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ENGINEERING (1197 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Alexandria Engineering Journal
  [SJR: 0.436]   [H-I: 12]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1110-0168
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Unsteady MHD convective flow of a Jeffery fluid embedded in a porous
           medium with ramped wall velocity and temperature

    • Authors: K. Maqbool; A.B. Mann; M.H. Tiwana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K. Maqbool, A.B. Mann, M.H. Tiwana
      Effects of ramped wall velocity and ramped wall temperature on unsteady MHD free convective flow of a Jeffrey fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium are examined. The momentum and energy equation are solved by Laplace Transform Method. The skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are calculated and finally the effects of emerging parameters are graphically shown and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T15:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.012
  • Maximum output voltage and frequency of single electron tunneling inverter
           for variable temperature and load capacitance

    • Authors: Ali A. Elabd; EL-Sayed M. El-Rabaie; Abdelaziz T. Shalaby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ali A. Elabd, EL-Sayed M. El-Rabaie, Abdelaziz T. Shalaby
      Studying of single electronics should consider both the temperature and the circuit capacitance as being the most important parameters that affect the behavior of SET devices. In this letter, the delay and the output voltage level in the single electron tunneling inverter are investigated for a wide range of temperature and load capacitance. Due to the stochastic nature of the electron transports in single electronics, the results are considered to be the average of many Monte Carlo computations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T15:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.026
  • Dynamics of prey predator with Holling interactions and stochastic

    • Authors: C.V. Pavan Kumar; K. Shiva Reddy; M.A.S. Srinivas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): C.V. Pavan Kumar, K. Shiva Reddy, M.A.S. Srinivas
      The ecological interaction between prey and predator is modeled in general linear (or) function of prey density. The main advantages of such functional response are its simplicity, and well understood. The functional response should depend not only on the prey density but also on the predator density. In this paper a two species prey predator eco system having Holing type III functional response under stochastic influence is investigated. The analysis for the stability, local as well as global, of the model is performed by employing the techniques of Routh-Hurwitz and Lyapunov. Diffusive instability is also verified by perturbation technique and Routh-Hurwitz criteria. The fluctuations of the population and their stability around the equilibrium point influenced by the noise are computed. Numerical simulations illustrated, the theoretical analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T15:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.004
  • A Multi-Synchronous Bi-Directional NoC (MBiNoC) architecture with dynamic
           self-reconfigurable channel for the GALS infrastructure

    • Authors: Rajeev Kamal; Juan M. Moreno Arostegui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Rajeev Kamal, Juan M. Moreno Arostegui
      To enhance the performance of on-chip communications of Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous Systems (GALS), a dynamic reconfigurable multi-synchronous router architecture is proposed to increase network on chip (NoC) efficiency by changing the path of the communication link in the runtime traffic situation. In order to address GALS issues and bandwidth requirements, the proposed multi-synchronous bidirectional NoC’s router is developed and it guarantees higher packet consumption rate, better bandwidth utilization with lower packet delivery latency. All the input/output ports of the proposed router behave as a bi-directional ports and communicate through a novel multi-synchronous first-in first-out (FIFO) buffer. The bidirectional port is controlled by a dynamic channel control module which provides a dynamic reconfigurable channel to the router itself and associated sub-modules. This proposed multi-synchronous bidirectional router architecture is synthesized using Xilinx ISE 14.7 and FPGA Virtex 6 family device XC6VLX760 is considered as target technology and its performance is evaluated in terms of power, area and delay.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.019
  • Thin film flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium past a
           stretching sheet with heat transfer

    • Authors: Noor Saeed Khan; Saeed Islam; Taza Gul; Ilyas Khan; Waris Khan; Liaqat Ali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Noor Saeed Khan, Saeed Islam, Taza Gul, Ilyas Khan, Waris Khan, Liaqat Ali
      This article inquires into the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer properties of a thin film second-grade fluid through a porous medium past a stretching sheet concerning the effect of viscous dissipation. The aim of the study is to discuss the impacts of film thickness and porosity in the presence of constant reference temperature which completely affect the flow pattern and bring changes in the cooling/heating. The basic governing equations of the problem have been modeled in terms of suitable similarity transformations which result in nonlinear ordinary differential equations with physical conditions. Solution has been obtained by using HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method) which is frequently used for solving nonlinear differential equations encountered in various applied sciences and is found quite useful. Favorable comparison with previously published research papers is performed to show the correlations for the present work. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented through tables which describe the verification for the achieved results showing that the thin liquid film results from this study are in close agreement with the results reported in the literature. The physical influences of all the emerging parameters on velocity and temperature fields have been studied graphically and illustrated clearly. The authentication of the present work has been achieved by evaluating the comparison of HAM solution with the numerical method solution. Results achieved by HAM and residual errors are also discussed numerically and graphically.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.036
  • Peristaltic propulsion of particulate non-Newtonian Ree-Eyring fluid in a
           duct through constant magnetic field

    • Authors: N. Ijaz; A. Zeeshan; M.M. Bhatti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): N. Ijaz, A. Zeeshan, M.M. Bhatti
      This article is devoted to study peristaltic propulsion of particle suspended in Ree-Eyring fluid in a region where a constant magnetic field is applied. The governing flow problem is modelled for fluid phase and particle phase with the help of law of conservation of mass and momentum. It is assumed that flow is creeping and wave travelling along the wall has greater wavelength when compared with amplitude. The equations so obtained are coupled partial differential equations. The exact solutions using Eigen function expansion method is obtained and presented. The influence of all the physical parameters is discussed for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid with the help of graphs. In the present analysis, it is observed that due to influence of Hartmann number, the magnitude of the velocity diminishes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.009
  • Numerical solution of fractional order smoking model via laplace Adomian
           decomposition method

    • Authors: Fazal Haq; Kamal Shah; Ghaus ur Rahman; Muhammad Shahzad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Fazal Haq, Kamal Shah, Ghaus ur Rahman, Muhammad Shahzad
      Smoking is one of the major cause of health problems around the globe. The present article deals with the dynamics of giving up smoking model of fractional order. We study analytical solution (approximate solution) of the concerned model with the help of Laplace transformation. The solution of the model will be obtained in form of infinite series which converges rapidly to its exact value. Moreover, we compare our results with the results obtained by Runge-Kutta method. Some plots are presented to show the reliability and simplicity of the method.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.015
  • A note on fractional difference operators

