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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2285 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Attempts to Overcome Remyelination Failure: Toward Opening New Therapeutic
           Avenues for Multiple Sclerosis
    • Authors: Mahsa Motavaf; Majid Sadeghizadeh; Mohammad Javan
      Pages: 1335 - 1348
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath wrapped around the axons and eventual axon degeneration. The disease is pathologically heterogeneous; however, perhaps its most frustrating aspect is the lack of efficient regenerative response for remyelination. Current treatment strategies are based on anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory medications that have the potential to reduce the numbers of newly evolving lesions. However, therapies are still required that can repair already damaged myelin for which current treatments are not effective. A prerequisite for the development of such new treatments is understanding the reasons for insufficient endogenous repair. This review briefly summarizes the currently suggested causes of remyelination failure in MS and possible solutions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0472-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Potential Roles of Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes (MAMs) in
           Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Authors: Dongdong Sun; Xin Chen; Gang Gu; Jianhao Wang; Jianning Zhang
      Pages: 1349 - 1357
      Abstract: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have both been shown to be critical in cellular homeostasis. The functions of the ER and mitochondria are independent but interrelated. These two organelles could form physical interactions, known as MAMs, to regulate physiological functions between ER and mitochondria to maintain Ca2+, lipid, and metabolite exchange. Several proteins are located in MAMs, including RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2 and sigma-1 receptor to ensure regulation. Recent studies indicated that MAMs participate in inflammation and apoptosis in various conditions. All of these functions are crucial in determining cell fate following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that MAMs may associate with TBI and could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, autophagy dysregulation, dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, and oxidative stress. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding of MAM formation and their potential regulatory role in TBI pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0484-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Piracetam Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive
           Impairment in Rats
    • Authors: Alok Tripathi; Pankaj Paliwal; Sairam Krishnamurthy
      Pages: 1373 - 1386
      Abstract: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of piracetam on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resulting changes in cognitive behavior. Neuroinflammation was induced by a single dose of LPS solution infused into each of the lateral cerebral ventricles in concentrations of 1 μg/μl, at a rate of 1 μl/min over a 5-min period, with a 5-min waiting period between the two infusions. Piracetam in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min before LPS infusion and continued for 9 days. On ninth day, the behavioral test for memory and anxiety was done followed by blood collection and microdissection of the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex brain regions. Piracetam attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in coping strategy to novel environment indicating anxiolytic activity. It also reversed the LPS-induced changes in the known arm and novel arm entries in the Y-maze test indicating amelioration of spatial memory impairment. Further, piracetam moderated LPS-induced decrease in the mitochondrial complex enzyme activities (I, II, IV, and V) and mitochondrial membrane potential. It ameliorated changes in hippocampal lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels including the activity of superoxide dismutase. Piracetam region specifically ameliorated LPS-induced increase in the level of IL-6 in HIP indicating anti-neuroinflammatory effect. Further, piracetam reduced HIP Aβ (1–40) and increased blood Aβ level suggesting efflux of Aβ from HIP to blood. Therefore, the present study indicates preclinical evidence for the use of piracetam in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0468-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal
           Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
    • Authors: Jingjuan Chen; Guode Li; Zuohang Xu; Chengguo Zhang; Yukai Wang; Haiqun Xie; Yan Shao; Lingmei Peng; Jiancong Lu; Dahua Yuan
      Pages: 1399 - 1405
      Abstract: Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People’s Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12–18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42–3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with stroke and HHcy could be more prone to renal impairment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0470-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Upregulated Expression of SSTR3 is Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis After
           Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats
    • Authors: Qi Yao; Qianqian Liu; Hui Xu; Zhonghua Wu; Liang Zhou; Zhikai Gu; Peipei Gong; Jianhong Shen
      Pages: 1407 - 1416
      Abstract: Somatostatin which is a multifunctional growth hormone inhibitory neuropeptide shows diverse physiological effects, such as neurotransmission, cell growth, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling as well as exerts inhibitory effects on hormonal products and other secretory proteins. SSTR3 is a member of superfamily of somatostatin receptors (SSTR), which are G-protein-coupled plasma membrane receptors. Previous studies proved that SSTR3 regulates antiproliferative signaling and apoptosis in several cells. Here, we explored a potential role of SSTR3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis in the course of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). An ICH rat model was established and assessed by behavioral tests. We found SSTR3 was significantly upregulated surrounding the hematoma after ICH by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescence-manifested SSTR3 was strikingly increased in neurons, not astrocytes or microglia. Moreover, increasing SSTR3 level was found to be accompanied by the upregulation of p53, Bax, and active caspase-3 in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 was co-localized with SSTR3 suggesting its potential role in neuronal apoptosis. In addition, in vitro study, revealed that SSTR3 knockdown specifically resulted in reducing neuronal apoptosis in PC12 cells, which further indicated that SSTR3 might exert its pro-apoptotic function on neuronal apoptosis. All our findings suggested that upregulated SSTR3 may be involved in neuronal apoptosis after ICH.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0471-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Dual Functional MicroRNA-186-5p Targets both FGF2 and RelA to Suppress
           Tumorigenesis of Glioblastoma Multiforme
    • Authors: Fachen Wang; Hui Jiang; Shanjun Wang; Bing Chen
      Pages: 1433 - 1442
      Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant cancers. MicroRNAs (miRs) were reported to play important roles in GBM recently. However, the role of a novel miR-186-5p in GBM tumorigenesis is still elusive. Using bioinformatics, miR-186-5p was identified as potential regulators of both fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and NF-κB subunit RelA. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the direct recognition FGF2 and RelA mRNAs by miR-186-5p. Invasion and migration assays were employed to study the effect of miR-186-5p on GBM cell growth in vitro. Xenograft tumor animal model was established to elucidate the in vivo function of miR-186-5p. MiR-186-5p directly targeted mRNAs of both FGF2 and RelA, and repressed their expressions. Invasive and migratory abilities of GBM cells and growth of xenograft tumors were significantly inhibited by miR-186-5p, which can be restored by re-introduction of FGF2 and RelA expressions. MiR-186-5p is a novel tumor suppressor miR that functions to inhibit tumorigenesis of GBM both in vitro and in vivo, by targeting both FGF2 and RelA. MiR-186-5p/FGF2/RelA pathway may be potentially used as molecular targets of in the clinical treatment of GBM.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0474-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Influence of Membrane Receptor Lateral Diffusion on the Short-Term
           Depression of Acetylcholine-Induced Current in Helix Neurons
    • Authors: Natalia A. Vasilyeva; Galina B. Murzina; Igor I. Kireev; Arkady S. Pivovarov
      Pages: 1443 - 1455
      Abstract: We have studied how various drugs increasing the rate of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) lateral diffusion affect the depression of ACh-induced current in land snail Helix lucorum neurons responsible for defensive behavior. The acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoretic application protocol imitated the behavioral habituation protocol for the intact animal. We found that the drugs decreasing cholesterol level in cell membranes as methyl-β-cyclodextrin 1 mM and Ro 48-8071 2 µM, and polyclonal antibodies to actin-binding proteins as spectrin 5 µg/ml and merlin 2.5 µg/ml have changed the dynamic of ACh-current depression. The nAChRs lateral diffusion coefficient was obtained by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. A curve fitting model specially created for analysis of short-term choline sensitivity depression in snail neurons helped us evaluate separately the contribution of nAChRs lateral diffusion, their endocytosis and exocytosis to observed effects during electrophysiological experiments. Taken together, we hypothesize that nAChRs lateral diffusion plays an important role in the cellular correlate of habituation in land snail Helix lucorum neurons.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0475-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Regulation of Sirtuin 3-Mediated Deacetylation of Cyclophilin D Attenuated
    • Authors: Fan Sun; Yanna Si; Hongguang Bao; Yajie Xu; XiaoXiao Pan; Lingqing Zeng; Ling Jing
      Pages: 1457 - 1464
      Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate cognitive dysfunction in the hippocampus induced by sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) via acetylation of cyclophilin D (CypD) and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. It also explored whether activating sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) can mediate deacetylation of CypD and prevent the development of SAE. Male mice were randomly assigned to six groups: sham group, cecal ligation puncture group, CypD siRNA transfection (CypD-si) group, CypD control siRNA transfection (CypD-c) group, SIRT3 overexpression vector pcDNA3.1 (SIRT3-p) group, and SIRT3 empty vector pcDNA3.1 (SIRT3-v) group (n = 18). The CypD-si and CypD-c groups were transfected with CypD siRNA and CypD control siRNA, respectively. The SIRT3-p and SIRT3-v groups were injected with SIRT3 pcDNA3.1 and vector pcDNA3.1, respectively. The learning and memory function was assessed using the learning version of the Morris water maze test. Then, cell apoptosis and the levels of CypD, acetylated CypD, SIRT-3, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and caspase-3 in the hippocampus were determined. The levels of CypD and acetylation of CypD increased in the hippocampus induced by SAE. Increasing SIRT3 and decreasing CypD can attenuate cognitive impairment and neuroapoptosis, and protect the integrity of mitochondrial membrane from damage and restore the protein expressions of IL-6, TNF-α, and caspase-3. Activating SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of CypD attenuated learning and memory dysfunction induced by SAE.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0476-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Oxidative Stress in Homocystinuria Due to Cystathionine ß-Synthase
           Deficiency: Findings in Patients and in Animal Models
    • Authors: Jéssica Lamberty Faverzani; Tatiane Grazieli Hammerschmidt; Angela Sitta; Marion Deon; Moacir Wajner; Carmen Regla Vargas
      Pages: 1477 - 1485
      Abstract: Homocystinuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) activity, biochemically characterized by homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met) accumulation in biological fluids and high urinary excretion of homocystine. Clinical manifestations include thinning and lengthening of long bones, osteoporosis, dislocation of the ocular lens, thromboembolism, and mental retardation. Although the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly known, the present review summarizes the available experimental findings obtained from patients and animal models indicating that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of homocystinuria. In this scenario, several studies have shown that enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses are decreased in individuals affected by this disease. Furthermore, markers of lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage have been reported to be increased in blood, brain, liver, and skeletal muscle in animal models studied and in homocystinuric patients, probably as a result of increased free radical generation. On the other hand, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Hcy induces reactive species formation in brain, so that this major accumulating metabolite may underlie the oxidative damage observed in the animal model and human condition. Taken together, it may be presumed that the disruption of redox homeostasis may contribute to the tissue damage found in homocystinuria. Therefore, it is proposed that the use of appropriate antioxidants may represent a novel adjuvant therapy for patients affected by this disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0478-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • High Expression of Pirh2 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Glioma
    • Authors: Yifeng Bao; Xue Wu; Debin Yuan; Wei Shi; Jinlong Shi
      Pages: 1501 - 1509
      Abstract: p53-induced protein with a RING-H2 domain (Pirh2), also known as Rchy1, is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates the turnover and functionality of several proteins involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell death. However, it remains unclear whether aberrant expression of Pirh2 is involved in the development of glioma, a major type of primary brain tumor in adults. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Pirh2 was highly expressed in glioma specimens, compared with normal brain tissues. High Pirh2 expression was positively correlated with higher tumor grade, as well as Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that patients with high Pirh2 expression had worsened prognosis, compared with those with low Pirh2 expression. Moreover, to determine whether Pirh2 could regulate malignant behavior of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with interfering RNA targeting Pirh2 to specifically silence Pirh2 expression. Mechanistically, our results indicated that knockdown of Pirh2 induced the apoptosis of glioma cells. In addition, depletion of Pirh2 diminished the expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 and led to cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Taken together, these findings for the first time suggest that Pirh2 might play an important role in the regulation of glioma proliferation and apoptosis and thus serve as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of glioma.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0481-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • In vivo and In vitro Identification of Endocannabinoid Signaling in
