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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2287 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1206 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Could Sirtuin Activities Modify ALS Onset and Progression'
    • Authors: Bor Luen Tang
      Pages: 1147 - 1160
      Abstract: Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS. Moving forward, it is important that the potentially beneficial effect of Sirtuins in ALS disease onset and progression are assessed in ALS models with TDP-43, FUS, and C9orf72 mutations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0452-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Cardiolipin in Central Nervous System Physiology and Pathology
    • Authors: Caitlin B. Pointer; Andis Klegeris
      Pages: 1161 - 1172
      Abstract: Abstract Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid found primarily in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has many well-defined roles within the peripheral tissues, including the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane fluidity and the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Within the central nervous system (CNS), cardiolipin is found within both neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells, where it regulates metabolic processes, supports mitochondrial functions, and promotes brain cell viability. Furthermore, cardiolipin has been shown to act as an elimination signal and participate in programmed cell death by apoptosis of both neurons and glia. Since cardiolipin is associated with regulating brain homeostasis, the modification of its structure, or even a decrease in the overall levels of cardiolipin, can result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a characteristic feature of many diseases. In this review, we outline the various functions of cardiolipin within the cells of the CNS, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. In addition, we discuss the role cardiolipin may play in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, as well as traumatic brain injury.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0458-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Melatonin in Hemorrhagic Stroke
    • Authors: Hai-Jian Wu; Cheng Wu; Huan-Jiang Niu; Kun Wang; Lian-Jie Mo; An-Wen Shao; Brandon J. Dixon; Jian-Min Zhang; Shu-Xu Yang; Yi-Rong Wang
      Pages: 1173 - 1185
      Abstract: Abstract Hemorrhagic stroke which consists of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although great efforts have been made, the physiological mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood and effective pharmacological interventions are still lacking. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and potent free radical scavenger. More importantly, there is extensive evidence demonstrating that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke. Multiple molecular mechanisms such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation, contribute to melatonin-mediated neuroprotection against brain injury after hemorrhagic stroke. This review article aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke and explores the underlying mechanisms. We propose that melatonin is a promising neuroprotective candidate that is worthy of further evaluation for its potential therapeutic applications in hemorrhagic stroke.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0461-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Exogenous Expression of Nt - 3 and TrkC Genes in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
           Elevated the Survival Rate of the Cells in the Course of Neural
           Differentiation
    • Authors: Houri Edalat; Zahra Hajebrahimi; Vahid Pirhajati; Mahmoud Tavallaei; Mansoureh Movahedin; Seyed Javad Mowla
      Pages: 1187 - 1194
      Abstract: Abstract Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive cellular sources for cell therapy of many diseases, specifically neurodegenerative ones. The potential capability of BMSCs could be further augmented by enhancing their neuroprotective property, differentiation potential, and survival rate subsequent to transplantation. Therefore, a concurrent upregulation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high affinity receptor, tyrosin kinase C (TrkC), was utilized in our study. BMSCs were cotransfected with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC plasmids before induction of neural differentiation. pEGFP-N1-transfected BMSCs were also employed as a control. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed for gene expression analysis. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, while apoptosis rate was assessed by flow cytometry after PI and Annexin V staining. NT-3 and TrkC mRNA levels were greatly elevated following cotransfection of cells with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC vectors. The expression of neural markers (i.e., NFM, and NeuroD1) was augmented in cotransfected BMSCs, compared to the control ones, after neural induction. At each time point, the viability and apoptosis rates of the cells over-expressing NT-3 and TrkC showed increased and reduced patterns, respectively. Our data demonstrated that NT-3/TrkC-co-transfected BMSCs, compared to those of intact cells, could be more beneficial graft candidates for the upcoming treatment strategies of neurogenic disorders due to their increased viability and expression of neural markers. This may be due to their increased level of neural differentiation potential and/or their enhanced rate of survival and/or their useful capacity to secrete NT-3.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0448-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Rapamycin Protects Sepsis-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mouse
