Chinese Science Bulletin
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1001-6538 - ISSN (Online) 1861-9541
Published by SpringerOpen [188 journals]
- Heart failure research in China: current status and future direction
Abstract: Abstract Heart failure is a major public health problem worldwide. Despite advances in the therapy and care of heart failure, morbidity and mortality remain persistently high. Recent years have witnessed major breakthroughs in the investigations of pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of heart failure in China. It is noteworthy that the continuing and growing support from funding agencies in China including the National Natural Science Foundation of China has yielded substantial effects on the basic and clinical research in heart failure in the last decade. In this review, we provide an update on the current status of heart failure research, both basic and translational/clinical, in China, including funding and publications. We also discuss the future challenges and possible strategies in improving our understanding and management of heart failure in China.
- Segregation between the parietal memory network and the default mode
network: effects of spatial smoothing and model order in ICA
Abstract: Abstract A brain network consisting of two key parietal nodes, the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex, has emerged from recent fMRI studies. Though it is anatomically adjacent to and spatially overlaps with the default mode network (DMN), its function has been associated with memory processing, and it has been referred to as the parietal memory network (PMN). Independent component analysis (ICA) is the most common data-driven method used to extract PMN and DMN simultaneously. However, the effects of data preprocessing and parameter determination in ICA on PMN–DMN segregation are completely unknown. Here, we employ three typical algorithms of group ICA to assess how spatial smoothing and model order influence the degree of PMN–DMN segregation. Our findings indicate that PMN and DMN can only be stably separated using a combination of low-level spatial smoothing and high model order across the three ICA algorithms. We thus argue for more considerations on parametric settings for interpreting DMN data.
- Brain activity in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive
Abstract: Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), yet the underlying neural mechanisms of this disease state remain unclear. We investigated alterations in the spontaneous brain activity of PD patients with MCI (PD-MCI) relative to cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN) and healthy control (HC) subjects. In this work, 13 PD-MCI patients, 16 PD-CN patients, and 16 HC subjects completed resting state functional MRI. Spontaneous brain activity was measured by calculating amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values across the whole brain. Between-group differences and correlations between ALFF values and cognitive test scores were analyzed. ALFF values decreased in the right superior temporal gyrus and increased in the left middle temporal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus of PD-MCI patients compared with PD-CN patients. In the PD-MCI group, ALFF values in the left middle temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment and vocabulary test scores, and the ALFF values in the left superior frontal gyrus were negatively correlated with vocabulary test scores. Our study demonstrates that PD-MCI is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in the temporal and frontal lobes. These findings inform the underlying neural mechanism of cognitive impairment in PD.
- Toward accurate accounting of ecosystem carbon stock in China’s
- Mapping the human brain function in vivo
- Painting and visual information processing
- MULTI - TILLERING DWARF1 , a new allele of BRITTLE CULM 12 , affects plant
height and tiller in rice
Abstract: Abstract Plant height and tillering are crucial factors determining rice plant architecture and influencing rice grain production. In this study, multi-tillering dwarf1 (mtd1), a stable multi-tiller and dwarf mutant, was screened from the ethylmethane sulfonate-treated japonica rice variety Wuyunging7. Compared with the wild type, mtd1 mutant exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including dwarfism, more tillers, brittle culms and delayed heading date. By employing map-based cloning strategy, the gene MTD1 was finally mapped to an approximately 66-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 9. Sequencing results showed that the gene LOC_Os09g02650 (BC12) in mtd1 mutant had a single nucleotide substitution (G to A), which generated a premature translation stop. Over-expressing MTD1/BC12 coding sequence rescued all the phenotypes of mtd1 mutants including plant height and tillers, which confirms that BC12 is the mutated gene in mtd1 mutant. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that MTD1/BC12 could negatively regulate the expression of MONOCULM 1, IDEAL PLANT ARCHITECTURE1 and Tillering and Dwarf 1, and control rice tillering. Remarkably, α-amylase activity analysis and gibberellic acid (GA) treatment showed that the dwarf phenotype of mtd1 mutant was dependent on GA biosynthesis pathway. These results facilitated to further uncover the molecular mechanism of the growth and development in rice.
