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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2269 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1201 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Autophagy and Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Authors: Qian Li; Yi Liu; Miao Sun
      Pages: 377 - 388
      Abstract: Autophagy is an essential degradation pathway in clearing abnormal protein aggregates in mammalian cells and is responsible for protein homeostasis and neuronal health. Several studies have shown that autophagy deficits occurred in early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Autophagy plays an important role in generation and metabolism of β-amyloid (Aβ), assembling of tau and thus its malfunction may lead to the progress of AD. By considering the above evidences, autophagy may be a new target in developing drugs for AD. So far, a number of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent and independent autophagy modulators have been identified to have positive effects in AD treatment. In this review, we summarized the latest progress supporting the role for autophagy deficits in AD and the potential therapeutic effects of autophagy modulators in AD.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0386-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Regulation of GluN2A by Endogenous and Exogenous Regulators in the
           Central Nervous System
    • Authors: Yongjun Sun; Liying Zhan; Xiaokun Cheng; Linan Zhang; Jie Hu; Zibin Gao
      Pages: 389 - 403
      Abstract: The NMDA receptor is the most widely studied ionotropic glutamate receptor, and it is central to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system. GluN2A is one of the two main types of GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the forebrain. The proper activity of GluN2A is important to brain function, as the abnormal regulation of GluN2A may induce some neuropsychiatric disorders. This review will examine the regulation of GluN2A by endogenous and exogenous regulators in the central nervous system.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0388-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of Estrogen and Phytoestrogen Treatment on an In Vitro Model of
           Recurrent Stroke on HT22 Neuronal Cell Line
    • Authors: Javier Morán; Marcos Perez-Basterrechea; Pablo Garrido; Elena Díaz; Ana Alonso; Jesús Otero; Enrique Colado; Celestino González
      Pages: 405 - 416
      Abstract: An increase of stroke incidence occurs in women with the decline of estrogen levels following menopause. This ischemic damage may recur, especially soon after the first insult has occurred. We evaluated the effects of estrogen and phytoestrogen treatment on an in vitro recurrent stroke model using the HT22 neuronal cell line. HT22 cells were treated with 17β-estradiol or genistein 1 h after the beginning of the first of two oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cycles. During the second OGD, there was a deterioration of some components of the electron transport chain, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 with a subsequent increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Accordingly, there was also an increase of apoptotic phenomena demonstrated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage, Caspase-3 activity, and Annexin V levels. The recurrent ischemic injury also raised the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and glucose transporter 1 levels, as well as the ratio between the lipidated and cytosolic forms of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II/LC3-I). We found a positive effect of estradiol and genistein treatment by partially preserving the impaired cell viability after the recurrent ischemic injury; however, this positive effect does not seem to be mediated neither by blocking apoptosis processes nor by decreasing ROS production. This work contribute to the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by recurrent ischemic damage in neuronal cells and, therefore, could help with the development of an effective treatment to minimize the consequences of this pathology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0372-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Minocycline Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of PC12 Cells Exposed to
           Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation Through Regulation of
           MLCP/MLC Signaling Pathways
    • Authors: Tao Tao; Jin-zhou Feng; Guang-hui Xu; Jie Fu; Xiao-gang Li; Xin-yue Qin
      Pages: 417 - 426
