hexagonal gravity-based offshore foundation
    • Authors: Yuzhu Li; Muk Chen Ong; Tian Tang
      Pages: 81 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): Yuzhu Li, Muk Chen Ong, Tian Tang
      In order to prevent the future risk of soil and structural failures for the offshore foundations, it is essential to evaluate the seabed soil behaviors in the vicinity of the foundation under dynamic wave loadings. The objective of this paper is to investigate the wave-induced soil response and liquefaction risk around a hexagonal gravity-based offshore foundation. Three-dimensional (3D) numerical analysis is performed by applying an integrated multiphysics model developed in the finite volume method (FVM) based OpenFOAM framework. The integrated model incorporates solvers of the nonlinear waves, the linear elastic structure and the anisotropic poro-elastic seabed soil. The free surface model and soil model are verified by grid convergence studies. The wave-induced soil response model is validated by reproducing a laboratory experiment and a good agreement is obtained. Distributions of wave-induced shear stress, pore pressure, vertical displacement and seepage flow structure in the seabed are investigated. It is found that the presence of the foundation significantly amplifies the wave-induced shearing effect and vertical displacement in the underlying seabed soil. Seabed consolidation state in the presence of the structure is evaluated. Since the foundation is embedded in the seabed at a depth, the vertices of the hexagonal foundation cause the stress concentration in the nearby soil during the consolidation process. Therefore, the momentary liquefaction at the vertices is not as significant as that at the edges due to the high initial effective stress. A parametric study with different wave heights is conducted to examine the changes of soil response and momentary liquefaction depth around the hexagonal foundation. Effects of isotropic and anisotropic soil permeability on the pore pressure distribution are investigated. It shows that the effect of anisotropic permeability should be considered for the medium sand that is modelled in the present study.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Numerical investigation of local scour beneath a sagging subsea pipeline
           in steady currents
    • Authors: Esmaeil Ajdehak; Ming Zhao; Liang Cheng; Scott Draper
      Pages: 106 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): Esmaeil Ajdehak, Ming Zhao, Liang Cheng, Scott Draper
      Two dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations are conducted to predict scour below the midsection of the suspended span of a pipeline that sags naturally into a scour pit. The deflection of the pipeline is calculated based on the suspension length (or span length) of the pipeline, which is predicted by an empirical formula for the length of the scour pit. The general properties of the scour process are investigated for various pipeline properties, pipeline embedment depths and Shields parameters. The effect of each of these parameters on pipeline sagging are combined into one non-dimensional sagging parameter. A touchdown time is defined as the time when the pipeline touches the bottom of the sand pit. Empirical formulae are proposed for predicting the final scour depth at touchdown and the time scale required for touchdown. It is found that the final sagging depth is a function of the sagging parameter and the Shields parameter, whilst the touchdown time is only a function of the sagging parameter. A formula is also developed for predicting the time history of scour depth prior to touchdown. Collectively, the empirical formulae and numerical simulations are found to be in reasonable agreement with an existing theoretical model available in the literature.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • A process based shape equation for a static equilibrium beach planform
    • Authors: June Gainza; Ernesto Mauricio González; Raúl Medina
      Pages: 119 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): June Gainza, Ernesto Mauricio González, Raúl Medina
      Coastal erosion is a major problem for shorelines everywhere in the world. In order to mitigate beach stability problems it is necessary to determine the equilibrium shape of the beach planform. Current equilibrium planform shape equations are only valid under certain simplifications; for instance, they are unable to predict the effect of nearshore islands and/or rocky bottoms, as well as the effect of several diffraction points. The aim of this paper is to present a new process-based shape equation that is able to overcome those limitations and estimate the static equilibrium shoreline of complex bathymetry beaches. The equation is based on the hypothesis that a pocket beach gets its static equilibrium planform when the mean surf-zone longshore velocity averaged over a period of time is null ( V ¯ = 0 ) in every point along the beach. Based on this hypothesis, the direction of the shoreline that nulls the mean surf zone longshore velocity along the beach is evaluated. Therefore, the shape equation is based on the longshore current velocity formula. The new equilibrium shape equation is applied to two Spanish beaches, namely Milagro beach and Cala Millor beach. Milagro beach has a very smooth bathymetry and the parabolic shape equation developed by Hsu and Evans (1989) is able to predict the equilibrium shoreline. Cala Millor is more complex: it has some rock outcrops along the beach and the parabolic shape equation does not work. The equilibrium shape equation presented in this paper simulates the equilibrium shoreline of both beaches successfully with a high R2 (around 0.96) between the modelled shoreline and the real shoreline in both case studies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Wave power technologies for the Mediterranean offshore: Scaling and
           performance analysis
    • Authors: Silvia Bozzi; Giovanni Besio; Giuseppe Passoni
      Pages: 130 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): Silvia Bozzi, Giovanni Besio, Giuseppe Passoni
