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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2284 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1208 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Relationship Between β-Amyloid and Mitochondrial Dynamics
    • Authors: Dah Ihm Kim; Ki Hoon Lee; Ji Young Oh; Jun Sung Kim; Ho Jae Han
      Pages: 955 - 968
      Abstract: Abstract Mitochondria as dynamic organelles undergo morphological changes through the processes of fission and fusion which are major factors regulating their functions. A disruption in the balance of mitochondrial dynamics induces functional disorders in mitochondria such as failed energy production and the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are closely related to pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics and impaired mitochondrial function, clarifying the effects of morphofunctional aberrations which promote neuronal cell death in AD. Several possible signaling pathways have been suggested for a better understanding of the mechanism behind the key molecules regulating mitochondrial morphologies. However, the exact machinery involved in mitochondrial dynamics still has yet to be elucidated. This paper reviews the current knowledge on signaling mechanisms involved in mitochondrial dynamics and the significance of mitochondrial dynamics in controlling associated functions in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in AD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0434-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 in Mild Cognitive Impairment
    • Authors: Osigbemhe Iyalomhe; Sabina Swierczek; Ngozi Enwerem; Yuanxiu Chen; Monica O. Adedeji; Joanne Allard; Oyonumo Ntekim; Sheree Johnson; Kakra Hughes; Philip Kurian; Thomas O. Obisesan
      Pages: 969 - 977
      Abstract: Abstract Neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species are thought to mediate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), suggesting that mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of AD, may be driven by similar insults. Several studies document that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is neuroprotective in the setting of neuronal insults, since this transcription factor drives the expression of critical genes that diminish neuronal cell death. HIF-1 facilitates glycolysis and glucose metabolism, thus helping to generate reductive equivalents of NADH/NADPH that counter oxidative stress. HIF-1 also improves cerebral blood flow which opposes the toxicity of hypoxia. Increased HIF-1 activity and/or expression of HIF-1 target genes, such as those involved in glycolysis or vascular flow, may be an early adaptation to the oxidative stressors that characterize MCI pathology. The molecular events that constitute this early adaptation are likely neuroprotective, and might mitigate cognitive decline or the onset of full-blown AD. On the other hand, prolonged or overwhelming stressors can convert HIF-1 into an activator of cell death through agents such as Bnip3, an event that is more likely to occur in late MCI or advanced Alzheimer’s dementia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0440-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • The Role of DNA Methylation in Lens Development and Cataract Formation
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Huaijin Guan
      Pages: 979 - 984
      Abstract: Abstract Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in genomic structural modifications without altering genomic DNA sequence. The studies of epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. DNA methylation may contribute to silencing gene expression which is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. DNA methylation regulatory mechanisms in lens development and pathogenesis of cataract represent exciting areas of research that have opened new avenues for association with aging and environment. This review addresses our current understanding of the major mechanisms and function of DNA methylation in lens development, age-related cataract, secondary cataract, and complicated cataract. By understanding the role of DNA methylation in the lens disease and development, it is expected to open up a new therapeutic approach to clinical treatment of cataract.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0447-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Differential Regulation of Hippocampal IGF-1-Associated Signaling Proteins
           by Dietary Restriction in Aging Mouse
    • Authors: Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem; Ramesh Sharma
      Pages: 985 - 993
      Abstract: Abstract Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cellular and tissue functions, and relating to the aging process the most important pathway of IGF-1 is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling cascade. Although many have studied the changes in the level of IGF-1 and its effect on neural proliferation, the downstream signaling proteins have not been fully elucidated. Hence in the present investigation, the IGF-1 gene expression and the normal endogenous levels of IGF1R (IGF-1 receptor), PI3K, Akt, pAkt, and pFoxO in the hippocampus of young, adult, and old mice were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. The effects of DR on these protein levels were also studied. Results showed a decrease in the levels of IGF-1, IGF1R, PI3K, and pAkt, while pFoxO level increased with respect to age. Under DR, these protein levels are maintained in adult mice, but old mice displayed diminished expression levels of these proteins as compared to ad libitum-fed mice. Maintenance of PI3K/Akt pathway results in the phosphorylation of FoxOs, necessary for the enhancement of neural proliferation and survival in adult mice. The down-regulation of IGF-I signaling, as observed in old mice, leads to increasing the activity of FoxO factors that may be important for the neuroprotective effects seen with DR.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0431-7
