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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2336 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (200 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1225 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1225 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 271)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The Orexin System and Hypertension
    • Authors: Michael J. Huber; Qing-Hui Chen; Zhiying Shan
      Pages: 385 - 391
      Abstract: In this review, we focus on the role of orexin signaling in blood pressure control and its potential link to hypertension by summarizing evidence from several experimental animal models of hypertension. Studies using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model of human essential hypertension show that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in SHRs but not in Wistar–Kyoto rats. In addition, increased activity of the orexin system contributes to elevated blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in dark-active period Schlager hypertensive (BPH/2J) mice, another genetic model of neurogenic hypertension. Similar to these two models, Sprague-Dawley rats with stress-induced hypertension display an overactive central orexin system. Furthermore, upregulation of the orexin receptor 1 increases firing of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons, augments SNA, and contributes to hypertension in the obese Zucker rat, an animal model of obesity-related hypertension. Finally, we propose a hypothesis for the implication of the orexin system in salt-sensitive hypertension. All of this evidence, coupled with the important role of elevated SNA in increasing blood pressure, strongly suggests that hyperactivity of the orexin system contributes to hypertension.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0487-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Exploration of Involved Key Genes and Signaling Diversity in Brain Tumors
    • Authors: Mojdeh Mahdian Nasser; Parvin Mehdipour
      Pages: 393 - 419
      Abstract: Brain tumors are becoming a major cause of death. The classification of brain tumors has gone through restructuring with regard to some criteria such as the presence or absence of a specific genetic alteration in the 2016 central nervous system World Health Organization update. Two categories of genes with a leading role in tumorigenesis and cancer induction include tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes are inactivated through a variety of mechanisms that result in their loss of function. As for the oncogenes, overexpression and amplification are the most common mechanisms of alteration. Important cell cycle genes such as p53, ATM, cyclin D2, and Rb have shown altered expression patterns in different brain tumors such as meningioma and astrocytoma. Some genes in signaling pathways have a role in brain tumorigenesis. These pathways include hedgehog, EGFR, Notch, hippo, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and WNT signaling. It has been shown that telomere length in some brain tumor samples is shortened compared to that in normal cells. As the shortening of telomere length triggers chromosome instability early in brain tumors, it could lead to initiation of cancer. On the other hand, telomerase activity was positive in some brain tumors. It is suggestive that telomere length and telomerase activity are important diagnostic markers in brain tumors. This review focuses on brain tumors with regard to the status of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, cell cycle genes, and genes in signaling pathways as well as the role of telomere length and telomerase in brain tumors.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0498-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Suppression of the Smurf1 Expression Inhibits Tumor Progression in Gliomas
    • Authors: Hao Chang; Jingning Zhang; Zengli Miao; Yasuo Ding; Xing Xu; Xudong Zhao; Peng Xu; Qing Wang; Yuchang Lin
      Pages: 421 - 430
      Abstract: Glioblastoma, one of the common malignant brain tumors, results in the highly death, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Smurf1, a member of Nedd4 family of HECT-type ligases, has been reported to contribute to tumorigenicity through several important biological pathways. Recently, it was also found to participate in modulate cellular processes, including morphogenesis, autophagy, growth, and cell migration. In this research, we reported the clinical guiding significance of the expression of Smurf1 in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Western blotting analysis discovered that the expression of Smurf1 was increased with WHO grade. Immunohistochemistry levels discovered that high expression of Smurf1 is closely consistent with poor prognosis of glioma. In addition, suppression of Smurf1 can reduce cell invasion and increase the E-cadherin expression, which is a marker of invasion. Our study firstly demonstrated that Smurf1 may promote glioma cell invasion and suppression of the Smurf1 may provide a novel treatment strategy for glioma.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0485-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • NCAM1 is the Target of miRNA-572: Validation in the Human Oligodendroglial
           Cell Line
    • Authors: Roberta Mancuso; Simone Agostini; Ivana Marventano; Ambra Hernis; Marina Saresella; Mario Clerici
      Pages: 431 - 440