           Hippocampus by Enhancing Autophagy
    • Authors: Wenyu Liu; Jia’nan Guo; Jie Mu; Linyu Tian; Dong Zhou
      Pages: 1195 - 1205
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators. Immunochemistry revealed significant loss of neurons and increased glia infiltration in hippocampus after CLP operation. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin rescued cognitive deficits caused by sepsis (p < 0.05). Rapamycin did not affect total mTOR targets, while phosphorylated mTOR targets (p-mTOR-Ser2448, p-p70S6k-Thr389, p-AKT-S473) decreased (p < 0.05) and autophagy indicators (LC3-II, Atg5, Atg7) were increased, and P62 was decreased in rapamycin-treated CLP mice compared with the untreated (p < 0.05) in hippocampus. Rapamycin improves learning after sepsis through enhancing autophagy and may be a potentially effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis-induced cognitive impairment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0449-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein6 Associated with Neuronal
           Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats
    • Authors: Qijun Dai; Peipei Jiang; Yang Gu; Lin Zhu; Haifeng Dai; Zhigang Yao; Hua Liu; Xiaoping Ma; Chengwei Duan; Lianxia Qu
      Pages: 1207 - 1216
      Abstract: Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is linked to CNS pathological states. The functions of IGFs are modulated by a family of binding proteins termed insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Here, we demonstrate that IGFBP-6 may be associated with neuronal apoptosis in the processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We obtained a significant upregulation of IGFBP-6 in neurons adjacent to the hematoma following ICH with the results of Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Increasing IGFBP-6 level was found to be accompanied by the upregulation of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3. Besides, IGFBP-6 co-localized well with active caspase-3 in neurons, indicating its potential role in neuronal apoptosis. Knocking down IGFBP-6 by RNA-interference in PC12 cells reduced active caspase-3 expression. Thus, IGFBP-6 may play a role in promoting the brain secondary damage following ICH.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0453-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Mapping of Surface-Exposed Epitopes of In Vitro and In Vivo Aggregated
           Species of Alpha-Synuclein
    • Authors: Leire Almandoz-Gil; Veronica Lindström; Jessica Sigvardson; Philipp J. Kahle; Lars Lannfelt; Martin Ingelsson; Joakim Bergström
      Pages: 1217 - 1226
      Abstract: Abstract Aggregated alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal deposits observed in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The objective of the study was to identify surface-exposed epitopes of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in vivo formed aggregates. Polyclonal immunoglobulin Y antibodies were raised against short linear peptides of the alpha-synuclein molecule. An epitope in the N-terminal region (1–10) and all C-terminal epitopes (90–140) were found to be exposed in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar alpha-synuclein. In a phospholipid ELISA, the N-terminus and mid-region of alpha-synuclein (i.e., 1–90) were associated with phosphatidylserine and thus occluded from antibody binding. The antibodies that reacted most strongly with epitopes in the in vitro aggregates (i.e., 1–10 and epitopes between positions 90–140) also labeled alpha-synuclein inclusions in brains from transgenic (Thy-1)-h[A30P] alpha-synuclein mice and Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in brains of patients with alpha-synucleinopathies. However, differences in reactivity were observed with the C-terminal antibodies when brain tissue from human and transgenic mice was compared. Taken together, the study shows that although similar epitopes are exposed in both in vitro and in vivo formed alpha-synuclein inclusions, structural heterogeneity can be observed between different molecular species.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0454-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Lentiviral Modulation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Affects In Vivo LTP
    • Authors: Olga Ya Ivanova; Yulia V. Dobryakova; Sergey V. Salozhin; Viktor A. Aniol; Mikhail V. Onufriev; Natalia V. Gulyaeva; Vladimir A. Markevich
      Pages: 1227 - 1241
      Abstract: Abstract Wnt signaling is involved in hippocampal development and synaptogenesis. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the role of Wnt ligands in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Inhibitors and activators of canonical Wnt signaling were demonstrated to decrease or increase, respectively, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance in hippocampal slices (Chen et al. in J Biol Chem 281:11910–11916, 2006; Vargas et al. in J Neurosci 34:2191–2202, 2014, Vargas et al. in Exp Neurol 264:14–25, 2015). Using lentiviral approach to down- and up-regulate the canonical Wnt signaling, we explored whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for the in vivo LTP. Chronic suppression of Wnt signaling induced an impairment of in vivo LTP expression 14 days after lentiviral suspension injection, while overexpression of Wnt3 was associated with a transient enhancement of in vivo LTP magnitude. Both effects were related to the early phase LTP and did not affect LTP maintenance. A loss-of-function study demonstrated decreased initial paired pulse facilitation ratio, β-catenin, and phGSK-3β levels. A gain-of-function study revealed not only an increase in PSD-95, β-catenin, and Cyclin D1 protein levels, but also a reduced phGSK-3β level and enhanced GSK-3β kinase activity. These results suggest a presynaptic dysfunction predominantly underlying LTP impairment while postsynaptic modifications are primarily involved in transient LTP amplification. This study is the first demonstration of the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in synaptic plasticity regulation in an in vivo LTP model.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0455-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • RUNX1 Regulates Migration, Invasion, and Angiogenesis via p38 MAPK Pathway
           in Human Glioblastoma
    • Authors: Kant Sangpairoj; Pornpun Vivithanaporn; Somjai Apisawetakan; Sukumal Chongthammakun; Prasert Sobhon; Kulathida Chaithirayanon
      Pages: 1243 - 1255
      Abstract: Abstract Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is essential for the establishment of fetal and adult hematopoiesis and neuronal development. Aberrant expression of RUNX1 led to proliferation and metastasis of several cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RUNX1 in migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma using IL-1β-treated U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells as a model. IL-1β at 10 ng/ml stimulated translocation of RUNX1 into the nucleus with increased expressions of RUNX1, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-19, and VEGFA in U-87 MG cells. In addition, silencing of RUNX1 gene significantly suppressed U-87 MG cell migration and invasion abilities. Moreover, knockdown of RUNX1 mRNA in U-87 MG cells reduced the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further investigation revealed that IL-1β-induced RUNX1 expression might be mediated via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling molecule for the expression of these invasion- and angiogenic-related molecules. Together with an inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) could decrease RUNX1 mRNA expression. Thus, RUNX1 may be one of the putative molecular targeted therapies against glioma metastasis and angiogenesis through the activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0456-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Development of Calbindin- and Calretinin-Immunopositive Neurons in the
           Enteric Ganglia of Rats
    • Authors: Petr M. Masliukov; Konstantin Moiseev; Antonina F. Budnik; Alexandr D. Nozdrachev; Jean-Pierre Timmermans
      Pages: 1257 - 1267
      Abstract: Abstract Calbindin D28 K (CB) and calretinin (CR) are the members of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins that are expressed in neurons and nerve fibers of the enteric nervous system. CB and CR are expressed differentially in neuronal subpopulations throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and their expression has been used to selectively target specific cell types and isolate neuronal networks. The present study presents an immunohistochemical analysis of CB and CR in the enteric ganglia of small intestine in rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 60-day-old, 1-year-old, and 2-year-old). The data obtained suggest a number of age-dependent changes in CB and CR expression in the myenteric and submucous plexuses. In the myenteric plexus, the lowest percentage of CB-immunoreactive (IR) and CR-IR neurons was observed at birth, after which the number of IR cells increased in the first 10 days of life. In the submucous plexus, CB-IR and CR-IR neurons were observed from 10-day-old onwards. The percentage of CR-IR and CB-IR neurons increased in the first 2 months and in the first 20 days, respectively. In all animals, the majority of the IR neurons colocalized CR and CB. From the moment of birth, the mean of the cross-sectional area of the CB-IR and CR-IR neuronal profiles was larger than that of CB- and CR-negative cells.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0457-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Metformin Attenuates Cognitive Impairments in Hypoxia–Ischemia Neonatal
           Rats via Improving Remyelination
    • Authors: Boxiang Qi; Libao Hu; Lei Zhu; Lei Shang; Liping Sheng; Xuecheng Wang; Na Liu; Nana Wen; Xiaohe Yu; Qihong Wang; Yujia Yang
      Pages: 1269 - 1278
      Abstract: Abstract Perinatal hypoxia–ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum. Additionally, the myelin sheaths are more compact and the impairments are evidently attenuated. These data indicate that Met is beneficial for the amelioration of H/I-induced myelination and behavior deficits.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0459-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Upregulation of 20-HETE Synthetic Cytochrome P450 Isoforms by
           Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation in Cortical Neurons
    • Authors: Hui Zhang; John R. Falck; Richard J. Roman; David R. Harder; Raymond C. Koehler; Zeng-Jin Yang
      Pages: 1279 - 1286