      Abstract: Minocycline, a semi-synthetic second-generation derivative of tetracycline, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects both in animal models and in clinic trials of neurological diseases. In the present study, we first investigated the protective effects of minocycline on oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation-induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and its potential mechanism in the neuronal cell line, PC12 cells. We found that minocycline significantly increased cell viability, promoted neurite outgrowth and enhanced the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in PC12 cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury. In addition, immunoblots revealed that minocycline reversed the overexpression of phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC) and the suppression of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury. Moreover, the minocycline-induced neurite outgrowth was significantly blocked by Calyculin A (1 nM), an inhibitor of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), but not by an ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126; 10 μM). These findings suggested that minocycline activated the MLCP/MLC signaling pathway in PC12 cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury, which resulted in the promotion of neurite outgrowth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0374-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Increased Expression of Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 4 Participates in
           Neuronal Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats
    • Authors: Chao Liu; Chun Liu; Hanzhang Liu; Leilei Gong; Tao Tao; Yifen Shen; Shunxing Zhu; Aiguo Shen
      Pages: 427 - 435
      Abstract: Ubiquitinating enzymes catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action. Ubiquitin-specific protease 4 (USP4) is a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family of DUBs that has a role in spliceosome regulation. In the present study, we demonstrated that USP4 may be involved in neuronal apoptosis in the processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We obtained a significant up-regulation of USP4 in neurons adjacent to the hematoma following ICH by the results of Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Increasing USP4 level was found to be accompanied by the up-regulation of active caspase-3, γH2AX, Bax, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In addition, USP4 co-localized well with γH2AX in the nucleus in the ICH model and hemin-induced apoptosis model. Moreover, in vitro study, knocking down USP4 by USP4-specific siRNA in PC12 cells reduced active caspase-3 expression. All these results above suggested that USP4 may be involved in neuronal apoptosis after ICH.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0375-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Overexpression of Cathepsin E Interferes with Neuronal Differentiation of
           P19 Embryonal Teratocarcinoma Cells by Degradation of N-cadherin
    • Authors: Yuka Harada; Fumiko Takayama; Kazunari Tanabe; Junjun Ni; Yoshinori Hayashi; Kenji Yamamoto; Zhou Wu; Hiroshi Nakanishi
      Pages: 437 - 443
      Abstract: Cathepsin E (CatE), an aspartic protease, has a limited distribution in certain cell types such as gastric cells. CatE is not detectable in the normal brain, whereas it is increasingly expressed in damaged neurons and activated microglia of the pathological brain. Neurons expressing high levels of CatE showed apparent morphological changes, including a marked shrinkage of the cytoplasmic region and beading of neurites, suggesting neuronal damage. The intracellular level of CatE in neurons is strictly regulated at both transcriptional and translational levels. Although the up-regulation of CatE may cause pathological changes in neurons, little information is available about the precise outcome of the increased expression of CatE in neurons. In this study, we have attempted to clarify the outcome of up-regulated CatE gene expression in neurons using the P19 cell neuronal differentiation after the overexpression of CatE. We unexpectedly found that the overexpression of CatE interfered with neuronal differentiation of P19 cells through an impairment of cell aggregate formation. Pepstatin A, an aspartic protease inhibitor, restored the impaired cell aggregation of P19/CatE cells. The small number of P19 cells differentiated into neurons had abnormal morphology characterized by their fusiform cell bodies with short processes. Furthermore, CatE proteolytically cleaved the extracellular domain of N-cadherin. These observations suggest that the overexpression of CatE interferes with neuronal differentiation of P19 cells through an impairment of cell aggregate formation, possibly through proteolytic degradation of N-cadherin.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0376-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Increased Expression of 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase in Spinal
           Astrocytes During Disease Progression in a Model of Amyotrophic Lateral
    • Authors: Hiroko Miyagishi; Yasuhiro Kosuge; Ayumi Takano; Manami Endo; Hiroshi Nango; Somay Yamagata-Murayama; Dai Hirose; Rui Kano; Yoko Tanaka; Kumiko Ishige; Yoshihisa Ito
      Pages: 445 - 452
      Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons. Both ALS model mice and patients with sporadic ALS have increased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, the protein levels of microsomal PGE synthase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyze PGE2 biosynthesis, are significantly increased in the spinal cord of ALS model mice. However, it is unclear whether PGE2 metabolism in the spinal cord is altered. In the present study, we investigated the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a key enzyme in prostaglandin metabolism, in ALS model mice at three different disease stages. Western blotting revealed that the 15-PGDH level was significantly increased in the lumbar spinal cord at the symptomatic stage and end stage. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that 15-PGDH immunoreactivity was localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the end stage. In contrast, 15-PGDH immunoreactivity was not identified in NeuN-positive large cells showing the typical morphology of motor neurons in the anterior horn. Unlike 15-PGDH, the level of PGE2 in the spinal cord was increased only at the end stage. These results suggest that the significant increase of PGE2 at the end stage of ALS in this mouse model is attributable to an imbalance of the synthetic pathway and 15-PGDH-dependent scavenging system for PGE2, and that this drives the pathogenetic mechanism responsible for transition from the symptomatic stage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0377-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Thiamine Deficiency Increases Ca 2+ Current and Ca V 1.2 L-type Ca 2+
           Channel Levels in Cerebellum Granular Neurons
    • Authors: Daniel C. Moreira-Lobo; Jader S. Cruz; Flavia R. Silva; Fabíola M. Ribeiro; Christopher Kushmerick; Fernando A. Oliveira
      Pages: 453 - 460
      Abstract: Thiamine (vitamin B1) is co-factor for three pivotal enzymes for glycolytic metabolism: pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. Thiamine deficiency leads to neurodegeneration of several brain regions, especially the cerebellum. In addition, several neurodegenerative diseases are associated with impairments of glycolytic metabolism, including Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, understanding the link between dysfunction of the glycolytic pathway and neuronal death will be an important step to comprehend the mechanism and progression of neuronal degeneration as well as the development of new treatment for neurodegenerative states. Here, using an in vitro model to study the effects of thiamine deficiency on cerebellum granule neurons, we show an increase in Ca2+ current density and CaV1.2 expression. These results indicate a link between alterations in glycolytic metabolism and changes to Ca2+ dynamics, two factors that have been implicated in neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0378-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Regulation of Microglial Phagocytosis by RhoA/ROCK-Inhibiting Drugs
    • Authors: Hannah Scheiblich; Gerd Bicker
      Pages: 461 - 473
      Abstract: Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. The underlying mechanisms of neuronal loss are not fully understood, but the activation of CNS resident phagocytic microglia seems to be a significant element contributing to neurodegeneration. At the onset of inflammation, high levels of microglial phagocytosis may serve as an essential prerequisite for creating a favorable environment for neuronal regeneration. However, the excessive and long-lasting activation of microglia and the augmented engulfment of neurons have been suggested to eventually govern widespread neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated in a functional assay of acute inflammation how the small GTPase RhoA and its main target the Rho kinase (ROCK) influence microglial phagocytosis of neuronal debris. Using BV-2 microglia and human NT2 model neurons, we demonstrate that the pain reliever Ibuprofen decreases RhoA activation and microglial phagocytosis of neuronal cell fragments. Inhibition of the downstream effector ROCK with the small-molecule agents Y-27632 and Fasudil reduces the engulfment of neuronal debris and attenuates the production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide during stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our results support a therapeutic potential for RhoA/ROCK-inhibiting agents as an effective treatment of excessive inflammation and the resulting progression of microglia-mediated neurodegeneration in the CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0379-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Squid Giant Axon Contains Neurofilament Protein mRNA but does not
           Synthesize Neurofilament Proteins
    • Authors: Harold Gainer; Shirley House; Dong Sun Kim; Hemin Chin; Harish C. Pant
      Pages: 475 - 486
