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 Applied NanoscienceNumber of Followers: 8     Open Access journal ISSN (Print) 2190-5509 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5517 Published by SpringerOpen  [234 journals]
• AFM induced diffusion of large scale mobile HOPG defects

• Abstract: Defects on crystal and/or thin film surfaces play an important role in their physical and chemical properties. Diffusion or motion of such structures results in microstructural dynamic changes. The diffusion of single atom/point defects were previously reported, due to the difficulty of observation, the motion of large-scale defects (the defect consist of multiple missing atoms) using combination of consecutive images has not been possible since today. For the first time, the diffusion of three mobile large-scale highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monolayer defect domains is reported using non-contact atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum conditions. It was suspected that the diffusion of the defects was triggered by the rastering motion of the tip of atomic force microscope. It was evidenced that the diffusion of large defects is shown to be size-dependent, with smaller defects moving with higher speeds than larger defects. The diffusion results fit well with the models previously reported for the diffusion of particles for varying sizes and indicates that the diffusion of defects and particles show similar behaviours.
PubDate: 2018-12-11

• The effect of phenolic compounds on the green synthesis of iron
nanoparticles (Fe x O y -NPs) with photocatalytic activity

• Abstract: The green synthesis of nanoparticles allows for obtaining nanomaterials using plant extracts, avoiding the use of toxic and dangerous chemical compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenolic compounds in plant extracts on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (FexOy-NPs) with photocatalytic activity. Accordingly, the phenolic content in 11 plant extracts was evaluated by the Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C) method, and the iron-reducing capacity was evaluated by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method (FRAP). From the F–C and FRAP analyses, the Luma apiculata (LAL), Phragmites australis (PAL) and Eucalyptus globulus (EGL) extracts were selected and analyzed by HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. Using the three selected extracts, FexOy-NPs were synthesized, which were then characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, DLS, zeta potential, SEM-EDX, and Raman and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The SEM-EDX, DLS and zeta potential analyses showed that the FexOy-NPs were spherical, stable and nanosized. The FRAP, F–C and FTIR analyses indicated the role of phenolic compounds in the formation and stabilization of FexOy-NPs. It was possible to establish a direct relationship between the composition of the phenolic compounds and the reducing capacity of the extracts. In addition, it was found that phenolic compounds and their concentrations are associated with the size and type of FexOy-NPs obtained. Furthermore, it was proposed that types of phenolic compounds influence the formation of different phases of FexOy-NPs. The photocatalytic activity of the FexOy-NPs was demonstrated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and decolorization of a dye under visible radiation.
PubDate: 2018-12-11

• Numerical analysis of micropolar hybrid nanofluid

• Abstract: Hybrid nanofluid has been streamlined as a new class of nanofluid, marked by its thermal properties and potential utilities which serve the purpose to enhance the rate of heat transfer. The main aim of the current analysis is to present a comparison between the behavior of traditional nanofluid and emerging hybrid nanofluid in the presence of micropolar fluid theory, rotation and porous medium over an exponentially stretched surface. The constructed mathematical differential system is solved numerically by means of the BVP-4C technique. The comparison between behavior of pure water, $$\text{C}\text{u}/\text{w}\text{a}\text{t}\text{e}\text{r}$$ nanofluid, $$\text{C}\text{u}-\text{T}\text{i}{\text{O}}_{2}/\text{w}\text{a}\text{t}\text{e}\text{r}$$ hybrid nanofluid over velocity, microrotation and temperature distribution has been visualized graphically. For better comprehension of flow characteristics and heat transfer rate, variation in skin friction coefficients in addition to the Nusselt number of nanofluid along with hybrid nanofluid is scrutinized. We perceive from the present study that the rate of heat transfer of nanofluid is lower than that of hybrid nanofluid even in the presence of micropolar effects, rotation and porosity.
PubDate: 2018-12-10