    • Authors: P. Baliarsingh; L. Nayak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): P. Baliarsingh, L. Nayak
      In the present article, following on very recent and new approach of fractional difference operator by Baliarsingh (2016), we establish some new ideas involving the exponent rules of this operator. In fact, the new results are sufficient enough to describe the results obtained by Baliarsingh and also provide certain improvements on them.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.022
  • A quadratic trigonometric weighted spline with local support basis

    • Authors: Muhammad Sarfraz; Shamaila Samreen; Malik Zawwar Hussain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Muhammad Sarfraz, Shamaila Samreen, Malik Zawwar Hussain
      A proficient freeform curve design technique is developed by constructing B-spline like local support basis functions using a quadratic trigonometric function introduced. The built basis functions fulfill the properties of the local support, partition of unity and the positivity. The freeform designed curve method, by these constructed local support basis functions, owns the geometric properties such as convex hull and variation diminishing. In the suggested scheme, the Non-uniform freeform curve depiction is presented for deliberation by a transformed Bézier form. The demonstration of the scheme is supportive for various shape effects such as interval tension. As a privilege, the proposed method is C 2 for its default case and is C 1 in general. The proposed method provides a quadratic alternative to the cubic B-splines.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.016
  • Multi-objective parametric optimization of nano powder mixed electrical
           discharge machining of AlSiCp using response surface methodology and
           particle swarm optimization

    • Authors: Shalini Mohanty; Ankan Mishra; B.K. Nanda; B.C. Routara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Shalini Mohanty, Ankan Mishra, B.K. Nanda, B.C. Routara
      Powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PMEDM) has gained popularity in the current era owing to its benefits of providing better material removal rate (MRR), less electrode wear rate (EWR) and improvement in surface finish. The use of powders enhances the machining characteristics of the EDM processes. Low voltage current (LVC), high voltage current (HVC), pulse-on time (T on), pulse-off time (T off) and flushing pressure (FP) are the input variables on which certain machining parameters such as material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra ) and tool wear rate (TWR) are analysed. A copper electrode of 99.98% purity with a diameter of 12mm was used to cut AlSiCp12% metal matrix composite (MMC) in EDM. Box Behnken design was used for planning the experimental run. The parameters were optimized using desirability approach as multi-objective optimization technique for predicting the significance of the parameters. In addition to all this, particle swarm optimization (PSO) was implemented for predicting the results and hence error analysis was done for the set of experiments. Moreover, a confirmatory test was carried out with the parametric settings obtained from PSO and hence the error percentage was determined. Validation tests showed close relationship of predicted and experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.006
  • Dynamic mechanical, thermal and wear analysis of Ni-P coated glass
           fiber/Al₂O₃ nanowire reinforced vinyl ester composite

    • Authors: G. Anand; N. Alagumurthi; R. Elansezhian; N. Venkateshwaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): G. Anand, N. Alagumurthi, R. Elansezhian, N. Venkateshwaran
      Hybrid polymer composites nowadays are increasingly used in many engineering products which are subjected to wear, dynamic mechanical and thermal applications. So in the present study, we have investigated the evaluation of dynamic mechanical, thermal and wear properties of vinyl ester hybrid composite strengthened with Ni-P coated E-glass fiber and Al₂O₃ nanowires as reinforcement at different concentrations. Nickel-Phosphorus is plated over the glass fiber substrate by means of the electroless plating method. The best optimum bath composition was determined after many trials and used for the proper plating process. From the outcome of the result, it is clear that the storage modulus has a trend to increase with increase in the concentration of Ni-P coated glass fiber (GF) and further increases when Al₂O₃ nanowires are used as the reinforcement. The glass transition temperature is also shifted to the higher temperature in the process. From the thermogravimetric analysis, it is clear that the thermal stability of the composite steps up with the addition of Al₂O₃ nanowires as fillers and Ni-P/GF as reinforcement. The wear properties are analyzed and the morphology of the coated and worn-out surfaces are studied by means of scanning electron micrographs and optical microscope images.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.013
  • Thermo-electric modelling, simulation and experimental validation of
           powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) of BeCu alloys

    • Authors: Vijaykumar Jatti; Shivraj Bagane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Vijaykumar S. Jatti, Shivraj Bagane
      Beryllium copper alloy has high strength, nonmagnetic, good wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high fatigue strength and non-sparking qualities. These properties impose machining issues when machined by conventional machining processes. Electric discharge machining is a practically viable solution to machine such materials. Recently researchers have been attracted by powder mixed electric discharge machining with the advancement in technology. Present study focuses on developing Finite Element model of Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining of Beryllium copper alloy with experimental validation. An axis symmetric three-dimensional model has been developed and simulated using ANSYS 15.0 software for obtaining the temperature distribution on the surface of workpiece during a single discharge machining process. And the temperature profile was utilized to estimate the material removal rate. Experiments were performed to validate the numerical results. The average percentage error of 7.8% was obtained between numerical and experimental results. Thus, a good agreement between the experimental and numerical results shows that the software model can efficiently simulate and predict the real time results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
  • A simple analytical model for free vibration of orthotropic and
           functionally graded rectangular plates

    • Authors: Hadi Ghashochi-Bargh; Soheil Razavi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hadi Ghashochi-Bargh, Soheil Razavi
      With the widespread application of composite structures in engineering, the static and dynamic analyses of these structures have become important in the past years. Composite and functionally graded plates have been frequently being used and are important parts of many engineering structures. Numerous plate theories and solution procedures have been presented to predict the linear dynamic response of composite and functionally graded plates. This study aims to develop a simple analytical model to predict the free vibration response of orthotropic and functionally graded rectangular plates with clamped and simply-supported boundary conditions. To this end, Mindlin’s shear deformation plate theory has been used to obtain the equations of motion in terms of transverse displacement and rotations of mid-plane of the plate. After expressing the rotation parameters in terms of the transverse displacement, they have been substituted into equation of transverse motion of the plate. Then, for each boundary condition, an appropriate function has been assumed for the transverse displacement of the plate. Using the orthogonality of these functions, the natural frequencies of the plate have been determined. Some examples have been provided to validate the proposed model.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.005
  • Finite element analysis for structural modification and control resonance
           of a vertical pump