      The work investigates the potential of the Mediterranean offshore for wave electricity production, providing basin-scale results useful for future smaller-scale studies on specific areas of interest. At this purpose, the performance of a selection of offshore wave energy converters (WECs) is assessed all along the Mediterranean coastline (at 10 km resolution), on the basis of a 37-year hindcasted wave data and public WEC performance data. As the analyzed technologies were designed for more energetic wave climates, smaller devices have been considered, downscaled according to the Froude similarity criterion, in order to match Mediterranean wave conditions. At each location, the best device size is determined by simulating different scaled versions of the WECs and then selecting the scaling factor, which maximizes the mean annual capacity factor. The results show that large part of the Mediterranean coastline can be successfully exploited by properly downscaled versions of the WECs. More specifically, six of the studied wave power technologies can reach a capacity factor higher than 0.2 along 40% of the coastline and three WECs (AquaBuOY, Pelamis and Wavebob) can operate with a capacity factor exceeding 0.3 at 8% of the studied locations. The coastal regions with the highest WEC performance are of the Gulf of Lion, the Sicily channel, the Alboran Sea, the Libyan coast, Crete and Cyprus. The optimal size of the WECs at these locations is between 1/4 and 1/3 of the full WEC size and the resulting rated powers are between 10 and 30 kW. Noteworthy, a quite low performance is found for the most energetic areas of the Mediterranean (for example in western Sardinia), because a large part of the available energy is provided by extreme and rare events, for which the WEC efficiency is very low.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of video-based linear depth inversion performance and
           applications using altimeters and hydrographic surveys in a wide range of
           environmental conditions
    • Authors: Katherine L. Brodie; Margaret L. Palmsten; Tyler J. Hesser; Patrick J. Dickhudt; Britt Raubenheimer; Hannah Ladner; Steve Elgar
      Pages: 147 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): Katherine L. Brodie, Margaret L. Palmsten, Tyler J. Hesser, Patrick J. Dickhudt, Britt Raubenheimer, Hannah Ladner, Steve Elgar
      The performance of a linear depth inversion algorithm, cBathy, applied to coastal video imagery was assessed using observations of water depth from vessel-based hydrographic surveys and in-situ altimeters for a wide range of wave conditions (0.3 < significant wave height < 4.3 m) on a sandy Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. Comparisons of video-based cBathy bathymetry with surveyed bathymetry were similar to previous studies (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.75 m, bias = −0.26 m). However, the cross-shore locations of the surfzone sandbar in video-derived bathymetry were biased onshore 18–40 m relative to the survey when offshore wave heights exceeded 1.2 m or were greater than half of the bar crest depth, and broke over the sandbar. The onshore bias was 3–4 m when wave heights were less than 0.8 m and were not breaking over the sandbar. Comparisons of video-derived seafloor elevations with in-situ altimeter data at three locations onshore of, near, and offshore of the surfzone sandbar over ∼1 year provide the first assessment of the cBathy technique over a wide range of wave conditions. In the outer surf zone, video-derived results were consistent with long-term patterns of bathymetric change (r 2  = 0.64, RMSE = 0.26 m, bias = −0.01 m), particularly when wave heights were less than 1.2 m (r 2  = 0.83). However, during storms when wave heights exceeded 3 m, video-based cBathy over-estimated the depth by up to 2 m. Near the sandbar, the sign of depth errors depended on the location relative to wave breaking, with video-based depths overestimated (underestimated) offshore (onshore) of wave breaking in the surfzone. Wave speeds estimated by video-based cBathy at the initiation of wave breaking often were twice the speeds predicted by linear theory, and up to three times faster than linear theory during storms. Estimated wave speeds were half as fast as linear theory predictions at the termination of wave breaking shoreward of the sandbar. These results suggest that video-based cBathy should not be used to track the migration of the surfzone sandbar using data when waves are breaking over the bar nor to quantify morphological evolution during storms. However, these results show that during low energy conditions, cBathy estimates could be used to quantify seasonal patterns of seafloor evolution.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Physical model study of beach profile evolution by sea level rise in the
           presence of seawalls
    • Authors: T. Beuzen; I.L. Turner; C.E. Blenkinsopp; A. Atkinson; F. Flocard; T.E. Baldock
      Pages: 172 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 136
      Author(s): T. Beuzen, I.L. Turner, C.E. Blenkinsopp, A. Atkinson, F. Flocard, T.E. Baldock
      Persistent and accelerating sea level rise (SLR) may have a significant impact on the evolution of sandy coastlines this Century. The response of natural sandy beaches to SLR has been much discussed in the literature, however there is a lack of knowledge about the impact of SLR on engineered coasts. Laboratory experiments comprising over 320 h of testing were conducted in a 44 m (L) x 1.2 m (W) x 1.6 m (D) wave flume to investigate the influence of coastal armouring in the form of seawalls on coastal response to SLR. The study was designed to investigate the effects of contrasting types of seawalls (reflective-impermeable versus dissipative-permeable) on beach profile response to increased water levels, in the presence of both erosive and accretionary wave conditions. The results obtained showed that seawalls alter the evolution of the equilibrium profile with rising water level, causing increased lowering of the profile adjacent to the structure. Under erosive wave conditions, modelled profiles both with and without seawall structures in place were observed to translate landward in response to SLR and erode the upper profile. It was found that the erosion demand at the upper beach due to a rise in water level remains similar whether a structure is present or not, but that a seawall concentrates the erosion in the area adjacent to the seawall, resulting in enhanced and localised profile lowering. The type of structure present (dissipative-permeable versus reflective-impermeable) was not observed to have a significant influence on this response. Under accretive conditions, the preservation of a large shoreface and berm resulted in no wave-structure interaction occurring, with the result that the presence of a seawall had no impact on profile evolution. A potential two-step method for estimating the observed profile response to water level rise in the presence of seawalls is proposed, whereby a simple profile translation model is used to provide a first estimate of the erosion demand, and then this eroded volume is redistributed in front of the seawall out to the position of the offshore bar.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • An integrated framework of Extreme Learning Machines for predicting scour
           at pile groups in clear water condition
