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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2543 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (214 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1332 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)

ENGINEERING (1332 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Nanoscience
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-5509 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5517
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [236 journals]
  • Investigation on the suitability of water/polyethylene glycol solutions
           for GO layer deposition in GO/Ag/GO films for transparent conducting

    • Abstract: A hybrid trilayered transparent conducting electrode (TCE) based on graphene oxide (GO) in the form of GO/Ag/GO multilayer synthesized using GO suspension in water and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is investigated for their suitability as TCE. The GO layers prepared from modified Hummer’s method were suspended in water and EG solution separately and spin coated on a glass substrate. Ag film (~ 8 nm) was DC sputtered coated on these films before a second spin coat of GO layer to prepare two variants of trilayered structure (GO/Ag/GO). AFM/SEM images verified the smooth surface topology. Structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed shifting and broadening of GO peak, which represents defects/disorder with obtained ID/IG ratio as 0.70 and 0.98 for EG and DI water-based trilayered structure, respectively. Hall measurements concluded superior electrical and optical properties; with an average transmittance of ~ 75% in visible region, sheet resistance Rs = 24.43 Ω/sq, and high charge carrier concentration (n = 2.11 × 1022 cm−3) in films prepared with GO suspension in EG. The other combination prepared with DI water showed transmittance of ~ 73% and sheet resistance of 34.73 Ω/sq. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was further used to determine quantitative and chemical state information of elements by depth profile measurement of the trilayer electrode.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Spectrum of localized three-level quasiparticle resonantly interacting
           with polarization phonons at cryogenic temperature

    • Abstract: The new method of calculation of a mass operator of Fourier image of Green’s function, based on the generalized method of Feynman–Pines diagram technique for the multi-level systems, is proposed for the three-level localized quasiparticle interacting with phonons at Т = 0 К. The main classes of multiplicative diagrams separated in the proposed approach made it possible to renormalize the mass operator and present it as a sum of continuous branch chain fractions with typical links. It is shown that the renormalized spectrum of the system contains the complexes of bound-to-phonon satellite states of quasiparticle. In resonant structures, like extractors in quantum cascade detectors, such complexes create an infinite number of dense groups of equidistant energy levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Enhanced engineered ZnO nanostructures and their antibacterial activity
           against urinary, gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermal genital

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial effect of nano-metal oxides especially ZnO NPs and their potent nanofluids against microorganisms have been studied in vitro conditions for years. Here, three kinds of gram-negative and eight gram-positive bacteria were applied investigating minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and well-diffusion method of ZnO nanofluids against these pathogens. Gentamycin and nalidixic acid were then used as strong references in inhibition zone results. In this study, four different formulations of ZnO nanofluids containing various ZnO NPs (as basic scaffold framework) along with several effective chemical reagents in nanofluids were fabricated, whereas the best matched nanoformulation was very promising against Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. In such nanoformulation, the surface of ZnO NPs was functionalized or engineered with CNT-amine, and then formulated with ecofriendly ZnO nanopolymer (ZnO/PVP). The formulated ZnO/PVP could perform as a synergism co-assistant in final energetic nanofluid throughout the antibacterial activity tests. Final nanofluid was successfully contacted with interface of different bacteria cell membrane such as nosocomial, skin, urinary and bronchial in comparison with the controls. This new biofilm could create potential antimicrobial agents when ZnO nanofluid surround the bacteria and produce a new complex–matrix structure. Such event further disturbs reactive oxygen conductivity and effectively suppressed bacteria viability leading eventually to necrotic cell death. The high resistance in this long bioprocess system, provided special strong surface energy and powerful effectiveness of ZnO NPs in granting antimicrobial coating properties that make this formulation a new research opportunity for various industries addressing medical tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
  • Properties of nanowires based on the tobacco mosaic virus and gold

    • Abstract: A study carried out of the physicochemical properties and the morphology of the nanowires based on the tobacco mosaic virus and gold nanoparticles obtained by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the nanowires prefer to cluster ordering. Its interaction with the substrate is characterized by С–N bond, while the bond N–C=O is characterized by binding virions with each other. The electronic Au 4f core levels demonstrate shift towards lower binding energy at nanowires formation. It has been established that the obtained nanowires have optical activity with a maximum at 540 nm.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Entropy optimization for flow of second-grade nanomaterial