      Abstract: The neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is a fundamental protein in cell–cell interaction and in cellular developmental processes, and its dysregulation is involved in a number of diseases including multiple sclerosis. Studies in rats suggest that the modulation of NCAM1 expression is regulated by miRNA-572, but no data are available confirming such interaction in the human system. We analyzed whether this is the case using a human oligodendroglial cell line (MO3.13). MO3.13 cells were transfected with miRNA-572 mimic and inhibitor separately; NCAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed at different time points after transfection. Results indicated that NCAM1 expression is increased after transfection with miRNA-572 inhibitor, whereas it is decreased after transfection with the mimic (p < 0.005). The interaction between NCAM1 and miRNA-572 was subsequently confirmed in a Vero cell line that does not express NCAM1, by luciferase assay after transfection with NCAM1. These results confirm that miRNA-572 regulates NCAM1 and for the first time demonstrate that this interaction regulates NCAM1 expression in human cells. Data herein also support the hypothesis that miRNA-572 is involved in diseases associated with NCAM1 deregulation, suggesting its possible use as a biomarker in these diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0486-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Noradrenergic β-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Intracellular Molecular Mechanism
           of Na–K ATPase Subunit Expression in C6 Cells
    • Authors: Megha Amar; Abhishek Singh; Birendra Nath Mallick
      Pages: 441 - 457
      Abstract: Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-associated elevated noradrenaline increases and decreases neuronal and glial Na–K ATPase activity, respectively. In this study, using C6 cell-line as a model, we investigated the possible intracellular molecular mechanism of noradrenaline-induced decreased glial Na–K ATPase activity. The cells were treated with noradrenaline in the presence or absence of adrenoceptor antagonists, modulators of extra- and intracellular Ca++ and modulators of intracellular signalling pathways. We observed that noradrenaline acting on β-adrenoceptor decreased Na–K ATPase activity and mRNA expression of the catalytic α2-Na–K ATPase subunit in the C6 cells. Further, cAMP and protein kinase-A mediated release of intracellular Ca++ played a critical role in such decreased α2-Na–K ATPase expression. In contrast, noradrenaline acting on β-adrenoceptor up-regulated the expression of regulatory β2-Na–K ATPase subunit, which although was cAMP and Ca++ dependent, was independent of protein kinase-A and protein kinase-C. Combining these with previous findings (including ours) we have proposed a working model for noradrenaline-induced suppression of glial Na–K ATPase activity and alteration in its subunit expression. The findings help understanding noradrenaline-associated maintenance of brain excitability during health and altered states, particularly in relation to rapid eye movement sleep and its deprivation when the noradrenaline level is naturally altered.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0488-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Orally Active Noncompetitive AMPAR Antagonist Perampanel Attenuates
           Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Hong-Xia Niu; Jun-Zhe Wang; Dong-Liang Wang; Jun-Jie Miao; Hua Li; Zhi-Gang Liu; Xing Yuan; Wei Liu; Jing-Ru Zhou
      Pages: 459 - 466
      Abstract: Inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) is a potential target of therapy for ischemic stroke. Perampanel is a potent noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we investigated the potential protective effects of perampanel against focal cerebral ischemia in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Oral administration with perampanel significantly reduced MCAO-induced brain edema, brain infarct volume, and neuronal apoptosis. These protective effects were associated with improved functional outcomes, as measured by foot-fault test, adhesive removal test, and modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. Importantly, perampanel was effective even when the administration was delayed to 1 h after reperfusion. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that perampanel significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas it increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 after MCAO. In addition, perampanel treatment markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and also inhibited nitric oxide (NO) generation in MCAO-injured rats at 24 and 72 h after reperfusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the orally active AMPAR antagonist perampanel protects against experimental ischemic stroke via regulating inflammatory cytokines and NOS pathways.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0489-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of SDF-1/CXCR4 on the Repair of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by
           Mediating Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    • Authors: Quan-Jun Deng; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jing Ren
      Pages: 467 - 477