    • Authors: Isa Ebtehaj; Hossein Bonakdari; Fatemeh Moradi; Bahram Gharabaghi; Zohreh Sheikh Khozani
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Isa Ebtehaj, Hossein Bonakdari, Fatemeh Moradi, Bahram Gharabaghi, Zohreh Sheikh Khozani
      In this study, an integrated framework of Extreme Learning Machines (ELM) was developed to predict local scour depth around pile groups in clear water. The effective variables on local scour at pile groups include flow characteristics upstream of the piles, critical flow conditions related to the incipient motion of particles, pile spacing arrangement, geometric properties and bed particle size. The ELM network was trained and tested using dimensional datasets collected from extensive experiments reported in the literature. The ELM network testing results were compared with a support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The most effective variable on local scour depth at pile groups was determined using different sets of input combinations. The proposed ELM model produced a lower error in predicting local scour depth at pile groups than other existing models (R 2  = 0.99; MAPE = 8.75; RMSE = 0.007). The ELM model results were compared with existing artificial intelligence-based and regression-based models. The results indicate that ELM outperformed the existing methods with a high level of accuracy. Moreover, according to an uncertainty analysis of scour depth prediction by the proposed and existing models, the least uncertainty band width for ELM was ±0.0011 compared to ±0.0014 for the best existing model. Moreover, an ELM-based equation was proposed for use in practical engineering. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was done to study the effect of each variable on the ELM-based equation proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Bayesian Networks in coastal engineering: Distinguishing descriptive and
           predictive applications
    • Authors: T. Beuzen; K.D. Splinter; L.A. Marshall; I.L. Turner; M.D. Harley; M.L. Palmsten
      Pages: 16 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): T. Beuzen, K.D. Splinter, L.A. Marshall, I.L. Turner, M.D. Harley, M.L. Palmsten
      Bayesian networks (BNs) are increasingly being used to model complex coastal processes due to their ability to integrate non-linear systems, their transparent probabilistic framework, and low computational cost. A BN may be suited to descriptive or predictive application. Descriptive BNs are highly calibrated models that are useful for better understanding the physics and causal relationships driving a system. Predictive BNs are generalisations of a system that have skill at predicting outside of the training domain. The predictive and descriptive usefulness of a BN depends on its complexity and the amount of data available to train it, but there is often a trade-off; higher descriptive skill comes at the cost of reduced predictive skill. To demonstrate the differences between predictive and descriptive BNs in a coastal engineering context, a BN to predict shoreline recession caused by coastal storm events is developed and tested using an extensive 10-year dataset incorporating 137 individual storms events monitored at Narrabeen-Collaroy Beach, Australia. A parsimonious approach to BN development is used to separately determine the optimum predictive and descriptive BNs for this dataset. Results show that for this dataset two quite different BNs can be developed: one that is optimized to achieve the highest predictive skill, and a second network that is optimized to maximize descriptive skill. The optimum predictive BN is found to comprise 3 nodes (variables) and can predict the shoreline recession caused by unseen storm events with a skill of 65%. The optimum descriptive BN is composed of 5 nodes and can reproduce 88% of the training dataset, but with more limited predictive capabilities. The uses and limitations of these two different approaches to BN formulation are illustrated with example applications to coastal process modelling. It is anticipated that the insights provided in this paper will help to clarify the further development of Bayesian Networks applied to coastal modelling.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Statistical distribution of wave-induced drift for random ocean waves in
           finite water depth
    • Authors: Jinbao Song; Hailun He; Anzhou Cao
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Jinbao Song, Hailun He, Anzhou Cao
      Based on the linear random wave solutions of water wave equations in finite water depth, a theoretical statistical distribution of the wave-induced drift is derived. The parameters involved in the distribution can be determined by the water depth and the wave spectrum of ocean waves. As an illustrative example, we consider a simple wind-generated sea and the parameters are calculated for typical wind speeds and water depths by using Phillips spectrum. The behaviours of the distribution and the effects of wind speed and water depth on the distribution are investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Stability of rubble-mound breakwaters under tsunami first impact and
           overflow based on laboratory experiments
    • Authors: Íñigo Aniel-Quiroga; César Vidal; Javier L. Lara; Mauricio González; Álvaro Sainz
      Pages: 39 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Íñigo Aniel-Quiroga, César Vidal, Javier L. Lara, Mauricio González, Álvaro Sainz
      Recent tragic tsunami events, like those that occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2004, and in Japan in 2011, have revealed the need of further work to reduce tsunami risk in coastal areas. An important aspect towards risk reduction is the study of the interaction between tsunami waves and coastal structures as these are the first to receive the tsunami's energy. Dikes and breakwaters must have an adequate structural behavior and maintain some functionality and operability under tsunami attacks to be able to contribute to the reduction of its consequences. Within this scope, laboratory experiments on scaled models of two typical Mediterranean rubble-mound breakwater typologies under tsunami waves were conducted for the first time. The tsunami's action was split into 2 parts: (1) the first impact of solitons was tested by means of large solitary waves and, (2) the subsequent overflow was approached by applying a pump-driven wave maker. The damage on the breakwaters due to these actions was measured and assessed. The result is an in-deep analysis of the relationships among Stability Number, Damage Level and Number of tsunami waves. The outcome of this analysis includes the development of a set of formulae that provide, in the range of the conducted tests, the value of the Damage Parameter, so that tsunami actions can be taken into account in the design of rubble mound structures. Finally, based on the results of these experiments, the threshold values of the Damage Parameter used to characterize damage in armors (Initiation of damage, initiation of destruction, destruction) was particularized for tsunami actions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Sensitivity of rip current forecasts to errors in remotely-sensed
