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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Nitric Oxide Upregulates Proteasomal Protein Degradation in Neurons
    • Authors: Natalia Bal; Matvey Roshchin; Sergey Salozhin; Pavel Balaban
      Pages: 763 - 769
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many neuronal functions such as neuromodulation and intracellular signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide is involved in regulation of proteasomal protein degradation. However, its role in neuronal protein degradation still remains unclear. In our study, we investigated the influence of endogenous nitric oxide production in this process. We have shown that nitric oxide synthase blockade prevents decline of the UbG76V-GFP fluorescence (GFP-based proteasomal protein degradation reporter) in neuronal processes of the cultured hippocampal neurons. It suggests that nitric oxide may regulate ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal protein degradation in neurons. Also, we have confirmed that the NO synthesis blockade alone significantly impairs long-term potentiation, and demonstrated for the first time that simultaneous blockade of the NO and proteins synthesis leads to the long-term potentiation amplitude rescue to the control values. Obtained results suggest that nitric oxide is involved in the protein degradation in proteasomes in physiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0413-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Altered Sodium and Potassium, but not Calcium Currents in Cerebellar
           Granule Cells in an In Vitro Model of Neuronal Injury
    • Authors: Katarína Ondáčová; Dana Jurkovičová; Ľubica Lacinová
      Pages: 771 - 782
      Abstract: Acute injury of central nervous system (CNS) starts a cascade of morphological, molecular, and functional changes including formation of a fibrotic scar, expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and expression of extracellular matrix proteins leading to arrested neurite outgrowth and failed regeneration. We assessed alteration of electrophysiological properties of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in two in vitro models of neuronal injury: (i) model of fibrotic scar created from coculture of meningeal fibroblasts and cerebral astrocytes with addition of TGF-β1; (ii) a simplified model based on administration of TGF-β1 to CGCs culture. Both models reproduced suppression of neurite outgrowth caused by neuronal injury, which was equally restored by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), a key disruptor of fibrotic scar formation. Voltage-dependent calcium current was not affected in either injury model. However, intracellular calcium concentration could be altered as an expression of inositol trisphosphate receptor type 1 was suppressed by TGF-β1 and restored by ChABC. Voltage-dependent sodium current was significantly suppressed in CGCs cultured on a model of fibrotic scar and was only partly restored by ChABC. Administration of TGF-β1 significantly shifted current–voltage relation of sodium current toward more positive membrane potential without change to maximal current amplitude. Both transient and sustained potassium currents were significantly suppressed on a fibrotic scar and restored by ChABC to their control amplitudes. In contrast, TGF-β1 itself significantly upregulated transient and did not change sustained potassium current. Observed changes of voltage-dependent ion currents may contribute to known morphological and functional changes in injured CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0416-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Long-Term Consumption of High-Fat Diet in Rats: Effects on Microglial and
           Astrocytic Morphology and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression
    • Authors: Kinga Gzielo; Michal Kielbinski; Jakub Ploszaj; Krzysztof Janeczko; Stefan P. Gazdzinski; Zuzanna Setkowicz
      Pages: 783 - 789
      Abstract: Obesity in humans is associated with cognitive decline and elevated risk of neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Variations of high-fat diet are often used to model these effects in animal studies. However, we previously reported improvements in markers of memory and learning, as well as larger hippocampi and higher metabolite concentrations in Wistar rats fed high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD, 60 % energy from fat, 28 % from carbohydrates) for 1 year; this diet leads to mild ketonemia (Setkowicz et al. in PLoS One 10:e0139987, 2015). In the present study, we follow up on this cohort to assess glial morphology and expression of markers related to gliosis. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were kept on HFCD and twenty-five on normal chow. At 12 months of age, the animals were sacrificed and processed for immunohistochemical staining for astrocytic (glial fibrillary acidic protein), microglial (Iba1), and neuronal (neuronal nitric oxide synthetase, nNOS) markers in the hippocampus. We have found changes in immunopositive area fraction and cellular complexity, as studied by a simplified Sholl procedure. To our knowledge, this study is the first to apply this methodology to the study of glial cells in HFCD animals. GFAP and Iba1 immunoreactive area fraction in the hippocampi of HFCD-fed rats were decreased, while the mean number of intersections (an indirect measure of cell complexity) was decreased in GFAP-positive astrocytes, but not in Iba1-expressing microglia. At the same time, nNOS expression was lowered after HFCD in both the cortex and the hippocampus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0417-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Piracetam Facilitates the Anti-Amnesic but not Anti-Diabetic Activity of