    • Abstract: Here we address entropy generation in mixed convective magnetohydrodynamics chemically reactive flow of second-grade nanomaterial over a heated stretched sheet. Second-grade nanomaterial is considered electrically conducting. Characteristics of heat transfer are discussed through nonlinear heat flux, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink. Novel behaviors of thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion are also accounted. Nonlinear flow expressions are first converted into ordinary differential one through appropriate transformations. Optimal homotopy method is used for solution development. Impacts of different flow variables on the velocity, entropy generation rate, Bejan number, temperature and concentration are discussed through graphs. Surface drag force and gradient of temperature are graphically discussed. Present results are also compared with published literature. Velocity and temperature fields monotonically boost up via higher second-grade parameter. Entropy rate increases via larger Brinkmann number and magnetic parameter. Bejan number is maximum for (Br = 0) and then it gradually decays for increasing the value of Brinkmann number.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Darcy–Forchheimer flow of Maxwell fluid with activation energy and
           thermal radiation over an exponential surface

    • Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to investigate three-dimensional steady rotating flow of rate type fluid (Maxwell fluid) over an exponential stretching surface. The Maxwell fluid saturates the porous space via Darcy–Forchheimer relation. Flow caused by the exponential stretchable surface of sheet. Chemical reaction along with Arrhenius energy is considered at the surface. Energy expression is modeled subject to heat source/sink and radiation flux. Appropriate transformations leads to ordinary ones. Homotopy method is implemented for the series solutions. Pertinent parameters are discussed graphically. Special consideration is given to the engineering quantities such as Sherwood and Nusselt numbers and discussed numerically through tabular form. Temperature distribution enhances versus higher radiation and heat source/sink parameter while decays for larger Prandtl number. Furthermore, velocity shows decreasing trend through larger porosity and Deborah number.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Effect of penetration enhancers and amorphization on transdermal
           permeation flux of raloxifene-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles: an
           ex vivo study on human skin

    • Abstract: Despite 60% oral absorption, high first-pass metabolisms resulted in 2% oral bioavailability of raloxifene and also suffer poor water solubility. In this study, we developed the penetration enhancer rich hydrogel containing raloxifene-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RL-SLNs) for transdermal route. Interestingly, SLN offers higher solubility and thermodynamic activity due to amorphization of drug and evasion of first-pass metabolism by transdermal route. Cumulative effect will contribute to enhanced permeation flux, controlled drug release and enhanced bioavailability. Nanoparticles were synthesized using solvent emulsification–evaporation method and evaluated further for various physicochemical properties, ex vivo permeation and hydration studies. RL-SLN3 with particle size 227.9 ± 12.6 nm, polydispersity index 0.283 ± 0.021, zeta potential 15.4 ± 1.7 mV and entrapment efficiency 77.04 ± 5.08% was selected for further studies as optimized formulation. Differential scanning calorimetric method revealed that 54.75% of RL had changed to amorphous state adding to enhanced solubility. Furthermore, the results of ex vivo permeation studies on human skin elucidated that 10% d-limonene in combination with RL-SLN had excellent permeation flux (7.24 ± 0.49 µg/cm2 h) compared to RL-SLN alone and other penetration enhancers tested. Thus, the output of above studies suggested that transdermal delivery of RL-SLN using d-limonene as penetration enhancer can be a promising approach to evade the first-pass metabolism and increase the systemic bioavailability of RL.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Synthesis characterization and performance evaluation of tungstic acid
           functionalized SBA-15/SPEEK composite membrane for proton exchange
           membrane fuel cell

    • Abstract: Mesoporous Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15) was synthesized and covalently bonded with tungstic acid group using a simple two-step process involving chloromethylation, followed by reaction with disodium tungstate. The tungstic acid functionalized SBA-15 (W-SBA-15) was characterized using FTIR, solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR, low-angle XRD, SEM, TEM and BET analyses. Sulphonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) was chosen as a base membrane for fabricating the composite membranes. Composite W-SBA-15/SPEEK membranes were prepared with different filler concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8%) of W-SBA-15. Various studies such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the composite membranes were carried out with respect to fuel cell applications. From the studies, it was found that the W-SBA-15/SPEEK membrane with wt. 6% of filler exhibited superior electrochemical properties. Finally, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabricated using 6% W-SBA-15/SPEEK composite membrane, Pt anode and Pt cathode was tested in an in-house built fuel cell setup of area 25 cm2. A maximum power density of 405 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.95 V were achieved at 80 °C.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • Development of biocompatible 1D CuO nanoneedles and their potential for
           sensitive, mass-based detection of anti-tuberculosis drugs