• Studying the effect of biosilver nanoparticles on polyethylene degradation

• Abstract: The current study is focussed on the silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based degradation of polyethylene. Two kinds of polyethylenes were used—linear high-density polyethylene and branched low-density polyethylene. Owing to the demerits of chemically synthesized nanoparticles, the biological synthesis of AgNPs from Aspergillus oryzae was carried out. The AgNPs produced were used along with the culture broth for the degradation studies. This nanoparticle-based method for bioremediating the polyethylene proved to be successful since it could degrade 64.5% of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and 44.4% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in 5 weeks. The action of nanoparticles on polyethylene wax emulsion caused the thinning of the fluid. The HDPE samples when subjected to FTIR exhibited bending and stretching of the C–H bonds which form the backbone of the linear polymer. The degraded LDPE showed formation of phenols, alcohols, ketones and other smaller compounds, indicating the breakdown of the branched plastic. The GC–MS studies of the nanoparticle-treated polyethylene revealed the liberation of esters, alcohols and alkenes in HDPE, and aldehydes, alkenes, cyano compounds, esters and alkanes in LDPE. The 100% concentration of the AgNPs-treated degradation products of polyethylene was found to be 34.36% toxic in Allium cepa when compared with 97.35% phytotoxicity of the polyethylene wax emulsion.
PubDate: 2018-12-07

• Initial growth dynamics of 10 nm nanobubbles in the graphene liquid
cell

• Abstract: The unexpected long lifetime of nanobubble against the large Laplace pressure is one of the important issues in nanobubble research and a few models have been proposed to explain it. Most studies, however, have been focused on the observation of relatively large nanobubbles over 100 nm and are limited to the equilibrium state phenomena. The study on the sub-100 nm sized nanobubble is still lacking due to the limitation of imaging methods which overcomes the optical resolution limit. Here, we demonstrate the observation of growth dynamics of 10 nm nanobubbles confined in the graphene liquid cell using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We modified the classical diffusion theory by considering the finite size of the confined system of graphene liquid cell (GLC), successfully describing the temporal growth of nanobubble. Our study shows that the growth of nanobubble is determined by the gas oversaturation, which is affected by the size of GLC.
PubDate: 2018-12-06

• Incorporation of magnetic nanoparticle to graphene oxide via simple
emulsion method and their cytotoxicity

• Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticle and graphene oxide is a promising nanoparticle that can be used in multitude of field due to their exceptional characteristic. Graphene oxide has a unique 2-D structure, and excellent chemical and physical characteristics while magnetite nanoparticle has its superparamagnetic properties which enable it to be controlled by external magnetic field. Owing to that, any new formulations of magnetic nanoparticle functionalities with graphene oxide have to be taken into consideration. In this research, magnetite nanoparticles were functionalized with graphene oxide using simple emulsion and evaporation method. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The toxicity of the nanomaterials was tested with cell viability assay (XTT) using A549 cells. The cell viability remains high within 24 h and 72 h of incubation, and when the concentration increases up to 100 µg/mL only a slight decrease of viability was observed.
PubDate: 2018-12-06

• Silver nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide for surface-enhanced
vibrational spectroscopy of DNA constituents

• Abstract: Composite of silver nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide flakes is proposed for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy, particularly for detection of adenine and thymine as constituents of deoxyribonucleic acid. Composite was formed by original method implying simultaneous reduction of silver ions and graphene oxide by discharge plasma at the gas–liquid interface. Combination of nanosized silver with reduced graphene oxide provided greater enhancement of Raman light scattering and infrared light absorption in comparison with separately used components. Addition of the composite to water solutions of adenine and thymine allowed detection of these analytes at micromolar concentrations. Composite of nano-silver with reduced graphene oxide can be prospective for surface enhanced spectroscopy as an alternative to the expensive lithographically prepared noble metal substrates.
PubDate: 2018-12-05

• Optimization of the controllable crystal size of iron/zeolite
nanocomposites using a Box–Behnken design and their catalytic activity

