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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2265 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (188 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (179 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1210 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (384 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1210 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Image Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IET Micro and Nano Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Data     Open Access  
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
InfoCiencia     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingenieria     Open Access  
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería e Investigación     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access  
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access  
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinary Fluid Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Flow Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Hypersonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation
  [SJR: 0.29]   [H-I: 9]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1551-3939 - ISSN (Online) 1551-3947
   Published by Now Publishers Inc Homepage  [30 journals]
  • Smart Connected Buildings Design Automation: Foundations and Trends
    • Abstract: AbstractBuildings are the result of a complex integration of multi-physics subsystems. Besides the obvious civil engineering infrastructure, thermal, electrical, mechanical, control, communication and computing subsystems must co-exist and be operated so that the overall operation is smooth and efficient. This is particularly important for commercial buildings but is also very relevant for residential buildings especially apartment buildings. Unfortunately, the design and deployment of these subsystems is rarely synchronized: lighting, security, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are often designed independently. However, simply putting together a collection of sub-systems, albeit optimized, has led to the inefficient buildings of today. Worldwide, buildings consume 42% of all electrical power – more than any other asset – and it can be proven that much of this can be reduced if a holistic approach to design, deployment, and operation is taken. Government agencies, academic institutions, building contractors and owners have realized the significant impact of buildings on the global environment, the electrical grid, and the mission of their organizations. However, the economic impact for all constituencies is still difficult to assess. Government regulations can play a fundamental role, as it has been the case for the transportation industry where regulations on emission and fuel consumption have been the single most important factor of innovation in automotive design. We are convinced that by leveraging technology and utilizing a system-level approach to buildings, they will provide comfort, safety and functionality while minimizing energy cost, supporting a robust electric grid and mitigating environmental impact. Realizing this vision requires adding intelligence from the beginning of the design phase, to deployment, from commissioning to operation, all the way to the end of the building’s life cycle. In this issue, we attempt to provide an as-complete-as-possible overview of the activities in the field of smart connected building design automation that attempts to make the vision a reality. The overarching range of such activities includes developing simulation tools for modeling and the design of buildings, and consequently control algorithms proposed to make buildings smarter and more efficient. Furthermore, we will review real-world and large-scale implementation of such control strategies on physical buildings. We then present a formal co-design methodology to design buildings, taking the view that buildings are prime examples of cyber-physical systems where the virtual and physical worlds meet as more traditional products such as thermostats are able to connect online and perform complicated computational tasks to control building temperature effectively. We complete the presentation describing the growing role of buildings in the operation of the smart grid where buildings are not only consumers of energy, but are themselves also providers of services and energy to the grid. The audiences for this monograph are industry professionals and researchers who work in the area of smart buildings, smart cities, and smart grid, with emphasis on energy efficiency, simulation tools, optimal control, and cyber-physical systems for the emerging power markets. Suggested CitationMehdi Maasoumy and Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli (2016), "Smart Connected Buildings Design Automation: Foundations and Trends", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 10: No. 1-2, pp 1-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000043
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +010
       
  • High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development
    • Abstract: The design of bug-free and safe medical device software is challenging, especially in complex implantable devices. This is due to the device’s closed-loop interaction with the patient’s organs, which are stochastic physical environments. The life-critical nature and the lack of existing industry standards to enforce software validation make this an ideal domain for exploring design automation challenges for integrated functional and formal modeling with closed-loop analysis. The primary goal of high-confidence medical device software is to guarantee the device will never drive the patient into an unsafe condition even though we do not have complete understanding of the physiological plant. There are two major differences between modeling physiology and modeling man-made systems: first, physiology is much more complex and less well-understood than man-made systems like cars and airplanes, and spans several scales from the molecular to the entire human body. Secondly, the variability between humans is orders of magnitude larger than that between two cars coming off the assembly line. Using the implantable cardiac pacemaker as an example of closed-loop device, and the heart as the organ to be modeled, we present several of the challenges and early results in model-based device validation. We begin with detailed timed automata model of the pacemaker, based on the specifications and algorithm descriptions from Boston Scientific. For closed-loop evaluation, a real-time Virtual Heart Model (VHM) has been developed to model the electrophysiological operation of the functioning and malfunctioning (i.e., during arrhythmia) hearts. By extracting the timing properties of the heart and pacemaker device, we present a methodology to construct timed-automata models for formal model checking and functional testing of the closed-loop system. The VHM’s capability of generating clinically-relevant response has been validated for a variety of common arrhythmias. Based on a set of requirements, we describe a framework of ion Trees that allows for interactive and physiologically relevant closed-loop model checking and testing for basic pacemaker device operations such as maintaining the heart rate, atrial-ventricle synchrony and complex conditions such as avoiding pacemaker-mediated tachycardia. Through automatic model translation of abstract models to simulation-based testing and code generation for platform-level testing, this model-based design approach ensures the closed-loop safety properties are retained through the design toolchain and facilitates the development of verified software from verified models. This system is a step toward a validation and testing approach for medical cyber-physical systems with the patient-in-the-loop. Suggested CitationZhihao Jiang and Rahul Mangharam (2015), "High-Confidence Medical Device Software Development", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 4, pp 309-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000040