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Ten-Eleven Translocation 1 and 2 Confer Overlapping Transcriptional
           Programs for the Proliferation of Cultured Adult Neural Stem Cells
    • Authors: Koji Shimozaki
      Pages: 995 - 1008
      Abstract: Abstract Adult neurogenesis originates from neural stem cells (NSCs) in specific regions of the adult brain. The molecular mechanisms that control the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs have not been fully elucidated. In recent years, emerging evidence has revealed that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family DNA dioxygenases TET1 and TET2 play important roles in the central nervous system. Here, I present evidence that Tet1 and Tet2 are expressed in cultured NSCs derived from adult mouse brain and play an important role in the proliferative self-renewal of NSCs in an undifferentiated state. The investigation of intracellular molecular networks involving both Tet1 and Tet2 by gene knockdown and comprehensive genetic analyses showed that overlapping molecular mechanisms involving TET1 and TET2 regulate the expression of at least 16 genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle control. Interestingly, transcriptional regulation of the selected gene through TET1 and TET2 did not correlate with direct CpG demethylation of the gene promoter. These findings suggest that TET1 and TET2 play an important role in the proliferation of NSCs in the adult mouse brain by specifically regulating common genes for DNA replication and the cell cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0432-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Knockdown of DIXDC1 Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Human
           Glioma Cells
    • Authors: Jianguo Chen; Chaoyan Shen; Jinlong Shi; Jianhong Shen; Wenjuan Chen; Jie Sun; Shaocheng Fan; Yuanqi Bei; Peng Xu; Hao Chang; Rui Jiang; Lu Hua; Bin Ji; Qingfeng Huang
      Pages: 1009 - 1019
      Abstract: Abstract DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1), the human homolog of coiled-coil-DIX1 (Ccd1), is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway. Recently, it was found to act as a candidate oncogene in colon cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of DIXDC1 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that DIXDC1 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. The expression level of DIXDC1 was evidently linked to glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier curve showed that high expression of DIXDC1 may lead to poor outcome of glioma patients. Serum starvation and refeeding assay indicated that the expression of DIXDC1 was associated with cell cycle. To determine whether DIXDC1 could regulate the proliferation and migration of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with interfering RNA-targeting DIXDC1; investigated cell proliferation with Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, flow cytometry assays, and colony formation analyses; and investigated cell migration with wound healing assays and transwell assays. According to our data, knockdown of DIXDC1 significantly inhibited proliferation and migration of glioma cells. These data implied that DIXDC1 might participate in the development of glioma, suggesting that DIXDC1 can become a potential therapeutic strategy for glioma.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0433-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Methylation Status of the RIZ1 Gene Promoter in Human Glioma Tissues and
           Cell Lines
    • Authors: Chenran Zhang; Wei Meng; Jiajia Wang; Yicheng Lu; Guohan Hu; Liuhua Hu; Jie Ma
      Pages: 1021 - 1027
      Abstract: Abstract Retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc-finger gene 1 (RIZ1), a strong tumor suppressor, is silenced in many human cancers. Our previous studies showed that RIZ1 expression was negatively correlated with the grade of glioma and was a key predictor of patient survival. Therefore, RIZ1 could be a potential tumor suppressor during glioma pathogenesis, although the mechanism underlying RIZ1 gene inactivation in gliomas is unknown. We investigated the methylation status of the RIZ1 promoter in human glioma tissues and four glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, and verified the effect of the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on RIZ1 transcription and cell proliferation. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was performed to determine RIZ1 promoter methylation in human glioma specimens. The correlation between RIZ1 hypermethylation in tumors and clinicopathological features also was analyzed. 5-Aza-CdR treatment was used to reactivate gene expression silenced by hypermethylation in the U87 glioblastoma cell line, and real-time PCR was then used to measure RIZ1 expression. The ability of 5-aza-CdR to inhibit the proliferation of glioma cell lines whose RIZ1 promoters were hypermethylated was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Among 51 human glioma specimens, RIZ1 promoter methylation was detected in 23 cases. Clinicopathological evaluation suggested that RIZ1 hypermethylation was negatively associated with tumor grade and patient age (P < 0.05). Hypermethylation of the RIZ1 promoter was detected in the U87 and U251 cell lines. RIZ1 mRNA expression in U87 cells was upregulated after treatment with 5-aza-Cdr, which correlated with inhibition of cell proliferation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the epigenetic silencing of RIZ1 expression in human glioma tissues and GBM cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0435-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of GFAP and Glutamate Regulatory Proteins
