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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2253 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (177 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1198 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1198 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería e Investigación     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access  
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access  
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinary Fluid Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Flow Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation
  [SJR: 0.29]   [H-I: 9]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1551-3939 - ISSN (Online) 1551-3947
   Published by Now Publishers Inc Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Fast Uncovering of Graph Communities on a Chip: Toward Scalable Community
           Detection on Multicore and Manycore Platforms
    • Abstract: Graph representations are pervasive in scientific and social computing. They serve as vital tools to model the interplay among different interacting entities. In this paper, we visit the problem of community detection, which is one of the most widely used graph operations toward scientific discovery. Community detection refers to the process of identifying tightlyknit subgroups of vertices in a large graph. These sub-groups (or communities) represent vertices that are tied together through common structure or function. Identification of communities could help in understanding the modular organization of complex networks. However, owing to large data sizes and high computational costs, performing community detection at scale has become increasingly challenging. Here, we present a detailed review and analysis of some of the leading computational methods and implementations developed for executing community detection on modern day multicore and manycore architectures. Our goals are to: a) define the problem of community detection and highlight its scientific significance; b) relate to challenges in parallelizing the operation on modern day architectures; c) provide a detailed report and logical organization of the approaches that have been designed for various architectures; and d) finally, provide insights into the strengths and suitability of different architectures for community detection, and a preview into the future trends of the area. It is our hope that this detailed treatment of community detection on parallel architectures can serve as an exemplar study for extending the application of modern day multicore and manycore architectures to other complex graph applications. Suggested CitationAnanth Kalyanaraman, Mahantesh Halappanavar, Daniel Chavarría-Miranda, Hao Lu, Karthi Duraisamy and Partha Pratim Pande (2016), "Fast Uncovering of Graph Communities on a Chip: Toward Scalable Community Detection on Multicore and Manycore Platforms", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 10: No. 3, pp 145-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000044
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2016 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Smart Connected Buildings Design Automation: Foundations and Trends
    • Abstract: Buildings are the result of a complex integration of multi-physics subsystems. Besides the obvious civil engineering infrastructure, thermal, electrical, mechanical, control, communication and computing subsystems must co-exist and be operated so that the overall operation is smooth and efficient. This is particularly important for commercial buildings but is also very relevant for residential buildings especially apartment buildings. Unfortunately, the design and deployment of these subsystems is rarely synchronized: lighting, security, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are often designed independently. However, simply putting together a collection of sub-systems, albeit optimized, has led to the inefficient buildings of today. Worldwide, buildings consume 42% of all electrical power – more than any other asset – and it can be proven that much of this can be reduced if a holistic approach to design, deployment, and operation is taken. Government agencies, academic institutions, building contractors and owners have realized the significant impact of buildings on the global environment, the electrical grid, and the mission of their organizations. However, the economic impact for all constituencies is still difficult to assess. Government regulations can play a fundamental role, as it has been the case for the transportation industry where regulations on emission and fuel consumption have been the single most important factor of innovation in automotive design. We are convinced that by leveraging technology and utilizing a system-level approach to buildings, they will provide comfort, safety and functionality while minimizing energy cost, supporting a robust electric grid and mitigating environmental impact. Realizing this vision requires adding intelligence from the beginning of the design phase, to deployment, from commissioning to operation, all the way to the end of the building’s life cycle. In this issue, we attempt to provide an as-complete-as-possible overview of the activities in the field of smart connected building design automation that attempts to make the vision a reality. The overarching range of such activities includes developing simulation tools for modeling and the design of buildings, and consequently control algorithms proposed to make buildings smarter and more efficient. Furthermore, we will review real-world and large-scale implementation of such control strategies on physical buildings. We then present a formal co-design methodology to design buildings, taking the view that buildings are prime examples of cyber-physical systems where the virtual and physical worlds meet as more traditional products such as thermostats are able to connect online and perform complicated computational tasks to control building temperature effectively. We complete the presentation describing the growing role of buildings in the operation of the smart grid where buildings are not only consumers of energy, but are themselves also providers of services and energy to the grid. The audiences for this monograph are industry professionals and researchers who work in the area of smart buildings, smart cities, and smart grid, with emphasis on energy efficiency, simulation tools, optimal control, and cyber-physical systems for the emerging power markets. Suggested CitationMehdi Maasoumy and Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli (2016), "Smart Connected Buildings Design Automation: Foundations and Trends", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 10: No. 1-2, pp 1-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000043
