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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2383 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (204 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
  [SJR: 1.005]   [H-I: 70]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6830 - ISSN (Online) 0272-4340
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • In Memoriam: Adil J. Nazarali
    • Authors: Glen B. Baker; Juan M. Saavedra
      Pages: 775 - 776
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0551-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Macrophages Generate Pericytes in the Developing Brain
    • Authors: Pedro H. D. M. Prazeres; Viviani M. Almeida; Luiza Lousado; Julia P. Andreotti; Ana E. Paiva; Gabryella S. P. Santos; Patrick O. Azevedo; Luanny Souto; Gregório G. Almeida; Renato Filev; Akiva Mintz; Ricardo Gonçalves; Alexander Birbrair
      Pages: 777 - 782
      Abstract: Pericytes are defined by their anatomical location encircling blood vessels' walls with their long projections. The exact embryonic sources of cerebral pericytes remain poorly understood, especially because of their recently revealed diversity. Yamamoto et al. (Sci Rep 7(1):3855, 2017) using state-of-the-art techniques, including several transgenic mice models, reveal that a subpopulation of brain pericytes are derived from phagocytic macrophages during vascular development. This work highlights a new possible ancestor of brain pericytes. The emerging knowledge from this research may provide new approaches for the treatment of several neurodevelopmental disorders in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0549-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Interactions Between the Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma
           on Neuroinflammation, Demyelination, and Remyelination in Multiple
    • Authors: Alexandre Vallée; Jean-Noël Vallée; Rémy Guillevin; Yves Lecarpentier
      Pages: 783 - 795
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation. The activation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway results in differentiation failure and impairment in remyelination. However, PI3K/Akt pathway and TCF7L2, two downstream targets of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, are upregulated and promote proper remyelination. The interactions of these signaling pathways remain unclear. PPAR gamma activation can inhibit NF-kappaB, and can also downregulate the WNT/beta-catenin pathway. PPAR gamma and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway act in an opposite manner. PPAR gamma agonists appear as a promising treatment for the inhibition of demyelination and the promotion of proper remyelination through the control of both NF-kappaB activity and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0550-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Applicability of Amide Proton Transfer Imaging in the Nervous System:
           Focus on Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Neonate
    • Authors: Yang Zheng; Xiaoming Wang
      Pages: 797 - 807
      Abstract: In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become more widely used in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), involving, for example, evaluation of cerebral edema, white matter fiber bundle tracking, cerebral perfusion status, and assessment of brain metabolites. MRI has many imaging modalities. However, its application for assessing changes in the internal environment at the tissue and cellular level after hypoxia–ischemia remains a challenge and is currently the focus of intense research. Based on the exchange between amide protons of proteins and polypeptides and free water protons, amide proton transfer (APT) imaging can display changes in pH and protein concentrations in vivo. This paper is a review of the principles of APT imaging, with a focus on the potential application of APT imaging for neonatal HIE.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0552-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Role of Smurf1 in Neuronal Necroptosis after
           Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation
    • Authors: Lifei Shao; Xiaojuan Liu; Shunxing Zhu; Chun Liu; Yilu Gao; Xide Xu
      Pages: 809 - 816
      Abstract: The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury. The up-regulation of Smurf1 detected in the rat brain cortex was similar to the necroptotic marker RIP1 expression in a time-dependent manner after LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Meanwhile, Smurf1 knockdown with siRNA inhibited neuronal necroptosis following LPS-stimulated rat pheochromocytomal PC12 cells. Thus, it was indicated that LPS-induced necroptosis could be promoted by Smurf1. In short, these studies suggest that Smurf1 might promote neuronal necroptosis after LPS-induced neuroinflammation, which might act as a novel and potential molecular target for the treatment of neuroinflammation associated diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0553-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effects of Acetylcholine on β-Amyloid-Induced cPLA2 Activation in the TB
           Neuroectodermal Cell Line: Implications for the Pathogenesis of
           Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Authors: Arianna Polverino; Manuela Grimaldi; Pierpaolo Sorrentino; Francesca Jacini; Anna Maria D’Ursi; Giuseppe Sorrentino
      Pages: 817 - 826