           in Chick Retina and Their Levels of Expressions in Altered Photoperiods
    • Authors: Kumar Abhiram Jha; Tapas C. Nag; Shashi Wadhwa; Tara Sankar Roy
      Pages: 1029 - 1042
      Abstract: Abstract Moderate to intense light is reported to damage the chick retina, which is cone dominated. Light damage alters neurotransmitter pools, such as those of glutamate. Glutamate level in the retina is regulated by glutamate–aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS). We examined immunolocalization patterns and the expression levels of both markers and of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of neuronal stress) in chick retina exposed to 2000 lux under 12-h light:12-h dark (12L:12D; normal photoperiod), 18L:6D (prolonged photoperiod), and 24L:0D (constant light) at post-hatch day 30. Retinal damage (increased death of photoreceptors and inner retinal neurons and Müller cell hypertrophy) and GFAP expression in Müller cells were maximal in 24L:0D condition compared to that seen in 12L:12D and 18L:6D conditions. GS was present in Müller cells and GLAST expressed in Müller cell processes and photoreceptor inner segments. GLAST expression was decreased in 24L:0D condition, and the expression levels between 12L:12D and 18L:6D, though increased marginally, were statistically insignificant. Similar was the case with GS expression that significantly decreased in 24L:0D condition. Our previous study with chicks exposed to 2000 lux reported increased retinal glutamate level in 24L:0D condition. The present results indicate that constant light induces decreased expressions of GLAST and GS, a condition that might aggravate glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity and delay neuroprotection in a cone-dominated retina.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0436-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Olfactory Ensheathing Cell-Conditioned Medium Reverts Aβ 25–35 -Induced
           Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating the Mitochondria-Mediated
           Apoptotic Pathway
    • Authors: Qing-Qing Fu; Li Wei; Javier Sierra; Jian-Zhang Cheng; María Teresa Moreno-Flores; Hua You; Hua-Rong Yu
      Pages: 1043 - 1054
      Abstract: Abstract Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of glia from the mammalian olfactory system, with neuroprotective and regenerative properties. β-Amyloid peptides are a major component of the senile plaques characteristic of the Alzheimer brain. The amyloid beta (Aβ) precursor protein is cleaved to amyloid peptides, and Aβ25–35 is regarded to be the functional domain of Aβ, responsible for its neurotoxic properties. It has been reported that Aβ25–35 triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage, altering the structure and function of mitochondria, leading to the activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our goal is to investigate the effects of OECs on the toxicity of aggregated Aβ25–35, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. For such purpose, SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with Aβ25–35 and OEC-conditioned medium (OECCM). OECCM promoted the cell viability and reduced the apoptosis, and decreased the intracellular ROS and the lipid peroxidation. In the presence of OECCM, mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) were upregulated. Concomitantly, OECCM decreased mRNA and the protein expression levels of cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax in SH-SY5Y cells, and increased mRNA and the protein expression level of Bcl-2. However, OECCM did not alter intracellular Ca2+ concentration in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our data suggest that OECCM ameliorates Aβ25–35-induced oxidative damage in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. These data provide new insights into the functional actions of OECCM on oxidative stress-induced cell damage.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0437-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • mitoLUHMES: An Engineered Neuronal Cell Line for the Analysis of the
           Motility of Mitochondria
    • Authors: Tomasz M. Stępkowski; Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz; Marcin Kruszewski
      Pages: 1055 - 1066