      Abstract: Our study aims to investigate the effects of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis on the repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats by mediating bone marrow derived from mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Healthy male SD rats were collected, their tibiofibulars were removed, cultured, and BMSCs were collected. The expression of cell-surface molecular proteins was examined using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of CXCR4 in cells were tested using qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis. An electronic brain injury instrument was utilized to build TBI rat models and each rat was assigned into the experiment, positive control and control groups (10 rats in each group). The morris water maze was used to calculate the escape latency and number of times rats in each group crossed the platform. Neurological severity scores (NSS) was calculated to evaluate the recovery of neurological functioning. The distribution of neuronal nuclear antigens was detected using double-labeling immunohistochemistry. The morphological changes in the hippocampal neuronal and the number of BrdU-positive cells were observed through Nissl’s staining and high magnification. The mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR4 were gradually increased as SDF-1 concentration increased. NGF and BDNF positive cells were expressed in each group. The distribution of neuronal nuclear antigens in the experiment group was elevated compared to the control and positive control groups. Among the three groups, the experimental group had the shortest escape latency and the highest number platform crossings. The difference in NSS among the three groups was significant. The experimental group had better cell morphology and a higher number of BrdU-positive cells than the other groups. The present study demonstrates that transplanting BMSCs with SDF-1-induced CXCR4 expression can promote the repair of TBI. This is expected to become a new treatment regimen for TBI.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0490-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Mitophagy in Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients with Hippocampal
    • Authors: Mengqian Wu; Xinyu Liu; Xiaosa Chi; Le Zhang; Weixi Xiong; Siew Mun Vance Chiang; Dong Zhou; Jinmei Li
      Pages: 479 - 486
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized. Fourteen samples were examined. TEM results showed that early autophagosomes were present and mitochondria were impaired to different degrees in hippocampi. Immunofluorescent labeling showed colocalization of the autophagosome marker LC3B with the mitochondrial marker TOMM20 in hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes, indicating the presence of mitophagy. Mitochondrial and autophagosomal marker colocalization was lower in hippocampus than in temporal lobe cortex (P < 0.001). Accumulation of autophagosomes and mitophagy activation are implicated in rTLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant accumulation of damaged mitochondria, especially in the hippocampus, can be attributed to defects in mitophagy, which may participate in epileptogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0492-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Role of Peripheral Myelin Protein 2 in Remyelination
    • Authors: Mark Stettner; Jennifer Zenker; Fabian Klingler; Fabian Szepanowski; Hans-P. Hartung; Anne K. Mausberg; Christoph Kleinschnitz; Roman Chrast; Bernd C. Kieseier
      Pages: 487 - 496
      Abstract: The protein component of the myelin layer is essential for all aspects of peripheral nerves, and its deficiency can lead to structural and functional impairment. The presence of peripheral myelin protein 2 (P2, PMP2, FABP8, M-FABP) in Schwann cells has been known for decades and shown recently to be involved in the lipid homeostasis in the peripheral neural system. However, its precise role during de- and remyelination has yet to be elucidated. To this end, we assessed remyelination after sciatic nerve crush injury in vivo, and in an experimental de/remyelination ex vivo myelinating culture model in P2-deficient (P2 −/− ) and wild-type (WT) animals. In vivo, the nerve crush paradigm revealed temporal structural and functional changes in P2 −/− mice as compared to WT animals. Concomitantly, P2 −/− DRG cultures demonstrated the presence of shorter internodes and enlarged nodes after ex vivo de/remyelination. Together, these data indicate that P2 may play a role in remyelination of the injured peripheral nervous system, presumably by affecting the nodal and internodal configuration.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0494-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Sigesbeckia pubescens Extract on
           Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in HT22 Cells via Downregulation of
           MAPK/caspase-3 Pathways
    • Authors: Md. Rashedunnabi Akanda; Myung-Jin Kim; In-Shik Kim; Dongchoon Ahn; Hyun-Jin Tae; Md. Mahfujur Rahman; Yang-Gyu Park; Jae-Won Seol; Hyeon-Hwa Nam; Byung-Kil Choo; Byung-Yong Park
      Pages: 497 - 505