           Metformin in Experimentally Induced Type-2 Diabetic Encephalopathic Rats
    • Authors: Shruti Pandey; Debapriya Garabadu
      Pages: 791 - 802
      Abstract: Piracetam exhibits anti-amnesic activity in several animal models of dementia. However, its anti-amnesic potential has yet to be evaluated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced encephalopathy. Therefore, in the present study, piracetam (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was screened for anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activity in T2DM-induced encephalopathic male rats. Subsequently, anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activities were evaluated for piracetam, metformin and their combination in T2DM-induced encephalopathic animals. Rats received streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) injections on day-1 (D-1) of the experimental schedule and were kept undisturbed for 35 days to exhibit T2DM-induced encephalopathy. All drug treatments were continued from D-7 to D-35 in both experiments. Piracetam (100 mg/kg) attenuated loss in learning and memory in terms of increase in escape latency on D-4 (D-34) and decrease in time spent in the target quadrant on D-5 (D-35) of Morris water maze test protocol, and spatial memory in terms of reduced spontaneous alternation behavior in Y-maze test of encephalopathic rats. Additionally, piracetam attenuated altered levels of fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in encephalopathic animals, comparatively lesser than metformin. In the next experiment, combination of piracetam and metformin exhibited better anti-amnesic but not anti-diabetic activity than respective monotherapies in encephalopathic rats. Further, the combination attenuated reduced acetylcholine level and increased acetylcholinesterase activity, increased glycogen synthase kinase-3β level and decreased brain-derived neurotropic factor level in hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of encephalopathic animals. Thus, piracetam could be used as an adjuvant to metformin in the management of dementia in T2DM-induced encephalopathy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0418-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Impact of Oxytocin Gene Knockout on Sexual Behavior and Gene
           Expression Related to Neuroendocrine Systems in the Brain of Female Mice
    • Authors: Josi Maria Zimmermann-Peruzatto; Virgínia Meneghini Lazzari; Grasiela Agnes; Roberta Oriques Becker; Ana Carolina de Moura; Renata Padilha Guedes; Aldo Bolten Lucion; Silvana Almeida; Márcia Giovenardi
      Pages: 803 - 815
      Abstract: Social relations are built and maintained from the interaction among individuals. The oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), estrogen, dopamine, and their receptors are involved in the modulation of sexual behavior in females. This study aimed to analyze the impact of OT gene knockout (OTKO) on sexual behavior and the gene expression of oxytocin (OTR), estrogen alpha (ERα), estrogen beta (ERβ), vasopressin (V1aR), and dopamine (D2R) receptors in the olfactory bulb (OB), prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC), and hypothalamus (HPT), as well as in the synthesis of VP in the HPT of female mice. Wild-type (WT) littermates were used for comparisons. The CDNAs were synthesized by polymerase chain reaction and the gene expression was calculated with the 2−ΔΔCt formula. Our results showed that the absence of OT caused an increase in the frequency and duration of non-receptive postures and a decrease in receptive postures in the OTKO. OTKO females showed a significant decrease in the gene expression of OTR in the HPC, V1aR in the HPT, and ERα and ERβ in the PFC. There was no significant difference in the gene expression of D2R of OTKO. However, OTKO showed an increased gene expression of V1aR in the HPC. There is no significant difference in VP mRNA synthesis in the HPT between OTKO and WT. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of OT leads to significant changes in the expression of the studied genes (OTR, ERα, ERβ, V1aR), and these changes may contribute to the decreased sexual behavior observed in OTKO females.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0419-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effects of Alpha-Synuclein on Primary Spinal Cord Neurons Associated with
           Apoptosis and CNTF Expression
    • Authors: Guo-Ying Feng; Jia Liu; You-Cui Wang; Zhen-Yu Wang; Yue Hu; Qing-Jie Xia; Yang Xu; Fei-Fei Shang; Mei-Rong Chen; Fang Wang; Xue Zhou; Ting-Hua Wang
      Pages: 817 - 829