    • Abstract: Unique physical and chemical properties make 1D nanomaterials very attractive and their window of applications is broadened by the addition of biocompatible materials. Similarly, the massive side effects associated with the frequent use of antibiotics make it crucial to analyze the quantity and detect even the subservient amounts of antibiotics in vivo following their administration to patients. The present study describes the one-pot solvothermal approach to produce 1D CuO nanoneedles. Microscopic investigations revealed the presence of nanoneedles of about 8–15 nm in size with negative surface charge (− 30.51 mV). These structures were explored for the targeted detection of the anti-tubercular agent rifampicin. This developed interface showed excellent sensitivity, with the limit of detection as low as 9.4 nM and the limit of quantification as 20 nM. This sensor exhibited good selectivity towards the structural analogs (rifabutene, rifapentine) of the analyte. This study represents the potential of 1D nanomaterial in biomedical applications such as the development of interfaces for online monitoring.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Novel Nd-doping effect on structural, morphological, optical, and
           electrical properties of facilely fabricated PbI 2 thin films applicable
           to optoelectronic devices

    • Abstract: Lead iodide is one of the best room temperature radiation detector including applications in solar cell and photodetectors. Herein, we have fabricated the high-quality thin films of pure and Nd:PbI2 through a simple and cost-effective spin-coating route and investigated their key properties. X-ray diffraction study confirms the growth orientation of all films along c-axis/(001) plane and single phase of 2H-PbI2 Polytypes with the crystallites of size in range of 21–31 nm. Further confirmation of growth and phase was carried out through FT-Raman analysis. EDX and SEM mapping was also carried out to confirm the Nd doping and its homogeneity in the films. SEM provides a clear view on the surface morphology of grown films and grain size was found in the range of 54–71 nm. Optical measurement shows high transparency, i.e., ~ 90% for grown films in visible to NIR region. The direct bandgap is observed to be enhanced with Nd doping from 2.45 to 2.58 eV; however, there is another bandgap which shows reduction with doping from 2.30 to 2.24 eV. This shows the possibility of existence of sub-energy bandgap in PbI2. The stable value of refractive index is evaluated ~ 2. The value of εʹ is found to varies from 4 to 27 in the energy range of 1–2.5 eV. Optical limiting behavior of all films was also studied at two lasers of λ = 532 nm and 632.8 nm. Moreover, a device fabrication was done for electrical study and found the resistivity increases from 5.14 × 108 Ω-cm for pure to 1.18 × 109 Ω-cm for 5% Nd-doped PbI2.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Highly conductive sandwich-structured CNT/PEDOT:PSS/CNT transparent
           conductive films for OLED electrodes

    • Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were employed to prepare sandwich-structured CNT/PEDOT:PSS/CNT transparent conductive films (TCFs) on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a spraying method. Based on the film morphology, we suggest that the CNTs were embedded in PEDOT:PSS. The structured film was more stable and did not peel off during post-processing nitric acid treatment. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used to improve the conductivity of the film, and the best ratio of PEDOT:PSS to EG was 10:5. XPS and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that the non-conductive sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate and PSS were removed during the nitric acid treatment. TCF sheet resistance as low as 95.15 Ω/sq at 87.72% transmittance (at a wavelength of 550 nm) was obtained. When the CNT/PEDOT:PSS/CNT-TCF was used as an anode in an organic light emitting diode, the high luminance of the device was 1598 cd/cm2 at 14 V, and the maximum current efficiency was 1.5 cd/A at 13 V.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • h -CaS and h -CaSe nanosheets in Ca X ( X  = O, S, Se and Te) series:
           promising thermoelectric materials under DFT investigation

    • Abstract: The present work reports systematic study of a series of calcium chalcogenides CaX (X = O, S, Se and Te) in the architecture of rock-salt and hexagonal monolayer phases. Using first principle investigation within density functional theory (DFT) framework, we have computed the equilibrium structure and phonon dispersion curves for the dynamic stability, which follows the calculation of electronic properties like electronic band structure and projected density of state for the considered chalcogenide series. Furthermore, the thermoelectric properties such as thermal and electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of the considered compounds are computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equations (BTE). The present work reports the monolayer calcium chalcogenides as potential candidate for thermoelectric applications.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Modification of elastic deformations and analysis of structural and
           optical changes in Ar + -implanted AlN/GaN superlattices