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Utilization Control and Optimization of Real-Time Embedded Systems
    • Abstract: AbstractReal-time embedded systems have been widely deployed in mission-critical applications, such as avionics mission computing, highway traffic control, remote patient monitoring, wireless communications, navigation, etc. These applications always require their real-time and embedded components to work in open and unpredictable environments, where workload is volatile and unknown. In order to guarantee the temporal correctness and avoid severe underutilization or overload, it is of vital significance to measure, control, and optimize the processor utilization adaptively. A key challenge in this mission is to meet real-time requirements even when the workload cannot be accurately characterized a priori. Traditional approaches of worst-case analysis may cause underutilization of resources, while Model Predictive Control (MPC) based approaches may suffer severe performance deterioration when large estimation errors exist. To address this challenging problem and provide better system performance, we have developed several important online adaptive optimal control approaches based on advanced control techniques. Our approaches adopt Recursive Least Square (RLS) based model identification and Linear Quadratic (LQ) optimal controllers to guarantee that the systems are neither overloaded, nor underloaded. These proposed approaches, as well as the associated tools, can quickly adapt to volatile workload changes to provide stable system performance. To minimize the impact of modeling errors, we adopt the Adaptive Critic Design (ACD) technique and develop an improved solution that requires little information of the system model. To deal with the discrete task rates, we further propose to utilize the frequency scaling technique to assist the utilization control and optimization. The computational overhead of centralized approaches explodes as the scale of systems increases. To ensure system scalability and global stability, decentralized control and optimization approaches are desired. We leverage an efficient decoupling technique and derive several distributed approaches. These approaches adopt one feedback loop to adjust the task rate, and apply another feedback loop to control the CPU frequency asynchronously. As these two manipulated variables (i.e., the CPU frequency and task rate) contribute to the system performance together with a strong coupling, asynchronous control approaches may not be able to achieve the optimal performance. To handle this coupling, we further develop a synchronous rate and frequency control and optimization approach. This approach jointly and synchronously adjusts rate and frequency settings, and achieves enhanced system performance. All the aforementioned approaches are based on certain mathematical models. However, it is sometimes hard to develop an exact model to characterize a real-time embedded system. In order to deal with this issue, we further develop a model-free utilization control and optimization solution by applying the fuzzy logic control theory. The application of this theory allows us to achieve the desired performance in a nonlinear dynamic system without a specific system model. The proposed fuzzy utilization control approaches are stable and fast-converging, and achieve smaller tracking errors than model-based approaches. Suggested CitationXue Liu, Xi Chen and Fanxin Kong (2015), "Utilization Control and Optimization of Real-Time Embedded Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 3, pp 211-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000042
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Design, Automation, and Test for Low-Power and Reliable Flexible
           Electronics
    • Abstract: AbstractFlexible electronics are emerging as an alternative to conventional Si electronics for large-area low-cost applications such as smart sensors, disposable RFID tags, and solar cells. By utilizing inexpensive manufacturing methods such as ink-jet printing and roll-to-roll imprinting, flexible electronics can be made on low-cost plastic films just like printing newspapers. However, the key elements of flexible electronics, thin-film transistors (TFTs), have slower operating speeds and are less reliable than their Si electronics counterparts. Furthermore, depending on the material property, TFTs are usually mono-type – either p- or n-type – devices. Making air-stable complementary TFT circuits is very challenging or not applicable to most TFT technologies. Existing design methodologies for Si electronics, therefore, cannot be directly applied to flexible electronics. Other inhibiting factors such as high supply voltage, large process variation, and lack of trustworthy device modeling also make designing larger-scale and robust TFT circuits a challenge.The objective of this article is to provide an in-depth overview of flexible electronics from their applications, manufacturing processes, device characteristics, to circuit and system design solutions. We first introduce the low-cost fabrication methods for flexible electronics, including ink-jet printing, screen printing, and gravure printing. The device characteristics and compact modeling of four major types of TFT technologies, including hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT, polymer organic TFT, self-assembly monolayer (SAM) organic TFT, and metal oxide TFT, will be illustrated. We will then give an overview of digital and analog circuit design from basic logic gates to a microprocessor, as well as design automation tools and methods, for designing flexible electronics. In order to accurately predict the time-dependent degradation of TFT circuits, we describe a reliability simulation framework that can predict the TFT circuits’ performance degradation under bias-stress. This framework has been validated using the amorphous-silicon (a-Si) TFT scan driver for TFT-LCD displays. Finally, we will give an overview of flexible thin-film photovoltaics using different materials including amorphous silicon, CdTe, CIGS , and organic solar cells. Suggested CitationTsung-Ching (Jim) Huang, Jiun-Lang Huang and Kwang-Ting (Tim) Cheng (2015), "Design, Automation, and Test for Low-Power and Reliable Flexible Electronics", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 2, pp 99-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000039
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Datacenter Power Management in Smart Grids