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes neurological deficits with poor recovery; the treatment, however, is far from satisfaction, and the mechanisms remain unclear. Using immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis, we found α-synuclein (SNCA) was significantly up-regulated in the spinal caudal segment of rats subjected to spinal cord transection at 3 days post-operation. Moreover, the role of SNCA on neuronal growth and apoptosis in vitro was determined by using overexpressing and interfering SNCA recombined plasmid vectors, and the underlying mechanism was detected by QRT-PCR and western blotting. Spinal neurons transfected with SNCA-shRNA lentivirus gave rise to an optimal neuronal survival, while it results in cell apoptosis in SNCA-ORF group. In molecular level, SNCA silence induced the up-regulation of CNTF and down-regulation of Caspase7/9. Together, endogenous SNCA plays a crucial role in spinal neuronal survival, in which the underlying mechanism may be linked to the regulation both apoptotic genes (Caspase7/9) and CNTF. The present findings therefore provide novel insights into the role of SNCA in spinal cord and associated mechanism, which may provide novel cue for the treatment of SCI in future clinic trials.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0420-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • IDH1 Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Adult Rats Brain Following
           Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Xing Chen; Hongmei Wang; Weibing Yu; Fen Chen; Guiyun Wang; Jiajia Shi; Chunying Zhou
      Pages: 831 - 841
      Abstract: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), one member of the IDH family can convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) via oxidative decarboxylation. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations have been identified in multiple tumor types and the mutations confer neomorphic activity in the mutant protein, resulting in the conversion of α-KG to the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The subsequent accumulation of 2-HG results in epigenetic dysregulation via inhibition of α-KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylase. And the glutamate levels are reduced in IDH mutant cells compared to wild-type. We have known that diffuse gliomas contain a high frequency of mutations in the IDH1 gene. However, the expression of IDH1 and its roles in Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remain largely unknown. We observed increased expression of IDH1 in neurons after intracerebral hemorrhage. Up-regulation of IDH1 was found to be accompanied by the increased expression of active caspase-3 and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma-2 in vivo and vitro studies. So we hypothesized that IDH1 was involved in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis. The present research for the first time detected the expression and variation of IDH1 surrounding the hematoma, and all data proved the involvement of IDH1 in neuronal apoptosis following ICH.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0421-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • FK506 Attenuates the Inflammation in Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Inhibiting
           the Activation of NF-κB in Microglia Cells
    • Authors: Gang Liu; Gentao Fan; Guodong Guo; Wenbo Kang; Dongsheng Wang; Bin Xu; Jianning Zhao
      Pages: 843 - 855
      Abstract: FK-506 (Tacrolimus) is a very commonly used immunomodulatory agent that plays important roles in modulating the calcium-dependent phosphoserine–phosphothreonine protein phosphatase calcineurin and thus inhibits calcineurin-mediated secondary neuronal damage. The biological function of FK-506 in the spinal cord has not been fully elucidated. To clarify the anti-inflammatory action of FK-506 in spinal cord injury (SCI), we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats and hypoxia-treated primary spinal cord microglia cultures. This work studied the activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-1b, and IL-6) expression. ELISA and q-PCR analysis revealed that TNF-a, IL-1b, and IL-6 levels significantly increased 3 days after spinal cord contusion and decreased after 14 days, accompanied by the increased activation of NF-κB. This increase was reversed by an FK-506 treatment. Double immunofluorescence labeling suggested that NF-κB activation was especially prominent in microglia. Immunohistochemistry confirmed no alteration in the number of microglia. Moreover, the results in hypoxia-treated primary spinal cord microglia confirmed the effect of FK-506 on TNF-a, IL-1b, and IL-6 expression and NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that FK-506 may be involved in microglial activation after SCI.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0422-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Expression of SHANK3 in the Temporal Neocortex of Patients with
           Intractable Temporal Epilepsy and Epilepsy Rat Models
    • Authors: Yanke Zhang; Baobing Gao; Yan Xiong; Fangshuo Zheng; Xin Xu; Yong Yang; Yida Hu; Xuefeng Wang
      Pages: 857 - 867
      Abstract: SH3 and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain 3 (SHANK3) is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. SHANK3 plays an important role in the formation and maturation of excitatory synapses. In the brain, SHANK3 directly or indirectly interacts with various synaptic molecules including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. Previous studies have shown that Autism spectrum disorder is a result of mutations of the main SHANK3 isoforms, which may be due to deficit in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that overexpression of SHANK3 could induce seizures in vivo. However, little is known about the role of SHANK3 in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, we investigated the expression pattern of SHANK3 in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and in pilocarpine-induced models of epilepsy. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to locate and determine the expression of SHANK3 in the temporal neocortex of patients with epilepsy, and in the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex of rats in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. Double-labeled immunofluorescence showed that SHANK3 was mainly expressed in neurons. Western blot analysis confirmed that SHANK3 expression was increased in the neocortex of TLE patients and rats. These results indicate that SHANK3 participates in the pathology of epilepsy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0423-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Topiramate Improves Neuroblast Differentiation of Hippocampal Dentate