      Abstract: The role of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still considered crucial. The state of Aβ aggregation is critical in promoting neuronal loss and neuronal function impairment. Recently, we demonstrated that Acetylcholine (ACh) is neuroprotective against the toxic effects of Aβ in the cholinergic LAN-2 cells. In biophysical experiments, ACh promotes the soluble Aβ peptide conformation rather than the aggregation-prone β-sheet conformation. In order to better understand the biological role of ACh in AD, we studied the effect of Aβ on the phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the TB neuroectodermal cell line, which differentiates toward a neuronal phenotype when cultured in the presence of retinoic acid (RA). We chose the phosphorylated form of cPLA2 (Ser505, Phospho-cPLA2) as a biomarker to test the influence of ACh on the effects of Aβ in both undifferentiated and RA-differentiated TB cells. Our results show that TB cells are responsive to Aβ. Moreover, in undifferentiated cells 1 h treatment with Aβ induces a 2.5-fold increase of the Phospho-cPLA2 level compared to the control after 24 h in vitro, while no significant difference is observed between Aβ-treated and non-treated cells after 4 and 7 days in vitro. The RA-differentiated cells are not sensitive to Aβ. In TB cell line ACh is able to blunt the effects of Aβ. The ability of ACh to protect non-cholinergic cells against Aβ reinforces the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in cholinergic transmission, ACh could also act as a neuroprotective agent.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0555-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Development of a Cell-Based Assay to Assess Binding of the proNGF
           Prodomain to Sortilin
    • Authors: Ibrahim Malik; Søren Christensen; Jeffrey B. Stavenhagen; Gunnar P. H. Dietz
      Pages: 827 - 840
      Abstract: Sortilin was first identified based on its activity as part of intracellular protein sorting machinery. Recently, it was discovered that sortilin also acts as a cell surface receptor for the propeptide form of nerve growth factor (proNGF), progranulin, and neurotensin. The interaction of sortilin to these neurotrophic ligands is linked to diseases of the nervous system that lead to neurodegeneration and neuropathic pain. Blocking of the interaction of sortilin to these ligands may prevent or slow the progress of these nervous system disorders. In vitro screening assays for blocking compounds or peptides are part of the standard set of tools for drug discovery. However, assays for sortilin biology are not readily available to determine if the selected blocking agent inhibits sortilin activity on the surface of cells. We have developed a sortilin specific cell based assay to identify compounds that specifically block interaction between sortilin and proNGF prodomain. The assay system records both the presence of sortilin on the cell surface and the interaction with the pro domain of NGF. Fluorescent images of the sortilin expressing cells are analyzed for the presence of pro domain of NGF. Sortilin-positive and sortilin-negative cells within one well are concomitantly and automatically analyzed. Sortilin—pro domain interaction can be blocked dose dependently by neurotensin and synthetic compounds. The assay will facilitate the discovery of entities interfering with the binding of sortilin to the NGF pro domain. This assay can be modified to screen for inhibitors of the binding of ligands to other complex cell surface receptors.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0558-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Expression of Gas1 in Mouse Brain: Release and Role in Neuronal
    • Authors: Elizabeth Bautista; Natanael Zarco; Nicolás Aguirre-Pineda; Manuel Lara-Lozano; Paula Vergara; Juan Antonio González-Barrios; Raúl Aguilar-Roblero; José Segovia
      Pages: 841 - 859
      Abstract: Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has important roles during development. Recently, the presence of two forms of Gas1 was reported: one attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor; and a soluble extracellular form shed by cells. Previously, we showed that Gas1 is expressed in different areas of the adult mouse CNS. Here, we report the levels of Gas1 mRNA protein in different regions and analyzed its expressions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons. We found that Gas1 is expressed in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the Purkinje-molecular layer of the cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and fastigial nucleus, as well as in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. In all cases, Gas1 was found in the cell bodies, but not in the neuropil. The Purkinje and the molecular layers show the highest levels of Gas1, whereas the granule cell layer has low levels. Moreover, we detected the expression and release of Gas1 from primary cultures of Purkinje cells and from hippocampal neurons as well as from neuronal cell lines, but not from cerebellar granular cells. In addition, using SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with retinoic acid as a neuronal model, we found that extracellular Gas1 promotes neurite outgrowth, increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, and stimulates the inhibition of GSK3β. These findings demonstrate that Gas1 is expressed and released by neurons and promotes differentiation, suggesting an important role for Gas1 in cellular signaling in the CNS.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0559-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Downregulation of Survivin Gene Expression Affects Ionizing Radiation
           Resistance of Human T98 Glioma Cells