    • Abstract: AbstractCloud computing is a new computing paradigm and it is gaining wide popularity due to its benefits including reduced cost, ease of management, and increased reliability. In a cloud computing environment, companies or individuals offload their computing (hardware/software/data) to the cloud, which is supported by the computing infrastructure called datacenters. Datacenters consume large amounts of electricity to operate and bring enormous electricity bills to the operators. Associated carbon emissions from operating datacenters also cause significant negative impact to the environment. In the mean time, a new kind of electrical grid, called the smart grid, is emerging. Smart grids enable two way communications between the power generators and the power consumers. Smart grid technology brings many salient features to help deliver power efficiently and reliably. There are many research efforts addressing either of the two tracks above. Different with them, we consider both and focus on cost-aware datacenter power management in presence of smart grids. We review recent developments on this area in this article. It involves understanding how a smart grid operates, where power goes in datacenters, and most importantly, how to reduce the power cost and/or negative environmental impact when operating datacenters.Suggested CitationXue Liu and Fanxin Kong (2015), "Datacenter Power Management in Smart Grids", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 9: No. 1, pp 1-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000038
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Time-Predictable Embedded Software on Multi-Core Platforms: Analysis and
           Optimization
    • Abstract: AbstractMulti-core architectures have recently gained popularity due to their high-performance and low-power characteristics. Most of the modern desktop systems are now equipped with multi-core processors. Despite the wide-spread adaptation of multi-core processors in desktop systems, using such processors in embedded systems still poses several challenges. Embedded systems are often constrained by several extra-functional aspects, such as time. Therefore, providing guarantees for time-predictable execution is one of the key requirements for embedded system designers. Multi-core processors adversely affect the time-predictability due to the presence of shared resources, such as shared caches and shared buses. In this contribution, we shall first discuss the challenges imposed by multi-core architectures in designing time-predictable embedded systems. Subsequently, we shall describe, in details, a comprehensive solution to guarantee time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms. Besides, we shall also perform a discussion of different techniques to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art solutions in this topic. Through this work, we aim to provide a solid background on recent trends of research towards achieving time-predictability on multi-cores. Besides, we also highlight the limitations of the state-of-the-art and discuss future research opportunities and challenges to accomplish time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms.Suggested CitationSudipta Chattopadhyay, Abhik Roychoudhury, Jakob Rosén, Petru Eles and Zebo Peng (2014), "Time-Predictable Embedded Software on Multi-Core Platforms: Analysis and Optimization", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 3-4, pp 199-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000037
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Temperature-Aware Design and Management for 3D Multi-Core Architectures
    • Abstract: AbstractVertically-integrated 3D multiprocessors systems-on-chip (3D MPSoCs) provide the means to continue integrating more functionality within a unit area while enhancing manufacturing yields and runtime performance. However, 3D MPSoCs incur amplified thermal challenges that undermine the corresponding reliability. To address these issues, several advanced cooling technologies, alongside temperature-aware design-time optimizations and run-time management schemes have been proposed. In this paper, we provide an overall survey on the recent advances in temperature-aware 3D MPSoC considerations. We explore the recent advanced cooling strategies, thermal modeling frameworks, design-time optimizations and run-time thermal management schemes that are primarily targeted for 3D MPSoCs. Our aim of proposing this survey is to provide a global perspective, highlighting the advancements and drawbacks on the recent state-of-the-art.Suggested CitationMohamed M. Sabry and David Atienza (2014), "Temperature-Aware Design and Management for 3D Multi-Core Architectures", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 2, pp 117-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000032
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Rivers and Electric Networks: Crossing Disciplines in Modeling and
           Simulation
    • Abstract: AbstractElectric circuits and river networks share similarities in both their network structure and derivation from conservation principals. However, the disciplines have evolved separately and developed widely different methods and models. This paper presents the foundations for network analysis for both disciplines and shows how numerical methods developed for circuit simulations can significantly improve river network models. The equations, models, and jargon are described, providing a reference for future studies to transfer knowledge across disciplinary boundaries.Suggested CitationBen R. Hodges and Frank Liu (2014), "Rivers and Electric Networks: Crossing Disciplines in Modeling and Simulation", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 8: No. 1, pp 1-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000033
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Computer-Aided Design and Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    • Abstract: AbstractElectricity is the key to the proper functioning of modern human society. Ever-increasing electricity consumption gives rise to recent regulations and significant endeavors to improve the energy efficiency in all kinds of human activity from manufacturing to commerce, from transportation to digital communication, from entertainment to laptops and portable devices. An important technology for helping reduce energy consumption is the ability to store any excess electrical energy for long periods of time and efficiently retrieve the stored energy.The design and management of electrical energy storage systems is the focus of the present paper, which starts off by reviewing and comparing various types of electrical energy storage elements in terms of various metrics of interest ranging from power and energy density to output power rating and from self-leakage rate to cost per unit of stored energy, and from life cycle of the storage element to the efficiency of the charge/discharge cycle. Next the paper reviews various energy storage systems while motivating the need for a hybrid energy storage system comprised of heterogeneous types of energy storage elements organized in a hierarchical manner so as to hide the weaknesses of each storage element while eliciting their strengths. The paper continues with a detailed explanation of key challenges that one faces when dealing with the optimal design and runtime management of a hybrid energy storage system targeting some specific application scenario; for example, grid-scale energy management, household peak power shaving, mobile platform power saving, and more. A survey of some existing solutions to these problems is also included. Suggested CitationYounghyun Kim, Yanzhi Wang, Naehyuck Chang and Massoud Pedram (2013), "Computer-Aided Design and Optimization of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 4, pp 247-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000035