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development
    • Abstract: The design of bug-free and safe medical device software is challenging, especially in complex implantable devices. This is due to the device’s closed-loop interaction with the patient’s organs, which are stochastic physical environments. The life-critical nature and the lack of existing industry standards to enforce software validation make this an ideal domain for exploring design automation challenges for integrated functional and formal modeling with closed-loop analysis. The primary goal of high-confidence medical device software is to guarantee the device will never drive the patient into an unsafe condition even though we do not have complete understanding of the physiological plant. There are two major differences between modeling physiology and modeling man-made systems: first, physiology is much more complex and less well-understood than man-made systems like cars and airplanes, and spans several scales from the molecular to the entire human body. Secondly, the variability between humans is orders of magnitude larger than that between two cars coming off the assembly line. Using the implantable cardiac pacemaker as an example of closed-loop device, and the heart as the organ to be modeled, we present several of the challenges and early results in model-based device validation. We begin with detailed timed automata model of the pacemaker, based on the specifications and algorithm descriptions from Boston Scientific. For closed-loop evaluation, a real-time Virtual Heart Model (VHM) has been developed to model the electrophysiological operation of the functioning and malfunctioning (i.e., during arrhythmia) hearts. By extracting the timing properties of the heart and pacemaker device, we present a methodology to construct timed-automata models for formal model checking and functional testing of the closed-loop system. The VHM’s capability of generating clinically-relevant response has been validated for a variety of common arrhythmias. Based on a set of requirements, we describe a framework of ion Trees that allows for interactive and physiologically relevant closed-loop model checking and testing for basic pacemaker device operations such as maintaining the heart rate, atrial-ventricle synchrony and complex conditions such as avoiding pacemaker-mediated tachycardia. Through automatic model translation of abstract models to simulation-based testing and code generation for platform-level testing, this model-based design approach ensures the closed-loop safety properties are retained through the design toolchain and facilitates the development of verified software from verified models. This system is a step toward a validation and testing approach for medical cyber-physical systems with the patient-in-the-loop. Suggested CitationZhihao Jiang and Rahul Mangharam (2015), "High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 4, pp 309-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000040
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Utilization Control and Optimization of Real-Time Embedded Systems
    • Abstract: Real-time embedded systems have been widely deployed in mission-critical applications, such as avionics mission computing, highway traffic control, remote patient monitoring, wireless communications, navigation, etc. These applications always require their real-time and embedded components to work in open and unpredictable environments, where workload is volatile and unknown. In order to guarantee the temporal correctness and avoid severe underutilization or overload, it is of vital significance to measure, control, and optimize the processor utilization adaptively. A key challenge in this mission is to meet real-time requirements even when the workload cannot be accurately characterized a priori. Traditional approaches of worst-case analysis may cause underutilization of resources, while Model Predictive Control (MPC) based approaches may suffer severe performance deterioration when large estimation errors exist. To address this challenging problem and provide better system performance, we have developed several important online adaptive optimal control approaches based on advanced control techniques. Our approaches adopt Recursive Least Square (RLS) based model identification and Linear Quadratic (LQ) optimal controllers to guarantee that the systems are neither overloaded, nor underloaded. These proposed approaches, as well as the associated tools, can quickly adapt to volatile workload changes to provide stable system performance. To minimize the impact of modeling errors, we adopt the Adaptive Critic Design (ACD) technique and develop an improved solution that requires little information of the system model. To deal with the discrete task rates, we further propose to utilize the frequency scaling technique to assist the utilization control and optimization. The computational overhead of centralized approaches explodes as the scale of systems increases. To ensure system scalability and global stability, decentralized control and optimization approaches are desired. We leverage an efficient decoupling technique and derive several distributed approaches. These approaches adopt one feedback loop to adjust the task rate, and apply another feedback loop to control the CPU frequency asynchronously. As these two manipulated variables (i.e., the CPU frequency and task rate) contribute to the system performance together with a strong coupling, asynchronous control approaches may not be able