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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2267 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1196 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (391 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1196 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Pathophysiology Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Treatments
           and Potential Novel Therapeutics
    • Authors: Matthew L. Pearn; Ingrid R. Niesman; Junji Egawa; Atsushi Sawada; Angels Almenar-Queralt; Sameer B. Shah; Josh L. Duckworth; Brian P. Head
      Pages: 571 - 585
      Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. TBI results in blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage and leakage, which allows for increased extravasation of immune cells (i.e., increased neuroinflammation). BBB dysfunction and impaired homeostasis contribute to secondary injury that occurs from hours to days to months after the initial trauma. This delayed nature of the secondary injury suggests a potential therapeutic window. The focus of this article is on the (1) pathophysiology of TBI and (2) potential therapies that include biologics (stem cells, gene therapy, peptides), pharmacological (anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, progrowth), and noninvasive (exercise, transcranial magnetic stimulation). In final, the review briefly discusses membrane/lipid rafts (MLR) and the MLR-associated protein caveolin (Cav). Interventions that increase Cav-1, MLR formation, and MLR recruitment of growth-promoting signaling components may augment the efficacy of pharmacologic agents or already existing endogenous neurotransmitters and neurotrophins that converge upon progrowth signaling cascades resulting in improved neuronal function after injury.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0400-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Down-Regulation of IRF6 Protects Cortical Neurons Against Traumatic
           Neuronal Injury Through Activating Akt-eNOS Pathway
    • Authors: Ming-Shan Hou; Jie Cao; Bo Chen; Xiao-Bin Liu
      Pages: 587 - 594
      Abstract: Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) is a novel and unique member of the IRF family of transcription factors, and the regulation and function of IRF6 remain unknown. Recently, IRF6 was shown to be upregulated after TBI and could promote neuronal apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRF6 in traumatic neuronal injury (TNI) in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. We found that the expression of IRF6 was significantly increased within 48 after TNI, and peaked at 24 h. Knockdown of IRF6 using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated TNI-induced loss of neuronal viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase. The results of TUNEL staining showed that IRF6 knockdown markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis, which was accompanied by decreased activity of caspase-3. Furthermore, downregulation of IRF6 inhibited lipid peroxidation, promoted the activity of endogenous antioxidative enzymes, and differently regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines after TNI. In addition, IRF6 knockdown significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), whereas blocking Akt-eNOS pathway via selective antagonists partly prevented the protective effects of IRF6 knockdown. These data show that downregulation of IRF6 affords protection against TNI through Akt-eNOS pathway-mediated antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0394-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Contribution of Hippocampal 5-HT 3 Receptors in Hippocampal Autophagy and
           Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses after a Single Prolonged Stress
           Exposure in Rats
    • Authors: Zhong-Min Wu; Li-Hua Yang; Rong Cui; Gui-Lian Ni; Feng-Tian Wu; Yong Liang
      Pages: 595 - 606
      Abstract: One of the hypotheses about the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. While certain 5-HT receptor subtypes are likely critical for the symptoms of PTSD, few studies have examined the role of 5-HT3 receptor in the development of PTSD, even though 5-HT3 receptor is critical for contextual fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptor in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) could prevent hippocampal autophagy and the development of PTSD-like behavior in animals. To this end, we infused SR57227, selective 5-HT3 agonist, into the DH after a single prolonged stress (SPS) treatment in rats. Three weeks later, we evaluated the effects of this pharmacological treatment on anxiety-related behaviors and extinction of contextual fear memory. We also accessed hippocampal autophagy and the expression of 5-HT3A subunit, Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the DH. We found that SPS treatment did not alter anxiety-related behaviors but prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory, and such a behavioral phenomenon was correlated with increased hippocampal autophagy, decreased 5-HT3A expression, and increased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. Furthermore, intraDH infusions of SR57227 dose-dependently promoted the extinction of contextual fear memory, prevented hippocampal autophagy, and decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. These results indicated that 5-HT3 receptor in the hippocampus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hippocampal autophagy, and is likely involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0395-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Up-Regulation of TAB3 Is Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis After
           Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Liang Zhu; Maohong Cao; Yaohui Ni; Lijian Han; Aihua Dai; Rongrong Chen; Xiaojin Ning; Xiaorong Liu; Kaifu Ke
      Pages: 607 - 617
      Abstract: Human transforming growth factor β-activated kinase (TAK1)-binding protein 3 (TAB3) is a regulator of NF-κB which has been mainly found in a variety of cancers. While TAB3 is highly expressed in brain tissue, little is known about the function of TAB3 in central nervous system. Our group established an animal ICH model with autologous whole blood injected into brain, and also a cell ICH model with hemin stimulation. Our Western blot result showed up-regulation of TAB3 during neuronal apoptosis in the model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which was also approved by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry result. Besides, increasing TAB3 level was accompanied by the increased expression of active-caspase-3, active-caspase-8, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, in in vitro study, the level of neuronal apoptosis was decreased by applying TAB3- RNA interference in PC12 cells. All the results above suggested that TAB3 probably participates in the process of neuronal apoptosis following ICH.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0397-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Tetramethylpyrazine Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced
           Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Injury via Rho/Rho-kinase Signaling
           Pathway
    • Authors: Guang Yang; Chen Qian; Ning Wang; Chenyu Lin; Yan Wang; Guangyun Wang; Xinxin Piao
      Pages: 619 - 633
      Abstract: Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, also known as Ligustrazine), which is isolated from Chinese Herb Medicine Ligustium wollichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong), has been widely used in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke by Chinese herbalists. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are the integral parts of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), protecting BMECs against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) which is important for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms of TMP, focusing on OGD-injured BMECs and the Rho/Rho-kinase (Rho-associated kinases, ROCK) signaling pathway. The model of OGD-injured BMECs was established in this study. BMECs were identified by von Willebrand factor III staining and exposed to fasudil, or TMP at different concentrations (14.3, 28.6, 57.3 µM) for 2 h before 24 h of OGD injury. The effect of each treatment was examined by cell viability assays, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transendothelial electric resistance and western blot analysis (caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), RhoA, Rac1). Our results show that TMP significantly attenuated apoptosis and the permeability of BMECs induced by OGD. In addition, TMP could notably down-regulate the characteristic proteins in Rho/ROCK signaling pathway such as RhoA and Rac1, which triggered abnormal changes of eNOS and ROS, respectively. Altogether, our results show that TMP has a strong protective effect against OGD-induced BMECs injury and suggest that the mechanism might be related to the inhibition of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0398-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evidence for the Participation of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) in the
           Antinociceptive Effect of Curcumin in a Formalin-Induced Orofacial
           Inflammatory Model
    • Authors: Yongfu Wu; Dongyun Qin; Huiling Yang; Hui Fu
      Pages: 635 - 642
      Abstract: Curcumin, a major bioactive component of turmeric, has diverse therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antinociceptive activities. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which can be activated by acute drops in the extracellular pH, play an important role in nociception. However, very little is known about the interaction between ASICs and curcumin in nociception of inflammation. In our study, we investigated whether the antinociceptive effects of curcumin are mediated via ASICs using an orofacial nociceptive model and in vitro western blotting, immunofluorescence, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the trigeminal system. Intraperitoneally administered curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg can reduce hyperalgesia in both the phases of a formalin-induced orofacial nociceptive model. Curcumin reduced the amplitude of ASICs currents in a dose-dependent manner in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and curcumin also reduced the protein quantity but did not change the distribution of ASICs in TG. Thus, our results indicate that curcumin can reduce formalin-induced ASICs activation and thus inhibit ASICs-mediated inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0399-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Involvement of Spinal PKMζ Expression and Phosphorylation in
           Remifentanil-Induced Long-Term Hyperalgesia in Rats
    • Authors: Qi Zhao; Linlin Zhang; Ruichen Shu; Chunyan Wang; Yonghao Yu; Haiyun Wang; Guolin Wang
      Pages: 643 - 653