• Abstract: Experimental conditions for the synthesis of an iron nanoparticle (NPs)–zeolite composite (hereinafter denoted as Fe/zeolite NPs) via sol–gel method were optimized using a Box–Behnken design to produce a high formic acid yield. The effects of various parameters, including weight ratio of starting materials (Fe and zeolite), volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a surfactant, and calcination temperature, on controllable crystallite size, and the relationship between crystallite size and formic acid yield were studied. The crystal size, as the main parameter indicating formic acid yield, of Fe NPs was evaluated through polynomial regression. Results revealed that the optimum conditions for producing small Fe NPs based on the model were obtained at a weight ratio of Fe to zeolite of 62.5%, a PEG volume of 2 mL, and a calcination temperature of 500 °C. The experimental results (52.02 nm) versus the predicted results (58.30 nm) of the crystal size of Fe NPs under the optimum synthesis conditions were similar. Furthermore, 62.5% Fe/zeolite NPs with a crystal size of 52.02 nm produced the highest formic acid concentration from CO2 hydrogenation. Conversely, 100% Fe/zeolite NPs had a smaller crystal size but exhibited a remarkably lower reaction performance. This high ratio of Fe and zeolite contributed to the increased agglomeration of Fe particles. The zeolite surface became fully covered and subsequently reduced the reactant interaction on catalyst surfaces. Highlights: Fe–zeolite nanocomposite was optimized using a Box–Behnken design. The polynomial regression model showed the optimum nanoparticle (NP) crystal size of 52.02 nm. Synthesis parameters significantly affected catalyst morphology and crystal. The effect of calcination plays an important role on crystal and particle size. The influence of NP crystallite size was evaluated in terms of formic acid production.
PubDate: 2018-12-03

• Modification of LoSal water performance in reducing interfacial tension
using green ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite coated by xanthan

• Abstract: Interfacial tension (IFT) is one of the most important factors that affect oil production mechanisms in porous media. Nanoparticles show potential for high performance in IFT reduction, wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery. The current work focuses on the simple, economical and, importantly, green method of biosynthesis to generate a nanocomposite (NC) for reducing the IFT in enhanced oil recovery. In this study, ZnO@SiO2@Xanthan NC was created from pomegranate sed extract and characterized by various analytical techniques. The nanofluids were prepared by varying the concentration of NC to find the optimum value of IFT reduction under different conditions of salinity, temperature and pressure. The results showed that by applying this nanocomposite at a concentration of 2000 ppm into a low salinity (LoSal) water at high temperature and pressure, the IFT reduced by 93.6% from 31.8 (for seawater) down to 2.016 mN/m. Further IFT reduction was obtained by the NC as the salinity of water was decreased and the temperature and concentration of NC were increased although there was no clear trend with pressure.
PubDate: 2018-12-03

• Synthesis of CuO–GO/TiO 2 visible light photocatalyst for 2-chlorophenol
degradation, pretreatment of dairy wastewater and aerobic digestion

• Abstract: In the present study, photocatalysts such as copper oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were coupled with graphene oxide (GO) for the synthesis of visible light active CuO–GO/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for the decomposition of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and complex aromatics in the real dairy wastewater. Photocatalytically decomposed dairy wastewater was further purified by aerobic digestion. The results revealed that composite material shows improved 2-CP degradation, as 86% removal was achieved with k = 0.0101 min−1 at pH 5.0. The effect of pollutant concentration showed that the decomposition of 2-CP increases with the increase in the irradiation time and decreases with the increase in the 2-CP concentration in the solution. The reusability test showed the high stability of CuO–GO/TiO2 composite where the 2-CP degradation was achieved 85.8% after the third run. For real dairy wastewater degradation, photocatalysis increases the solubilization of the organic matters and a 24% higher sCOD (from 5764 to 7536 mg/L after 6 h) was observed compared to photolysis (without catalyst) pretreatment. This improves the aerobic digestibility of dairy wastewater where tCOD was significantly lowered from 12747 to 134.8 mg/L within 27 days of the process. Overall, the present study revealed that the CuO–GO/TiO2 composite material could be an efficient catalyst for removal of toxic organic pollutants and treatment of dairy effluent, thus it can be applied in wastewater treatment plants with a dependency of extensively available visible light.
PubDate: 2018-12-03