           Periodontal Tissues and Their Potential Role in Local Pathophysiology
    • Authors: Anna Konermann; Andreas Jäger; Stefanie A. E. Held; P. Brossart; Anne Schmöle
      Pages: 1511 - 1520
      Abstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) with its binding receptors CB1 and CB2 impacts multiple pathophysiologies not only limited to neuronal psychoactivity. CB1 is assigned to cerebral neuron action, whereas CB2 is mainly expressed in different non-neuronal tissues and associated with immunosuppressive effects. Based on these tissue-selective CB receptor roles, it was the aim of this study to analyze potential expression in periodontal tissues under physiological conditions and inflammatory states. In vivo, CB receptor expression was investigated on human periodontal biopsies with or without bacterial inflammation and on rat maxillae with or without sterile inflammation. In vitro analyses were performed on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells at rest or under mechanical strain via qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. P < 0.05 was set statistical significant. In vivo, CB1 expression was significantly higher in healthy PDL structures compared to CB2 (13.5% ± 1.3 of PDL tissues positively stained; 7.1% ± 0.9). Bacterial inflammation effected decrease in CB1 (9.7% ± 2.4), but increase in CB2 (14.7% ± 2.5). In contrast, sterile inflammation caused extensive CB1 (40% ± 1.9) and CB2 (41.7% ± 2.2) accumulations evenly distributed in the tooth surrounding PDL. In vitro, CB2 was ubiquitously expressed on gene and protein level. CB1 was constitutively expressed on transcriptional level (0.41% ± 0.09), even higher than CB2 (0.29% ± 0.06), but undetectable on protein level. Analyses further revealed expression changes of both receptors in mechanically loaded PDL cells. CB1 and CB2 are varyingly expressed in periodontal tissues, both adjusted by different entities of periodontal inflammation and by mechanical stress. This indicates potential ECS function as regulatory tool in controlling of periodontal pathophysiology.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0482-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Impact of Astrocytes on the Injury Induced by In Vitro Ischemia
    • Authors: Cláudio Roque; Graça Baltazar
      Pages: 1521 - 1528
      Abstract: Cell cultures are characterized by their simplicity, controllability, and ability to provide detailed basic information on how a particular cell population responds to specific stimuli or insult. These characteristics led to their extensive application in the study of molecular interactions and represent a valuable tool in the study of different pathologies. However, due to the lack of interactions between the different components that form an in vivo system, the results obtained in pure cell cultures not always translate what occurs in vivo. In this context, the use of co-cultures has the advantage of allowing the study of interactions between different types of cells present in a tissue, which in many situations are determinant for the effects obtained. The present study aimed to characterize cortical neuron–glia and neuron-enriched primary cultures and evaluate their response to an ischemic insult. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay and cell number/phenotype was analyzed by immunocytochemistry in control cultures and in cells subjected to 4 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation. The results obtained demonstrate that astrocytes have a substantial impact on the injury induced by an ischemic insult, thus suggesting that the crosstalk between glia and neurons is crucial to the neuronal protection in conditions of ischemia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0483-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 8 (2017)
  • Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Photoreceptor Preconditioning Protection
           Requires Docosanoid Signaling
    • Authors: Eric J. Knott; William C. Gordon; Bokkyoo Jun; Khanh Do; Nicolas G. Bazan
      Abstract: Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are necessary for functional cell integrity. Preconditioning (PC), as we define it, is an acquired protection or resilience by a cell, tissue, or organ to a lethal stimulus enabled by a previous sublethal stressor or stimulus. In this study, we provide evidence that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its derivatives, the docosanoids 17-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), facilitate cell survival in both in vitro and in vivo models of retinal PC. We also demonstrate that PC requires the enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which synthesizes 17-HDHA and NPD1, and that this is specific to docosanoid signaling despite the concomitant release of the omega-6 arachidonic acid and eicosanoid synthesis. These findings advocate that DHA and docosanoids are protective enablers of PC in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0565-2
  • The PGC-1α Activator ZLN005 Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neuronal
           Injury In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Yazhou Xu; John Alimamy Kabba; Wenchen Ruan; Yunjie Wang; Shunyi Zhao; Xiaoyue Song; Luyong Zhang; Jia Li; Tao Pang