      Abstract: When isolated squid giant axons are incubated in radioactive amino acids, abundant newly synthesized proteins are found in the axoplasm. These proteins are translated in the adaxonal Schwann cells and subsequently transferred into the giant axon. The question as to whether any de novo protein synthesis occurs in the giant axon itself is difficult to resolve because the small contribution of the proteins possibly synthesized intra-axonally is not easily distinguished from the large amounts of the proteins being supplied from the Schwann cells. In this paper, we reexamine this issue by studying the synthesis of endogenous neurofilament (NF) proteins in the axon. Our laboratory previously showed that NF mRNA and protein are present in the squid giant axon, but not in the surrounding adaxonal glia. Therefore, if the isolated squid axon could be shown to contain newly synthesized NF protein de novo, it could not arise from the adaxonal glia. The results of experiments in this paper show that abundant 3H-labeled NF protein is synthesized in the squid giant fiber lobe containing the giant axon’s neuronal cell bodies, but despite the presence of NF mRNA in the giant axon no labeled NF protein is detected in the giant axon. This lends support to the glia–axon protein transfer hypothesis which posits that the squid giant axon obtains newly synthesized protein by Schwann cell transfer and not through intra-axonal protein synthesis, and further suggests that the NF mRNA in the axon is in a translationally repressed state.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0382-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Expression of Sam68 Associates with Neuronal Apoptosis and Reactive
           Astrocytes After Spinal Cord Injury
    • Authors: Xinlei Chen; Lei Liu; Rong Qian; Jie Liu; Yu Yao; Zhenhuan Jiang; Xinjian Song; Jianbing Ren; Feng Zhang
      Pages: 487 - 498
      Abstract: Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68; 68 kDa) is a novel RNA-binding protein that belongs to the signal transduction and activation of RNA family involved in various biological processes. However, the expression and roles of Sam68 in the central nervous system remain unknown. In the present study, we performed a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and found a significant increase of Sam68 protein levels in this model, which reached a peak at day 3 and then gradually returned to normal levels at day 14 after SCI. We use immunohistochemistry analysis revealing a widespread distribution of Sam68 in the spinal cord. In addition, double-immunofluorescence staining showed that Sam68 immunoreactivity was found predominantly in neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, colocalization of Sam68/active caspase-3 has been respectively detected in neuronal nuclei, and colocalization of Sam68/PCNA has been detected in glial fibrillary acidic protein. In vitro, we found that depletion of Sam68 by short interfering RNA inhibits neuronal apoptosis and astrocyte proliferation and decreases cyclin D1 protein levels. In conclusion, this is the first study to find the Sam68 expression in SCI. Our results suggest that Sam68 might be illustrated in the apoptosis of neurons and proliferation of astrocytes after SCI. This research will provide new drug targets for clinical treatment of SCI.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0384-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Protect SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells from
           Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury Through Modulating Oxidative Status
    • Authors: Xiao-Wen Jiang; Jun-Peng Bai; Qiao Zhang; Xiao-Long Hu; Xing Tian; Jun Zhu; Jia Liu; Wei-Hong Meng; Qing-Chun Zhao
      Pages: 499 - 509
      Abstract: Oxidative stress has been confirmed as a contribution to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are considered to have anti-oxidative stress ability in a previous study, but the structure–activity relationships (SARs) of CQAs in neuroprotective effects are still unclear. In the present study, we primarily expound the SARs of CQAs in counteracting H2O2-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CQAs (1–10) represented the protection of SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced injury in varying degrees and malonyl groups could obviously increase the anti-oxidative stress ability of CQAs. Intensive studies of 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-1-O-(malic acid methyl ester)-quinic acid (MDCQA) indicated that the mechanisms could potentially involve activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the regulation of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and AKT. In conclusion, MDCQA could serve as a neuroprotective agent with a potential to attenuate oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0387-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives Protect SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma
           Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury Through Modulating Oxidative
    • Authors: Xiao-Wen Jiang; Jun-Peng Bai; Qiao Zhang; Xiao-Long Hu; Xing Tian; Jun Zhu; Jia Liu; Wei-Hong Meng; Qing-Chun Zhao
      Pages: 511 - 512
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0392-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • SOD3 Ameliorates Aβ 25–35 -Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by
           Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway
    • Authors: Rong Yang; Li Wei; Qing-Qing Fu; Hua You; Hua-Rong Yu
      Pages: 513 - 525
      Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) against amyloid beta (Aβ25–35)-induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing SOD3 were generated by adenoviral vector-mediated infection and Aβ25–35 was then added to the cell culture system to establish an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Cell viability, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, the levels of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes and calcium images were examined. Following Aβ25–35 exposure, SOD3 overexpression promoted the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, decreased the production of ROS, decreased MDA and calcium levels, and decreased cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax gene expression. Furthermore, SOD3 overexpression increased the expression and activity of antioxidant enzyme genes and Bcl-2 expression. Together, our data demonstrate that SOD3 ameliorates Aβ25–35-induced oxidative damage in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial pathway. These data provide new insights into the functional actions of SOD3 on oxidative stress-induced cell damage.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0390-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • The O-GlcNAc Modification of CDK5 Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis
           Following In Vitro Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Xiaojin Ning; Tao Tao; Jianhong Shen; Yuteng Ji; Lili Xie; Hongmei Wang; Ning Liu; Xide Xu; Chi Sun; Dongmei Zhang; Aiguo Shen; Kaifu Ke
      Pages: 527 - 536
      Abstract: Contrary to cell cycle-associated cyclin-dependent kinases, CDK5 is best known for its regulation of signaling processes in regulating mammalian CNS development. Studies of CDK5 have focused on its phosphorylation, although the diversity of CDK5 functions in the brain suggests additional forms of regulation. Here we expanded on the functional roles of CDK5 glycosylation in neurons. We showed that CDK5 was dynamically modified with O-GlcNAc in response to neuronal activity and that glycosylation represses CDK5-dependent apoptosis by impairing its association with p53 pathway. Blocking glycosylation of CDK5 alters cellular function and increases neuronal apoptosis in the cell model of the ICH. Our findings demonstrated a new role for O-glycosylation in neuronal apoptosis and provided a mechanistic understanding of how glycosylation contributes to critical neuronal functions. Moreover, we identified a previously unknown mechanism for the regulation of activity-dependent gene expression, neural development, and apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0391-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Expression Profiling of DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression
           Associated Genes in Lens Epithelium Cells of Age-Related Cataract
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Guowei Zhang; Lihua Kang; Huaijin Guan
      Pages: 537 - 543
      Abstract: In our previous research, the formation and development of age-related cataract (ARC) is associated with DNA hypermethylation of some genes in lens epithelial cells (LECs). This study aimed to investigate the expression profile of DNA methylation- and transcriptional repression-associated genes in LECs of ARC. The expression levels of the genes were first evaluated by microarray analysis. The results were further confirmed by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot assay. The mRNA and protein levels of 5 genes increased in LECs of ARCs compared with the controls. These data provided a global perspective on expression of DNA methylation- and transcriptional repression-associated genes. The study supports the notion that the epigenetic modification of macromolecules in LECs might contribute to ARC pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0393-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Characterization of AT 1 Expression in the Dorsal Root Ganglia After
           Chronic Constriction Injury
    • Authors: Zuzana Oroszova; Ludmila Hricova; Andrea Stropkovska; Nadezda Lukacova; Jaroslav Pavel
      Pages: 545 - 554
      Abstract: To clarify the role of Angiotensin II in the regulation of sensory signaling, we characterized the AT1 expression in neuronal subpopulation of lower lumbar dorsal root ganglia under normal conditions and its alteration in neuropathic pain model. The characterization of AT1 expression was done under control and after the chronic constriction injury induced by four loose ligatures of the sciatic nerve representing the model of posttraumatic painful peripheral neuropathy. Major Angiotensin II receptor type was expressed in approximately 43 % of small-sized and 62 % of large-sized neurons in control. The AT1 overexpression after sciatic nerve ligation lasting 7 days was detected predominantly in small-sized AT1 immunoreactive neurons (about 38 % increase). Chronic constriction injury caused a statistically marked increase in number of the small-sized peptidergic (CGRP immunoreactive) neuronal subpopulation expressing AT1 (about 64 %). The subpopulations of AT1-immunoreactive and nonpeptide-containing primary sensory neurons revealed by IB4 binding, tyrosine hydroxylase- and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were not markedly changed. Our results indicate that: (1) the AT1 overexpression after the chronic constriction injury is an important factor in Angiotensin II-potentiated pain perception; (2) Angiotensin II is involved in pathological mechanisms of neuropathic pain and this effect can be mediated perhaps in combination with other neuropeptides synthesized in the primary sensory neurons.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0396-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • RLIP76 Depletion Enhances Autophagic Flux in U251 Cells