    • Authors: Jicheng Li; Yong Han; Dai Zhou; Youxin Zhou; Ming Ye; Hangzhou Wang; Ziwei Du
      Pages: 861 - 868
      Abstract: Survivin is a tumor-associated gene, which has been detected in a wide variety of human tumors. Previous research has shown that Survivin can affect hepatoma carcinoma cell radiosensitivity. However, little is known about the role of Survivin in ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of Survivin on ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cell line T98. Our results showed that downregulation of Survivin gene expression and ionizing irradiation could both inhibit T98 cell proliferation by assays in vitro including CCK-8 and immunohistochemistry. The inhibitory effect of downregulation of Survivin combined with irradiation was the most significant compared with other groups. Results of Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis also showed that downregulation of Survivin combined with the irradiation group achieved the highest apoptosis rate. Experimental results in vivo by intracranial implanting into nude mice were consistent with those in vitro. These findings indicated that ionizing radiation resistance of human T98 glioma cells can be inhibited effectively after Survivin gene silencing.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0560-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Potentiation and Block of ASIC1a by Memantine
    • Authors: Vasiliy Y. Shteinikov; Tatiana B. Tikhonova; Vyacheslav S. Korkosh; Denis B. Tikhonov
      Pages: 869 - 881
      Abstract: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are modulated by various classes of ligands, including the recently described hydrophobic monoamines, which inhibit and potentiate ASICs in a subunit-specific manner. In particular, memantine inhibits ASIC1a and potentiates ASIC2a homomers. The aim of the present work was to characterize action mechanism of memantine on recombinant ASIC1a expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. We have demonstrated that effect of memantine on ASIC1a strongly depends on membrane voltage, conditioning pH value and application protocol. When applied simultaneously with activating acidification at hyperpolarized voltages, memantine caused the strongest inhibition. Surprisingly, application of memantine between ASIC1a activations at zero voltage caused significant potentiation. Analysis of the data suggests that memantine produces two separate effects, voltage-dependent open-channel block and shift of steady-state desensitization curve to more acidic values. Putative binding sites are discussed based on the computer docking of memantine to the acidic pocket and the pore region.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0561-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Enhancement of Gustatory Neural Responses by Parasympathetic Nerve in the
    • Authors: Toshihide Sato; Yukio Okada
      Pages: 883 - 890
      Abstract: The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation. The integrated neural responses to 0.5 M NaCl, 2.5 mM CaCl2, water, and 1 M sucrose were enhanced to 130–140% of the controls. On the other hand, the responses for 1 mM Q-HCl and 0.3 mM acetic acid were not changed by the preceding applied ES. After hexamethonium (a blocker of nicotinic ACh receptor) was intravenously injected, ES of the parasympathetic nerve did not modulate the responses for all six taste stimuli. The mechanism for enhancement of the gustatory neural responses is discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0562-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Ameliorating Effect of Osteopontin on H 2 O 2 -Induced Apoptosis of Human
           Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells
    • Authors: Neda Mazaheri; Maryam Peymani; Hamid Galehdari; Kamran Ghaedi; Ali Ghoochani; Abbas Kiani-Esfahani; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
      Pages: 891 - 899
      Abstract: Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2. Data indicated that OPN prohibited cell death and enhanced OPC viability. This effect is achieved through reduction of apoptosis and induction of anti-apoptosis markers. In addition OPN induces expression of several integrin subunits, responsible for OPN interaction. Notably, our findings showed that expression of αV β1/β3/β5 and β8 integrins increased in response to OPN, while treatment with H2O2 down-regulated αV β1/β5 and β8 integrins expression significantly. In conclusion, OPN may act via αV integrin signaling and trigger suppression of P53-dependent apoptotic cascades. Therefore OPN therapy may be considered as a feasible process to prevent progress of neurodegenerative diseases in human.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0563-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Photoreceptor Preconditioning Protection
           Requires Docosanoid Signaling
    • Authors: Eric J. Knott; William C. Gordon; Bokkyoo Jun; Khanh Do; Nicolas G. Bazan
      Pages: 901 - 917
      Abstract: Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are necessary for functional cell integrity. Preconditioning (PC), as we define it, is an acquired protection or resilience by a cell, tissue, or organ to a lethal stimulus enabled by a previous sublethal stressor or stimulus. In this study, we provide evidence that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its derivatives, the docosanoids 17-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), facilitate cell survival in both in vitro and in vivo models of retinal PC. We also demonstrate that PC requires the enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which synthesizes 17-HDHA and NPD1, and that this is specific to docosanoid signaling despite the concomitant release of the omega-6 arachidonic acid and eicosanoid synthesis. These findings advocate that DHA and docosanoids are protective enablers of PC in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0565-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Co-Localization and Interaction of Pax5 with Iba1 in Brain of Mice