           bathymetry
    • Authors: M. Radermacher; M.A. de Schipper; A.J.H.M. Reniers
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): M. Radermacher, M.A. de Schipper, A.J.H.M. Reniers
      Operational nearshore current forecasts based on numerical model simulations are gaining popularity as a measure to increase the safety of swimmers. Applying remotely-sensed bathymetry in these model simulations is often proposed in order to cope with rapidly changing nearshore bathymetry. Errors in the remotely-sensed bathymetry may negatively affect performance of the hydrodynamic model. Hence, this study aims to determine the sensitivity of modelled nearshore currents (with a strong focus on rip currents) to errors in remotely-sensed bathymetries. The errors in the remotely-sensed bathymetries (depth inversion algorithm applied to video stream) were quantified with a length scale-aware validation technique, providing useful insights in the contribution of pattern and amplitude errors to the total error throughout the analysis domain and over a range of bathymetric length scales. Subsequently, simulations with a nearshore hydrodynamic model were performed, using both in-situ and remotely-sensed bathymetries as an input. A comparison of predicted rip currents on either bathymetry yielded performance statistics for operational current forecasts on remotely-sensed bathymetries, taking the model with in-situ bathymetry as a reference. Linking these performance statistics back to the quantified errors in the remotely-sensed bathymetry finally revealed the relation between errors in flow and bathymetry. Of all rip currents generated on an in-situ bathymetry, 55% were reproduced on the remotely-sensed bathymetry, showing that models predicting nearshore currents on remotely-sensed bathymetry have predictive value. Positive rip current predictions were promoted significantly by accurate reproduction of the pattern and amplitude of nearshore bars at length scales between 200 and 400 m. In contrast to the length-scale aware validation technique applied here, commonly used domain-wide bulk error metrics lack important information about spatial variations in the quality of remotely-sensed bathymetry.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Modeling hurricane-induced wetland-bay and bay-shelf sediment fluxes
    • Authors: Ke Liu; Qin Chen; Kelin Hu; Kehui Xu; Robert R. Twilley
      Pages: 77 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ke Liu, Qin Chen, Kelin Hu, Kehui Xu, Robert R. Twilley
      Hurricanes have long been recognized as a strong forcing in shaping the coastal morphology, especially by redistributing sediments among coastal wetlands, bays and inner continental shelves. However, the contribution of hurricane-induced sediment transport to the sediment budget of a shelf – bay – wetland system has not been evaluated using a physics-based numerical model. There is a particular confusion on how sediment transport to coastal wetlands contributes to sediment accretion in wetlands and thus wetland adaptation to sea level rise. In this paper, we present a coupled modeling system for hurricane winds, storm surge, waves and sediment transport on the Louisiana coast, and use it to investigate two fundamental questions: (1) How much sediment is transported and deposited on coastal wetlands during a major hurricane event like Hurricane Gustav (2008), and (2) where is the source of the deposited sediment on the wetland soil surface. Our model successfully reproduced the measured basin-averaged sediment accretion in the Terrebonne and Barataria Basins after Gustav, and estimated that Hurricane Gustav imported approximately 27 million metric tons of sediment on wetlands in that area. The estimated deposition was mainly made up of mud suspended from the coastal bays, and the contribution of this sediment to wetland deposition was 88.7% in Terrebonne Bay and 98.2% in Barataria Bay within the tested range of sediment properties. This paper demonstrates a useful tool to help understand how sediment dynamics in the coastal zone during hurricane events play a significant role in the sediment budget of a deltaic coast.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Modeling multivariate ocean data using asymmetric copulas
    • Authors: Yi Zhang; Chul-Woo Kim; Michael Beer; Huliang Dai; Carlos Guedes Soares
      Pages: 91 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Yi Zhang, Chul-Woo Kim, Michael Beer, Huliang Dai, Carlos Guedes Soares
      Multivariate descriptions of ocean parameters are quite important for the design and risk assessment of offshore engineering applications. A reliable and realistic statistical multivariate model is essential to produce a representative estimate of the sea state for understanding the ocean conditions. Therefore, an advanced modeling of ocean parameters helps towards improving ocean and coastal engineering practices. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of asymmetric copulas for the modeling of multivariate ocean data. In contrast to extensive previous research on the modeling of symmetric ocean data, this study is focused on capturing asymmetric dependencies among the environmental parameters, which are critical for a realistic description of ocean conditions. This involves particular attention to both nonlinear and asymmetrically dependent variates, which are quite common for the ocean variables. Several asymmetric copula functions, capable of modeling both linear and nonlinear asymmetric dependence structures, are examined in detail. Information on tail dependencies and measures of asymmetric dependencies are exploited. To demonstrate the advantages of asymmetric copulas, the asymmetric copula concept is compared with the traditional copula approaches from the literature using actual environmental data. Each of the introduced copula models is fitted to a set of ocean data collected from a buoy at the US coast. The performance of these asymmetric copulas is discussed and compared based on data fitting and tail dependency characterizations. The accuracy of asymmetric copulas in predicting the extreme value contours is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T10:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Dynamic equilibrium planform of embayed beaches: Part 1. A new model and
           its verification