    • Authors: Chenran Zhang; Zheng Cai; Qiang Liang; Qi Wang; Yicheng Lu; Liuhua Hu; Guohan Hu
      Pages: 555 - 562
      Abstract: Our previous study showed that RalA-binding protein 1 (RLIP76) is overexpressed in gliomas and is associated with higher tumour grade and decreased patient survival. Furthermore, RLIP76 downregulation increases chemosensitivity of glioma cells to temozolomide by inducing apoptosis. However, other mechanisms underlying RLIP76-associated chemoresistance are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of RLIP76 depletion on autophagy. RLIP76 was knocked down in U251 glioma cells using shRNA and autophagy-related proteins, and PI3K/Akt signalling components were evaluated. RLIP76 depletion significantly increased cell autophagy as demonstrated by a significant increase in LC3 II, autophagy protein 5 (ATG-5), and Beclin1, and a decrease in p62 expression levels. Furthermore, RLIP76 knockdown increased autophagic flux in U251 cells as autolysosome numbers increased relative to autophagosome numbers. Autophagy induced by RLIP76 knockdown resulted in increased apoptosis that was independent of temozolomide treatment. Moreover, RLIP76 knockdown decreased PI3K and Akt activation. RLIP76 depletion also resulted in decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. LY294002, a PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, led to increased autophagy and apoptosis in U251 RLIP76-depleted cells. Therefore, RLIP76 knockdown increased autophagic flux and apoptosis in U251 glioma cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, this study provides a novel mechanism for the role of RLIP76 in glioma pathogenesis and chemoresistance.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0410-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Time-Course Change of Redd1 Expressions in the Hippocampal CA1 Region
           Following Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion
    • Authors: Jin-A Park; Choong-Hyun Lee
      Pages: 563 - 569
      Abstract: Redd1, also known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4, is a stress-induced protein and marked changes of Redd1 expression occurs in response to hypoxia or cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we examined the time-course changes in Redd1 protein expressions in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO). Redd1 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region was increased at 7 days after 2VO surgery, and then the immunoreactivity was decreased with time. Especially, very weak Redd1 immunoreactivity was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region at 28 days after 2VO surgery. Western blot analysis showed that Redd1 level in the hippocampal CA1 region was significantly increased at 7 days following CCH and significantly decreased at 28 days after 2VO surgery, compared with that of the sham-operated group. These results indicate that Redd1 expressions is markedly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region following CCH and that change of Redd1 expression may be associated with the CCH-induced neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0385-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2017)
  • Suppression of the Smurf1 Expression Inhibits Tumor Progression in Gliomas
    • Authors: Hao Chang; Jingning Zhang; Zengli Miao; Yasuo Ding; Xing Xu; Xudong Zhao; Peng Xu; Qing Wang; Yuchang Lin
      Abstract: Glioblastoma, one of the common malignant brain tumors, results in the highly death, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Smurf1, a member of Nedd4 family of HECT-type ligases, has been reported to contribute to tumorigenicity through several important biological pathways. Recently, it was also found to participate in modulate cellular processes, including morphogenesis, autophagy, growth, and cell migration. In this research, we reported the clinical guiding significance of the expression of Smurf1 in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Western blotting analysis discovered that the expression of Smurf1 was increased with WHO grade. Immunohistochemistry levels discovered that high expression of Smurf1 is closely consistent with poor prognosis of glioma. In addition, suppression of Smurf1 can reduce cell invasion and increase the E-cadherin expression, which is a marker of invasion. Our study firstly demonstrated that Smurf1 may promote glioma cell invasion and suppression of the Smurf1 may provide a novel treatment strategy for glioma.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0485-1
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