      Abstract: Up-regulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expression and trafficking is the key mechanism for remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH), nevertheless, the signaling pathway and pivotal proteins involved in RIH remain equivocal. PKMζ, an isoform of protein kinase C (PKC), maintains pain memory storage in neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain, which plays a parallel role regulated by NMDARs in long-term memory trace. In the present study, Zeta Inhibitory Peptide (ZIP), a PKMζ inhibitor, and a selective GluN2B antagonist Ro-256981 are injected intrathecally before remifentanil infusion (1 μg kg−1 min−1 for 1 h, iv) in order to detect whether GluN2B contributes to RIH through affecting synthesis and activity of PKMζ in spinal dorsal horn. Nociceptive tests are measured by Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWL). The L4–L6 segments of dorsal horn taken from rats with RIH are for determining expression of PKMζ and pPKMζ by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Our data suggest that remifentanil infusion causes an increase of PKMζ in expression and phosphorylation in rats with nociceptive sensitization, beginning at 2 h, peaked at 2 days, and returned to basal level at 7 days. ZIP (10 ng) could block behavioral sensitization induced by remifentanil. Ro25-6981 dosage-dependently attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and reversed expression of PKMζ and pPKMζ, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor facilitates development of RIH through mediating expression and activity of spinal PKMζ in rats. Although detailed mechanisms require further comprehensive study, the preventive role of Ro25-6981 and ZIP provide novel options for the effective precaution of RIH in clinics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0401-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Indirubin-3-Oxime Prevents H 2 O 2 -Induced Neuronal Apoptosis via
           Concurrently Inhibiting GSK3β and the ERK Pathway
    • Authors: Jie Yu; Jiacheng Zheng; Jiajia Lin; Linlu Jin; Rui Yu; Shinghung Mak; Shengquan Hu; Hongya Sun; Xiang Wu; Zaijun Zhang; Mingyuen Lee; Wahkeung Tsim; Wei Su; Wenhua Zhou; Wei Cui; Yifan Han; Qinwen Wang
      Pages: 655 - 664
      Abstract: Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have shown that indirubin-3-oxime, a derivative of indirubin originally designed for leukemia therapy, could prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. H2O2 exposure led to the increased activities of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SH-SY5Y cells. Indirubin-3-oxime treatment significantly reversed the altered activity of both the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β cascade and the ERK pathway induced by H2O2. In addition, both GSK3β and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors significantly prevented H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, specific inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) abolished the neuroprotective effects of indirubin-3-oxime against H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that indirubin-3-oxime prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis via concurrent inhibiting GSK3β and the ERK pathway in SH-SY5Y cells, providing support for the use of indirubin-3-oxime to treat neurodegenerative disorders caused or exacerbated by oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0402-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptomic Profiling Discloses Molecular and Cellular Events Related
           to Neuronal Differentiation in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
    • Authors: Francesco Pezzini; Laura Bettinetti; Francesca Di Leva; Marzia Bianchi; Elisa Zoratti; Rosalba Carrozzo; Filippo M. Santorelli; Massimo Delledonne; Maciej Lalowski; Alessandro Simonati
      Pages: 665 - 682
      Abstract: Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are widely utilized in in vitro studies to dissect out pathogenetic mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders. These cells are considered as neuronal precursors and differentiate into more mature neuronal phenotypes under selected growth conditions. In this study, in order to decipher the pathways and cellular processes underlying neuroblastoma cell differentiation in vitro, we performed systematic transcriptomic (RNA-seq) and bioinformatic analysis of SH-SY5Y cells differentiated according to a two-step paradigm: retinoic acid treatment followed by enriched neurobasal medium. Categorization of 1989 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in differentiated cells functionally linked them to changes in cell morphology including remodelling of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton, and neuritogenesis. Seventy-three DEGs were assigned to axonal guidance signalling pathway, and the expression of selected gene products such as neurotrophin receptors, the functionally related SLITRK6, and semaphorins, was validated by immunoblotting. Along with these findings, the differentiated cells exhibited an ability to elongate longer axonal process as assessed by the neuronal cytoskeletal markers biochemical characterization and morphometric evaluation. Recognition of molecular events occurring in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells is critical to accurately interpret the cellular responses to specific stimuli in studies on disease pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0403-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Up-regulation of MCM3 Relates to Neuronal Apoptosis After Traumatic Brain
           Injury in Adult Rats
    • Authors: Wei Ji; Hanzhang Liu; Chun Liu; Lifei shao; Yuankun Liu; Shaochen Fan; Xiaohong Li; Lei lei Gong; Shunxing Zhu; Yilu Gao
      Pages: 683 - 693