    • Abstract: The effects of built-in deformation and stress relaxation on the structural and optical properties for a 21-period AlN/GaN superlattice (SL) after implantation with argon ions have been studied. Upon implantation, the satellites’ peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectra shift toward the smaller angles which indicate decreasing of tensile deformation in SL by the value of Δc/c = 0.28%. The SIMS analysis showed that the sputtering rate for the initial sample decreases with depth, which is explained by the effect of varying deformation fields in SL and a faster etching of SL layers with a larger deformation magnitude. The change in the sputtering rate of individual layers of SL after implantation also correlates well with the magnitude of deformation. Implantation of Ar+ ions into SL leads to relaxation of the system and more homogeneous distribution of bond energy in individual layers of superlattice. The Raman spectra of the implanted SL are characterized with a low-frequency shoulder in the most intense band of the GaN layer E2 (high), which testifies partial stress relaxation in SL. Thus, based on a comprehensive study of the initial and implanted SL, it has been concluded that point defects that occur during implantation activate the process of dislocations nucleation in the superlattice/GaN buffer layer interface, which reduces the compressive stresses in the GaN layers of SL.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • High-capability micro-optical buffer based on coupled hexagonal cavity in
           photonic crystal waveguide

    • Abstract: A high-capability micro-optical buffer (MOB) based on a hexagonal cavity in a photonic crystal waveguide is investigated. The MOB is proposed by breaking the translational symmetry of the periodicity three times after introducing different types of cavities. In each time, we attained ultrahigh group index and highly Q-factor with highest delaying time. Ultrahigh group index of 21030 is obtained with Q-factor of 4309, delaying time of 70.1 ns, and buffer capacity of 8.41 bit. On the other hand, the bit rate and storage density turn into 117.73 Gb/s and 0.06121 bit/µm, corresponding to approximately 16.33 µm occupied by 1 bit for optical communication wavelength. Coupling a number of different types of cavities, higher Q-factor than that of an individual cavity can be obtained. It is shown that by coupling two cavities, the Q-factor is heightened to be 1.748 × 105 in low translational-symmetry case. We proposed a structure for promising application in optical signal processors and random access memories. Furthermore, we get longer delaying time and high Q-factor, which have important applications in low-threshold lasers, high finesse filters and high-speed switching.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • The effect of annealing and ytterbium concentration on crystal structure
           and photoluminescence of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Yb nanopowders

    • Abstract: Ytterbium-doped nanocrystalline powders of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Yb3+) with ytterbium content from 5 to 30 at.% have been prepared by the citrate sol–gel method. Phase composition, crystal structure and microstructure of the materials were studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction techniques using both laboratory and synchrotron radiation sources. The photoluminescence spectra and the photoluminescence decay kinetics of Yb3+ ions at room temperature were performed as well. It was revealed that materials calcined at lower (1000 °C) temperature possess a small amount of Yb3+ ions occupying the octahedral sites of Al3+ ions, whereas the materials calcined at 1200 °C form the proper (Y1−xYbx)3Al5O12 solid solution.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Development of methotrexate-loaded cubosomes with improved skin permeation
           for the topical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    • Abstract: Methotrexate-loaded cubosomes (MTCs) were developed to provide relief from pain/joint stiffness, by affording stable methotrexate concentration at the targeting sites through sustained pattern by non-invasive skin route with enhanced permeation upon skin, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Non-ionic surfactant poloxamer 188 works to enhance the permeation of methotrexate. The results of FT-IR analysis indicates the compatibility nature of methotrexate (MT), poloxamer 188 and cetyl palmitate selected for the formulation. Different ratios of poloxamer 188 and cetyl palmitate were utilized to formulate using emulsification process. The selected MTCs showed particle size of around 626.13 ± 14.15 nm with charge of around − 6.29 ± 1.07 mV with cubic morphology. The encapsulation efficiency of MTCs was found to be 92.94 ± 0.9%. The in vitro MT release from MTCs conducted for 12 h revealed a sustained release pattern. The non-crystalline nature of MTCs was confirmed by XRD analysis. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of MTCs showed enhanced anti-inflammatory effect 11.9% compared to diclofenac sodium 10.4%. Ex vivo skin permeation analysis in excised skin of wistar albino rats showed 2.50 ± 0.3 ng of MT permeation within 2 h followed by 8.80 ± 5.2 ng within 12 h without any skin irritation. In addition, histopathological evaluation supported with fluorescent microscopic analysis of FITC-labeled MTCs confirmed the superior permeation enhancement of MTCs. The thermal stimulus time (TST) as studied by rat tail flick method indicates the enhancement of TST in case of MTCs (5.63 ± 0.21 s) compared to standard diclofenac gel (2.70 ± 0.20 s)/blank formulation (2.45 ± 0.23 s), which indicates the superior analgesic effect of the developed MTCs. The inflammed paw thicknesses were measured for CFA-induced arthritic rats which get reduced from day 1 (1.47 cm) to (1.03 cm) day 15 for MTCs-treated groups that were imaged by animal imaging system. Thus, the MTCs may act as a promising system for the treatment of RA upon topical application.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Modelling of the field effect in porous silicon