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Energy Harvesting and Power Delivery for Implantable Medical Devices
    • Abstract: AbstractProviding a constant and perpetual energy source is a key design challenge for implantable medical devices. Harvesting energy from the human body and the surrounding is one of the possible solutions. Delivering energy from outside the body through different wireless media is another feasible solution. In this monograph, we review different state-of-the-art mechanisms that do "in-body" energy harvesting as well as "out-of-body" wireless power delivery. Details of the energy sources, transmission media, energy harvesting and coupling techniques, and the required energy transducers will be discussed. The merits and disadvantages of each approach will be presented. Different mechanisms have very different characteristics on their output voltage, amount of harvested power and power transfer efficiency. Therefore different types of power conditioning circuits are required. Issues of designing the building blocks for the power conditioning circuits for different energy harvesting or coupling mechanisms will be compared.Suggested CitationChi-Ying Tsui, Xing Li and Wing-Hung Ki (2013), "Energy Harvesting and Power Delivery for Implantable Medical Devices", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 3, pp 179-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000029
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Aug 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Electronic Design Automation with Graphic Processors: A Survey
    • Abstract: AbstractToday's Integrated Circuit (IC) architects depend on Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software to conquer the overwhelming complexity of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) designs. As the complexity of IC chips is still fast increasing, it is critical to maintain the momentum towards growing productivity of EDA tools. On the other hand, single-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) performance is unlikely to see significant improvement in the near future. It is thus essential to develop highly efficient parallel algorithms and implementations for EDA applications, so that their overall productivity can continue to increase in a scalable fashion. Among various emergent parallel platforms, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) now offer the highest single-chip computing throughput. A large body of research, therefore, has been dedicated to accelerating EDA applications with GPUs. This monograph is aimed to develop a timely review of the existing literature on GPU-based EDA computing. Considering the substantial diversity of VLSI CAD algorithms, we extend a taxonomy of EDA computing patterns, which can be used as basic building blocks to construct complex EDA applications. GPU-based acceleration techniques for these patterns are then reviewed. On such a basis, we further survey recent works on building efficient data-parallel algorithms and implementations to unleash the power of GPUs for EDA applications.Suggested CitationYangdong Deng and Shuai Mu (2013), "Electronic Design Automation with Graphic Processors: A Survey", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 7: No. 1–2, pp 1-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000028
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jun 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Rigorous System Design
    • Abstract: AbstractThe monograph advocates rigorous system design as a coherent and accountable model-based process leading from requirements to correct implementations. It presents the current state of the art in system design, discusses its limitations, and identifies possible avenues for overcoming them.A rigorous system design flow is defined as a formal accountable and iterative process composed of steps, and based on four principles: (1) separation of concerns; (2) component-based construction; (3) semantic coherency; and (4) correctness-by-construction. The combined application of these principles allows the definition of a methodology clearly identifying where human intervention and ingenuity are needed to resolve design choices, as well as activities that can be supported by tools to automate tedious and error-prone tasks. An implementable system model is progressively derived by source-to-source automated transformations in a single host component-based language rooted in well-defined semantics. Using a single modeling language throughout the design flow enforces semantic coherency. Correct-by-construction techniques allow well-known limitations of a posteriori verification to be overcome and ensure accountability. It is possible to explain, at each design step, which among the requirements are satisfied and which may not be satisfied. The presented view for rigorous system design has been amply implemented in the BIP (Behavior, Interaction, Priority) component framework and substantiated by numerous experimental results showing both its relevance and feasibility. The monograph concludes with a discussion advocating a systemcentric vision for computing, identifying possible links with other disciplines, and emphasizing centrality of system design. Suggested CitationJoseph Sifakis (2013), "Rigorous System Design", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 4, pp 293-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000034
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Addressing Process Variations at the Microarchitecture and System Level
    • Abstract: Technology scaling has resulted in an increasing magnitude of and sensitivity to manufacturing process variations. This has led to the adoption of statistical design methodologies as opposed to conventional static design techniques. At the same time, increasing design complexity has motivated a shift toward higher levels of design abstraction, i.e., micro-architecture and system level design. In this survey, we highlight emerging statistical design techniques targeted toward the analysis and mitigation of process variation at the system level design abstraction, for both conventional planar and emerging 3D integrated circuits. The topics covered include variability macro-modeling for logic modules, system level variability analysis for multi-core systems, and system level variability mitigation techniques. We conclude with some pointers toward future research directions.Suggested CitationSiddharth Garg and Diana Marculescu (2013), "Addressing Process Variations at the Microarchitecture and System Level", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 3, pp 217-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000031
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Apr 2013 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Power Modeling and Characterization of Computing Devices