      Abstract: Minichromosome maintenance complex component 3, one of the minichromosome maintenance proteins, functions as a part of pre-replication complex to initiate DNA replication in eukaryotes. Minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 (MCM3) was mainly implied in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In addition, MCM3 might play an important role in neuronal apoptosis. However, the functions of MCM3 in central nervous system are still with limited acquaintance. In this study, we performed a traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats. Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed up-regulation of MCM3 in the peritrauma brain cortex. The expression patterns of active caspase-3 and Bax, Bcl-2 were parallel with that of MCM3. Immunofluorescent staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick-end labeling suggested that MCM3 was involved in neuronal apoptosis. In conclusion, our data indicated that MCM3 might play an important role in neuronal apoptosis following TBI. Further understanding of these insights could serve as the basis for broadening the therapeutic scope against TBI.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0404-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The Effects of Astilbin on Cognitive Impairments in a Transgenic Mouse
           Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Authors: Dongmei Wang; Sanqiang Li; Jing Chen; Ling Liu; Xiaoying Zhu
      Pages: 695 - 706
      Abstract: Bioflavonoids are being utilised as neuroprotectants in the treatment of various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Astilbin, a bioflavanoid, has been reported to have potent neuroprotective effects, but its preventive effects on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced, Alzheimer’s disease-related, cognitive impairment, and the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not been well characterised. Five-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group and two astilbin (either 20 or 40 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneally) groups. After 8 weeks of treatment, we observed beneficial effects of astilbin (40 mg/kg per day), including lessening learning and memory deficits and reducing plaque burden and Aβ levels. Furthermore, the expressions of both the cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly increased and the disturbance of AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway was markedly ameliorated in the hippocampus of astilbin-treated (40 mg/kg per day) group. Our data suggest that astilbin might be a potential therapeutic agent against AD.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0405-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • PirB Overexpression Exacerbates Neuronal Apoptosis by Inhibiting TrkB and
           mTOR Phosphorylation After Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation Injury
    • Authors: Zhao-hua Zhao; Bin Deng; Hao Xu; Jun-feng Zhang; Ya-jing Mi; Xiang-zhong Meng; Xing-chun Gou; Li-xian Xu
      Pages: 707 - 715
      Abstract: s Previous studies have proven that paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) plays a crucial suppressant role in neurite outgrowth and neuronal plasticity after central nervous system injury. However, the role of PirB in neuronal survival after cerebral ischemic injury and its mechanisms remains unclear. In the present study, the role of PirB is investigated in the survival and apoptosis of cerebral cortical neurons in cultured primary after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury. The results have shown that rebarbative PirB exacerbates early neuron apoptosis and survival. PirB gene silencing remarkably decreases early apoptosis and promotes neuronal survival after OGD. The expression of bcl-2 markedly increased and the expression of bax significantly decreased in PirB RNAi-treated neurons, as compared with the control- and control RNAi-treated ones. Further, phosphorylated TrkB and mTOR levels are significantly downregulated in the damaged neurons. However, the PirB silencing markedly upregulates phosphorylated TrkB and mTOR levels in the neurons after the OGD. Taken together, the overexpression of PirB inhibits the neuronal survival through increased neuron apoptosis. Importantly, the inhibition of the phosphorylation of TrkB and mTOR may be one of its mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0406-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Parkin Overexpression Ameliorates PrP106–126-Induced Neurotoxicity via
           Enhanced Autophagy in N2a Cells
    • Authors: Sher Hayat Khan; Deming Zhao; Syed Zahid Ali Shah; Mohammad Farooque Hassan; Ting Zhu; Zhiqi Song; Xiangmei Zhou; Lifeng Yang
      Pages: 717 - 728
      Abstract: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by the accumulation of the abnormal prion protein scrapie (PrPSc). Prion protein aggregation, misfolding, and cytotoxicity in the brain are the major causes of neuronal dysfunction and ultimate neurodegeneration in all TSEs. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been studied extensively in all major protein misfolding aggregating diseases, especially Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, but the role of parkin in TSEs remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of parkin in a prion disease cell model in which neuroblastoma2a (N2a) cells were treated with prion peptide PrP106–126. We observed a gradual decrease in the soluble parkin level upon treatment with PrP106–126 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, endogenous parkin colocalized with FITC-tagged prion fragment106–126. Overexpression of parkin in N2a cells via transfection repressed apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Parkin-overexpressing cells also showed reductions in apoptotic BAX translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release to the cytosol, which ultimately inhibited activation of proapoptotic caspases. Taken together, our findings reveal a parkin-mediated cytoprotective mechanism against PrP106–126 toxicity, which is a novel potential therapeutic target for treating prion diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0407-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Grueneberg Glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb are Activated by Odorants and