    • Authors: Dalia M. El-Gazzar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Dalia M. El-Gazzar
      The main objective of this research was to evaluate and enhance dynamic performance for a vertical pumping unit. The original electric motor of the pump unit had been replaced by another one different in design and weights. Vibration has been increased greatly after installing the new motor. Consequently, it is necessary to estimate the change in the vibration characteristics owing to the difference in the boundary conditions of the new motor. Measured vibration levels and frequency analysis were dangerous at 1× due to resonance problem. Finite Element Analysis was used to model the motor structure in order to find its natural frequencies and mode shapes. The results confirm that the third natural frequency is very close to 1× operating speed with deviation about 1%. To solve the resonance problem, it was recommended to increase the structure stiffness. The results after modifications confirmed that the overall vibration level decreases by 89%.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.018
  • Kinetic studies on extraction of essential oil from sandalwood (Santalum
           album) by microwave air-hydrodistillation method

    • Authors: H.S. Kusuma; M. Mahfud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): H.S. Kusuma, M. Mahfud
      Essential oil from sandalwood is commonly obtained by conventional extraction methods which requires great energy, significant amount of solvents, and quite a long process time. Therefore, the use of new ‘green method’ for extracting essential oil with minimum/low energy, solvents, and time needs to be considered. One extraction method that has been successfully developed is microwave hydrodistillation method. This research employs a method developed from microwave hydrodistillation, that is microwave air-hydrodistillation for optimizing the extraction of essential oil. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the presence and absence of additional air flow to the microwavehydrodistillation method. The material used in this study includes sandalwood powder. The extractions by microwave hydrodistillation and microwave air-hydrodistillation methods were done on the power of 600W; the ratio of the raw material to be extracted and the solvent was 0.05gmL−1 and the extraction time was 120min. In the extraction by microwave air-hydrodistillation, the rates of air flow used were 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0L/min. The results of the research show that the extraction of sandalwood oil by microwave air-hydrodistillation is faster and produces higher yields compared to the extraction by microwave hydrodistillation method. Based on kinetics modeling that has been done, it can be said that the second-order kinetic model more can represent well the experimental results of sandalwood oil extraction by microwave hydrodistillation and microwave air-hydrodistillation methods when compared with the first-order kinetic model. The testing of the physical properties of the sandalwood oil indicates that essential oil obtained by microwave hydrodistillation and microwave air-hydrodistillation has the same quality (refractive index and specific gravity). Further, the testing of the chemical properties of the sandalwood oil shows that essential oil obtained by microwave air-hydrodistillation has better quality (flavor) compared to the oil obtained by microwave hydrodistillation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.007
  • Magnetic field effect on nanofluid flow between two circular cylinders
           using AGM

    • Authors: M. Sheikholeslami; P. Jalili; D.D. Ganji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Sheikholeslami, P. Jalili, D.D. Ganji
      In this paper, uniform magnetic field impact on nanofluid flow between two circular cylinders is investigated analytically using AGM. Two phase model is applied for nanofluid. Analytical procedures are examined for various active parameters namely aspect ratio, Hartmann number, Eckert number, Reynolds number, thermophoresis and Brownian parameters and Schmidt number. Results indicate that velocity reduces with augment of Lorentz forces but it rises with augment of Reynolds number. Temperature gradient enhances with rise of Hartmann number but it decreases with augment of other parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.010
  • Analytical and numerical solutions of squeezing unsteady Cu and
           TiO2-nanofluid flow in the presence of thermal radiation and heat

    • Authors: A.G. Madaki; R. Roslan; M.S. Rusiman; C.S.K. Raju
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): A.G. Madaki, R. Roslan, M.S. Rusiman, C.S.K. Raju
      In this paper, an analytical study of squeezing unsteady nanofluid flow between two parallel plates is carried out. The effects of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption along the temperature profile were observed. The homotopy perturbation method (HPM) was used to solve the two-dimensional nonlinear momentum and energy equations. The results found in this study are being compared with the result obtained using the RK4 technique with shooting scheme. The results obtained fascinatingly agree with the numerical solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.011
  • Designing efficient QCA even parity generator circuits with power
           dissipation analysis

    • Authors: Ali Newaz Bahar; Muhammad Shahin Uddin; Md. Abdullah-Al-Shafi; Mohammad Maksudur Rahman Bhuiyan; Kawsar Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ali Newaz Bahar, Muhammad Shahin Uddin, Md. Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman Bhuiyan, Kawsar Ahmed
      In the era of modern digital technology, highly scaled and ultra-low power consuming devices have drawn a considerable attention. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) are such an emerging nanotechnology that dispenses a highly dense and ultra-low power consuming binary information encoding paradigm. This potential merit instigated the QCA to be an excellent alternative to the conventional Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this paper, we are going to introduce highly scaled and ultra-low power consuming 4, 8, 16 and 32-bit even parity generator circuits. The proposed 4-bit even parity circuit requires 72% fewer cells and occupies 78% less area as compared to previous best designs. Besides, the proposed 32-bit even parity design occupies only 0.283µm2 whereas the previous best reported design occupies 2.08µm2 area. The simulation outcomes reveal that our presented designs have considerable enhancements in terms of cell counts, area and power consumption aspects. In addition, to design and verify the proposed layout, QCADesigner is employed and power dissipation is estimated using QCAPro.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.002
  • An approximate solution for the MHD nano boundary-layer flows over
           stretching surfaces in a porous medium by rational Legendre collocation

    • Authors: K. Karimi; H. Roohani Ghehsareh; K. Sadeghi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K. Karimi, H. Roohani Ghehsareh, K. Sadeghi
      Solutions for the magnetohydrodynamic nano boundary layer fluid flow over a permeable stretching surface embedded in a porous medium are obtained numerically by rational Legendre collocation method. Two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows induced by stretching of the surface are considered. The effects of magnetic parameter, the porous parameter, first and second order slip and suction/injection parameters on the flow are discussed. A comparison of numerical results with previous published results is made and the results are found to be in good agreement.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.030
  • Performance and design of spear shaped antenna for UWB band applications