    • Authors: Shashank Kumar Maurya; Rajnikant Mishra
      Pages: 919 - 927
      Abstract: The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways. Promoter analysis shows multiple binding sites for Pax5 in promoter of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). Like Iba1, Pax5 is also associated with inflammatory and immune response, activation of leukocyte and remodelling of actin cytoskeleton. Therefore, localization and interaction of Pax5 with Iba1 in brain of mice were studied using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Immuno-fluorescence assay. The Pax5- and Iba1-positive cells were observed in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and ventricles of brain. The co-localization of Pax5 and Iba1 was evident in microglia in almost all evaluated regions of brain. In some regions, Pax5- and Iba1-positive were distinctly compartmentalized. The Pax5a/b interacts with Iba1 and binds to its regulatory sequences. Results indicate Pax5-associated activities of Iba1 in microglia in brain of mice.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0566-1
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • The PGC-1α Activator ZLN005 Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neuronal
           Injury In Vitro and In Vivo
    • Authors: Yazhou Xu; John Alimamy Kabba; Wenchen Ruan; Yunjie Wang; Shunyi Zhao; Xiaoyue Song; Luyong Zhang; Jia Li; Tao Pang
      Pages: 929 - 939
      Abstract: Oxidative stress is a great challenge to neurons following cerebral ischemia. PGC-1α has been shown to act as a potent modulator of oxidative metabolism. In this study, the effects of ZLN005, a small molecule that activate PGC-1α, against oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD)- or ischemia-induced neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was performed in rats and ZLN005 was administered intravenously at 2 h, 4 h, or 6 h after ischemia onset. Infarct volume and neurological deficit score were detected to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ZLN005. Well-differentiated PC12 cells, which were subjected to OGD for 2 h followed by reoxygenation for 22 h, were used as an in vitro ischemic model. Changes in expression of PGC-1α, its related genes, and antioxidant genes were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that ZLN005 reduced cerebral infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit in rat with tMCAO, and significantly protected OGD-induced neuronal injury in PC12 cells. Furthermore, ZLN005 enhanced expression of PGC-1α in PC12 cells and in the ipsilateral hemisphere of rats with tMCAO. Additionally, ZLN005 increased antioxidant genes, including SOD1 and HO-1, and significantly prevented the ischemia-induced decrease in SOD activity. Taking together, the PGC-1α activator ZLN005 exhibits neuroprotective effects under ischemic conditions and molecular mechanisms possibly involve activation of PGC-1α signaling pathway and cellular antioxidant systems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0567-0
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Ferroxidase Hephaestin But Not Amyloid Precursor Protein is Required
           for Ferroportin-Supported Iron Efflux in Primary Hippocampal Neurons
    • Authors: Changyi Ji; Brittany L. Steimle; Danielle K. Bailey; Daniel J. Kosman
      Pages: 941 - 954
      Abstract: Iron efflux in mammalian cells is mediated by the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin (Fpn); Fpn plasma membrane localization and function are supported by a multicopper ferroxidase and/or the soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP). Fpn and APP are ubiquitously expressed in all cell types in the central nervous system including neurons. In contrast, neuronal ferroxidase(s) expression has not been well characterized. Using primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, we examined the molecular mechanism of neuronal Fe efflux in detail. Developmental increases of Fpn, APP, and the ferroxidase hephaestin (Hp) were observed in hippocampal neurons. Iron efflux in these neurons depended on the level of Fpn localized at the cell surface; as noted, Fpn stability is supported by ferroxidase activity, an enzymatic activity that is required for Fe efflux. Iron accumulation increases and iron efflux decreases in Hp knockout neurons. In contrast, suppression of endogenous APP by RNAi knockdown does not affect surface Fpn stability or Fe efflux. These data support the model that the neuronal ferroxidase Hp plays a unique role in support of Fpn-mediated Fe efflux in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data also demonstrate that Hp ferroxidase activity relies on copper bioavailability, which suggests neuronal iron homeostasis will be modulated by cellular copper status.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0568-z
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effects of Acute Alcohol Exposure on Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons of Juvenile
    • Authors: Francesco Ferrini; Benjamin Dering; Andrea De Giorgio; Laura Lossi; Alberto Granato
      Pages: 955 - 963