      Abstract: Abstract 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a potent vasoconstrictor, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4F-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis protects brain from ischemic injury. However, that protection is not associated with changes in cerebral blood flow. The present study examined whether CYP4A isoforms are expressed in neurons, whether they produce 20-HETE in neurons, and whether neuronally derived 20-HETE exerts direct neurotoxicity after oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression of Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a12a mRNA in cultured mouse cortical neurons increased significantly at 1 and 3 h after exposure to 1 h of OGD. Reoxygenation also markedly augmented the expression of CYP4A protein in neurons and increased 20-HETE levels in the culture medium. Cell viability after OGD increased after treatment with a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor or an antagonist. That effect was reversed by co-administration of a 20-HETE agonist. These results indicate that neurons express Cyp4a10 and 4a12a, that expression of these isoforms is upregulated by OGD stress, and that neuronally derived 20-HETE directly contributes to neuronal death after reoxygenation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0462-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced Histone Acetylation in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex is
           Associated with Fear Extinction
    • Authors: Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui; Sanjay Singh; Vandana Ranjan; Rajesh Ugale; Sudipta Saha; Anand Prakash
      Pages: 1287 - 1301
      Abstract: Abstract The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning. It was found that the PL-PFC and IL-PFC along with the sub-regions of the amygdala responded differentially to the fear learning and extinction. Following fear learning, c-fos and CBP expression and acetylation of H3 and H4 increased in the BA, LA, CeM, and CeL and the PL-PFC but not in the IL-PFC as compared to the naive control. Similarly, following extinction learning, c-fos and CBP expression increased in BA, LA, CeL, and IL-PFC but not in PL-PFC and CeM as compared to the naive control and conditioned group. However, the acetylation of H3 increased in both IL and PL as opposed to H4 which increased only in the IL-PFC following extinction learning. Overall, region-specific activation in amygdala and PFC following fear and extinction learning as evident by the c-fos activation paralleled the H3/H4 acetylation in these regions. These results suggest that the differential histone acetylation in the PFC and amygdala subnuclei following fear learning and extinction may be associated with the region-specific changes in the neuronal activation pattern resulting in more fear/less fear.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0464-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Rab10 Disruption Results in Delayed OPC Maturation
    • Authors: Zhao-huan Zhang; Wei-Qian Zhao; Fan-fei Ma; Hui Zhang; Xiao-Hui Xu
      Pages: 1303 - 1310
      Abstract: Abstract Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation requires membrane addition for myelin sheath formation. Since the Rab system has been shown to contribute to membrane addition in other cell types, in this study, we explored the role of Rab in OPC maturation. SiRNA and shRNA techniques and conditional knockout mice provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that Rab10 is involved in OPC maturation and may affect myelination during OPC development.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0465-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate amyloid-β protein-induced
           actin cytoskeletal reorganization through Rho signaling modulation
    • Authors: Patricia Ferrera; Angélica Zepeda; Clorinda Arias
      Pages: 1311 - 1318
      Abstract: Abstract Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) neurotoxicity occurs along with the reorganization of the actin-cytoskeleton through the activation of the Rho GTPase pathway. In addition to the classical mode of action of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin, and ibuprofen have Rho-inhibiting effects. In order to evaluate the role of the Rho GTPase pathway on Aβ-induced neuronal death and on neuronal morphological modifications in the actin cytoskeleton, we explored the role of NSAIDS in human-differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ. We found that Aβ induced neurite retraction and promoted the formation of different actin-dependent structures such as stress fibers, filopodia, lamellipodia, and ruffles. In the presence of Aβ, both NSAIDs prevented neurite collapse and formation of stress fibers without affecting the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. Similar results were obtained when the downstream effector, Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, was applied in the presence of Aβ. These results demonstrate the potential benefits of the Rho-inhibiting NSAIDs in reducing Aβ-induced effects on neuronal structural alterations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0467-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Melatonin Increases Oligodendrocyte Differentiation in Cultured Neural
           Stem Cells
    • Authors: Majid Ghareghani; Heibatollah Sadeghi; Kazem Zibara; Nazanin Danaei; Hassan Azari; Amir Ghanbari
      Pages: 1319 - 1324