      Abstract: Sigesbeckia pubescens (SP) is a traditional Chinese medicine, possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluate the neuroprotective activities of SP extract on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells and the molecular mechanism underlying neuroprotection. We applied 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), crystal violet, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and western blot analyses for assessing the neuroprotective effects of SP extract. The experimental study revealed that SP considerably increased the cell viability, and reduced the oxidative stress promoted ROS and LDH generation in HT22 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the morphology of HT22 cells was effectively improved by SP. Upregulated gene expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were markedly attenuated by SP. Similarly, SP notably suppressed the ROS-mediated phosphorylation of MAPK (pERK1/2, pJNK, and pp38) cascades and activation of apoptotic factor caspase-3 signaling pathway that overall contributed to the neuroprotection. Taken together, SP may exert neuroprotective effects via alteration of MAPK and caspase-3 pathways under oxidative stress condition. Therefore, SP is a potential agent for preventing oxidative stress-mediated neuronal cell death.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0496-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Effects of Rat Anti-mouse Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibody on the Recovery
           of Cognitive Function in Stroke Mice
    • Authors: Jun Wei; Chongling Sun; Chang Liu; Qimei Zhang
      Pages: 507 - 515
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of rat anti-mouse interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were randomly assigned into three groups: sham group, model group, and MR16-1 group. After the treatment of MR16-1, spatial learning and memory performance of mice were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tests. Then, brain slices were obtained and infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis were assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Protein expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins and multiple inflammatory cytokines were determined by Western blot analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine the mRNA levels of various inflammatory cytokines in brain slices and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The results showed that MR16-1 improved performances of stroke mice in MWM and Y-maze tests. Moreover, MR16-1 ameliorated MCAO-induced infarct, neuronal apoptosis, and inflammatory response. Furthermore, MR16-1 promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibited the expression of Bax in stroke mice, which revealed the inhibitory effect of MR16-1 on neuronal apoptosis. IL-6 levels in brain and CSF were both decreased by MR16-1 treatment in stroke mice. MR16-1 ameliorated cognitive dysfunction and apoptosis in stroke mice, involving the inhibition of inflammatory response and pro-apoptotic Bax, and the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The data supported that MR16-1 might be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of stroke.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0499-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Ameliorating the Effect of Pioglitazone on LPS-Induced Inflammation of
           Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells
    • Authors: Maryam Peymani; Kamran Ghaedi; Motahare-Sadat Hashemi; Ali Ghoochani; Abbas Kiani-Esfahani; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani; Hossein Baharvand
      Pages: 517 - 527
      Abstract: Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are appropriate model cells for studying the progress of neurodegenerative disorders and evaluation of pharmacological efficacies of small molecules for treatment of these disorders. Here, we focused on the therapeutic role of Pioglitazone, which is a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a respective nuclear receptor in inflammatory responses. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated by Pioglitazone at differing concentrations. Pretreated OPCs were further examined after induction of inflammation by LPS. Interestingly, Pioglitazone reversed the inflammatory conditions and enhanced OPC viability. Data showed that Pioglitazone reduced Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Moreover, Pioglitazone enhanced cell viability through distinct mechanisms including reduction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle markers. This study demonstrated that NO induces apoptosis through FOXO1 and degradation of β-catenin, while the presence of Pioglitazone inhibited these effects in rescuing human OPCs from apoptosis. Also, Pioglitazone did not show a significant influence on mRNA levels of TLR2, TRL4, and TNFα. Furthermore, simultaneous treatment of Pioglitazone with CHIR, a GSKβ inhibitor, facilitated anti-apoptotic responses of OPCs. Taken together, therapy with Pioglitazone represents a novel potential drug in alleviating the loss of OPCs in neurodegenerative conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0500-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Neuroprotective Effect of Oxysophocarpine by Modulation of MAPK Pathway in
           Rat Hippocampal Neurons Subject to Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and
    • Authors: Peng Zhao; Ren-Yuan Chang; Ning Liu; Jing Wang; Ru Zhou; Xue Qi; Yue Liu; Lin Ma; Yang Niu; Tao Sun; Yu-Xiang Li; Yan-Ping He; Jian-Qiang Yu
      Pages: 529 - 540