           Gyrus in the d -Galactose-Induced Aging Mice via Its Antioxidant Effects
    • Authors: Hui Shen; Jie Wang; Dan Jiang; Pei Xu; Xiaolu Zhu; Yuanyuan Zhang; Xing Yu; Moo-Ho Won; Pei Qing Su; Bing Chun Yan
      Pages: 869 - 877
      Abstract: Some anticonvulsant drugs are associated with cognitive ability in patients; Topiramate (TPM) is well known as an effective anticonvulsant agent applied in clinical settings. However, the effect of TPM on the cognitive function is rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to observe the effects of TPM on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the d-galactose-induced aging mice by Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. The study is divided into four groups including control, d-galactose-treated group, 25 and 50 mg/kg TPM-treated plus d-galactose-treated groups. We found, 50 mg/kg (not 25 mg/kg) TPM treatment significantly increased the numbers of Ki-67+ cells and DCX immunoreactivity, and improved neuroblast injury induced by d-galactose treatment. In addition, we also found that decreased immunoreactivities and protein levels of antioxidants including superoxide dismutase and catalase induced by d-galactose treatment were significantly recovered by 50 mg/kg TPM treatment in the mice hippocampal DG (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our present results indicate that TPM can ameliorate neuroblast damage and promote cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal DG via increasing SODs and catalase levels in the d-galactose mice.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0424-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • PPAR Gamma Coactivator 1 Beta (PGC-1β) Reduces Mammalian Target of
           Rapamycin (mTOR) Expression via a SIRT1-Dependent Mechanism in Neurons
    • Authors: Ying-Chun Liu; Xiao-Xiao Gao; Zhi-Guang Zhang; Zhao-Hua Lin; Qi-Lian Zou
      Pages: 879 - 887
      Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth, and protein synthesis. Since decreased mTOR activity has been found to slow aging in many species, the aim of this study was to examine the activity of mTOR and its phosphorylated form in in vitro and in vivo models mimicking Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and investigate the potential pathway of PGC-1β in regulating mTOR expression. Primary neurons and N2a cells were treated with Aβ25–35, while untreated cells served as controls. The expression of mTOR, p-mTOR (Ser2448), and PGC-1β was determined with Western blotting and RT-PCR assay, and the translocation of mTOR was detected using confocal microscopy. Aβ25–35 treatment stimulated the translocation of mTOR from cytoplasm to nucleus, and resulted in elevated expression of mTOR and p-mTOR (Ser2448) and reduced PGC-1β expression. In addition, overexpression of PGC-1β was found to decrease mTOR expression. The results of this study demonstrate that Aβ increases the expression of mTOR and p-mTOR at the site of Ser2448, and the stimulation of Aβ is likely to depend on sirtuin 1, PPARγ, and PGC-1β pathway in regulating mTOR expression.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0425-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • IGFBP6 Regulates Cell Apoptosis and Migration in Glioma
    • Authors: Yuanqi Bei; Qingfeng Huang; Jianhong Shen; Jinlong Shi; Chaoyan Shen; Peng Xu; Hao Chang; Xiaojie Xia; Li Xu; Bin Ji; JianGuo Chen
      Pages: 889 - 898
      Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), as an inhibitor of IGF-II actions, plays an important role in inhibiting survival and migration of tumor cells. In our study, we intended to demonstrate the biological function of IGFBP6 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Firstly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of IGFBP6 inversely correlated with glioma grade. Secondly, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that IGFBP6 could be an independent prognostic factor for the survival of glioma patients. In addition, overexpression of IGFBP6 induced glioma cell apoptosis, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Finally, overexpression of IGFBP6 inhibited migration of glioma cells, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Together our findings suggest that IGFBP6 might be an important regulator and prognostic factor for glioma.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0426-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (SOCS2) Regulates Numbers of Mature
           Newborn Adult Hippocampal Neurons and Their Dendritic Spine Maturation
    • Authors: Harleen S. Basrai; Alisa Turbic; Kimberly J. Christie; Ann M. Turnley
      Pages: 899 - 909