- Translation of fear reflex into impaired cognitive function mediated by
- PI4Kβ, PIPs and BK Ca channel function
- Global warming projections using the human–earth system model
Abstract: Abstract Future climate change is usually projected by coupled earth system models under specific emission scenarios designed by integrated assessment models (IAMs), and this offline approach means there is no interaction between the coupled earth system models and the IAMs. This paper introduces a new method to design possible future emission scenarios and corresponding climate change, in which a simple economic and climate damage component is added to the coupled earth system model of Beijing Normal University (BNU-ESM). With the growth of population and technological expertise and the declining emission-to-output ratio described in the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy model, the projected carbon emission is 13.7 Gt C, resulting in a 2.4 °C warming by the end of the twenty-first century (2080–2099) compared with 1980–1999. This paper also suggests the importance of the land and ocean carbon cycle in determining the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. It is hoped that in the near future the next generation of coupled earth system models that include both the natural system and the social dimension will be developed.
- Activating transcription factor 5 regulates lipid metabolism in adipocytes
Abstract: Abstract Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family, and is highly expressed in liver and adipose tissue. Previous reports have shown that ATF5 promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation. In this study, we found that ATF5 was highly expressed in mature adipocytes, suggesting a potential role of ATF5 in mature adipocytes, which has not been reported previously. To understand the function of ATF5 in mature adipocytes, we knocked down the expression of ATF5 in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes and observed decreased lipid droplets. Consistent with the in vitro experiment, the knockdown of ATF5 in white adipose tissue led to less adipose tissue and smaller adipocytes size. Further research revealed that the inhibition of ATF5 diminished the adipocytes size via the inhibition of fatty acid synthetase, stearyl coenzyme A desaturation enzyme 1, and the induction of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, one key enzyme of lipid metabolism. In addition, ATF5 knockdown in inguinal white adipose tissue improved whole body insulin sensitivity. Our work provides a new understanding of ATF5 function in mature adipocytes and a potential therapeutic target of diabetes.
- Major advances in microbeam analytical techniques and their applications
in Earth Science
- Hepatitis C: a successful story of cure
- Photoredox-catalyzed amide-directed selective sp 3 C–H bond
- Protein-imprinted material for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant
- Cu-catalyzed enantioselective cyanation of benzylic C–H via radical
- Relationship between the parent charge transfer gap and maximum transition
temperature in cuprates
Abstract: Abstract One of the biggest puzzles concerning the cuprate high temperature superconductors is what determines the maximum transition temperature (T c,max), which varies from less than 30 to above 130 K in different compounds. Despite this dramatic variation, a robust trend is that within each family, the double-layer compound always has higher T c,max than the single-layer counterpart. Here we use scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the electronic structure of four cuprate parent compounds belonging to two different families. We find that within each family, the double layer compound has a much smaller charge transfer gap size (Δ CT), indicating a clear anticorrelation between Δ CT and T c,max. These results suggest that the charge transfer gap plays a key role in the superconducting physics of cuprates, which shed important new light on the high T c mechanism from doped Mott insulator perspective.
- Hierarchical structure engineering of brookite TiO 2 crystals for enhanced
photocatalytic and external antitumor property
Abstract: Abstract Here we report a hydrothermal approach to build and tailor the hierarchical structure of brookite TiO2 crystal under multiple hierarchical scales. Benefiting from the hierarchical structure and the existence of oxygen vacancy, these as-prepared hierarchical brookite TiO2 crystals can not only enhance photocatalytic activity, but also demonstrate their potential in the treatment of superficial malignant tumor.
- The new face of iron oxide nanoparticles: the bullets targeting tumor
microenvironment for cancer therapy
- An emerging platform for electrocatalysis: perovskite exsolution