    • Authors: N. Sudhakar Reddy; K. Siddappa Naidu; S. Ashok Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): N. Sudhakar Reddy, K. Siddappa Naidu, S. Ashok Kumar
      This paper presents a novel design of a spear shaped antenna for wireless communications. Presently many research groups are working on wireless communication technologies and proposed various types of antenna designs. This proposed antenna fulfills the requirement of low cost, less weight, small size for wireless devices. The design and simulation of proposed CPW fed antenna are carried out with RT Duroid substrate and dimension of antenna substrate is 14mm×18mm. The operating frequency of the proposed antenna is 3.1–10.8GHz. High Frequency Structure Simulator software HFSS's optometric is used for the proposed antenna for more accuracy and results are optimized. The simple configuration and low profile attributes of the proposed antenna made it easy for fabrication and suitable for the application in the UWB band applications.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.021
  • Analysis and design of CPW fed antenna at ISM band for biomedical

    • Authors: S. Ashok Kumar; M. Arun Raj; T. Shanmuganantham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): S. Ashok Kumar, M. Arun Raj, T. Shanmuganantham
      In this paper, to design a patch antenna for implantable biomedical application in the frequency of ISM (industrial, scientific and medical) band (2450MHz). The total size of the proposed antenna is 16×16×1mm3 with the thickness of 1mm, and this antenna is embedded in substrate (Teflon) with the dielectric constant value of 2.1 and loss tangent of 0.00028. The proposed antenna is simulated by using CST simulated and measured. The antenna parameters show good results such as lower return loss, perfect impedance matching, and better gain. The proposed antenna shows the better accuracy and performance compared to other conventional antennas.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.008
  • Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects on unsteady MHD nanofluid flow
           over a slendering stretching surface with slip effects

    • Authors: J.V. Ramana Reddy; V. Sugunamma; N. Sandeep
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): J.V. Ramana Reddy, V. Sugunamma, N. Sandeep
      In the current exploration, a similarity solution is bestowed for hydromagnetic motion of a nanofluid over a slendering stretching sheet with the existence of thermophoresis and Brownian moment. We first altered the time dependent governing mathematical equations into coupled dimensionless differential equations by making use of apposite transmutations. Numerical solution for these equations is procured deploying R.K.-Fehlberg numerical methodology. Further, the impacts of sundry non-dimensional parameters on the flow field along with shear stress, reduced heat and mass transfer have been tackled with the succor of plots and tabular forms. It is worth to divulge that an upturn in the magnitude of thermophoretic and Brownian motion parameters amplifies the fluid temperature, whereas the concentration profiles get depreciated with a hike in thermophoretic parameter.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T16:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.014
  • Numerical investigation of cutting edge effect on fluid flow and heat
           transfer for in-phase trapezoidal air channels

    • Authors: M.F. Abd Rabbo; M.T.S. Badawy; R.Y. Sakr; A.G. Gomaa; H.R. Rashed; H.E. Fawaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M.F. Abd Rabbo, M.T.S. Badawy, R.Y. Sakr, A.G. Gomaa, H.R. Rashed, H.E. Fawaz
      This work is concerned with the numerical investigations of heat transfer and friction factor penalty inside trapezoidal in-phase corrugated-plate air channels. The influence of the flow rate represented by Reynolds number (100–1000), corrugation aspect ratio (0.2–0.5) and cutting edge ratio (0–0.6) on the flow characteristics and heat transfer was investigated. By cutting the sharp edged corners for trapezoidal channel, the large lateral vortex of the triangular channel was gradually damped resulting in lower recirculation area, lower recirculation velocities and lower velocity gradients damping the high peaks of the shear stress observed in the triangular case resulting in lower isothermal friction factor. However, the mixing effect produced by the lateral vortex decreased with its damping, which led to less uniform temperature profile resulting in lower sharper wall temperature gradients with thicker boundary layer thickness, so lower values of the Nusselt number were obtained. New correlations were developed based on the present results to evaluate Nusselt number and friction factor as a function of Reynolds number, corrugation aspect ratio, relative spacing ratio and cutting edge ratio for different corrugation shapes. The predicted results are consistent with the numerical and experimental data and lie within ±10% deviation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.11.019
  • Numerical simulation of melting between two elliptical cylinders

    • Authors: M. Faghani; M.J. Hosseini; R. Bahrampoury
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Faghani, M.J. Hosseini, R. Bahrampoury
      In this paper, melting process between two elliptical cylinders is simulated and analyzed. The shapes of the shell and the central tube are assumed to be circular or elliptical. Since the ellipse can be oriented vertically and horizontally, three possibilities can be accounted for each of the cylinders which lead to nine different heat exchangers. In order to study the effect of the orientations, melting front and flow field are presented for same shell shape. The process is more comprehensively investigated via presenting melt fraction versus time. Results show that regardless of the tube shape and orientation, horizontal ellipse is the best shape for the shell whereas vertical elliptical tube leads to faster pace of heat absorption.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.003
  • Exact solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations using
           G′G2-expansion method

    • Authors: Syed Tauseef; Mohyud-Din Sadaf Bibi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din, Sadaf Bibi
      A relatively new technique which is named as G ′ G 2 -expansion method is applied to attain exact solution of nonlinear fractional differential equations (NLFDEs). Exact solutions include hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions. Fractional complex transform is used to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. We apply it to the space-time fractional Zakharov Kuznetsov Benjamin Bona Mahony (ZKBBM) and fractional coupled Burgers equation. By using our proposed method some innovative solutions can be derived.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:30:33Z
  • Numerical simulation of forced convective heat transfer in inclined
           elliptic ducts with multiple internal longitudinal fins

    • Authors: I.K. Adegun; T.S. Jolayemi; O.A. Olayemi; A.M. Adebisi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): I.K. Adegun, T.S. Jolayemi, O.A. Olayemi, A.M. Adebisi
      The paper presents numerical study of forced convective heat transfer in internally finned elliptic geometry to determine the effect of parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, aspect ratio, fin heights, number of fins and orientations of the duct on the heat transfer coefficient, temperature history and velocity profiles. The walls were assumed to be subjected to a thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux and the effect of slip boundary is assumed negligible. Finite difference technique was adopted for the solution and results were generated using a code written in Qb-64. The study indicated that number of fins ( F = 8 ) provided the optimum heat transfer augmentation. For all the geometries investigated, Nusselt number, average velocity and bulk fluid temperature were enhanced by the inclinations in the range 0 ° ⩽ θ ⩽ 75 ° . For a flow regime of 50 ⩽ Re ⩽ 200 , the effect of inclination on heat transfer is negligible, but it worth noting the existence of a critical Reynolds number, Re = 200 , above which the effect of inclination on fluid flow becomes noticeable. Also, at Pr ⩾ 5 , Nusselt number and bulk fluid temperature were independent of fluid properties. The results obtained could be applied in the prediction of parameters for the design of compact heat exchangers for industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.014
  • Physical protection evaluation process for nuclear facility via sabotage