      Abstract: Oxidative stress is a great challenge to neurons following cerebral ischemia. PGC-1α has been shown to act as a potent modulator of oxidative metabolism. In this study, the effects of ZLN005, a small molecule that activate PGC-1α, against oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD)- or ischemia-induced neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was performed in rats and ZLN005 was administered intravenously at 2 h, 4 h, or 6 h after ischemia onset. Infarct volume and neurological deficit score were detected to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ZLN005. Well-differentiated PC12 cells, which were subjected to OGD for 2 h followed by reoxygenation for 22 h, were used as an in vitro ischemic model. Changes in expression of PGC-1α, its related genes, and antioxidant genes were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that ZLN005 reduced cerebral infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit in rat with tMCAO, and significantly protected OGD-induced neuronal injury in PC12 cells. Furthermore, ZLN005 enhanced expression of PGC-1α in PC12 cells and in the ipsilateral hemisphere of rats with tMCAO. Additionally, ZLN005 increased antioxidant genes, including SOD1 and HO-1, and significantly prevented the ischemia-induced decrease in SOD activity. Taking together, the PGC-1α activator ZLN005 exhibits neuroprotective effects under ischemic conditions and molecular mechanisms possibly involve activation of PGC-1α signaling pathway and cellular antioxidant systems.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0567-0
  • Co-Localization and Interaction of Pax5 with Iba1 in Brain of Mice
    • Authors: Shashank Kumar Maurya; Rajnikant Mishra
      Abstract: The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways. Promoter analysis shows multiple binding sites for Pax5 in promoter of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). Like Iba1, Pax5 is also associated with inflammatory and immune response, activation of leukocyte and remodelling of actin cytoskeleton. Therefore, localization and interaction of Pax5 with Iba1 in brain of mice were studied using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Immuno-fluorescence assay. The Pax5- and Iba1-positive cells were observed in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and ventricles of brain. The co-localization of Pax5 and Iba1 was evident in microglia in almost all evaluated regions of brain. In some regions, Pax5- and Iba1-positive were distinctly compartmentalized. The Pax5a/b interacts with Iba1 and binds to its regulatory sequences. Results indicate Pax5-associated activities of Iba1 in microglia in brain of mice.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0566-1
  • Acute Administration of the Nonpathogenic, Saprophytic Bacterium,
           Mycobacterium vaccae , Induces Activation of Serotonergic Neurons in the
           Dorsal Raphe Nucleus and Antidepressant-Like Behavior in Association with
           Mild Hypothermia
    • Authors: Philip H. Siebler; Jared D. Heinze; Drake M. Kienzle; Matthew W. Hale; Jodi L. Lukkes; Nina C. Donner; Jared M. Kopelman; Orlando A. Rodriguez; Christopher A. Lowry
      Abstract: Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiologic and behavioral effects. One mechanism through which immune activation may affect physiology and behavior is through actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. To test this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, adult male BALB/c mice were implanted with telemetric recording devices and then immunized with Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (0.1 mg, s.c.; Days − 28, − 14; N = 36). On Day 1, mice received an acute challenge with M. vaccae (0.1 mg, s.c.) or borate-buffered saline vehicle. Core body temperature and locomotor activity recordings were conducted during a 36 h period beginning 24 h prior to challenge; 12 h following acute challenge, mice were either tested in a 6-min forced swim test, or served as home cage controls (n = 9 per group). In Experiment 2, the protocol was repeated, but with the aim of assessing c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons, assessed 90 min following exposure to forced swim (N = 32; n = 8 per group). In Experiment 1, acute M. vaccae challenge in M. vaccae-immunized mice, relative to vehicle-challenged controls, decreased locomotor activity and core body temperature measured 3 h following challenge, as measured by continuous telemetric recordings, and decreased immobility in the forced swim test measured 12 h following challenge. In Experiment 2, acute M. vaccae challenge in M. vaccae-immunized mice decreased home cage locomotion, in alignment with findings in Experiment 1, as measured by video-based behavioral analysis, and, among mice exposed to the forced swim test, increased c-Fos expression in subsets of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) measured 13.5 h following challenge. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that acute peripheral immune activation with a heat-killed preparation of M. vaccae transiently induces mild hypothermia in association with suppression of locomotor activity, activates subsets of serotonergic neurons in the DR, and induces antidepressant-like behavioral responses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0564-3