• Preparation of carboxy-methyl cellulose-capped nanosilver particles and
their antimicrobial evaluation by an automated device

• Abstract: Colloidal solution of nano silver particles (AgNPs) have been prepared using carboxymethyl cellulose as the stabilizing agent and dextrose as the reducing agent. It is considered bio-friendly, as all ingredients at much higher concentrations are used on eye as medicine. AgNPs thus generated are triangular with 9.5 nm size. MIC values of AgNPs and equivalent ionic silver against different multi-drug resistant strain bacteria and yeast are determined by microdilution method. Biological parameters for nano conversion are indicated by 128–256-fold higher sensitivity. Selective range synergisms for 1/4th MIC AgNPs with battery of antimicrobial agents are indicated by automated susceptibility testing device, keeping a negative control. Much lower MICs for different resistant antibiotics in combination with AgNPs are noted for all test organisms. This indicates scope for using a tolerable concentration of nanoantimicrobials either alone or in combination with an empirically chosen antibiotic for managing surface infections of eye or skin.
PubDate: 2018-11-29

• A multiphase BiVO 4 with the potential of being an environmental
photocatalyst

• Abstract: Novel Y3+ and Mo6+ dual-doped, multiphased BiVO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesised using a modified hydrothermal method through a gradient doping method. Yttrium (III) was used as a phase-stabilising agent for the tetragonal phase, while Mo6+ was used to control the volume of the crystals. The NPs were characterised using SEM, TEM, PL, FTIR, XRD, and BET to determine crystal phase, morphology, and surface area. It was found that the introduction of the dopants and formation of the phase junction lead to diminished PL spectra indicative of reduced electron–hole recombination. The 10% (m–m) Y–Mo dual-doped multiphased BiVO4 NPs have the highest electron–hole separation efficiency. However, 15% (m–m) Y–Mo had the least charge separation due to the formation of recombination centres at high degrees of metal doping. The multiphased systems also showed a red shift in the UV–Vis absorption spectrum. The Mott–Schottky plot obtained from electroimpedance spectroscopy confirmed the formation of a phase junction in the multiphased systems which resulted in an improvement of the photocurrent to twice that of the intrinsic BiVO4 NPs for the 10% Y–Mo BiVO4 NPs. The photocurrent for 10% Y–Mo was 0.025 A cm−2, while that of the intrinsic BiVO4 NPs was about 0.014 A cm−2. This increase in photocurrent proves the improvement of charge separation. BET results showed that surface area increased with an increase in the degree of doping and that the 10% Y–Mo dual-doped BiVO4 nanomaterials had a surface area of 9.009 m2/g. The 10% Y–Mo dual-doped BiVO4 reached 99.1% Cr6+ removal in 60 min.
PubDate: 2018-11-28

• Three different hybrid nanometrial performances on rotating disk: a
non-Darcy model

• Abstract: The most essential uniqueness of hybrid nanoliquid mentions to creation of two variation sorts of scattered nanoparticles in a base liquid. Along these lines, when particle materials have been chosen correctly, they can improve the optimistic features of each other and cover the drawbacks of only a solitary material. The article examines the behaviour of three different hybrid nanoparticles flow in a porous region which is characterized by Forchheimer medium across a rotating disk. Heat transport performance is analysed through convective condition. Strong ordinary nonlinear differential equations are obtained by applying suitable transformation. System of nonlinear equations is solved numerically via RKF method. Repercussion of pertinent parameters on radial velocity, tangential velocity and temperature distribution are elaborated. In addition drag coeffcient and local Nusselt number are physically interpreted. Result shows that both radial velocity and tangential velocity decreases for larger values of stretching parameter and also increment of nanoparticle volume faction increases the local Nusselt number.
PubDate: 2018-11-26

• Minimizing energy losses by introducing periodic pinning centers on
superconducting films