    • Authors: A.A. Wadoud; A.S. Adail; A.A. Saleh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): A.A. Wadoud, A.S. Adail, A.A. Saleh
      The function of Physical Protection System (PPS) should meet three basic elements (detection, delay, and response) and it is required to protect the nuclear facility against possibility of bombing, sabotage, and theft. The system must be fast in performance to achieve sufficient time for the arrival of response forces and complete the defense about the property in time, thwarting the adversary and neutralizing the implementation of its mission. The performance of the physical protection system should be designed to oppose and limit the capabilities and tactics of the attacker toward the nuclear facility. And in this ways it works as a barrier to obstruct the attacker against penetration. In this work an evaluation of the physical protection system effectiveness for a hypothetical facility against sabotage is presented. Proposed sabotage scenarios will be used as an input for this evaluation. The evaluation process was carried out using the single path computer model (EASI), for the determination of the probability of interruption (PI ) as a first metric factor of the PPS effectiveness. The Probability of Neutralization (PN ) is computed by the neutralization analysis module as a second metric factor of the PPS effectiveness. The probability of detection and delay time values of detection, delay, communication and response forces action was measured along a specific sabotage path of the adversary. If the evaluation reveals any vulnerability, the initial system design must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and another analysis of the redesigned system is performed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.045
  • A teaching media of using the busy bit and SDCC in displaying character
           string on LCD in MCU 8051 IDE

    • Authors: Dahlan R.P. Sitompul; Poltak Sihombing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Dahlan R.P. Sitompul, Poltak Sihombing
      The author developed an instructional media of active learning teaching of microcontroller 8051 by using busy bit routine before displaying a string of characters on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Initially this simulator simulated how to configure the pins of both LCD pins and Microcontroller Pins by using C programming statements to enable them to configure and communicate properly, and then it will be followed by how to use the busy bit to develop a routine as substitute for using wait loop to wait for the LCD to be ready before giving the next commands to be done by the LCD controller. It can be seen obviously from the simulator that using busy bit routine effectively dodges one from calculating the exact time of the waiting time of the loop before giving the controller the next job or work to be executed. Finally, it showed how to display the string of character stored in a specific memory location of the Microcontroller on the LCD screen. This program of simulator was developed in Micro Controller Unit (MCU) 8051 Integrated Development Environment (IDE) widely known as MCU 8051 IDE and by using C language of Small Devices C Compiler (SDCC).

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.037
  • Complex novel 4D memristor hyperchaotic system and its synchronization
           using adaptive sliding mode control

    • Authors: Karthikeyan Rajagopal; Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan; Anitha Karthikeyan; Ashokkumar Srinivasan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan, Anitha Karthikeyan, Ashokkumar Srinivasan
      First, this paper announces a flux controlled novel 4-D chaotic system displaying chaotic attractor modified from a 4D hyperchaotic system. The phase portraits of the novel chaotic system are displayed and the qualitative properties are discussed. Next we derive the complex model of the proposed 4D system. We investigate the dynamic properties of the complex systems. Adaptive sliding mode control is used to achieve non-identical synchronization of the complex systems. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the results.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.044
  • Sustainable self-cleaning treatments for architectural facades in
           developing countries

    • Authors: Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour; Salam K. Al-Dawery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour, Salam K. Al-Dawery
      Air pollution is one of the most significant factors deteriorating the buildings facades in most high-density urban contexts. A valid solution for decreasing the effect of this deterioration is to apply a self-cleaning material mixed with the paints of the building facades in the polluted areas. Instead of repainting the whole building elevation, application of self-cleaning material is becoming more practical to maintain cleaner facades for longer period of time. Titanium dioxide is considered one of materials that has a high photo-catalytic activates when illuminated with UV light. This paper demonstrated the ability of TiO2-paint mixture for self-cleaning for organic pollutants. Three types of paints were mixed with TiO2 and the mixtures were coated on flat Styrofoam sheets. Coated sheets were covered with black smock from burned tire tubes. After exposing these sheets to waterfall and UV sunlight, TiO2 oxidized most of the pollutant that covered the flat sheet. TiO2-paint mixture showed a good property of attracting water and acted as a hydrophilic material. Accordingly, adding traces of TiO2, while painting building facades, can be considered as a sustainable economic method for pollution reduction especially in the developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.042
  • Energy efficient selective hop selection optimization to maximize lifetime
           of wireless sensor network

    • Authors: Arun L. Kakhandki; Shivaraj Hublikar; Priyatamkumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Arun L. Kakhandki, Shivaraj Hublikar, Priyatamkumar
      The availability of low cost and tiny sensor devices has led to wide adoption of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for various application uses. The sensors have been adopted in various industries and organization applications such as environmental monitoring, pollution monitoring and so on. The sensor devices are powered by resources constrained battery devices and are deployed remotely. Preserving the battery of these devices is the major things in various application services. Cooperative based communication has attained wide interest due to its energy efficient benefits it offers. The major factor of cooperative transmission is selection of hop devices. Many clustering based cooperative transmission is adopted by various approach. These techniques are not efficient in enhancing the lifetime of sensor network since they considered minimizing energy consumption per bit only. To address this, we present a distributed MAC (Medium Access control) and transceiver optimization technique for selective hop device selection. The proposed model minimizes energy consumption per bit and maximizes the lifetime of sensor network. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance in terms of lifetime, communication overhead and node decay rate. The outcome shows significant performance improvement over existing model.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.041
  • Hyper-Erlang channel allocation factor-based QoS enhancement mechanism for
           mobile ad hoc networks