to achieve the optimal performance. To handle this coupling, we further develop a synchronous rate and frequency control and optimization approach. This approach jointly and synchronously adjusts rate and frequency settings, and achieves enhanced system performance. All the aforementioned approaches are based on certain mathematical models. However, it is sometimes hard to develop an exact model to characterize a real-time embedded system. In order to deal with this issue, we further develop a model-free utilization control and optimization solution by applying the fuzzy logic control theory. The application of this theory allows us to achieve the desired performance in a nonlinear dynamic system without a specific system model. The proposed fuzzy utilization control approaches are stable and fast-converging, and achieve smaller tracking errors than model-based approaches. Suggested CitationXue Liu, Xi Chen and Fanxin Kong (2015), "Utilization Control and Optimization of Real-Time Embedded Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 3, pp 211-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000042
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Design, Automation, and Test for Low-Power and Reliable Flexible
           Electronics
    • Abstract: Flexible electronics are emerging as an alternative to conventional Si electronics for large-area low-cost applications such as smart sensors, disposable RFID tags, and solar cells. By utilizing inexpensive manufacturing methods such as ink-jet printing and roll-to-roll imprinting, flexible electronics can be made on low-cost plastic films just like printing newspapers. However, the key elements of flexible electronics, thin-film transistors (TFTs), have slower operating speeds and are less reliable than their Si electronics counterparts. Furthermore, depending on the material property, TFTs are usually mono-type – either p- or n-type – devices. Making air-stable complementary TFT circuits is very challenging or not applicable to most TFT technologies. Existing design methodologies for Si electronics, therefore, cannot be directly applied to flexible electronics. Other inhibiting factors such as high supply voltage, large process variation, and lack of trustworthy device modeling also make designing larger-scale and robust TFT circuits a challenge.The objective of this article is to provide an in-depth overview of flexible electronics from their applications, manufacturing processes, device characteristics, to circuit and system design solutions. We first introduce the low-cost fabrication methods for flexible electronics, including ink-jet printing, screen printing, and gravure printing. The device characteristics and compact modeling of four major types of TFT technologies, including hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT, polymer organic TFT, self-assembly monolayer (SAM) organic TFT, and metal oxide TFT, will be illustrated. We will then give an overview of digital and analog circuit design from basic logic gates to a microprocessor, as well as design automation tools and methods, for designing flexible electronics. In order to accurately predict the time-dependent degradation of TFT circuits, we describe a reliability simulation framework that can predict the TFT circuits’ performance degradation under bias-stress. This framework has been validated using the amorphous-silicon (a-Si) TFT scan driver for TFT-LCD displays. Finally, we will give an overview of flexible thin-film photovoltaics using different materials including amorphous silicon, CdTe, CIGS , and organic solar cells. Suggested CitationTsung-Ching (Jim) Huang, Jiun-Lang Huang and Kwang-Ting (Tim) Cheng (2015), "Design, Automation, and Test for Low-Power and Reliable Flexible Electronics", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 2, pp 99-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000039
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Datacenter Power Management in Smart Grids
    • Abstract: Cloud computing is a new computing paradigm and it is gaining wide popularity due to its benefits including reduced cost, ease of management, and increased reliability. In a cloud computing environment, companies or individuals offload their computing (hardware/software/data) to the cloud, which is supported by the computing infrastructure called datacenters. Datacenters consume large amounts of electricity to operate and bring enormous electricity bills to the operators. Associated carbon emissions from operating datacenters also cause significant negative impact to the environment. In the mean time, a new kind of electrical grid, called the smart grid, is emerging. Smart grids enable two way communications between the power generators and the power consumers. Smart grid technology brings many salient features to help deliver power efficiently and reliably. There are many research efforts addressing either of the two tracks above. Different with them, we consider both and focus on cost-aware datacenter power management in presence of smart grids. We review recent developments on this area in this article. It involves understanding how a smart grid operates, where power goes in datacenters, and most importantly, how to reduce the power cost and/or negative environmental impact when operating datacenters.Suggested CitationXue Liu and Fanxin Kong (2015), "Datacenter Power Management in Smart Grids", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 1, pp 1-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000038
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Time-Predictable Embedded Software on Multi-Core Platforms: Analysis and
           Optimization