• Abstract: We study vortex behavior in a set of samples of a rectangular array of antidots on a high-quality metallic superconducting Nb film. For this purpose, we measure magneto-resistance properties of some samples with varying dimensions, and also varying periods of antidots in the array. In the first phase, we characterize magneto-resistance curves of the samples with large period having weak pinning effect. The vortex array, due to the interstitial vortices being dominant, rapidly becomes disorder causing high differential resistance. Later, we measure the same curves with smaller period of the samples, and observe a strong pinning effect mainly due to the fact that the vortex array remains in order. We demonstrate that by decreasing the period of samples, energy loss in nano-engineered thin films may be minimized.
PubDate: 2018-11-26

• Characterization and structure of cold-extruded whey protein isolate:
impact of ball milling

• Abstract: The effect of ball milling on physicochemical, functional and rheological properties and structural characteristics of cold-extruded whey protein isolate (TWPI) was investigated as a function of grinding time. Ball milling decreased the free sulfhydryl content of all the samples. Furthermore, ball milling and cold extrusion could enhance surface hydrophobicity, emulsifying and rheological properties of WPI. The solubility of cold-extruded WPI was far higher than the traditional heat-extruded WPI. The viscoelastic modulus of TWPI, ground by ball milling for 10 h, dramatically increased compared to that of WPI at 85 °C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a ball-milling treatment of 2 h remarkably decreased the particle size of all the samples. FTIR demonstrated that ball-milling treatment decreased the ordered secondary structure (α-helix and β-sheet) of WPI. Therefore, a combination of cold extrusion and ball milling could remarkably enhance the emulsifying and rheological properties of WPI, an effective way for providing novel functional ingredients to the dairy industry.
PubDate: 2018-11-26

• Electron transport through phenylene sandwiched between zigzag graphene
nanoribbons

• Abstract: We study systematically the electron transport through a phenylene rotor with an axis of atomic carbon chain (CPC) connected to twofold symmetric electrodes of nonmagnetic zigzag graphene nanoribbons. The density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green’s function method is employed for the simulation. The CPC rotor is conductive with parabolic I–V characteristic when its ring is coplanar with the electrodes. Its rotation modulates the symmetry of its electron states and their matching to the states in the electrodes. The I–V curve then becomes characterized by sharp peaks with strong negative differential resistance (NDR) in a large range of the rotation angle. The corresponding shift of transport modes in energy with the rotation opens a way to efficient and accurate manipulation of NDR.
PubDate: 2018-11-23

• Ligand-based stoichiometric tuning in copper sulfide nanostructures and
their catalytic ability

• Abstract: In this paper, we report the synthesis of copper sulfide (CuxS) nanoparticles (NPs) with different stoichiometry from different Cu(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes. The complexes were used as single-source precursors (SSPs). Solvothermal decomposition of SSPs at 198 °C temperature in the presence of ethylene glycol (EG) leads to the formation of CuxS NPs. Obtained NPs were characterized by different techniques like UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They are spherical in shape and shows good photoluminescence properties. The XRD patterns indicate that the solvothermal decomposition of different precursors results into the formation of NPs having different phases, viz., Cu2S, CuS, and mixed Cu2S/CuS. It is observed that the mixed-phase NPs show good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye compared to other NPs. The composite of mixed Cu2S/CuS phase with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) was prepared. It is further observed that this composite not only shows drastic increase in degradation of MB but also shows its sonocatalytic degradation.
PubDate: 2018-11-21

• Tribological performance of paraffin grease with silica nanoparticles as

• Abstract: The present study deals to evaluate the physical properties, frictional behavior, and extreme pressure performance of paraffin grease dispersed with silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. The paraffin grease was developed using paraffin oil as a base oil and 12-lithium hydroxy stearate was chosen as a thickener. The concentration of thickener was fixed at 14% w/w. The SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified sol–gel method and dispersed in paraffin grease by the in-situ method. The various analytical tools were used to ensure the formulation of SiO2 nanoparticles. The extreme pressure and frictional characteristics of SiO2 doped in paraffin grease were studied in four-ball tester as per ASTM D2596 and D2266, respectively. The physical properties of paraffin greases such as cone penetration, drop point, water washout, leakage tendency, and evaporation loss were also evaluated according to ASTM standards. The experimental results showed that the addition of SiO2 nanoparticles in paraffin grease enhances its tribological performances as compared to pure paraffin grease. The maximum reduction in coefficient of friction and mean wear volume was ~ 20% and ~ 42% at a concentration of 0.03 and 0.05% w/w, respectively.
PubDate: 2018-11-12