    • Authors: Ahmed I. Elshinnawy; Raúl Medina; Mauricio González
      Pages: 112 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering
      Author(s): Ahmed I. Elshinnawy, Raúl Medina, Mauricio González
      Equilibrium beach formulations are useful tools for diagnosing and managing coastal engineering problems, providing solutions for beach erosion problems. Headland Bay Beaches (HBBs) can be used as equilibrium coastal systems for stabilizing coastlines and mitigating erosion problems. These embayed beaches may exist in a state of static or dynamic equilibrium. Throughout the literature, several equations can be found for obtaining the Static Equilibrium Planform (SEP) of Headland Bay Beaches (HBBs) with almost negligible net littoral drift rates. However, the formulations used to define the Dynamic Equilibrium Planform (DEP) of embayed beaches with specific net sediment transport rates are scarce, and based on a limited number of studies. This paper proposes a new derived formula for obtaining the planform shape of HBBs in dynamic equilibrium conditions. The formula represents a general form of the Parabolic Bay Shape Equation (PBSE) with modified coefficients as a function of both the wave obliquity (β) and the net littoral drift rate passing through the bay (Q). The angular difference (γ d ) between the direction of the mean wave energy flux at the diffraction point of the headland and the beach orientation down-coast is also incorporated in the proposed formula. The model was verified against natural HBBs in dynamic equilibrium with different net littoral drift rates along the Brazilian coast, producing good results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T06:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Dynamic equilibrium planform of embayed beaches: Part 2. Design procedure
           and engineering applications
    • Authors: Ahmed I. Elshinnawy; Raúl Medina; Mauricio González
      Pages: 123 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ahmed I. Elshinnawy, Raúl Medina, Mauricio González
      The design of equilibrium beach systems employing beach nourishment techniques in conjunction with coastal support structures has received increased interest from coastal engineers in recent years. One such solution to remedy coastal erosion problems is to design an equilibrium pocket beach in order to stabilize the shoreline. Such coastal landforms may exist in nature in static or dynamic equilibrium states. The concept of the Static Equilibrium Planform (SEP) has received much more attention from coastal engineers than that paid to the Dynamic Equilibrium Planform (DEP). This paper presents a design procedure for embayed beaches in dynamic equilibrium which have a specific net littoral drift rate. The proposed methodology employs the net sediment transport rate passing through the bay, together with the time series of the wave climate impinging on the beach, in order to compute the angle (γ d ). This angle represents the difference in degrees between the direction of the mean wave energy flux at the diffraction point (θ EF ) and the orientation of the dynamic equilibrium beach (θ DB ), to be utilized in a newly derived DEP formula to predict the shoreline shape in the long term. The procedure was applied and validated using prototype bays in dynamic equilibrium with different net sediment transport rates along the Brazilian coast, producing good results. Furthermore, it was employed as a tool to investigate the influence of changes in the net annual littoral drift rate on the (DEP) shape in a case study along the Spanish coast. Taken together, these confirm its utility as a valuable tool for coastal management and engineering practice.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Introduction to RISC-KIT: Resilience-increasing strategies for coasts
    • Authors: Ap van Dongeren; Paolo Ciavola; Grit Martinez; Christophe Viavattene; Tom Bogaard; Oscar Ferreira; Ruth Higgins; Robert McCall
      Pages: 2 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Ap van Dongeren, Paolo Ciavola, Grit Martinez, Christophe Viavattene, Tom Bogaard, Oscar Ferreira, Ruth Higgins, Robert McCall
      Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas in Europe and beyond. These coastal zone risks are likely to increase in the future which requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies and a new mix of PMP (prevention, e.g., dike protection; mitigation, e.g., limiting construction in flood-prone areas and eco-system based solutions; and preparedness, e.g., Early Warning Systems, EWS) measures. In response to these challenges, the RISC-KIT project has delivered a set of open-source and open-access methods, tools and management approaches to reduce risk and increase resilience to low-frequency, high-impact hydro-meteorological events in the coastal zone (the “RISC-toolKIT”). These products enhance forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities, improve the assessment of long-term coastal risk and optimise the mix of PMP-measures. In this paper an introduction is provided to the objectives, products, applications and lessons-learned of the RISC-KIT project, which are the subjects of this Special Issue. Subsequent papers provide details on the tools and their application on 10 case study sites in Europe.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Historical analysis of storm events: Case studies in France, England,
           Portugal and Italy
    • Authors: E. Garnier; P. Ciavola; T. Spencer; O. Ferreira; C. Armaroli; A. McIvor
      Pages: 10 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): E. Garnier, P. Ciavola, T. Spencer, O. Ferreira, C. Armaroli, A. McIvor
      An historical analysis of the occurrence of storms and their damage intensity is presented. The work analysed historical large-scale events from The Middle Ages to the 1960s at case study sites along the coasts of North Norfolk (UK); Charente-Maritime and Vendée (France); Cinque Terre-Liguria coast (Italy); Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy) and Ria Formosa (Portugal). The work presented here used a database of events built by the RISC-KIT project, including the characteristics of the storms as well as recorded human impacts. Historical records can provide an important test bed to complement the statistical analysis of the return period of events based on measurements and provide important indicators of past events and their impact that are no longer within the historical memories of resident populations and coastal managers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • The RISC-KIT storm impact database: A new tool in support of DRR
    • Authors: P. Ciavola; M.D. Harley; C. den Heijer
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): P. Ciavola, M.D. Harley, C. den Heijer