      Abstract: Abstract Perturbations in the transport of mitochondria and their quality control in neuronal cells underlie many types of neurological pathologies, whereas systems enabling convenient analysis of mitochondria behavior in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases are limited. In this study, we present a modified version of lund human mesencephalic cells, mitoLUHMES, expressing GFP and mitochondrially targeted DsRed2 fluorescent proteins, intended for in vitro analysis of mitochondria trafficking by real-time fluorescence microscopy. This cell line can be easily differentiated into neuronal phenotype and allows us to observe movements of single mitochondria in single cells grown in high-density cultures. We quantified the perturbations in mitochondria morphology and dynamics in cells treated with model neurotoxins: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 6-hydroxydopamine. For the first time we filmed the processes of fission, fusion, pausing, and reversal of mitochondria movement direction in LUHMES cells. We present a detailed analysis of mitochondria length, velocity, and frequency of movement for static, anterograde, and retrograde motile mitochondria. The observed neurotoxin treatment-mediated decreases in morphological and kinetic parameters of mitochondria provide foundation for the future studies exploiting mitoLUHMES as a new model for neurobiology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0438-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • GABA B Receptors as Modulating Target for Inflammatory Responses of the
           Periodontal Ligament
    • Authors: Anna Konermann; Thomas Van Dyke; Alpdogan Kantarci; Andreas Jäger
      Pages: 1067 - 1076
      Abstract: Abstract PDL cells express GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptors, which are regulated by inflammation and thus might be implicated in periodontal immunology. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the functional role of GABAB receptors in immunomodulation regarding activation of proregenerative versus proinflammatory mechanisms. Human PDL cells were exposed to GABA and/or GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-52432 alone or in combination with IL-1β to mimic inflammation. The influence on marker expression for inflammatory tissue destruction was determined via qRT-PCR and Luminex assays. Proliferation and biomineralization were assessed by MTS assay and von Kossa staining. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. GABAB receptor blockade inhibited expression of IL-6, TNFα, MMP-3, and MMP-8 in an inflammatory milieu on transcriptional and on protein level, mediated by NF-κB. Besides, receptor blockade enhanced proliferation, especially under inflammatory conditions, and reduced mineralization in a non-inflammatory milieu. GABAB receptor activity on PDL cells is involved in the modulation of osteoimmunological processes in the periodontium and decides on the initiation versus prevention of host protective mechanisms. This implies anabolic potential for a therapeutic preservation or reestablishment of periodontal tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. In summary, GABAB receptor modulation in PDL cells might become an important target in immunoinflammatory settings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0439-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • MAN1 Restricts BMP Signaling During Synaptic Growth in Drosophila
    • Authors: Ulrike Laugks; Marie Hieke; Nicole Wagner
      Pages: 1077 - 1093
      Abstract: Abstract Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is crucial for coordinated synaptic growth and plasticity. Here, we show that the nuclear LEM-domain protein MAN1 is a negative regulator of synaptic growth at Drosophila larval and adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Loss of MAN1 is associated with synaptic structural defects, including floating T-bars, membrane attachment defects, and accumulation of vesicles between perisynaptic membranes and membranes of the subsynaptic reticulum. In addition, MAN1 mutants accumulate more heterogeneously sized vesicles and multivesicular bodies in larval and adult synapses, the latter indicating that MAN1 may function in synaptic vesicle recycling and endosome-to-lysosome trafficking. Synaptic overgrowth in MAN1 is sensitive to BMP signaling levels, and loss of key BMP components attenuate BMP-induced synaptic overgrowth. Based on these observations, we propose that MAN1 negatively regulates accumulation and distribution of BMP signaling components to ensure proper synaptic growth and integrity at larval and adult NMJs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0442-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Low Dose of Bisphenol A Activates NF-κB/IL-6 Signals to Increase
           Malignancy of Neuroblastoma Cells
    • Authors: Shunjun Xiong; Yanjun Wang; Huijuan Li; Xiaofang Zhang
      Pages: 1095 - 1103
      Abstract: Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) can accumulate in the human body and promote the progression of various cancers. However, its role in the development of neuroblastoma (NB) is largely unknown. Our present study revealed that nanomolar concentrations of BPA can significantly increase the proliferation, migration and invasion of NB SH-SY5Y and SiMa cells, further evidenced by the upregulation of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, vimentin and fibronectin. Real-time PCR and ELISA results suggested that nanomolar BPA can increase the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), but had no effect on the expression of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 or IL-12. The neutralization antibody of IL-6 can abolish BPA-induced proliferation and invasion of NB cells. The inhibitor of NF-κB (BAY 11-7082), but not PD98059 (PD, ERK1/2 inhibitor) or LY294002 (LY, PI3 K/Akt inhibitor), attenuated BPA-induced IL-6 expression and cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, BPA treatment also rapidly increased the phosphorylation of p65 since treatment for 5 min. Collectively, our data revealed that nanomolar BPA can trigger the malignancy of NB cells via activation of NF-κB/IL-6 signals, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the potential health risks of daily BPA intake.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0443-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning Protects Rats Against Cerebral