    • Abstract: Thе paper theoretically investigates peculiarities of the field effect in porous silicon with spherical geometry of pores. By solving the Poisson’s equation it is obtained and analyzed coordinate dependences of the electrostatic potential for different values of pore radius and distance between pores. These dependencies can be described by the Debye screening length which is shown to decrease with increasing the curvature of pore surfaces. The field effect in porous silicon manifests itself in changing the total electrical conductivity and charging the near-surface capacitance.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • The effects of seawater on the hydration, microstructure and strength
           development of Portland cement pastes incorporating colloidal silica

    • Abstract: This contribution investigates the effects of seawater and colloidal silica (NS) in the amounts of 1, 3 and 5 wt%, respectively, on the hydration, strength development and microstructural properties of Portland cement pastes. The data reveal that seawater has an accelerating effect on cement hydration and thus a significant contribution to early strength development was observed. The beneficial effect of seawater was reflected in an improvement in compressive strength for up to 14 days of hydration, while in the 28 days compressive strength values were comparable to that of cement pastes produced with demineralized water. The combination of seawater and NS significantly promotes cement hydration kinetics due to a synergistic effect, resulting in higher calcium hydroxide (CH) production. NS can thus react with the available CH through the pozzolanic reaction and produce more calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A noticeable improvement of strength development, as the result of the synergistic effect of NS and seawater, was therefore observed. In addition, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests confirmed significant improvements in microstructure when NS and seawater were combined, resulting in the production of a more compact and dense hardened paste structure. The optimal amount of NS to be mixed with seawater, was found to be 3 wt% of cement.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • One-pot synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanomaterials: study of
           superhydrophobicity and UV photosensing property

    • Abstract: ZnO nanomaterials are synthesized using one-pot synthesis method. Equimolar solution of Zinc Nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) and Hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4) is used as a precursor for ZnO formation. Different nanostructures of ZnO are achieved by controlling the pH of the growth solution in the range 2–12 (acidic to alkali). ZnO nanostructures are evaluated for hydrophobic property using static contact angle measurement setup and UV photosensing activity. Surface morphology, structural properties and compositional analysis of ZnO nanostructures are examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FEG-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Existence of ZnO wurtzite structure is confirmed from XRD study and is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method. Nanomaterials are characterized using Raman spectroscopy which confirms highest oxygen deficiency in ZnO nanorods. The material shows remarkable superhydrophobic and UV photosensing property and hence the name multifunctional. Among all morphologies grown at different pH values, ZnO nanorods show superhydrophobic nature with contact angle more than 170°. Total surface energy value of ZnO nanostructures is calculated using Wendt two-component theory. Different ZnO nanostructures (with variation of pH value) are used to study UV photosensing property. Responsivity and photocurrent show a strong dependence on the morphology of ZnO.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • Optimization of the effect of nanoparticle morphologies on the cost of dye
           wastewater treatment via ultrasonic/photocatalytic hybrid process

    • Abstract: Treatment of dye wastewaters by nanoparticles is an attractive research in environmental engineering. In this research, for the treatment of wastewater containing methylene blue, a novel process was introduced in which a hybrid of ultrasound and photocatalysis was used. ZnO nanoparticle was employed as the catalyst. A synthesis technique for ZnO nanoparticles was used, and the resulted nanoparticle was capable of conducting photocatalytic activity in the visible light spectrum. Since the efficiency of a photocatalytic process in strongly dependent on the characteristics of the nanoparticle, in this study, the synthesis temperature parameter along with other parameters (that affect the ultrasonic/photocatalytic hybrid process such as pH, nanoparticle concentration, ultrasonic power, light source power, dye concentration, and time) were investigated as independent variables. Since treatment cost plays an important role in the selection for a proper treatment process, the cost of energy consumed in the hybrid process was chosen as the dependent variable. Examining the simultaneous effect of independent variables on the cost was one of the innovations of this research. Another novel aspect of this research is the determination of the synergetic or antagonistic effects of independent variables on each other. Furthermore, the optimal conditions to reach the optimum energy consumption level were also determined. Based on the SEM test results, the morphology of optimal nanoparticle (synthesized at 300 °C) was achieved, and the nanoparticle produced at this temperature was then analyzed via FTIR, XRD, EDS and BET techniques. The most appropriate conditions of the independent variables to reach the minimum energy consumption in treatment were observed at the pH of 8.76, nanoparticle concentration of 1.401 g/l, ultrasonic power of 119 W, light source power of 21.909 W, dye concentration of 45.905 ppm, and the process time of 13.695 min. According to the results, the optimum cost of the energy was about 0.001 ¢ for removing each milligram of dye and it obtained for optimum reaction conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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