    • Abstract: AbstractIn this survey we describe the main research directions in pre-silicon power modeling and post-silicon power characterization. We review techniques in power modeling and characterization for three computing substrates: general-purpose processors, system-on-chip-based embedded systems, and field programmable gate arrays. We describe the basic principles that govern power consumption in digital circuits, and utilize these principles to describe high-level power modeling techniques for designs of the three computing substrates. Once a computing device is fabricated, direct measurements on the actual device reveal a great wealth of information about the device's power consumption under various operating conditions. We describe characterization techniques that integrate infrared imaging with electric current measurements to generate runtime power maps. The power maps can be used to validate design-time power models and to calibrate computer-aided design tools. We also describe empirical power characterization techniques for software power analysis and for adaptive power-aware computing. Finally, we provide a number of plausible future research directions for power modeling and characterization.Suggested CitationSherief Reda and Abdullah N. Nowroz (2012), "Power Modeling and Characterization of Computing Devices", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 2, pp 121-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000022
      PubDate: Wed, 30 May 2012 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Discrete Circuit Optimization
    • Abstract: AbstractDiscrete gate sizing and threshold assignment are commonly used tools for optimizing digital circuits, and ideal methods for incremental optimization. The gate widths and threshold voltages, along with the gate lengths, can be adjusted to optimize power and delay. This monograph surveys this field, providing the background needed to perform research in the field. Concepts such as standard cell libraries, static timing analysis, and analytical delay and power models are explained, along with examples and data to help understand the tradeoffs involved. Comparative results are also provided to show the current state of the field.Suggested CitationJohn Lee and Puneet Gupta (2012), "Discrete Circuit Optimization", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 6: No. 1, pp 1-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000019
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2012 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Parallel Circuit Simulation: A Historical Perspective and Recent
           Developments
    • Abstract: AbstractTransistor-level circuit simulation is a fundamental computer-aided design technique that enables the design and verification of an extremely broad range of integrated circuits. With the proliferation of modern parallel processor architectures, leveraging parallel computing becomes a necessity and also an important avenue for facilitating large-scale circuit simulation. This monograph presents an in-depth discussion on parallel transistor-level circuit simulation algorithms and their implementation strategies on a variety of hardware platforms. While providing a rather complete perspective on historical and recent research developments, this monograph highlights key challenges and opportunities in developing efficient parallel simulation paradigms.Suggested CitationPeng Li (2012), "Parallel Circuit Simulation: A Historical Perspective and Recent Developments", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 5: No. 4, pp 211-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000020
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2012 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Stochastic Computing
    • Abstract: AbstractAs device sizes shrink, manufacturing challenges at the device level are resulting in increased variability in physical circuit characteristics. Exponentially increasing circuit density has not only brought about concerns in the reliable manufacturing of circuits but also has exaggerated variations in dynamic circuit behavior. The resulting uncertainty in performance, power, and reliability imposed by compounding static and dynamic nondeterminism threatens the continuation of Moore's law, which has been arguably the primary driving force behind technology and innovation for decades. This situation is exacerbated by emerging computing applications, which exert considerable power and performance pressure on processors. Paradoxically, the problem is not nondeterminism, per se, but rather the approaches that designers have used to deal with it. The traditional response to variability has been to enforce determinism on an increasingly nondeterministic substrate through guardbands. As variability in circuit behavior increases, achieving deterministic behavior becomes increasingly expensive, as performance and energy penalties must be paid to ensure that all devices work correctly under all possible conditions. As such, the benefits of technology scaling are vanishing, due to the overheads of dealing with hardware variations through traditional means. Clearly, status quo cannot continue.Despite the above trends, the contract between hardware and software has, for the most part, remained unchanged. Software expects flawless results from hardware under all possible operating conditions. This rigid contract leaves potential performance gains and energy savings on the table, sacrificing efficiency in the common case in exchange for guaranteed correctness in all cases. However, as the marginal benefits of technology scaling continue to languish, a new vision for computing has begun to emerge. Rather than hiding variations under expensive guardbands, designers have begun to relax traditional correctness constraints and deliberately expose hardware variability to higher levels of the compute stack, thus tapping into potentially significant performance and energy benefits and also opening the potential for errors. Rather than paying the increasing price of hiding the true, stochastic nature of hardware, emerging stochastic computing techniques account for the inevitable variability and exploit it to increase efficiency. Stochastic computing techniques have been proposed at nearly all levels of the computing stack, including stochastic design optimizations, architecture frameworks, compiler optimizations, application transformations, programming language support, and testing techniques. In this monograph, we review work in the area of stochastic computing and discuss the promise and challenges of the field. Suggested CitationJohn Sartori and Rakesh Kumar (2011), "Stochastic Computing", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 5: No. 3, pp 153-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000021
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2011 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Three-dimensional Integrated Circuits: Design, EDA, and Architecture
    • Abstract: AbstractThe emerging three-dimensional (3D) integration technology is one of the promising solutions to overcome the barriers in interconnection scaling, thereby offering an opportunity to continue performance improvements using CMOS technology. As the fabrication of 3D integrated circuits has become viable, developing CAD tools and architectural techniques are imperative for the successful adoption of 3D integration technology. In this article, we first give a brief introduction on the 3D integration technology, and then review the EDA challenges and solutions that can enable the adoption of 3D ICs, and finally present design and architectural techniques on the application of 3D ICs, including a survey of various approaches to design future 3D ICs, leveraging the benefits of fast latency, higher bandwidth, and heterogeneous integration capability that are offered by 3D technology.Suggested CitationGuangyu Sun, Yibo Chen, Xiangyu Dong, Jin Ouyang and Yuan Xie (2011), "Three-dimensional Integrated Circuits: Design, EDA, and Architecture", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 5: No. 1–2, pp 1-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000016