    • Authors: Arjunan Amuthan; N. Sreenath; P. Boobalan; K. Muthuraj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Arjunan Amuthan, N. Sreenath, P. Boobalan, K. Muthuraj
      The availability of multiple channels in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET) enhances the options of utilizing channels efficiently for achieving improved system performance in terms of throughput, end-to-end and communication overhead that impacts spectral efficiency. However, ensuring quality of service (QoS) in multichannel ad hoc networks is crucial and most of the existing signaling and adaptation mechanisms for QoS available in the literature mainly supports fixed-width channels or variable-width channels that restrict network performance. In this paper, we propose a Hyper-Erlang Channel Allocation Factor-based QoS Enhancement Mechanism (HECAFQEM) for improving the support capability of ad hoc networks. HECAFQEM uses a composite model that models the availability and performance of the prevailing channel conditions through Hyper-Erlang Factor that quantifies the rate of rejection of the network. The degree of rejection of user request depends on queuing delay, transmission delay and two significant parameter called Channel Allocation factor (CAF) and Expected Channel Allocation Factor (ECAF). The QoS adaptations are performed by HECAFQEM by measuring the queuing delay that helps in segmenting the packet stream into small bursts for enhancing the degree of QoS. This distributed mechanism enhances QoS through the estimation of Channel Allocation Factor (CAF) that dynamically adapts channel widths in a multichannel ad-hoc network to suit bandwidth adaptability. The performance analysis of HECAFQEM is carried out based on ns-2 simulator and the proposed approach shows an improvement on an average by 23% and 19% in terms of packet delivery ratio and throughput than the existing QoS adaptation mechanisms available in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.013
  • A review on activities of fifth generation mobile communication system

    • Authors: Arun Kumar; Manisha Gupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Arun Kumar, Manisha Gupta
      In the year 2020, the fifth generation mobile communication will be deployed in many countries which aim to furnish a real wireless world free from present obstacles in communication system which is a great motivating factor for all the researchers, academicians and engineers. Researches are going all around the world to develop a new technology which will play a very important role in the successful deployment of 5G. The new technologies are being investigated that provide high speed, capacity, spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, pseudo outdoor communication, etc. that solves the existed problems in mobile communication system. In this work, a comprehensive study on key technologies, challenges, spectrum allocation, projects and present scenarios of 5G is discussed and described. The present study gives a detailed research to address the issues, and development correlated with 5G deployment.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.043
  • Study of Fe3O4-water nanofluid with convective heat transfer in the
           presence of magnetic source

    • Authors: M. Sheikholeslami; R. Ellahi; K. Vafai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Sheikholeslami, R. Ellahi, K. Vafai
      Influence of external magnetic source on ferrofluid convection in an enclosure with elliptic hot cylinder is studied. Governing formulae are first made dimensionless form along with the associated boundary conditions and then solved by powerful numerical method namely CVFEM. Influences of Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers and Fe3O4 volume fraction on hydrothermal behavior are presented. Results indicated that temperature gradient is an enhancing function of volume fraction of Fe3O4 and Rayleigh number but it is a reducing function of Lorentz forces. Lorentz forces cause the nanofluid velocity to reduce and augment the thermal boundary layer thickness. The role of effective parameters is illustrated through graphs and tables. Comparison of the present work is also made with the existing literature.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.027
  • Viscoelastic fluid flow through an annulus with relaxation, retardation
           effects and external heat source/sink

    • Authors: Debasish Dey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Debasish Dey
      Analysis of unsteady hydro-magnetic viscoelastic fluid flow through an annulus (bounded by two infinite co-axial circular cylinders) has been made in presence of radiation, periodic pressure gradient and external heat source/sink. To study the viscoelastic effects, Oldroyd fluid model has been used. Governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equation and are solved analytically using modified Bessel functions of first kind Iυ (z) and second kind Kυ (z). Effects of relaxation and retardation parameters with other flow parameters are shown in graphically and in tabular form and their effects are seen maximum in the central portion of the annular region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.039
  • Design of hexagon shape bow-tie patch antenna for implantable bio-medical

    • Authors: N. Mahalakshmi; A. Thenmozhi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): N. Mahalakshmi, A. Thenmozhi
      This paper presents a novel hexagon shape bow-tie antenna for implantable bio-medical application at a frequency ranging from 2.4GHz to 2.48GHz of ISM band. In order to achieve high frequency response the proposed antenna is designed with CPW feed. Alumina ceramic ( Al 2 O 3 ) is used as the substrate material with 1mm thickness and the dielectric constant is 9.8. The proposed antenna has the total size of 10∗10∗1mm which is located at human tissues such as muscle, fat and skin and some of the parameters such as gain, return loss, radiation pattern and VSWR are measured. The main advantage of the proposed system is it has reduced size with increased accuracy. The proposed antenna possesses the return loss of −29dB at 2.43GHz. Thus the proposed hexagon shape bow-tie antenna can be employed for several implantable applications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.028
  • Hall effects on MHD natural convection flow in a vertical microchannel

    • Authors: Basant Kumar Jha; Peter Bukar Malgwi; Babatunde Aina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Basant Kumar Jha, Peter Bukar Malgwi, Babatunde Aina
      In this work, the steady fully developed magnetohydrodynamic natural convection flow in a vertical microchannel formed by two infinite vertical parallel plates due to asymmetric heating of parallel plates in the presence of Hall current is studied. Effects of velocity slip and temperature jump have been considered on the microchannel surfaces and exact solutions have been obtained for momentum and energy equations under relevant boundary conditions. The influence of each governing parameter such as Hall current parameter, Hartmann number, rarefaction parameter, fluid wall interaction parameter and wall-ambient temperature ratio on flow formation is discussed with the aid of graphs. The significant result from the study is that, increase in the value of rarefaction parameter leads to enhancement in volume flow rate. Furthermore, it is evident that volume flow rate is found to be increasing function of Hall current parameter.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.038
  • A synergistic combination of Asymptotic Computational Fluid Dynamics and
           ANN for the estimation of unknown heat flux from fin heat transfer

    • Authors: Harsha Kumar; Gnanasekaran Nagarajan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Harsha Kumar, Gnanasekaran Nagarajan
      This paper deals with conjugate heat transfer from a rectangular fin. The problem consists of mild steel (250×150×6mm) fin placed vertically on aluminium base (250×150×4mm). The aluminium plate is subjected to an unknown heat flux at the base. The fin set-up is modelled using ANSYS fluent 14.5. The fin geometry is surrounded by extended domain filled with air so as to account for natural convection conjugate heat transfer. Grid independence study is carried out to fix the number of grids. A simple correlation using Asymptotic Computational Fluid Dynamics (ACFD) is developed and the same is used as a forward model to obtain the temperature distribution considering heat flux as the input. The problem is treated as an inverse problem in which a non-iterative method, ANN is used as the inverse model to estimate the unknown heat flux from the information of temperature. The results of the forward model and the ANN predicted values are in close agreement with error less than 1%. Effect of noise on the unknown parameter is also studied extensively.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.034
  • Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water
           system (a case study)