    • Abstract: Multi-core architectures have recently gained popularity due to their high-performance and low-power characteristics. Most of the modern desktop systems are now equipped with multi-core processors. Despite the wide-spread adaptation of multi-core processors in desktop systems, using such processors in embedded systems still poses several challenges. Embedded systems are often constrained by several extra-functional aspects, such as time. Therefore, providing guarantees for time-predictable execution is one of the key requirements for embedded system designers. Multi-core processors adversely affect the time-predictability due to the presence of shared resources, such as shared caches and shared buses. In this contribution, we shall first discuss the challenges imposed by multi-core architectures in designing time-predictable embedded systems. Subsequently, we shall describe, in details, a comprehensive solution to guarantee time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms. Besides, we shall also perform a discussion of different techniques to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art solutions in this topic. Through this work, we aim to provide a solid background on recent trends of research towards achieving time-predictability on multi-cores. Besides, we also highlight the limitations of the state-of-the-art and discuss future research opportunities and challenges to accomplish time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms.Suggested CitationSudipta Chattopadhyay, Abhik Roychoudhury, Jakob Rosén, Petru Eles and Zebo Peng (2014), "Time-Predictable Embedded Software on Multi-Core Platforms: Analysis and Optimization", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 3-4, pp 199-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000037
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Temperature-Aware Design and Management for 3D Multi-Core Architectures
    • Abstract: Vertically-integrated 3D multiprocessors systems-on-chip (3D MPSoCs) provide the means to continue integrating more functionality within a unit area while enhancing manufacturing yields and runtime performance. However, 3D MPSoCs incur amplified thermal challenges that undermine the corresponding reliability. To address these issues, several advanced cooling technologies, alongside temperature-aware design-time optimizations and run-time management schemes have been proposed. In this paper, we provide an overall survey on the recent advances in temperature-aware 3D MPSoC considerations. We explore the recent advanced cooling strategies, thermal modeling frameworks, design-time optimizations and run-time thermal management schemes that are primarily targeted for 3D MPSoCs. Our aim of proposing this survey is to provide a global perspective, highlighting the advancements and drawbacks on the recent state-of-the-art.Suggested CitationMohamed M. Sabry and David Atienza (2014), "Temperature-Aware Design and Management for 3D Multi-Core Architectures", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 2, pp 117-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000032
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Rivers and Electric Networks: Crossing Disciplines in Modeling and
           Simulation
    • Abstract: Electric circuits and river networks share similarities in both their network structure and derivation from conservation principals. However, the disciplines have evolved separately and developed widely different methods and models. This paper presents the foundations for network analysis for both disciplines and shows how numerical methods developed for circuit simulations can significantly improve river network models. The equations, models, and jargon are described, providing a reference for future studies to transfer knowledge across disciplinary boundaries.Suggested CitationBen R. Hodges and Frank Liu (2014), "Rivers and Electric Networks: Crossing Disciplines in Modeling and Simulation", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 1, pp 1-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000033
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Computer-Aided Design and Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    • Abstract: Electricity is the key to the proper functioning of modern human society. Ever-increasing electricity consumption gives rise to recent regulations and significant endeavors to improve the energy efficiency in all kinds of human activity from manufacturing to commerce, from transportation to digital communication, from entertainment to laptops and portable devices. An important technology for helping reduce energy consumption is the ability to store any excess electrical energy for long periods of time and efficiently retrieve the stored energy.The design and management of electrical energy storage systems is the focus of the present paper, which starts off by reviewing and comparing various types of electrical energy storage elements in terms of various metrics of interest ranging from power and energy density to output power rating and from self-leakage rate to cost per unit of stored energy, and from life cycle of the storage element to the efficiency of the charge/discharge cycle. Next the paper reviews various energy storage systems while motivating the need for a hybrid energy storage system comprised of heterogeneous types of energy storage elements organized in a hierarchical manner so as to hide the weaknesses of each storage element while eliciting their strengths. The paper continues with a detailed explanation of key challenges that one faces when dealing with the optimal design and runtime management of a hybrid energy storage system targeting some specific application scenario; for example, grid-scale energy management, household peak power shaving, mobile platform power saving, and more. A survey of some existing solutions to these problems is also included. Suggested CitationYounghyun Kim, Yanzhi Wang, Naehyuck Chang and Massoud Pedram (2013), "Computer-Aided Design and Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 4, pp 247-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000035
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Energy Harvesting and Power Delivery for Implantable Medical Devices