• Defect-assisted symmetric cleavage of naphthalene sulphonic acid group in
azo dyes using β-In 2 S 3 quantum dots as visible light photocatalyst

• Abstract: Naphthalene sulfonic acid, which is used in the synthesis of azo dye pigments, rubber processing chemicals and pharmaceuticals, is a carcinogenic substance that pollutes water bodies. In this work, we report on the visible light-driven symmetric cleavage of naphthalene sulfonic acid group, present in methyl orange dye and its conversion into the intermediate compounds. These compounds further degrade to inorganic ions such as carbon-di-oxide, nitrates, sulfates, water, and chlorine. Complete degradation of the dye, under visible light irradiation, is attained using β-In2S3 quantum dots as photocatalyst. During homogenous precipitation process, the β-In2S3 quantum dots (~ 9 nm) self-assemble to form microflowers (~ 50 nm) with high surface-to-volume ratio. These quantum dots exhibit size-dependent, active F2g, Eg and Ag1 Raman modes with peaks at ~ 150 cm−1 (In–In stretching mode), 219 cm−1 (In–S bending mode) and 300 cm−1, corresponding to the vibrational modes of cubic phase β-In2S3. The cubic phase β-In2S3 quantum dots are photoactive under visible light exposure and releases highly oxidizing OH· radicals. They have strong band-to-band emission in ultraviolet region (~ 380 nm) and exhibit broad band defect emission with maxima at blue (~ 484 nm), green (~ 580 nm) and red (~ 600 nm) region of electromagnetic spectrum. The emission intensity from these defect energy bands, which are due to sulfur vacancy, indium interstitials and oxygen incorporation, are tuned by varying the In-to-S ratio in the sample. These defects enhance their visible light absorption coefficient and assist in improving the photocatalytic efficiency of the cubic phase β-In2S3 quantum dots. Thus, defect-assisted complete (100%) photodegradation of the azo dye is achieved using cubic β-In2S3 quantum dots with low In-to-S ratio (1:1), low mass of 20 mg and minimum irradiation time (30 min). These photocatalysts can be reused 4 times under 30-min visible light irradiation. Cubic β-In2S3 quantum dots-microflowers is a highly efficient, ecofriendly photocatalyst, which even in very low concentration can remove toxicity from the dye-contaminated water, by exposure to direct sunlight for 30 min.
PubDate: 2018-11-12

• Synthesis, characterisation and formation mechanism of Sn-0.75 Cu solder
nanoparticles by pulsed wire discharge

• Abstract: Pulsed wire discharge is used to produce Sn-0.75 Cu nanoparticles (NPs) from Sn-0.75 Cu solder wire in argon ambient. The energy stored in the capacitor (W), which is in the multiple of the sublimation energy of the wire, is discharged through the wire at different pressure of argon. All the particles are spherical in shape with minimum mean particle size of about 28 nm. Deposited energy to the wire increases with increase in W and time to melt of the wire after the injection of current reduces with increase in capacitor voltage. XRD shows peaks corresponding to Sn with no presence of Cu for all the cases. EDAX confirms the presence of Cu. Reduction in melting point of NPs with decreasing size is observed with theoretical and DSC study. Reduction in particle size is observed with increasing energy ratio, K (ratio of W to sublimation energy of the wire) and/or decreasing pressure, P of Argon gas; confirmed with experimental measurement of particle size done with transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs and, theoretical calculation of activation energy and nucleation rate of NPs formation.
PubDate: 2018-11-09

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