    • Authors: Mohamed Ghorab; Evgueniy Entchev; Libing Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed Ghorab, Evgueniy Entchev, Libing Yang
      In recent years Solar Domestic Hot Water systems have increased significantly their market share. In order to better understand the real-life performance of SDHW systems, a single detached house was selected for extensive monitoring. Two solar panels were installed on the house roof to provide thermal energy to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The house was equipped with data logging system and remotely monitored with performance data collected and analyzed over one year. The paper presents the inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of SDHW system, including DHW recirculation loop, under Canadian weather conditions for average family occupancy (two adults and two kids) with daily average DHW, draws of 246L. Moreover, the study is carried out a significant recommendation to improve the SDHW performance, decrease the gas energy consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The SDHW performance depends mainly on DHW flow rate, draw time and duration, city water temperature, DHW recirculation loop control strategy and system layout. The performance analysis results show that 91.5% of the collected solar energy is transferred to the DHW heating load through the solar tank. The contribution to DHW heating load is about 69.4% from natural gas and 30.6% from solar. The recirculation loop is responsible for close to 34.9%, of DHW total energy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.033
  • Crack detection using image processing: A critical review and analysis

    • Authors: Arun Mohan; Sumathi Poobal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Arun Mohan, Sumathi Poobal
      Cracks on the concrete surface are one of the earliest indications of degradation of the structure which is critical for the maintenance as well the continuous exposure will lead to the severe damage to the environment. Manual inspection is the acclaimed method for the crack inspection. In the manual inspection, the sketch of the crack is prepared manually, and the conditions of the irregularities are noted. Since the manual approach completely depends on the specialist’s knowledge and experience, it lacks objectivity in the quantitative analysis. So, automatic image-based crack detection is proposed as a replacement. Literature presents different techniques to automatically identify the crack and its depth using image processing techniques. In this research, a detailed survey is conducted to identify the research challenges and the achievements till in this field. Accordingly, 50 research papers are taken related to crack detection, and those research papers are reviewed. Based on the review, analysis is provided based on the image processing techniques, objectives, accuracy level, error level, and the image data sets. Finally, we present the various research issues which can be useful for the researchers to accomplish further research on the crack detection.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.020
  • Power optimization of planar redundant manipulator moving along
           constrained-end trajectory using hybrid techniques

    • Authors: Mohamed M.Y.B. Elshabasy; Khaled T. Mohamed; Atef A. Ata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed M.Y.B. Elshabasy, Khaled T. Mohamed, Atef A. Ata
      Optimum trajectory planning for a planar redundant manipulator which consumes minimum power is considered in this paper. The equations of motion for the manipulator are derived in matrix form using Lagrange Equation. Two hybrid optimization algorithms with constrained variables during the search have been presented and compared to design an optimal trajectory for planar redundant manipulator based on minimum power to be consumed. Two trajectories with the same initial angular displacement of the manipulator joints and two different angular positions at the end of the trajectories are studied. Both the hybrid technique of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the constrained Fmin function (GA-Fmincon) and the hybrid genetic algorithm with the pattern search (GA-PS) subjected to the same constraints give the same results for the trajectory that ends with angular displacements of (π/2,0,0)rad with trivial differences in the power values at any arbitrary mission period. For the second trajectory, which ends with angular positions of (1,1,1)rad, the GA-PS gives a penalty function of smaller value.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.040
  • Steady laminar MHD flow of visco-elastic fluid through a porous pipe
           embedded in a porous medium

    • Authors: R.N. Barik; G.C. Dash; P.K. Rath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): R.N. Barik, G.C. Dash, P.K. Rath
      An attempt has been made to study the effect of elasticity, suction/injection, porous matrix, inlet flow Reynolds number on the flow of a visco-elastic (Walters B ′ ) fluid through a porous pipe. The novelty of the study is to consider the entire flow domain without boundary layer approximation in the governing equations vis-à-vis the fully developed solutions of the velocity field are obtained. Further, we have discussed the viscous and non-conducting flow as particular cases by omitting the effect of elasticity and magnetic field. It is interesting to note that elasticity property of the fluid in presence of porous matrix and suction reduces the skin friction at the plate which is a desirable outcome of the present study.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.025
  • Nanofluid heat transfer between two pipes considering Brownian motion
           using AGM

    • Authors: M. Sheikholeslami; M. Nimafar; D.D. Ganji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Sheikholeslami, M. Nimafar, D.D. Ganji
      Nanofluid flow between two circular cylinders is studied in existence of magnetic field. KKL model is applied for nanofluid. Thermal radiation effect has been considered in energy equation. AGM is selected for solving ODEs. Semi analytical procedures are examined for various active parameters namely; aspect ratio, Hartmann number, Eckert number and Reynolds number. Results indicate that temperature gradient enhances with rise of Ha, Ec and η but it reduces with augment of Re. Velocity reduces with rise of Lorentz forces but it augments with rise of Reynolds number.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.032
  • Combined influence of viscous dissipation and non-uniform heat source/sink
           on MHD non-Newtonian fluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    • Authors: B. Ramandevi; J.V. Ramana Reddy; V. Sugunamma; N. Sandeep
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): B. Ramandevi, J.V. Ramana Reddy, V. Sugunamma, N. Sandeep
      This paper is perpetrated to inspect the MHD flow and heat transfer of two distinct non-Newtonian fluids across a stretching sheet with the new heat flux theory namely Cattaneo-Christov. Using this model, one can discern the impact of thermal relaxation time. Casson and viscoelastic fluids are supposed for the present perusal. The impacts of frictional heat and irregular heat are accounted. According to the heat variations in the nature or in any other system, the radiation effect on the flows may be linear or nonlinear. So the current investigation is aimed at nonlinear radiation. The flow governing equations have been altered as ODE via appropriate transmutations and then resolved by adopting R-K and Newton calculations. Graphs are displayed to discern the influence of physical parameters entered into the problem. The shear stress and heat transfer coefficients are also tabulated. It is inferred that Casson fluid obtains better velocity compared with viscoelastic fluid. Also, it is essential to disclose that thermal relaxation time exhibits dual behaviour on Casson fluid temperature. Also there is intensification in thermal boundary layer thickness with the enlargement of temperature ratio or frictional heat.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.026
  • Integrating youth in city planning: Developing a participatory tool toward
           a child-friendly vision of Eastern Wastani – Saida