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Sep 2011 00:00:00 +020
       
  • System-in-Package: Electrical and Layout Perspectives
    • Abstract: AbstractThe unquenched thirst for higher levels of electronic systems integration and higher performance goals has produced a plethora of design and business challenges that are threatening the success enjoyed so far as modeled by Moore's law. To tackle these challenges and meet the design needs of consumer electronics products such as those of cell phones, audio/video players, digital cameras that are composed of a number of different technologies, vertical system integration has emerged as a required technology to reduce the system board space and height in addition to the overall time-to-market and design cost. System-in-package (SiP) is a system integration technology that achieves the aforementioned needs in a scalable and cost-effective way, where multiple dies, passive components, and discrete devices are assembled, often vertically, in a package. This paper surveys the electrical and layout perspectives of SiP. It first introduces package technologies, and then presents SiP design flow and design exploration. Finally, the paper discusses details of beyond-die signal and power integrity and physical implementation such as I/O (input/output cell) placement and routing for redistribution layer, escape, and substrate.Suggested CitationLei He, Shauki Elassaad, Yiyu Shi, Yu Hu and Wei Yao (2011), "System-in-Package: Electrical and Layout Perspectives", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 4: No. 4, pp 223-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000014
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2011 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Radiation-induced Soft Errors: A Chip-level Modeling Perspective
    • Abstract: AbstractChip-level soft-error rate (SER) estimation can come from two sources: direct experimental measurement and simulation. Because SER mitigation decisions need to be made very early in the product design cycle, long before product Si is available, a simulation-based methodology of chip-level radiation-induced soft error rates that is fast and reasonably accurate is crucial to the reliability and success of the final product.The following contribution summarizes selected publications that are deemed relevant by the author to enable a truly chip-level radiation-induced soft error rate estimation methodology. Although the strategies and concepts described have microprocessors manufactured in bulk CMOS technologies in mind, there is no fundamental reason why they cannot be applied to other technologies and different types of integrated circuits (ICs). Suggested CitationNorbert Seifert (2010), "Radiation-induced Soft Errors: A Chip-level Modeling Perspective", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 4: No. 2–3, pp 99-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000018
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Nov 2010 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Manufacturability Aware Routing in Nanometer VLSI
    • Abstract: AbstractThis monograph surveys key research challenges and recent results of manufacturability aware routing in nanometer VLSI designs. The manufacturing challenges have their root causes from various integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing processes and steps, e.g., deep sub-wavelength lithography, random defects, via voids, chemical–mechanical polishing, and antenna effects. They may result in both functional and parametric yield losses. The manufacturability aware routing can be performed at different routing stages including global routing, track routing, and detail routing, guided by both manufacturing process models and manufacturing-friendly rules. The manufacturability/yield optimization can be performed through both correct-by-construction (i.e., optimization during routing) and construct-by-correction (i.e., post-routing optimization). This monograph will provide a holistic view of key design for manufacturability issues in nanometer VLSI routing.Suggested CitationDavid Z. Pan, Minsik Cho and Kun Yuan (2010), "Manufacturability Aware Routing in Nanometer VLSI", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 4: No. 1, pp 1-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000015
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2010 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The Predictive Technology Model in the Late Silicon Era and Beyond
    • Abstract: AbstractThe aggressive scaling of CMOS technology has inevitably led to vastly increased power dissipation, process variability and reliability degradation, posing tremendous challenges to robust circuit design. To continue the success of integrated circuits, advanced design research must start in parallel with or even ahead of technology development. This new paradigm requires the Predictive Technology Model (PTM) for future technology generations, including nanoscale CMOS and post-silicon devices. This paper presents a comprehensive set of predictive modeling developments. Starting from the PTM of traditional CMOS devices, it extends to CMOS alternatives at the end of the silicon roadmap, such as strained Si, high-k/metal gate, and FinFET devices. The impact of process variation and the aging effect is further captured by modeling the device parameters under the influence. Beyond the silicon roadmap, the PTM outreaches to revolutionary devices, especially carbon-based transistor and interconnect, in order to support explorative design research. Overall, these predictive device models enable early stage design exploration with increasing technology diversity, helping shed light on the opportunities and challenges in the nanoelectronics era.Suggested CitationYu Cao, Asha Balijepalli, Saurabh Sinha, Chi-Chao Wang, Wenping Wang and Wei Zhao (2010), "The Predictive Technology Model in the Late Silicon Era and Beyond", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 3: No. 4, pp 305-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000012
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2010 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Numerical Simulation and Modelling of Electronic and Biochemical Systems
    • Abstract: AbstractNumerical simulation and modelling are witnessing a resurgence. Designing systems with integrated wireless components, mixed-signal blocks and nanoscale, multi-GHz "digital" circuits is requiring extensive low-level modelling and simulation. Analysis and design in nonelectronic domains, notably in systems biology, are also relying increasingly on numerical computation.Sections 2–8 of this Monograph provide an introduction to the fundamentals of numerical simulation, and to the basics of modelling electronic circuits and biochemical reactions. The focus is on a minimal set of concepts that will enable the reader to further explore the field independently. Differential–algebraic equation models of electronic circuits and biochemical reactions, together with basic numerical techniques — quiescent, transient and linear frequency domain analyses, as well as sensitivity and noise analyses — for solving these differential equations are developed. Downloadable MATLAB implementations are provided. The last two chapters provide an introduction to computational methods for nonlinear periodic steady states and multi-time partial differential equation (PDE) formulations, followed by an overview of model order reduction (MOR) and, at the end, a glimpse of some applications of oscillator MOR — in circuits (PLLs), biochemical reaction–diffusion systems and nanoelectronics. Suggested CitationJaijeet Roychowdhury (2009), "Numerical Simulation and Modelling of Electronic and Biochemical Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 3: No. 2–3, pp 97-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000009