      Abstract: Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been traditionally used as a medicinal agent based on the observed pharmacological effects. In this study, the direct effect of OSC against neuronal injuries induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons and its mechanisms were investigated. Cultured hippocampal neurons, which were exposed to OGD for 2 h followed by a 24 h reoxygenation, were used as an in vitro model of ischemia and reperfusion. 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to confirm neural damage and to further evaluate the protective effects of OSC. The concentration of intracellular-free calcium [Ca2+]i and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured to determine the intracellular mechanisms and to further estimate the degree of neuronal damage. Changes in expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK were also observed in the in vitro model. It was shown that OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly attenuated the increased absorbance of MTT, and the release of LDH manifests the neuronal damage by the OGD/R. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of the neurons during the reoxygenation period with OSC significantly increased MMP; it also inhibited [Ca2+]i the elevation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the pretreatment with OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly down-regulated expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R injury. In conclusion, OSC displays a protective effect on OGD-injured hippocampal neurons by attenuating expression of inflammatory factors via down-regulated the MAPK signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0501-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Shear Stress Induces Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
           via AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-Mediated Autophagy
    • Authors: Liqian Sun; Manman Zhao; Aihua Liu; Ming Lv; Jingbo Zhang; Youxiang Li; Xinjian Yang; Zhongxue Wu
      Pages: 541 - 548
      Abstract: Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathophysiological processes of the intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Although shear stress has been implicated in the proliferation, migration, and phenotypic conversion of VSMCs, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated whether shear stress(SS)-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation was mediated by autophagy involved in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) pathway. The results show that shear stress could inhibit the expression of key VSMC contractile genes and induce pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling genes levels, contributing to VSMCs phenotypic switching from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. More importantly, Shear stress also markedly increased the levels of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II), Beclin-1, and p62 degradation. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly blocked shear-induced phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. To further explore the molecular mechanism involved in shear-induced autophagy, we found that shear stress could activate AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway in VSMCs. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, significantly reduced the levels of p-AMPK and p-ULK, enhanced p-mTOR level, and finally decreased LC3II and Beclin-1 level, which suggested that activated AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling was related to shear-mediated autophagy. These results indicate that shear stress promotes VSMC phenotypic modulation through the induction of autophagy involved in activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0505-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Protective Role Of Naringenin Against Aβ 25-35 -Caused Damage via ER and
           PI3K/Akt-Mediated Pathways
    • Authors: Ning Zhang; Zhonghua Hu; Zhibo Zhang; Guoliang Liu; Yeqiu Wang; Yandong Ren; Xiuhong Wu; Fang Geng
      Pages: 549 - 557
      Abstract: Senile plaque accumulation and neurofibrillary tangles are primary characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to assess the protective functions of naringenin against β-amyloid protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35)-caused nerve damage in differentiated PC12 cells, and study the potential mechanisms. We evaluated cell viability and apoptosis using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry, respectively. Moreover, we measured protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and caspase-3 activity via western blotting and RT-PCR. We found that naringenin protected cell against Aβ25-35-caused nerve damage by increasing cell viability, promoting Akt and GSK3β activation, and inhibiting cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. However, treatment with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182, 780 or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 suppressed the effects of naringenin. Our results suggested that naringenin could effectively suppress Aβ25-35-caused nerve damage in PC12 cells by regulating the ER and PI3K/Akt pathways.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0519-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Migration, Invasion,
           and Expression of MMP-2/9 in Human Glioblastoma
    • Authors: Pannaree Piromkraipak; Kant Sangpairoj; Wuttipong Tirakotai; Kulathida Chaithirayanon; Supeenun Unchern; Porntip Supavilai; Christopher Power; Pornpun Vivithanaporn
      Pages: 559 - 573