           Ischemia via HIF-1α/AMPK/HSP70 Pathway
    • Authors: Ming Xia; Qian Ding; Zhidan Zhang; Qinggen Feng
      Pages: 1105 - 1114
      Abstract: Abstract Remote limb ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a clinically feasible strategy to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the knowledge concerning the mechanism underlying RIPC is scarce. This study was performed to examine the effect of RIPC on brain tissue suffering from ischemia challenge and explore its underlying mechanism in a rat model. The animals were divided into four groups: Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), RIPC, and MCAO+RIPC. We found that previous exposure to RIPC significantly attenuated neurological dysfunction and lessened brain edema in MCAO+RIPC group. Moreover, other important events were observed in MCAO+RIPC group, including substantial decrements in the concentrations of oxidative response indicators [malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and protein carbonyl], significant reductions in levels of inflammation mediators [myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6], and significant decline in neuronal apoptosis revealed by a smaller number of TUNEL-positive cells. Interestingly, both MCAO and RIPC groups exhibited meaningful elevations in the levels of HIF-1a, HSP70, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) compared to Sham group, and previous exposure to RIPC further elevated the levels of HIF-1a, HSP70, and AMPK in MCAO+RIPC group. Furthermore, the administration of YC-1 (HIF-1 inhibitor), 8-bAMP (AMPK inhibitor), and Quercetin (HSP70 inhibitor) to MCAO+RIPC rats demonstrated that HIF-1α/AMPK/HSP70 was involved in RIPC-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0444-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Hypoxic Preconditioning Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy of Bone Marrow
           Stromal Cells in a Rat Ischemic Stroke Model
    • Authors: Jin Chen; Yuanyuan Yang; Lihua Shen; Wensen Ding; Xiang Chen; Erbing Wu; Kefu Cai; Guohua Wang
      Pages: 1115 - 1129
      Abstract: Abstract Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a promising therapy for ischemic stroke, but the poor oxygen environment in brain lesions limits the efficacy of cell-based therapies. Here, we tested whether hypoxic preconditioning (HP) could augment the efficacy of BMSC transplantation in a rat ischemic stroke model and investigated the underlying mechanism of the effect of HP. In vitro, BMSCs were divided into five passage (P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4) groups, and HP was applied to the groups by incubating the cells with 1% oxygen for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, respectively. We demonstrated that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was increased in the HP-treated BMSCs, while their viability was unchanged. We also found that HP decreased the apoptosis of BMSCs during subsequent simulated ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially in the 8-h HP group. In vivo, a rat transient focal cerebral ischemia model was established. These rats were administered normal cultured BMSCs (N-BMSCs), HP-treated BMSCs (H-BMSCs), or DMEM cell culture medium (control) at 24 h after the ischemic insult. Compared with the DMEM control group, the two BMSC-transplanted groups exhibited significantly improved functional recovery and reduced infarct volume, especially the H-BMSC group. Moreover, HP decreased neuronal apoptosis and enhanced the expression of BDNF and VEGF in the ischemic brain. Survival and differentiation of transplanted BMSCs were also increased by HP, and the quantity of engrafted BMSCs was significantly correlated with neurological function improvement. These results suggest that HP may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of BMSCs in an ischemic stroke model. The underlying mechanism likely involves the inhibition of caspase-3 activation and an increasing expression of HIF-1α, which promotes angiogenesis and neurogenesis and thereby reduces neuronal death and improves neurological function.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0445-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Expression of Dixdc1 and its Role in Astrocyte Proliferation after
           Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Authors: Hongjian Lu; Rui Jiang; Xuelei Tao; Chengwei Duan; Jie Huang; Wei Huan; Yunfen He; Jianbin Ge; Jianbing Ren
      Pages: 1131 - 1139
      Abstract: Abstract DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1), a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway, is recently reported to play a role in the neurogenesis. However, the distribution and function of Dixdc1 in the central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury are still unclear. We used an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats to investigate whether Dixdc1 is involved in CNS injury and repair. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a time-dependent up-regulation of Dixdc1 expression in ipsilateral cortex after TBI. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated a colocalization of Dixdc1 with astrocytes and neurons. Moreover, we detected a colocalization of Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker with GFAP and Dixdc1 after TBI. In primary cultured astrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, we found enhanced expression of Dixdc1 in parallel with up-regulation of Ki-67 and cyclin A, another cell proliferation marker. In addition, knockdown of Dixdc1 expression in primary astrocytes with Dixdc1-specific siRNA transfection induced G0/G1 arrest of cell cycle and significantly decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, all these data suggest that up-regulation of Dixdc1 protein expression is potentially involved in astrocyte proliferation after traumatic brain injury in the rat.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0446-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Characterization of the Expression of Basigin Gene Products Within the