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Dec 2009 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Applied Assertion-Based Verification: An Industry Perspective
    • Abstract: AbstractA wealth of material has been published over the past 30 years specifically related to the theory and technical aspects of property languages and assertion-based techniques. However, as any field of study matures, it becomes necessary to determine if the theories, algorithms, and concepts have grown beyond the bounds of research to become an integral solution to a problem in industry. To understand any solution, it is necessary to understand the problem. For example, debugging, on average, has grown to consume more than 60% of today's ASIC and SoC verification effort. Clearly, this is a topic the industry must address, and some organizations have done just that. Those that have adopted an assertion-based verification (ABV) methodology have seen a significant reduction in simulation debugging time (as much as 50% [1,47]) due to improved observability. Furthermore, organizations that have embraced an ABV methodology are able to take advantage of more advanced verification techniques, such as formal property checking, thus improving their overall verification quality and results. This paper examines the application of ABV in today's electronic design industry to address specific challenges of poor observability and controllability during the verification process. Statistics illustrating successful application of both low-level and high-level assertions are presented. While the process of writing assertions is fairly well understood by those skilled in the art — the process of creating higher-level assertion-based IP that must communicate with other components in a contemporary transaction-level modeling (TLM) simulation environment, is not. Hence, this paper provides a set of steps (in a tutorial fashion) for creating assertion-based IP.Suggested CitationHarry Foster (2009), "Applied Assertion-Based Verification: An Industry Perspective", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 3: No. 1, pp 1-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000013
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2009 00:00:00 +020
       
  • The Chip Is the Network: Toward a Science of Network-on-Chip Design
    • Abstract: AbstractIn this survey, we address the concept of network in three different contexts representing the deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical physics-inspired design paradigms. More precisely, we start by considering the natural representation of networks as graphs and discuss the main deterministic approaches to Network-on-Chip (NoC) design. Next, we introduce a probabilistic framework for network representation and optimization and present a few major approaches for NoC design proposed to date. Last but not least, we model the network as a thermodynamic system and discuss a statistical physics-based approach to characterize the network traffic. This formalism allows us to address the network concept in the most general context, point out the main limitations of the proposed solutions, and suggest a few open-ended problems.Suggested CitationRadu Marculescu and Paul Bogdan (2009), "The Chip Is the Network: Toward a Science of Network-on-Chip Design", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 2: No. 4, pp 371-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000011
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Feb 2009 00:00:00 +010
       
  • Thermally Aware Design
    • Abstract: AbstractWith greater integration, the power dissipation in integrated circuits has begun to outpace the ability of today's heat sinks to limit the on-chip temperature. As a result, thermal issues have come to the forefront, and thermally aware design techniques are likely to play a major role in the future. While improved heat sink technologies are available, economic considerations restrict them from being widely deployed until and unless they become more cost-effective. Low power design is helpful in controlling on-chip temperatures, but is already widely utilized, and new thermal-specific approaches are necessary. In short, the onus on thermal management is beginning to move from the package designer toward the chip designer. This survey provides an overview of analysis and optimization techniques for thermally aware design. After beginning with a motivation for the problem and trends seen in the semiconductor industry, the survey presents a description of techniques for on-chip thermal analysis. Next, the effects of elevated temperatures on on-chip performance metrics are analyzed. Finally, a set of thermal optimization techniques, for controlling on-chip temperatures and limiting the level to which they degrade circuit performance, are described.Suggested CitationYong Zhan, Sanjay V. Kumar and Sachin S. Sapatnekar (2008), "Thermally Aware Design", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 2: No. 3, pp 255-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000007
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Oct 2008 00:00:00 +020
       
  • FPGA Architecture: Survey and Challenges
    • Abstract: AbstractField-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have become one of the key digital circuit implementation media over the last decade. A crucial part of their creation lies in their architecture, which governs the nature of their programmable logic functionality and their programmable interconnect. FPGA architecture has a dramatic effect on the quality of the final device's speed performance, area efficiency, and power consumption. This survey reviews the historical development of programmable logic devices, the fundamental programming technologies that the programmability is built on, and then describes the basic understandings gleaned from research on architectures. We include a survey of the key elements of modern commercial FPGA architecture, and look toward future trends in the field.Suggested CitationIan Kuon, Russell Tessier and Jonathan Rose (2008), "FPGA Architecture: Survey and Challenges", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 2: No. 2, pp 135-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000005
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Apr 2008 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Design Automation of Real-Life Asynchronous Devices and Systems