      This paper presents a new storm impact database for European coastlines that facilitates the upload, browsing and download of a broad range of physical and impact information related to historical and recent marine storm events. The database is transparent in terms of open access to raw data and metadata, makes use of version control systems through the OpenEarth repository and promotes the use of international standards. A total of 298 storm events are currently stored in the database from the ten RISC-KIT case study sites, including historical events dating back to the sixteenth century. To demonstrate the application of the tool, examples of typical event data contained within the database as well as the ability of the database to identify impacts of events across regions are presented. It is envisaged that this database will expand beyond the ten case study sites, with the aim of promoting and greatly improving the collection and reporting of extreme hydro-meteorological events across Europe into the future.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Selecting coastal hotspots to storm impacts at the regional scale: a
           Coastal Risk Assessment Framework
    • Authors: C. Viavattene; J.A. Jiménez; O. Ferreira; S. Priest; D. Owen; R. McCall
      Pages: 33 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): C. Viavattene, J.A. Jiménez, O. Ferreira, S. Priest, D. Owen, R. McCall
      Managing coastal risk at the regional scale requires a prioritization of resources along the shoreline. A transparent and rigorous risk assessment should inform managers and stakeholders in their choices. This requires advances in modelling assessment (e.g., consideration of source and pathway conditions to define the probability of occurrence, nonlinear dynamics of the physical processes, better recognition of systemic impacts and non-economic losses) and open-source tools facilitating stakeholders' engagement in the process. This paper discusses how the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) has been developed as part of the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts Toolkit (RISC-KIT). The framework provides two levels of analysis. A coastal index approach is first recommended to narrow down the risk analysis to a reduced number of sectors which are subsequently geographically grouped into potential hotspots. For the second level of analysis an integrated modelling approach improves the regional risk assessment of the identified hotspots by increasing the spatial resolution of the hazard modelling by using innovative process-based multi-hazard models, by including generic vulnerability indicators in the impact assessment, and by calculating regional systemic impact indicators. A multi-criteria analysis of these indicators is performed to rank the hotspots and support the stakeholders in their selection. The CRAF has been applied and validated on ten European case studies with only small deviation to areas already recognised as high risk. The flexibility of the framework is essential to adapt the assessment to the specific region characteristics. The involvement of stakeholders is crucial not only to select the hotpots and validate the results, but also to support the collection of information and the valuation of assets at risk. As such, the CRAF permits a comprehensive and systemic risk analysis of the regional coast in order to identify and to select higher risk areas. Yet efforts still need to be amplified in the data collection process, in particular for socio-economic and environmental impacts.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • A Bayesian network approach for coastal risk analysis and decision making
    • Authors: W.S. Jäger; E.K. Christie; A.M. Hanea; C. den Heijer; T. Spencer
      Pages: 48 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): W.S. Jäger, E.K. Christie, A.M. Hanea, C. den Heijer, T. Spencer
      Emergency management and long-term planning in coastal areas depend on detailed assessments (meter scale) of flood and erosion risks. Typically, models of the risk chain are fragmented into smaller parts, because the physical processes involved are very complex and consequences can be diverse. We developed a Bayesian network (BN) approach to integrate the separate models. An important contribution is the learning algorithm for the BN. As input data, we used hindcast and synthetic extreme event scenarios, information on land use and vulnerability relationships (e.g., depth-damage curves). As part of the RISC-KIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts toolKIT) project, we successfully tested the approach and algorithm in a range of morphological settings. We also showed that it is possible to include hazards from different origins, such as marine and riverine sources. In this article, we describe the application to the town of Wells-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, UK, which is vulnerable to storm surges. For any storm input scenario, the BN estimated the percentage of affected receptors in different zones of the site by predicting their hazards and damages. As receptor types, we considered people, residential and commercial properties, and a saltmarsh ecosystem. Additionally, the BN displays the outcome of different disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures. Because the model integrates the entire risk chain with DRR measures and predicts in real-time, it is useful for decision support in risk management of coastal areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Experiences and results from interdisciplinary collaboration: Utilizing
           qualitative information to formulate disaster risk reduction measures for
           coastal regions
    • Authors: Grit Martinez; Clara Armaroli; Susana Costas; Mitchell D. Harley; Michael Paolisso
      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Grit Martinez, Clara Armaroli, Susana Costas, Mitchell D. Harley, Michael Paolisso