      Abstract: Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2) has been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and promote neurite outgrowth of neurons in vitro. In the adult mouse brain, SOCS2 is most highly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 region and at lower levels in the dentate gyrus, an expression pattern that suggests a role in adult neurogenesis. Herein we examine generation of neuroblasts and their maturation into more mature neurons in SOCS2 null (SOCS2KO) mice. EdU was administered for 7 days to label proliferative neural precursor cells. The number of EdU-labelled doublecortin+ neuroblasts and NeuN+ mature neurons they generated was examined at day 8 and day 35, respectively. While no effect of SOCS2 deletion was observed in neuroblast generation, it reduced the numbers of EdU-labelled mature newborn neurons at 35 days. As SOCS2 regulates neurite outgrowth and dentate granule neurons project to the CA3 region, alterations in dendritic arborisation or spine formation may have correlated with the decreased numbers of EdU-labelled newborn neurons. SOCS2KO mice were crossed with Nes-CreERT2/mTmG mice, in which membrane eGFP is inducibly expressed in neural precursor cells and their progeny, and the dendrite and dendritic spine morphology of newborn neurons were examined at 35 days. SOCS2 deletion had no effect on total dendrite length, number of dendritic segments, number of branch points or total dendritic spine density but increased the number of mature “mushroom” spines. Our results suggest that endogenous SOCS2 regulates numbers of EdU-labelled mature newborn adult hippocampal neurons, possibly by mediating their survival and that this may be via a mechanism regulating dendritic spine maturation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0427-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Stimulated in a MPTP Mouse
    • Authors: Tuane Bazanella Sampaio; Marcel Henrique Marcondes Sari; Ana Paula Pesarico; Cristina Wayne Nogueira
      Pages: 911 - 917
      Abstract: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an inducible heme peroxidase responsive to some stress situations. It is already known that its activity is stimulated in neurodegenerative disorders and in the animal model of parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By contrast, the role of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), an essential enzyme for heme synthesis, has not been investigated in the MPTP model. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in an acute model of PD, induced by MPTP, in C57Bl/6 mice and its correlation with MPO activity. Animals received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (vehicle) to induce a PD model. 7 days after MPTP administration, the motor function was evaluated through rotarod and challenging beam tests in mice. Afterward, mice were killed, and the striata were removed for biochemical analyses. MPTP-treated mice showed impairment in motor skills, such as balance and motor coordination. Furthermore, there was a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase levels in these animals, which characterizes the dopaminergic lesion. Striatal δ-ALA-D activity was stimulated by MPTP, as well as the MPO activity, and a significant positive correlation between δ-ALA-D and MPO activities was also demonstrated. These data suggest that δ-ALA-D activity could be stimulated due to the requirement of heme groups by peroxidases. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in the MPTP model and its correlation with the MPO activity. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0428-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Adoptive Regulatory T-cell Therapy Attenuates Perihematomal Inflammation
           in a Mouse Model of Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Lei-Lei Mao; Hui Yuan; Wen-wen Wang; Yu-jing Wang; Ming-feng Yang; Bao-liang Sun; Zong-yong Zhang; Xiao-yi Yang
      Pages: 919 - 929
      Abstract: The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, suppress cerebral inflammation and maintain immune homeostasis in multiple central nervous system injury, but its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been fully characterized. This study investigated the effect of Tregs on brain injury using the mouse ICH model, which is established by autologous blood infusion. The results showed that tail intravenous injection of Tregs significantly reduced brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation of perihematoma at day (1, 3 and 7), and improved short- and long-term neurological deficits following ICH in mouse model. Tregs treatment reduced the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde, while increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymatic activity at day (1, 3 and 7) following ICH. Furthermore, Tregs treatment obviously reduced the number of NF-κB+, IL-6+, TUNEL+ and active caspase-3+ cells at day 3 after ICH. These results indicate that adoptive transfer of Tregs may provide neuroprotection following ICH in mouse models.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0429-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of
           OGD and Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury
    • Authors: Bin Zhang; Ning Yang; Shao-peng Lin; Feng Zhang
      Pages: 931 - 939
      Abstract: Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0430-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Transplantation of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improves
           Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
    • Authors: Fernanda Rosene Melo; Raul Bardini Bressan; Stefânia Forner; Alessandra Cadete Martini; Michele Rode; Priscilla Barros Delben; Giles Alexander Rae; Claudia Pinto Figueiredo; Andrea Gonçalves Trentin
      Pages: 941 - 947
      Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)—which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow—recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma. Here we evaluated the human skin as an alternative source of adult MSCs suitable for autologous cell transplantation strategies for SCI. We showed that human skin-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) express a range of neural markers under standard culture conditions and are able to survive and respond to neurogenic stimulation in vitro. In addition, using histological analysis and behavioral assessment, we demonstrated as a proof-of-principle that hSD-MSC transplantation reduces the severity of tissue loss and facilitates locomotor recovery in a rat model of SCI. Altogether, the study provides further characterization of skin-derived MSC cultures and indicates that the human skin may represent an attractive source for cell-based therapies for SCI and other neurological disorders. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which hSD-MSCs elicit tissue repair and/or locomotor recovery.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0414-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Meta-Analysis of BDNF Levels in Autism
    • Authors: Raluca Armeanu; Mikael Mokkonen; Bernard Crespi
      Pages: 949 - 954
      Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) centrally mediates growth, differentiation and survival of neurons, and the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Recent meta-analyses have reported significantly lower peripheral BDNF among individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, compared with controls. To evaluate the role of BDNF in autism, and to compare autism to psychotic-affective disorders with regard to BDNF, we conducted a meta-analysis of BDNF levels in autism. Inclusion criteria were met by 15 studies, which included 1242 participants. The meta-analysis estimated a significant summary effect size of 0.33 (95 % CI 0.21–0.45, P < 0.001), suggesting higher BDNF in autism than in controls. The studies showed notable heterogeneity, but no evidence of publication biases. Higher peripheral BDNF in autism is concordant with several neurological and psychological theories on the causes and symptoms of this condition, and it contrasts notably with the lower levels of BDNF found in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0415-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 5 (2017)
  • Microglia: Housekeeper of the Central Nervous System
    • Abstract: Microglia, of myeloid origin, play fundamental roles in the control of immune responses and the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. These cells, just like peripheral macrophages, may be activated into M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes by appropriate stimuli. Microglia do not respond in isolation, but form part of complex networks of cells influencing each other. This review addresses the complex interaction of microglia with each cell type in the brain: neurons, astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes. We also highlight the participation of microglia in the maintenance of homeostasis in the brain, and their roles in the development and progression of age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
  • Neurite Outgrowth Stimulated by Oxytocin Is Modulated by Inhibition of the
           Calcium Voltage-Gated Channels
    • Authors: M. Zatkova; A. Reichova; Z. Bacova; V. Strbak; A. Kiss; J. Bakos
      Abstract: Neuropeptide oxytocin contributes to the regulation of the neuron differentiation and cell morphology. However, the precise mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Oxytocin receptor function and its coupling to calcium entry are obvious objects of interest in relation to the neuron morphology. Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins including SHANK proteins interact with other synaptic molecules and change dendritic morphology. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line represents a useful neurobiological in vitro model to study the short-term oxytocin effects on neurite outgrowth and underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we show that oxytocin induces an increase in the intracellular calcium in SH-SY5Y cells. Specificity of the calcium influx was verified by blockade of the oxytocin receptors with oxytocin receptor antagonist L-371,257. Neurite outgrowth stimulated by oxytocin was inhibited by specific voltage-gated calcium channel blockers. The exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in the gene expression of SHANK1 and SHANK3 proteins. Overall, the present data indicate that oxytocin may contribute to the regulation of scaffolding proteins expression known to be associated with clusters of calcium channels at the cell membrane. It appears that oxytocin stimulated neurite outgrowth is, at least, in part dependent on the voltage-gated calcium channels.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0503-3
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