      Abstract: Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant and aggressive types of brain tumors. 5-lipoxygenase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1) play a role in human carcinogenesis. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs), anti-asthmatic drugs with mild side effects, have anti-metastatic activity in epidermoid carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and colon cancers as well as neuroprotective effects. Herein, anti-migratory effects of two LTRAs, montelukast and zafirlukast, were investigated in glioblastoma cells. The level of CysLT1 in A172 cells was increased by 3.13 folds after IL-1β treatment. The median toxic concentration of LTRAs in A172, U373, and primary astrocytes ranged from 7.17 to 26.28 μM at 24-h post-exposure. Both LTRAs inhibited migration and invasion of glioma. Additionally, both drugs significantly inhibited the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in A172 and U373 glioblastoma cells and primary human astrocytes, suggesting that CysLT1 plays a role in migration and invasion of glioma, and LTRAs are potential drugs to reduce migration and invasion.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0507-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Erratum to: MicroRNA-29c/PTEN Pathway is Involved in Mice Brain
           Development and Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells
    • Authors: Hongjun Zou; Ya Ding; Weifeng Shi; Xu Xu; Aihua Gong; Zhijian Zhang; Jinbo Liu
      Pages: 575 - 575
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0493-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Erratum to: O-GlcNAc Glycosylation of nNOS Promotes Neuronal Apoptosis
           Following Glutamate Excitotoxicity
    • Authors: Rongrong Chen; Peipei Gong; Tao Tao; Yilu Gao; Jianhong Shen; Yaohua Yan; Chengwei Duan; Jun Wang; Xiaojuan Liu
      Pages: 577 - 577
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0495-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 2 (2018)
  • Cuprizone Administration Alters the Iron Metabolism in the Mouse Model of
           Multiple Sclerosis
    • Authors: E. Varga; E. Pandur; H. Abrahám; A. Horváth; P. Ács; S. Komoly; A. Miseta; K. Sipos
      Abstract: Cuprizone (CZ) is a widely used copper chelating agent to develop non-autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis, characterized by demyelination of the corpus callosum (CC) and other brain regions. The exact mechanisms of CZ action are still arguable, but it seems that the only affected cells are the mature oligodendrocytes, possibly via metabolic disturbances caused by copper deficiency. During the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, high amount of deposited iron can be found throughout the demyelinated areas of the brain in the form of extracellular iron deposits and intracellularly accumulated iron in microglia. In the present study, we used the accepted experimental model of 0.2% CZ-containing diet with standard iron concentration to induce demyelination in the brain of C57BL/6 mice. Our aim was to examine the changes of iron homeostasis in the CC and as a part of the systemic iron regulation, in the liver. Our data showed that CZ treatment changed the iron metabolism of both tissues; however, it had more impact on the liver. Besides the alterations in the expressions of iron storage and import proteins, we detected reduced serum iron concentration and iron stores in the liver, together with elevated hepcidin levels and feasible disturbances in the Fe–S cluster biosynthesis. Our results revealed that the CZ-containing diet influences the systemic iron metabolism in mice, particularly the iron homeostasis of the liver. This inadequate systemic iron regulation may affect the iron homeostasis of the brain, eventually indicating a relationship among CZ treatment, iron metabolism, and neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0578-5
  • Visualization of Rostral Migratory Stream in the Developing Rat Brain by
           In Vivo Electroporation
    • Authors: Yi-wei Xie; Zhao-yun Li; Jing Du; Yu Chen; Bing-yu Chen; Tong-tong Wang; Zhihui Huang; Shuangxing Hou; Ying Wang
      Abstract: Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are generated from neuronal precursor cells migrating from anterior subventricular zone (SVZa) not only in the developing embryo but also throughout the postnatal life of mammals. In the present study, we established an in vivo electroporation assay to label SVZa cells of rat both at embryonic and postnatal ages, and traced SVZa progenitors and followed their migration pathway and differentiation. We found that labeled cells displayed high motility. Interestingly, the postnatal cells migrated faster than the embryonic cells after applying this assay at different ages of brain development. Furthermore, based on brain slice culture and time-lapse imaging, we analyzed the detail migratory properties of these labeled precursor neurons. Finally, tissue transplantation experiments revealed that cells already migrated in subependymal zone of OB were transplanted back into rostral migratory stream (RMS), and these cells could still migrate out tangentially along RMS to OB. Taken together, these findings provide an in vivo labeling assay to follow and trace migrating cells in the RMS, their maturation and integration into OB neuron network, and unrecognized phenomena that postnatal SVZa progenitor cells with higher motility than embryonic cells, and their migration was affected by extrinsic environments.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0577-6
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