      Abstract: Early-onset drinking during childhood or preadolescence is a serious social problem. Yet, most of the basic neurobiological research on the acute effects of ethanol has been carried out on adult or early postnatal animals. We studied the effect of alcohol exposure on the basic electrophysiological properties and cell viability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile (P21–P23) C57BL/6N mice. After bath application of 50 mM ethanol to acute slices of the somatosensory cortex, no adverse effects were detected on cells survival, whereas the input resistance and firing rate of layer 5 neurons were significantly reduced. While the effect on the input resistance was reversible, the depressing effect on cell firing remained stable after 6 min of alcohol exposure. Ethanol application did not result in any significant change of mIPSC frequency, amplitude, and rise time. A slight increase of mIPSC decay time was observed after 6 min of ethanol exposure. The molecular mechanisms leading to these alterations and their significance for the physiology of the cerebral cortex are briefly discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-017-0571-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 4 (2018)
  • Parkinson Disease from Mendelian Forms to Genetic Susceptibility: New
           Molecular Insights into the Neurodegeneration Process
    • Authors: Amin Karimi-Moghadam; Saeid Charsouei; Benjamin Bell; Mohammad Reza Jabalameli
      Abstract: Parkinson disease (PD) is known as a common progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically diagnosed by the manifestation of numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. PD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with both familial and sporadic forms. To date, researches in the field of Parkinsonism have identified 23 genes or loci linked to rare monogenic familial forms of PD with Mendelian inheritance. Biochemical studies revealed that the products of these genes usually play key roles in the proper protein and mitochondrial quality control processes, as well as synaptic transmission and vesicular recycling pathways within neurons. Despite this, large number of patients affected with PD typically tends to show sporadic forms of disease with lack of a clear family history. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses on the large sporadic PD case–control samples from European populations have identified over 12 genetic risk factors. However, the genetic etiology that underlies pathogenesis of PD is also discussed, since it remains unidentified in 40% of all PD-affected cases. Nowadays, with the emergence of new genetic techniques, international PD genomics consortiums and public online resources such as PDGene, there are many hopes that future large-scale genetics projects provide further insights into the genetic etiology of PD and improve diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic clinical trial designs.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0587-4
  • ROS as Regulators of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neurons
    • Authors: Carolina Cid-Castro; Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa; Julio Morán
      Abstract: Mitochondrial dynamics is a complex process, which involves the fission and fusion of mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. These processes organize the mitochondrial size and morphology, as well as their localization throughout the cells. In the last two decades, it has become a spotlight due to their importance in the pathophysiological processes, particularly in neurological diseases. It is known that Drp1, mitofusin 1 and 2, and Opa1 constitute the core of proteins that coordinate this intricate and dynamic process. Likewise, changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to modifications in the expression and/or activity of the proteins implicated in the mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting an involvement of these molecules in the process. In this review, we discuss the role of ROS in the regulation of fusion/fission in the nervous system, as well as the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0584-7
  • Early Postnatal Development of the Lamination in the Lateral Geniculate
           Nucleus A-Layers in Cats
    • Authors: Natalia Merkulyeva; Aleksandr Mikhalkin; Pavel Zykin
      Abstract: The early postnatal development of the A-layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was investigated in kittens aged 0–34 days by immunohistochemistry for the selective marker for neuronal differentiation (NeuN protein) and parvalbumin. We report two new facts about the LGNd development. First, there is a transient stratification of NeuN labelling in layer A, and to a lesser extent in layer A1, in kittens aged 0 and 4 days. Second, a transient population of large cells that are located between the LGNd A-layers (interlaminar cells) showed high expression levels of both NeuN and parvalbumin. These neurons possessed both the morphological and immunohistochemical features, similar to cells in the neighbouring perigeniculate nucleus. Both NeuN-stratification and double-stained interlaminar cells gradually disappeared during the second postnatal week, and almost completely vanished by the opening of the critical period. We discuss a possible linkage between these observed transitory networks and the ON-/OFF- and X-/Y-cells development and propose that the data obtained reflect the functioning of the early environmentally independent geniculate networks.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10571-018-0585-6
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