Authors:Hasan Ali Tawfeeq Abstract: The properties of plasma are one of the fundamentals of limited plasma. The disorder of plasma is caused by cognitive field .So these factors are accounted in the current for probe before adjusting it then accounted these factors after adjusting the probe current in the method of polynomial .The proportional mistake for each case is taken. It appeared that the tendency towards the confused area diminishes. So the accounted values for the factors of plasma resulted from the instability of the plasma and the current. It appeared that this method keeps the form of variety with Ψ/I and the proportional mistake becomes less by increasing Ψ/I. Issue No:Vol. 74

Authors:M. Q. Owaidat, Monther Alsboul, Ahmed. A. Qwasmeh, Almaasfeh Sultan Abdelmajid Abstract: The electric resistance between two arbitrary lattice points in infinite d- dimensional hypercubic lattices with second nearest neighbor) 2nd NN) resistors is calculated by using lattice Green's function. The resistance for square, and simple cubic lattices with 2nd NN resistors is discussed in detail. For large separation between lattice points the finite limiting value of the resistance for a simple cubic lattice with second nearest neighbor resistors is calculated. Keywords: Green’s function, hypercubic lattices, resistance. Issue No:Vol. 74

Authors:Olanipekun Alice Bukola, Akoso Christopher, Bello Oluwaseyi Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic energy bands of CexHf1-xO2 (x=0.5 and 0.75) are investigated within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and taking into account relativistic contributions. Nonlinear core corrections terms are used. Our plotted band structures show that the valence bands are separated from the conduction bands by an indirect band gap of 4.14eV, from X to Γ and direct band gap of 4.18eV at X for Ce0.75Hf0.25O2. For Ce0.5Hf0.5O2, the indirect band gap is 3.56eV from X to Γ and direct band gap of 3.84eV at Γ. Hence, the fundamental band gap in these alloys are indirect. We found a direct band gap of 5.90eV for CeO2 at the Γ point, in good agreement with experiment. We also calculated lattice parameters of 5.28Ǻ and 5.37Ǻ for Ce0.5Hf0.5O2 and Ce0.75Hf0.25O2 respectively. Hf doping in ceria (CeO2) results in reduced band gap compared to pure ceria. From the density of states (DOS) plot, the band gap is formed predominantly from O2p and (Ce, Hf)5d states from valence and conduction bands respectively. The calculated wide band gap of the oxides show that they are active in ultraviolet (UV) radiation and so can be applied as UV blockers. Keywords: Density functional theory, Lattice parameter, Band structure, Band gap, Density of states Issue No:Vol. 74

Authors:Adem Beriso Abstract: Both nanocrystalline and nanoporous silicon show interesting light emission properties. As the system size goes to nanoscale many unusual properties start to emerge. The purpose of this work to examine the main factors that causes photoluminescence peak to shift towards left or to the smaller wavelength of visible spectrum (blue shifted). With connection to this, we also study the light emission of nanoporous silicon cluster (quantum dot) with varying porosity and size of the dot. We examine these properties by using surface state model and our results are in conformity with some other experimental and theoretical findings. Keywords: Nanoscale; Quantum dot; Porosity; Size; Photoluminescence Issue No:Vol. 74

Authors:Tadesse Lamessa Abstract: Congestion of vehicular traffic within urban areas is a problem experienced worldwide. It has adverse effects on people quality of life due to delays, accidents and environmental pollution. Congestion is gaining popularity in the Wolaita Sodo and quantifying the effects of an additional vehicle joining the traffic stream is a critical issue to determine the toll rates. When additional vehicles enter a crowded roadway they increase travel time for all vehicles. The effect of additional vehicles worsens when the flow is near the capacity of the traffic stream. The speed and flow of the traffic stream are considered as the major variables to quantify these effects. Hence to better understand and quantify this issue it is necessary to accurately model the traffic stream near capacity. A mathematical macroscopic traffic flow model known as Lighthill, Whitham and Richards model appended with a closure nonlinear velocity-density relationship yielding a quasi-linear first order (hyperbolic) partial differential equation as an initial boundary value problem was considered. The aims of this analysis are principally represented by the maximization of vehicles flow, and the minimization of traffic congestions, accidents and pollutions. We present numerical simulation of the IBVP by a finite difference scheme report on the stability and efficiency of the scheme by performing numerical experiments. The computed result satisfies some well known qualitative features of the solution. Keywords: Density function , quasi-linear, Macroscopic Traffic flow, Numerical simulation. Issue No:Vol. 74

Authors:Bharti Saxena, Ramakant Bhardwaj, Basant Kumar Singh Abstract: In the present paper some results are obtained for Interaction of Gravitational and Electromagnetic Fields.The obtained results are generalized form of well known results in the field of general theory of relativity and Tensor. Keywords: Gravitational Field, Electromagnetic Field, Tensor Issue No:Vol. 74