      Abstract: Abstract Neural stem cell (NSC) culture is a remarkable tool to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of drugs in neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were isolated and expanded from mouse embryonic E14 cortex, and the effect of various concentrations of melatonin (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on NSC proliferation was assessed by MTT and neurosphere assay. Results showed that melatonin significantly increased NSC viability and NSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison to controls. Similarly, neurosphere formation frequency and cell counts increased significantly with increasing melatonin concentrations and reached its peak at 0.5 μM, in comparison to controls. Moreover, NSCs treated with either low (0.05 µM) or high concentrations (5 µM) of melatonin showed that the mean percentage of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells were not significantly different in PDGF or melatonin at 5 μM, in comparison to controls. However, low melatonin concentrations (0.05 µM) showed a slight significant increase in comparison to controls and PDGF. On the other hand, both concentrations of melatonin treatment significantly increased the percentage of myelin basic protein (MBP) positive cells (oligodendrocytes), in comparison to controls and to PDGF. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that melatonin increased oligodendrocyte differentiation from NSCs. These results suggest that melatonin might have a potential therapeutic effect for some neurological diseases that involve oligodendrocyte and myelin pathologies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0450-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced Proteostasis in Post-ischemic Stroke Mouse Brains by Ubiquilin-1
           Promotes Functional Recovery
    • Authors: Yanying Liu; Fangfang Qiao; Hongmin Wang
      Pages: 1325 - 1329
      Abstract: Abstract Stroke is pathologically associated with oxidative stress, protein damage, and neuronal loss. We previously reported that overexpression of a ubiquitin-like protein, ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln), protects neurons against ischemia-caused brain injury, while knockout of the gene exacerbates cerebral ischemia-caused neuronal damage and delays functional recovery. Although these observations indicate that Ubqln is a potential therapeutic target, transgenic manipulation-caused overexpression of Ubqln occurs before the event of ischemic stroke, and it remains unknown whether delayed Ubqln overexpression in post-ischemic brains within a clinically relevant time frame is still beneficial. To address this question, we generated lentiviruses (LVs) either overexpressing or knocking down mouse Ubqln, and treated post-ischemic stroke mice 6 h following the middle cerebral artery occlusion with the LVs before animal behaviors were evaluated at day 1, 3, 5, and 7. Our data indicate that post-ischemic overexpression of Ubqln significantly promoted functional recovery, whereas post-ischemic downregulation of Ubqln expression delays functional recovery. To further understand the mechanisms underlying how Ubqln functions, we also isolated protein aggregates from the brains of wild-type mice or the mice overexpressing Ubqln following ischemia/reperfusion. Western blot analysis indicates that overexpression of Ubqln significantly reduced the accumulation of protein aggregates. These observations not only suggest that Ubqln is a useful candidate for therapeutic intervention for ischemic stroke but also highlight the significance of proteostasis in functional recovery following stroke.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0451-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • Explosive Blast Loading on Human 3D Aggregate Minibrains
    • Authors: Nicole E. Zander; Thuvan Piehler; Helena Hogberg; David Pamies
      Pages: 1331 - 1334
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of primary explosive blast on brain tissue still remain mostly unknown. There are few in vitro models that use real explosives to probe the mechanisms of injury at the cellular level. In this work, 3D aggregates of human brain cells or brain microphysiological system were exposed to military explosives at two different pressures (50 and 100 psi). Results indicate that membrane damage and oxidative stress increased with blast pressure, but cell death remained minimal.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0463-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 7 (2017)
       
  • In Memoriam: Adil J. Nazarali
    • Authors: Glen B. Baker; Juan M. Saavedra
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0551-8
       
  • Interactions Between the Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma
           on Neuroinflammation, Demyelination, and Remyelination in Multiple
           Sclerosis
    • Authors: Alexandre Vallée; Jean-Noël Vallée; Rémy Guillevin; Yves Lecarpentier
      Abstract: Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation. The activation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway results in differentiation failure and impairment in remyelination. However, PI3K/Akt pathway and TCF7L2, two downstream targets of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, are upregulated and promote proper remyelination. The interactions of these signaling pathways remain unclear. PPAR gamma activation can inhibit NF-kappaB, and can also downregulate the WNT/beta-catenin pathway. PPAR gamma and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway act in an opposite manner. PPAR gamma agonists appear as a promising treatment for the inhibition of demyelination and the promotion of proper remyelination through the control of both NF-kappaB activity and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0550-9
       
 
 
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