  • Ameliorating Effect of Osteopontin on H 2 O 2 -Induced Apoptosis of Human
           Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells
    • Authors: Neda Mazaheri; Maryam Peymani; Hamid Galehdari; Kamran Ghaedi; Ali Ghoochani; Abbas Kiani-Esfahani; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
      Abstract: Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2. Data indicated that OPN prohibited cell death and enhanced OPC viability. This effect is achieved through reduction of apoptosis and induction of anti-apoptosis markers. In addition OPN induces expression of several integrin subunits, responsible for OPN interaction. Notably, our findings showed that expression of αV β1/β3/β5 and β8 integrins increased in response to OPN, while treatment with H2O2 down-regulated αV β1/β5 and β8 integrins expression significantly. In conclusion, OPN may act via αV integrin signaling and trigger suppression of P53-dependent apoptotic cascades. Therefore OPN therapy may be considered as a feasible process to prevent progress of neurodegenerative diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0563-4
  • Expression of Gas1 in Mouse Brain: Release and Role in Neuronal
    • Authors: Elizabeth Bautista; Natanael Zarco; Nicolás Aguirre-Pineda; Manuel Lara-Lozano; Paula Vergara; Juan Antonio González-Barrios; Raúl Aguilar-Roblero; José Segovia
      Abstract: Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has important roles during development. Recently, the presence of two forms of Gas1 was reported: one attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor; and a soluble extracellular form shed by cells. Previously, we showed that Gas1 is expressed in different areas of the adult mouse CNS. Here, we report the levels of Gas1 mRNA protein in different regions and analyzed its expressions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons. We found that Gas1 is expressed in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the Purkinje-molecular layer of the cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and fastigial nucleus, as well as in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. In all cases, Gas1 was found in the cell bodies, but not in the neuropil. The Purkinje and the molecular layers show the highest levels of Gas1, whereas the granule cell layer has low levels. Moreover, we detected the expression and release of Gas1 from primary cultures of Purkinje cells and from hippocampal neurons as well as from neuronal cell lines, but not from cerebellar granular cells. In addition, using SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with retinoic acid as a neuronal model, we found that extracellular Gas1 promotes neurite outgrowth, increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, and stimulates the inhibition of GSK3β. These findings demonstrate that Gas1 is expressed and released by neurons and promotes differentiation, suggesting an important role for Gas1 in cellular signaling in the CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0559-0
  • Enhancement of Gustatory Neural Responses by Parasympathetic Nerve in the
    • Authors: Toshihide Sato; Yukio Okada
      Abstract: The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation. The integrated neural responses to 0.5 M NaCl, 2.5 mM CaCl2, water, and 1 M sucrose were enhanced to 130–140% of the controls. On the other hand, the responses for 1 mM Q-HCl and 0.3 mM acetic acid were not changed by the preceding applied ES. After hexamethonium (a blocker of nicotinic ACh receptor) was intravenously injected, ES of the parasympathetic nerve did not modulate the responses for all six taste stimuli. The mechanism for enhancement of the gustatory neural responses is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0562-5
  • Downregulation of Survivin Gene Expression Affects Ionizing Radiation
           Resistance of Human T98 Glioma Cells
    • Authors: Jicheng Li; Yong Han; Dai Zhou; Youxin Zhou; Ming Ye; Hangzhou Wang; Ziwei Du
      Abstract: Survivin is a tumor-associated gene, which has been detected in a wide variety of human tumors. Previous research has shown that Survivin can affect hepatoma carcinoma cell radiosensitivity. However, little is known about the role of Survivin in ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of Survivin on ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cell line T98. Our results showed that downregulation of Survivin gene expression and ionizing irradiation could both inhibit T98 cell proliferation by assays in vitro including CCK-8 and immunohistochemistry. The inhibitory effect of downregulation of Survivin combined with irradiation was the most significant compared with other groups. Results of Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis also showed that downregulation of Survivin combined with the irradiation group achieved the highest apoptosis rate. Experimental results in vivo by intracranial implanting into nude mice were consistent with those in vitro. These findings indicated that ionizing radiation resistance of human T98 glioma cells can be inhibited effectively after Survivin gene silencing.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0560-7
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