    • Authors: Sawsan Saridar Masri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Sawsan Saridar Masri
      UNICEF Child Friendly Cities initiative launched in 1996 states that the well-being of children is the ultimate indicator of a healthy habitat. Therefore, public authorities have a responsibility to create an environment where children and young people can grow and reach their potential. Saida has a leading experience in Lebanon in involving children and its young citizens in making decisions about issues that affect their lives. At present, the pooling and subdivision project of Eastern Wastani area may benefit from local and international experiences to develop a child friendly planning strategy that can offer unique insights and creative solutions, and enrich decision-making processes and outcomes. This paper is written to provide a knowledge base for the development of a child and youth friendly planning strategy for the city of Saida. Based on a review of available research and reports, this document provides an overview of basic principles and approaches, and aims to develop a youth participatory tool to engage the children of Saida in urban planning process and decision making. A pilot workshop has been conducted in order to test the viability of suggested activities with regard to children capacities and their awareness of public and social concerns.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.023
  • Using post-occupancy evaluation of housing projects to generate value for
           municipal governments

    • Authors: Xavier Brioso; Antonio Humero; Danny Murguia; Jaclyn Corrales; Johana Aranda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Xavier Brioso, Antonio Humero, Danny Murguia, Jaclyn Corrales, Johana Aranda
      This article presents a value-generation framework for municipalities through the adaptation of the Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS) to the municipal management process. Said process includes the use of learning loops from previous projects to revamp municipal management during design revision, construction supervision and commissioning, and taking into account the final user’s needs and values. This framework allows the municipal management to investigate the user’s value requirements and proposes the Number of Claims per Housing Unit (NCHU) as a performance indicator. A case study describing this method is presented. We analyze the post-occupation information recorded by the Peruvian National Bureau of Consumer Protection (INDECOPI from its acronym in Spanish), classifying the claims according to their root cause. This approach allows us to separate claims originating in the design phase from those originating in the production phase. This paper proposes learning loops for improved project review in the licensing system, with the aim of increasing the value in design, improving site inspection and control, and optimizing the issue of ordinances. This article also includes a critique of current standards and regulations, since in some cases they do not allow municipalities to fulfill the value-in-design requirements.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.015
  • A new numerical scheme for solving system of Volterra integro-differential

    • Authors: Jian Rong Loh; Chang Phang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Jian Rong Loh, Chang Phang
      In this article, we apply Genocchi polynomials to solve numerically a system of Volterra integro-differential equations. This is done by approximating functions using Genocchi polynomials and derivatives using Genocchi polynomials operational matrix of integer order derivative. Combining approximation with collocation method, the problem is reduced to a system of algebraic equations in terms of Genocchi coefficients of the unknown functions. By solving the Genocchi coefficients, we obtain good approximate functions of the exact solutions of the system. A few numerical examples show that our proposed Genocchi polynomials method achieves better accuracy compared to some other existing methods.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.021
  • Flow generated by slow steady rotation of a permeable sphere in a
           micro-polar fluid

    • Authors: P. Aparna; N. Pothanna; J.V. Ramana Murthy; K. Sreelatha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): P. Aparna, N. Pothanna, J.V. Ramana Murthy, K. Sreelatha
      The analytical study of the flow generated by the slow steady rotation of a permeable sphere in an incompressible micro-polar fluid is considered. Both the flows internal and external to the sphere are coupled. The result will degenerate to independent equations for the case of viscous fluids for the inner and external flows. The flow field in the form of velocity w and micro rotation function φ are obtained in terms of modified Bessel functions and Gegenbauer polynomials. The flow pattern is shown in the form of graphs. It is interesting to note that the velocity and micro-rotation functions within the sphere are constant at distances from the axis of rotation since it represents a rigid body rotation. Effects of physical parameters on the Couple are also shown in the form of graphs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.018
  • Design of biosensor array with current boost and signal conditioning
           circuits for HPV detection

    • Authors: P.G. Gopinath; V.R. Anitha; S. Aruna Mastani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): P.G. Gopinath, V.R. Anitha, S. Aruna Mastani
      Cervical cancer is the major cancer affecting women and is growing at a very significant rate. One of the major challenges in treatment of cervical cancer is its detection in early stages. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infections are the major causes of cervical cancer that risks precancerous cell to cervical cancer cells. Gene-based DNA nanobiosensor is designed to capture the cancer specific antigen and helps in screening process of cancer patients. In this work, a nanobiosensor is designed using Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET) and the signal conditioning circuits designed are interfaced with the sensor for amplifying the bio potential generated with the chemical reaction of the antigen with the antibody placed over the CNTFET channel. The sensor array is designed to have 64 cells that are configured into three categories such as core, periphery and middle sensors to increase the sensitivity of cell detection. Three reference voltages are generated from the current reference circuit for biasing the bottom gates of CNTFETs that produce maximum current due to the electro potential changes in the top gate. The corresponding voltages are further processed to detect the presence of analyte concentration and the sensitivity of the designed sensor array is found to be 130μA/V.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.012
  • Safe backpack weight limit for secondary school students in Ibadan,
           Southwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: S.O. Ismaila
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Alexandria Engineering Journal
      Author(s): S.O. Ismaila
      The aim of the study was to determine the safe limit of backpack weight that students in secondary schools should carry. This study considered a sample of 324 secondary school students (both boys and girls) that were randomly selected from both private and public secondary schools located in the city of Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State. A model was developed using strain energy principle of the spine in terms of chest width, chest depth, Young Modulus of Elasticity of articular cartilage, maximum permissible spinal shrinkage, length of spine and leg length of the students. The 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of the data obtained were computed using a SPSS 16.0 statistical package. The safe weight of backpack to be carried by male and female secondary students was 2.87kg (5.18% of body weight) and 2.53kg (4.91% of body weight) respectively. The study confirmed that the model may be used to determine the safe weight of backpack that should be carried out by the students.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T18:24:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2017.01.007
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