           Pineal Gland of Mice
    • Authors: Derek Tokar; Leslie van Ekeris; Paul J. Linser; Judith D. Ochrietor
      Pages: 1141 - 1145
      Abstract: Abstract The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that MCT1 and Basigin variant-2, but not Basigin variant-1, are expressed within the mouse pineal gland. The expression of Basigin variant-2 and MCT1 was localized to the capsule surrounding the gland. The position and relative amounts of the gene products suggest that they play a much less prominent role within the pineal gland than in the neural retina.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-016-0441-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2017)
  • Favorable Impact on Stress-Related Behaviors by Modulating Plasma
    • Authors: Stephen Brimijoin; Susannah Tye
      Abstract: Abstract In the last decade, it has become clear that the neuropeptide “ghrelin” and its principal receptor have a large impact on anxiety and stress. Our recent studies have uncovered a link between plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and ghrelin. BChE actually turns out to be the key regulator of this peptide. This article reviews our recent work on manipulating ghrelin levels in mouse blood and brain by long term elevation of BChE, leading to sustained decrease of ghrelin. That effect in turn was found to reduce stress-induced aggression in group caged mice. Positive consequences were fewer bite wounds and longer survival times. No adverse effects were observed. Further exploration may pave the way for BChE-based treatment of anxiety in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0523-z
  • Contribution of Genetic Factors to Lower DHEAS in Patients with Rheumatoid
    • Authors: Lucia Vernerova; Martina Mravcova; Lucia Paulikova; Miroslav Vlcek; Andrea Marko; Milada Meskova; Adela Penesova; Jozef Rovensky; Juraj Wendl; Katarina Raslova; Branislav Vohnout; Ivana Jochmanova; Ivica Lazurova; Zdenko Killinger; Guenter Steiner; Josef Smolen; Richard Imrich
      Abstract: Objective Lower production of adrenal androgens has been confirmed in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the mechanisms of this finding are not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess the contribution of genetic factors associated with variability of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels to lower DHEAS in female RA patients. Methods 448 RA and 648 healthy controls were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528), SULT2A1 (rs2637125), HHEX (rs2497306), and ARPC1A (rs740160). Serum DHEAS concentrations were measured in 112 RA patients and 91 healthy women. Results The allele frequencies in DHEAS-related loci were similar in RA and controls. RA patients had significantly lower serum DHEAS concentrations compared to healthy women. The cumulative number of alleles associated with lower DHEAS within genes ZKSCAN5, SULT2A1, HHEX, and ARPC1A present in each individual negatively correlated with DHEAS levels in RA patients, but not in controls. Linear regression analysis showed significant effect of polymorphisms in genes ZKSCAN5 and ARPC1A on serum DHEAS levels in female RA patients but not in the control group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that complex interactions exist between genotype and adrenal androgen hypofunction in RA.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0522-0
  • Protective Role Of Naringenin Against Aβ 25-35 -Caused Damage via ER and
           PI3K/Akt-Mediated Pathways
    • Authors: Ning Zhang; Zhonghua Hu; Zhibo Zhang; Guoliang Liu; Yeqiu Wang; Yandong Ren; Xiuhong Wu; Fang Geng
      Abstract: Abstract Senile plaque accumulation and neurofibrillary tangles are primary characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to assess the protective functions of naringenin against β-amyloid protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35)-caused nerve damage in differentiated PC12 cells, and study the potential mechanisms. We evaluated cell viability and apoptosis using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry, respectively. Moreover, we measured protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and caspase-3 activity via western blotting and RT-PCR. We found that naringenin protected cell against Aβ25-35-caused nerve damage by increasing cell viability, promoting Akt and GSK3β activation, and inhibiting cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. However, treatment with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182, 780 or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 suppressed the effects of naringenin. Our results suggested that naringenin could effectively suppress Aβ25-35-caused nerve damage in PC12 cells by regulating the ER and PI3K/Akt pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0519-8
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Heriot-Watt University
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