           Cool Temperature
    • Authors: Rosolino Bumbalo; Marilena Lieber; Lisa Schroeder; Yasemin Polat; Heinz Breer; Joerg Fleischer
      Pages: 729 - 742
      Abstract: Neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion respond to cool temperatures as well as to distinct odorants and extend axonal processes to the olfactory bulb of the brain. Analyses of transgenic mice, in which Grueneberg ganglion neurons and their axons are labeled, revealed that these axons innervated nine distinct glomeruli distributed in a characteristic topographical pattern in dorsal, lateral, ventral, and medial regions of rather posterior areas in the bulb. To assess activation of these glomeruli (hereinafter designated as Grueneberg glomeruli) upon stimulation of Grueneberg ganglion neurons, mice were exposed to the odorant 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (2,3-DMP) and the expression of the activity-dependent marker c-Fos in juxtaglomerular cells of the relevant glomeruli was monitored. It was found that all of these glomeruli were activated, irrespective of their localization in the bulb. To verify that the activation of juxtaglomerular cells in Grueneberg glomeruli was indeed based on stimulation of Grueneberg ganglion neurons, the 2,3-DMP-induced responses in these glomeruli were investigated in mice lacking the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel CNGA3 which is critical for chemo- and thermosensory signal transduction in Grueneberg ganglion neurons. This approach revealed that elimination of CNGA3 led to a reduction of the odorant-induced activity in Grueneberg glomeruli, indicating that the activation of these glomeruli is based on a preceding stimulation of the Grueneberg ganglion. Analyzing whether Grueneberg glomeruli in the bulb might also process thermosensory information, it was found that upon exposure to coolness, Grueneberg glomeruli were activated. Investigating mice lacking CNGA3, the activation of these glomeruli by cool temperatures was attenuated.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0408-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Neuroprotection of Ro25-6981 Against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Brain
           Injury via Inhibition of Autophagy
    • Authors: Fuxing Dong; Ruiqin Yao; Hongli Yu; Yaping Liu
      Pages: 743 - 752
      Abstract: In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Ro25-6981 against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ro25-6981 alone or in combination with rapamycin was intracerebroventricularly administered to rats which suffered transient forebrain ischemia inducing by 4-vessel occlusion and reperfusion. Nissl staining was used to determine the survival of CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, while immunohistochemistry was performed to measure neuron-specific enolase (NSE) expression. The expression of autophagy-related proteins, such as microtubule-associated protein l light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin 1, and sequestosome 1 (p62), was assessed by immunoblotting. Nissl staining showed that neuronal damage was reduced in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer in rats that received Ro25-6981. The protective effect of Ro25-6981 was dose-dependent, with a significant effect in the middle-dose range. The expression of NSE increased after Ro25-6981 treatment. Ro25-6981 significantly decreased LC3II (which is membrane bound) and Beclin 1, and increased p62. In addition, Ro25-6981 decreased rapamycin-induced neuronal damage and excessive activation of autophagy after I/R. Taken together, the results suggest that Ro25-6981 could suppress ischemic brain injury by regulating autophagy-related proteins during ischemia/reperfusion.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0409-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Atorvastatin Attenuates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Hippocampal Neurons
           Injury Via Akt-nNOS-JNK Signaling Pathway
    • Authors: Sen Shao; Mingwei Xu; Jiajun Zhou; Xiaoling Ge; Guanfeng Chen; Lili Guo; Lian Luo; Kun Li; Zhou Zhu; Fayong Zhang
      Pages: 753 - 762
      Abstract: Ischemia-induced brain damage leads to apoptosis like delayed neuronal death in selectively vulnerable regions, which could further result in irreversible damages. Previous studies have demonstrated that neurons in the CA1 area of hippocampus are particularly sensitive to ischemic damage. Atorvastatin (ATV) has been reported to attenuate cognitive deficits after stroke, but precise mechanism for neuroprotection remains unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of ATV against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion. In this study, four-vessel occlusion model was established in rats with cerebral ischemia. Rats were divided into five groups: sham group, I/R group, I/R+ATV group, I/R+ATV+LY, and I/R+SP600125 group. Cresyl violet staining was carried out to examine the neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 region. Immunoblotting was used to detect the expression of the related proteins. Results showed that ATV significantly protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons against cerebral I/R. ATV could increase the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt1) and nNOS, diminished the phosphorylation of JNK3 and c-Jun, and further inhibited the activation of caspase-3. Whereas, all of the aforementioned effects of ATV were reversed by LY294002 (an inhibitor of Akt1). Furthermore, pretreatment with SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) diminished the phosphorylation of JNK3 and c-Jun, and further inhibited the activation of caspase-3 after cerebral I/R. Taken together, our results implied that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of nNOS is involved in the neuroprotection of ATV against ischemic brain injury via suppressing JNK3 signaling pathway that provide a new experimental foundation for stroke therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0412-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Protect SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma
           Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury Through Modulating Oxidative
           Status
    • Authors: Xiao-Wen Jiang; Jun-Peng Bai; Qiao Zhang; Xiao-Long Hu; Xing Tian; Jun Zhu; Jia Liu; Wei-Hong Meng; Qing-Chun Zhao
      Pages: 511 - 512
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0392-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Mitophagy in Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients with Hippocampal
           Sclerosis
    • Authors: Mengqian Wu; Xinyu Liu; Xiaosa Chi; Le Zhang; Weixi Xiong; Siew Mun Vance Chiang; Dong Zhou; Jinmei Li
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized. Fourteen samples were examined. TEM results showed that early autophagosomes were present and mitochondria were impaired to different degrees in hippocampi. Immunofluorescent labeling showed colocalization of the autophagosome marker LC3B with the mitochondrial marker TOMM20 in hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes, indicating the presence of mitophagy. Mitochondrial and autophagosomal marker colocalization was lower in hippocampus than in temporal lobe cortex (P < 0.001). Accumulation of autophagosomes and mitophagy activation are implicated in rTLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant accumulation of damaged mitochondria, especially in the hippocampus, can be attributed to defects in mitophagy, which may participate in epileptogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0492-2
       
  • Stress-Induced Alterations of Immune Profile in Animals Suffering by Tau
           Protein-Driven Neurodegeneration
    • Authors: Petr Novak; Martin Cente; Nina Kosikova; Tomas Augustin; Richard Kvetnansky; Michal Novak; Peter Filipcik
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder; neurofibrillary pathology composed of tau protein is found side by side with amyloid-β deposits and extensive neuroinflammation. The immune system of the brain is considered as one of the factors that could influence the speed of the progression of AD neuropathology as a potential mediator of the damage induced by AD protein deposits. Alzheimer’s disease pathology can be impacted by psychological stress; however, signalling pathways in background are not well known. We have explored possible avenues of how stress could influence the brain’s immune system in a rat model of AD. Animals were subjected either to a single or multiple instances of immobilization stress. The analysis of a panel of immunity-related genes was used to evaluate the impact of stress on the immune response in the brain. We have identified 19 stress-responsive genes that are involved in neuroinflammation accompanying tau pathology: Nos2, Ptgs2, IL-8rb, C5, Mmp9, Cx3cr1, CD40lg, Adrb2, IL-6, IL-6r, IL-1r2, Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl12, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10. Most of them are deregulated under the stress conditions also in control animals; however, the magnitude of the response to either acute or chronic stress differs. This can lead to serious influence, most probably to acceleration of neurodegenerative phenotype in diseased animals. Several of the genes (IL-1β, Casp1, Cx3cr1 and C5) are deregulated solely in tauopathic animals. The stress-induced changes in the inflammatory picture of the brain highlight the fact that the brain’s immune response is highly responsive to environmental stimuli. The pattern of changes is indicative of an attempt to protect the brain in the short term, while being potentially detrimental to the response against a long-term pathological process such as neurofibrillary degeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0491-3
       
  • The Orally Active Noncompetitive AMPAR Antagonist Perampanel Attenuates
           Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Hong-Xia Niu; Jun-Zhe Wang; Dong-Liang Wang; Jun-Jie Miao; Hua Li; Zhi-Gang Liu; Xing Yuan; Wei Liu; Jing-Ru Zhou
      Abstract: Inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) is a potential target of therapy for ischemic stroke. Perampanel is a potent noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we investigated the potential protective effects of perampanel against focal cerebral ischemia in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Oral administration with perampanel significantly reduced MCAO-induced brain edema, brain infarct volume, and neuronal apoptosis. These protective effects were associated with improved functional outcomes, as measured by foot-fault test, adhesive removal test, and modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. Importantly, perampanel was effective even when the administration was delayed to 1 h after reperfusion. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that perampanel significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas it increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 after MCAO. In addition, perampanel treatment markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and also inhibited nitric oxide (NO) generation in MCAO-injured rats at 24 and 72 h after reperfusion. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the orally active AMPAR antagonist perampanel protects against experimental ischemic stroke via regulating inflammatory cytokines and NOS pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0489-x
       
 
 
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