    • Abstract: Providing a constant and perpetual energy source is a key design challenge for implantable medical devices. Harvesting energy from the human body and the surrounding is one of the possible solutions. Delivering energy from outside the body through different wireless media is another feasible solution. In this monograph, we review different state-of-the-art mechanisms that do "in-body" energy harvesting as well as "out-of-body" wireless power delivery. Details of the energy sources, transmission media, energy harvesting and coupling techniques, and the required energy transducers will be discussed. The merits and disadvantages of each approach will be presented. Different mechanisms have very different characteristics on their output voltage, amount of harvested power and power transfer efficiency. Therefore different types of power conditioning circuits are required. Issues of designing the building blocks for the power conditioning circuits for different energy harvesting or coupling mechanisms will be compared.Suggested CitationChi-Ying Tsui, Xing Li and Wing-Hung Ki (2013), "Energy Harvesting and Power Delivery for Implantable Medical Devices", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 3, pp 179-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000029
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Aug 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Electronic Design Automation with Graphic Processors: A Survey
    • Abstract: Today's Integrated Circuit (IC) architects depend on Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software to conquer the overwhelming complexity of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) designs. As the complexity of IC chips is still fast increasing, it is critical to maintain the momentum towards growing productivity of EDA tools. On the other hand, single-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) performance is unlikely to see significant improvement in the near future. It is thus essential to develop highly efficient parallel algorithms and implementations for EDA applications, so that their overall productivity can continue to increase in a scalable fashion. Among various emergent parallel platforms, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) now offer the highest single-chip computing throughput. A large body of research, therefore, has been dedicated to accelerating EDA applications with GPUs. This monograph is aimed to develop a timely review of the existing literature on GPU-based EDA computing. Considering the substantial diversity of VLSI CAD algorithms, we extend a taxonomy of EDA computing patterns, which can be used as basic building blocks to construct complex EDA applications. GPU-based acceleration techniques for these patterns are then reviewed. On such a basis, we further survey recent works on building efficient data-parallel algorithms and implementations to unleash the power of GPUs for EDA applications.Suggested CitationYangdong Deng and Shuai Mu (2013), "Electronic Design Automation with Graphic Processors: A Survey", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 1–2, pp 1-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000028
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Rigorous System Design
    • Abstract: The monograph advocates rigorous system design as a coherent and accountable model-based process leading from requirements to correct implementations. It presents the current state of the art in system design, discusses its limitations, and identifies possible avenues for overcoming them.A rigorous system design flow is defined as a formal accountable and iterative process composed of steps, and based on four principles: (1) separation of concerns; (2) component-based construction; (3) semantic coherency; and (4) correctness-by-construction. The combined application of these principles allows the definition of a methodology clearly identifying where human intervention and ingenuity are needed to resolve design choices, as well as activities that can be supported by tools to automate tedious and error-prone tasks. An implementable system model is progressively derived by source-to-source automated transformations in a single host component-based language rooted in well-defined semantics. Using a single modeling language throughout the design flow enforces semantic coherency. Correct-by-construction techniques allow well-known limitations of a posteriori verification to be overcome and ensure accountability. It is possible to explain, at each design step, which among the requirements are satisfied and which may not be satisfied. The presented view for rigorous system design has been amply implemented in the BIP (Behavior, Interaction, Priority) component framework and substantiated by numerous experimental results showing both its relevance and feasibility. The monograph concludes with a discussion advocating a systemcentric vision for computing, identifying possible links with other disciplines, and emphasizing centrality of system design. Suggested CitationJoseph Sifakis (2013), "Rigorous System Design", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 4, pp 293-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000034
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Addressing Process Variations at the Microarchitecture and System Level
    • Abstract: Technology scaling has resulted in an increasing magnitude of and sensitivity to manufacturing process variations. This has led to the adoption of statistical design methodologies as opposed to conventional static design techniques. At the same time, increasing design complexity has motivated a shift toward higher levels of design abstraction, i.e., micro-architecture and system level design. In this survey, we highlight emerging statistical design techniques targeted toward the analysis and mitigation of process variation at the system level design abstraction, for both conventional planar and emerging 3D integrated circuits. The topics covered include variability macro-modeling for logic modules, system level variability analysis for multi-core systems, and system level variability mitigation techniques. We conclude with some pointers toward future research directions.Suggested CitationSiddharth Garg and Diana Marculescu (2013), "Addressing Process Variations at the Microarchitecture and System Level", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 3, pp 217-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000031
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Apr 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
 
 
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