    • Abstract: AbstractThe number of gates on a chip is quickly growing toward and beyond the one billion mark. Keeping all the gates running at the beat of a single or a few rationally related clocks is becoming impossible. In static timing analysis process variations and signal integrity issues stretch the timing margins to the point where they become too conservative and result in significant overdesign. Importance and difficulty of such problems push some developers to once again turn to asynchronous alternatives.However, the electronics industry for the most part is still reluctant to adopt asynchronous design (with a few notable exceptions) due to a common belief that we still lack a commercial-quality Electronic Design Automation tools (similar to the synchronous RTL-to-GDSII flow) for asynchronous circuits. The purpose of this paper is to counteract this view by presenting design flows that can tackle large designs without significant changes with respect to synchronous design flow. We are limiting ourselves to four design flows that we believe to be closest to this goal. We start from the Tangram flow, because it is the most commercially proven and it is one of the oldest from a methodological point of view. The other three flows (Null Convention Logic, de-synchronization, and gate-level pipelining) could be considered together as asynchronous re-implementations of synchronous (RTL- or gate-level) specifications. The main common idea is substituting the global clocks by local synchronizations. Their most important aspect is to open the possibility to implement large legacy synchronous designs in an almost "push button" manner, where all asynchronous machinery is hidden, so that synchronous RTL designers do not need to be re-educated. These three flows offer a trade-off from very low overhead, almost synchronous implementations, to very high performance, extremely robust dual-rail pipelines. Suggested CitationAlexander Taubin, Jordi Cortadella, Luciano Lavagno, Alex Kondratyev and Ad Peeters (2007), "Design Automation of Real-Life Asynchronous Devices and Systems", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 2: No. 1, pp 1-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000006
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2007 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Statistical Performance Modeling and Optimization
    • Abstract: AbstractAs IC technologies scale to finer feature sizes, it becomes increasingly difficult to control the relative process variations. The increasing fluctuations in manufacturing processes have introduced unavoidable and significant uncertainty in circuit performance; hence ensuring manufacturability has been identified as one of the top priorities of today's IC design problems. In this paper, we review various statistical methodologies that have been recently developed to model, analyze, and optimize performance variations at both transistor level and system level. The following topics will be discussed in detail: sources of process variations, variation characterization and modeling, Monte Carlo analysis, response surface modeling, statistical timing and leakage analysis, probability distribution extraction, parametric yield estimation and robust IC optimization. These techniques provide the necessary CAD infrastructure that facilitates the bold move from deterministic, corner-based IC design toward statistical and probabilistic design.Suggested CitationXin Li, Jiayong Le and Lawrence T. Pileggi (2007), "Statistical Performance Modeling and Optimization", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 1: No. 4, pp 331-480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000008
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2007 00:00:00 +020
       
  • FPGA Design Automation: A Survey
    • Abstract: AbstractDesign automation or computer-aided design (CAD) for field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) has played a critical role in the rapid advancement and adoption of FPGA technology over the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to meet the demand for an up-to-date comprehensive survey/tutorial for FPGA design automation, with an emphasis on the recent developments within the past 5–10 years. The paper focuses on the theory and techniques that have been, or most likely will be, reduced to practice. It covers all major steps in FPGA design flow which includes: routing and placement, circuit clustering, technology mapping and architecture-specific optimization, physical synthesis, RT-level and behavior-level synthesis, and power optimization. We hope that this paper can be used both as a guide for beginners who are embarking on research in this relatively young yet exciting area, and a useful reference for established researchers in this field.Suggested CitationDeming Chen, Jason Cong and Peichen Pan (2006), "FPGA Design Automation: A Survey", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 1: No. 3, pp 195-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000003
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2006 00:00:00 +020
       
  • Languages and Tools for Hybrid Systems Design
    • Abstract: AbstractThe explosive growth of embedded electronics is bringing information and control systems of increasing complexity to every aspects of our lives. The most challenging designs are safety-critical systems, such as transportation systems (e.g., airplanes, cars, and trains), industrial plants and health care monitoring. The difficulties reside in accommodating constraints both on functionality and implementation. The correct behavior must be guaranteed under diverse states of the environment and potential failures; implementation has to meet cost, size, and power consumption requirements. The design is therefore subject to extensive mathematical analysis and simulation. However, traditional models of information systems do not interface well to the continuous evolving nature of the environment in which these devices operate. Thus, in practice, different mathematical representations have to be mixed to analyze the overall behavior of the system. Hybrid systems are a particular class of mixed models that focus on the combination of discrete and continuous subsystems. There is a wealth of tools and languages that have been proposed over the years to handle hybrid systems. However, each tool makes different assumptions on the environment, resulting in somewhat different notions of hybrid system. This makes it difficult to share information among tools. Thus, the community cannot maximally leverage the substantial amount of work that has been directed to this important topic. In this paper, we review and compare hybrid system tools by highlighting their differences in terms of their underlying semantics, expressive power and mathematical mechanisms. We conclude our review with a comparative summary, which suggests the need for a unifying approach to hybrid systems design. As a step in this direction, we make the case for a semantic-aware interchange format, which would enable the use of joint techniques, make a formal comparison between different approaches possible, and facilitate exporting and importing design representations.Suggested CitationLuca P. Carloni, Roberto Passerone, Alessandro Pinto and Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli (2006), "Languages and Tools for Hybrid Systems Design", Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation: Vol. 1: No. 1–2, pp 1-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1000000001
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2006 00:00:00 +020
       
 
 
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