      This paper illustrates both the potential and challenges of interdisciplinary collaboration amongst researchers from the social sciences/humanities and the natural sciences/engineering in formulating disaster risk reduction measures for coastal regions. The authors aim to share their experiences of working across different scientific and engineering disciplines in the EU project RISC-KIT to co-produce disaster risk reduction measures suitable for specific regional and local contexts, in this case two coastal study areas in Europe (Porto Garibaldi, Italy and Rio Formosa, Portugal). An overview of the historic-cultural origins of scientific disciplines is first presented, explaining the historical fragmentation of scientific knowledge into natural and social sciences and its associated challenges for prior disaster risk studies – and how the current state of an interdisciplinary approach has emerged. This is followed by an analysis of interdisciplinary collaboration, drawing on the experience and data collected (both quantitative and qualitative) from the two case study areas. The article concludes with suggestions to further overcome the segregation of disciplines within disaster risk studies and projects. The authors found that qualitative data help to understand knowledge, values and behaviours of institutional and non-institutional stakeholders in formulating appropriate risk reduction measures to increase resilience in a local context – and that such data work “hand in hand” with quantitative information. Furthermore, the collection of qualitative data by researchers of the natural science and engineering disciplines has the potential to build bridges between disciplines and to stimulate further investigations, as in this case, to explain contradictions in human behaviour when managing risk.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Introduction to the RISC-KIT web based management guide for DRR in
           European coastal zones
    • Authors: Nico Stelljes; Grit Martinez; Katriona McGlade
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Nico Stelljes, Grit Martinez, Katriona McGlade
      This paper presents a new approach to guiding coastal stakeholders about making informed decisions about Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures and alternatives. As part of the RISC-KIT project and tool box, the paper presents a holistic DRR measure approach including the biophysical environment, governance aspects and practical examples from coastal areas in Europe and elsewhere. The guide (see: www.coastal-management.eu) is addressed to a wide variety of coastal stakeholders with a different level of knowledge about DRR measures with the aim to provide guidance and information. The paper gives an overview of the overall structure of the guide.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • A framework to include the (inter)dependencies of Disaster Risk Reduction
           measures in coastal risk assessment
    • Authors: Lydia Cumiskey; Sally Priest; Nikolay Valchev; Christophe Viavattene; Susana Costas; Joseph Clarke
      Pages: 81 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Lydia Cumiskey, Sally Priest, Nikolay Valchev, Christophe Viavattene, Susana Costas, Joseph Clarke
      Effective coastal risk management often involves the selection and appraisal of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures. Such measures, however, are rarely implemented in isolation and their (inter)dependencies need to be considered to assess the overall contribution to risk reduction. This paper presents a framework that utilises a pathway-based approach to consider such (inter)dependencies. The framework identifies measures that have the potential to directly influence risk reduction (primary measures) at the individual/household level and how these relate to the implementation of other measures (non-primary). These two types of measures are linked using intermediate pathway factors, which aggregate to the effective uptake and/or operation of primary measure(s) and subsequently represent the direct influence on risk reduction when included in a risk assessment. The approach is demonstrated utilising two coastal risk examples. The case of Varna Bay, Bulgaria highlights a pathway, which explores how developing a coastal Early Warning System (EWS), can enable assets to be moved and saved prior to an event. The Praia de Faro, Portuguese application provides an example of how local risk awareness meetings can support the uptake of property raising to protect against erosion. Past experience, poor trust in authorities, house type/feasibility, transient population and strong community networks are identified as key influencing variables across both cases. The process of considering the (inter)dependencies between measures has potential to lead to improved decision-making and strategy building. The framework developed is flexible in nature and can be applied in many different situations; however, it is one step towards accounting for these (inter)dependencies at the individual/household level. Ex-ante or ex-post survey data, expert judgement and literature have been used to estimate these factors. However, in many cases this good quality data is not available, and is something that national level monitoring strategies, along with the research community, must address.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Using participatory Multi-Criteria Assessments for assessing disaster risk
           reduction measures
    • Authors: Karina Barquet; Lydia Cumiskey
      Pages: 93 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Karina Barquet, Lydia Cumiskey
      This paper introduces a participatory Multi-Criteria Assessment (MCA) methodology developed through the Resilience Increasing Strategies for Coasts – Toolkit (RISC-KIT) project and implemented in nine case studies in Europe. The purpose of the MCA was to bridge the disciplinary divide between engineering sciences and social sciences, facilitate the communication and dissemination of local coastal risk assessments and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures' evaluation to a broad range of actors. The process addressed the importance of integrating scientific knowledge with stakeholders’ knowledge to understand and assess the possible social, political and economic implications of different DRR measures, which could foster or hinder successful implementation. The paper discusses the methodological aspects and implementation of the approach which included visualizing risk reduction of DRR measures using paper-based cards to support interaction and negotiation among participants to select preferred strategic alternatives (SA), and a participatory MCA where stakeholders evaluated the SA against three (self-weighted) criteria: feasibility, acceptability and sustainability.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Regional assessment of storm related overwash and breaching hazards on
           coastal barriers
    • Authors: Theocharis A. Plomaritis; Óscar Ferreira; Susana Costas
      Pages: 124 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Theocharis A. Plomaritis, Óscar Ferreira, Susana Costas
      Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss of life and damage to properties. Among the main processes behind such impacts on coastal barriers are the occurrence of overwash and breaching during storm events. In order to estimate potential losses associated with a particular event, the above processes must be properly parameterized. Here, we propose a novel methodology to estimate overwash and breaching hazards suitable for a regional scale analysis (Ø 100 km). For the overwash hazard assessment, the method is based on the application of the approach developed by Donnelly (2008) that allows the parametrisation of the overwash hazard considering both flow velocity and flow depth. Moreover, the inland extension of the associated hazard, which is critical to assess subsequent vulnerability, can also be estimated following this methodology. The proposed method requires the selection of a runup formula validated for the study area, a storm beach profile, a runup lens angle, and a percolation constant for infiltration. To assess the breaching, hazard, a new multivariable evaluation is proposed that allows ranking the potential of breaching. The multivariable evaluation combines overwash and erosion hazards as well as their extensions with the main morphological characteristics of the barrier, resulting in the breaching hazard index, that ranks from 0 to 5 (no breaching to inlet formation). Inland breaching extension is also relevant for the vulnerability assessment. The breaching extension can be estimated using historical or contemporary analogues of the nearest flood deltas. The developed approaches were applied to Ancão Peninsula (Algarve, Portugal) as a demonstration example. The advantages of the present approach are: adaptability to various environments where overwash and/or breaching processes are important, time efficiency on evaluating overwash and breaching hazards, and the assessment of hotspot areas at a regional scale.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Use of a Bayesian Network for coastal hazards, impact and disaster risk
           reduction assessment at a coastal barrier (Ria Formosa, Portugal)
    • Authors: Theocharis A. Plomaritis; Susana Costas; Óscar Ferreira
      Pages: 134 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): Theocharis A. Plomaritis, Susana Costas, Óscar Ferreira
      Coastal communities are threatened by the impact of severe storms that may cause significant loss or damage of property and life. The main processes causing such impacts at sandy coastlines and nearby coastal communities are storm erosion, overwash and inundation. Coastal response under present conditions and under predicted climate change has been frequently assessed on the basis of numerical models, which in turn can be also used to evaluate the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures to mitigate the response of the coast to the imposed conditions. However, detailed morphodynamic models are computationally expensive and not commonly used by coastal managers. The present work proposes the construction of a probabilistic Bayesian Network (BN) as a surrogate for the numerical simulations. This BN is trained with a large number of morphodynamic simulations, under a variety of storm conditions and DRR measures, in order to serve as a front-end platform for visualising, analysing and evaluating combined results of the numerical modelling. The BN introduced in an early warning system will be able to serve both, as a predictive and as a working tool to determine impacts and evaluate risk reduction after measures implementation. Here, an example of the implementation and results of such a BN system is presented. The BN system was built for a coastal sector of the Ria Formosa barrier island system (South Portugal) to inform the degree of impact derived from overwash and erosion over the study area. The BN boundary conditions include variable wave height, water level, and wave period. The impact on receptors, including houses and infrastructure, was assessed. In addition, this tool can inform about the effectiveness of a particular DRR measure. The evaluated DRR measures were two primary measures (partial house removal and beach replenishment) and a non-primary measure (improve channels of communication), all measures proposed by local stakeholders. Results show that for a storm with wave characteristics of the 1 in 50 year return period and spring tide conditions, the house removal DRR reduces the overwash impact by 15% and erosion impact by 58%. The implementation of beach replenishment could reduce the erosion impact of the same event by 96% while it would have a smaller effect on the overwash impact (16%). The implementation of non-primary measures would have a much smaller effect on risk reduction. The combined effect of the above DRR measures (mainly house removal and beach nourishment) reduces storm impacts at the study area to a value near zero. The BN surrogates the model simulated onshore hazards and translates them into impacts for the current conditions, which give a high degree of confidence in the potential application of the BN as a management tool.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • The Tordera Delta, a hotspot to storm impacts in the coast northwards of
           Barcelona (NW Mediterranean)
    • Authors: J.A. Jiménez; M. Sanuy; C. Ballesteros; H.I. Valdemoro
      Pages: 148 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Coastal Engineering, Volume 134
      Author(s): J.A. Jiménez, M. Sanuy, C. Ballesteros, H.I. Valdemoro
      The Catalan coast, as most of the developed Mediterranean coastal zone, can be characterized as a high-risk area to the impact of storms due to the large concentration of values together with the dominance of eroding shorelines. In consequence, any long-term coastal management scheme must include a risk analysis to permit decision makers to better allocate resources. This can be done in a nested approach in which hotspots are first identified along the coast at a regional scale and secondly, they are further analysed to produce dedicated risk reduction strategies. In this work, we apply the methodology developed within the RISC-KIT project for identifying and analysing coastal hotspots in the Catalan coast as a test for applying it to Mediterranean conditions. Obtained results show that this methodology is very efficient in identifying hotspots of storm-induced flooding and erosion at a regional scale. The adoption of the response approach resulted in the direct assessment of the hazards' probability distributions, which allowed for the selection of the severity of the hotspots to be identified. When a given coastal stretch behaves as a hotspot for both hazards, it is identified as a very highly-sensitive area to storm impacts. In the study area, the Tordera Delta possesses this condition of very high “hotspotness.” This has been demonstrated by the large and frequent damages suffered by the site during the past decades. The paper analyses different aspects related to the risk management of this area, including stakeholder actions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
 
 
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