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ENGINEERING (1271 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Applied Nanoscience
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-5509 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5517
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [226 journals]
  • Electrochemical study of UV erosion of Au nanorods by silver nanoclusters
           (NCs) allows the construction of a NC-sensitized photovoltaic cell

    • Abstract: It was reported that gold nanorods (Au NRs), synthesized by the conventional seed-mediated method, show unusual photoresponse to UV illumination due to the presence of silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) which etch away Au NRs to slowly shred them and make them shorter in length. Here we report the electrochemical experiments supporting this atypical behavior. These studies show that a redox reaction is taking place on the surface of Au NRs in the presence of excited Ag NCs. The excitation energy of Ag NCs can be released in the system as the flow of free charges and it can be utilized for a photosensitive electronic application. A NC-sensitized photovoltaic cell shows the possibility of conversion (with 0.17% efficiency) from UV radiation to electrical energy based on Ag NCs.
      PubDate: 2018-07-14
  • High responsivity, self-powered carbon–zinc oxide hybrid thin film
           based photodetector

    • Abstract: A self-powered n-Si/C–ZnO/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction photodetector (PD) which comprises of carbon (C) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on a n-type silicon (n-Si) substrate was prepared via vapor phase transport method. Excellent photodetection under 468 nm light illumination for powers ranging from 2.78 to 2910 µW delivered a quick response of about 9.5 µs. A high photoresponsivity of 2.082/AW and external quantum efficiency about 551% were obtained. The mechanism involved for the generation of a photocurrent at a zero bias voltage was discussed for future energy efficient optoelectronics devices. The morphology and composition of C, Zn and O were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray and Raman scattering analysis. The formation of ZnO nanowires range from 10 to 100 nm, aided by the photoconduction mechanism. The Raman E2high mode of 437/cm of ZnO and the presence of D and G bands show the formation of a  hybrid C–ZnO thin film. The calculated rectifying ratio is found to shift as the direct current bias voltage and light power increased. The deposition of C particles on the ZnO surface creates point defects and sub-energy levels in the ZnO bandgap which favour fast responsivity in the PD.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
  • The peculiarities of light absorption and light emission in Cu-doped
           Y-stabilized ZrO 2 nanopowders

    • Abstract: The influence of doping with copper and annealing temperature on the characteristics of yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 nanopowders was investigated using photo- and cathodoluminescence as well as diffuse reflectance and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. After annealing at temperatures below 800 °С, both Cu-doped and Cu-free powders demonstrate light emission in the blue–red spectral range that are characteristic of the tetragonal ZrO2 phase. In the excitation spectra of blue–orange photoluminescence it was found a maximum in the range of light absorption by oxygen vacancies, indicating that the corresponding emitting centers are vacancy related complexes. A red luminescence band was found to be excited only by the light from band-to-band ZrO2 absorption. It was observed that the increase of annealing temperature up to 1000 °C stimulates the appearance of additional luminescence bands at ~ 510 and 580 nm correlated with the formation of monoclinic ZrO2 phase. The corresponding emitting center is considered to be a substitutional copper ion, the excitation of which can occur both via the capture of free carriers and via the energy transfer from oxygen vacancies.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
  • Silica nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles-functionalization and
           pH effect

    • Abstract: Current reports in the field of nanotechnology indicate that the properties of metal nanoparticles are determined by their features such as size, shape, composition as well as a degree of crystallinity and stability. These, in turn, may depend heavily on their preparation way, treatment during and after synthesis and finally on properties of the supports and matrices. The goal of presented work was to determine the shape, size, and distribution of silver nanoparticles depending on preparation conditions. In particular, the issues of the formation of silver nanostructures (AgNP) with various shapes and sizes depending on functionalized silica surface as well as on the conditions of the impregnation step by noble metal ions (especially pH) were considered. In particular, the comprehensive approach to determine the impact of pH conditions on the properties of metallic nanoparticles is laid down in this work. Three types of fumed silica materials were selected as the supports of silver nanostructures (Aerosil 150, Aerosil 300 and Silochrom C-120). Silica materials were chemically functionalized by thiol and amine groups and treated with diamminesilver(I) ions [Ag(NH3)2]+. As a result of their reduction silicas adorned with silver nanostructures were obtained. In this work, the AgNP in the form of very small nanoparticles, longitudinal and spherical forms and greater structures with nondescript shape were successfully received and characterized through changing the form of functional groups on the solid surface by adjusting the pH conditions. It turns out that protonation and deprotonation of thiol, amino, and hydroxyl groups can be responsible for possible interactions between noble metal ions and functional groups in the form of both attractive and repulsive electrostatic interactions. The Ag nanoparticle/silica nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, potentiometric titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
  • Effect of the C and S additives on structural, optical, and photocatalytic
           properties of TiO 2

    • Abstract: Nanoscale composite materials based on titanium dioxide, sulphur, and carbons were obtained. The samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and Barret–Joiner–Halenda methods, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible and infrared spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction revealed the phase of anatase in all composites and appearance of rutile phase for samples with high sulphur content. It was established that composites consist of nanoparticles ca. 6–10 nm. Analysis of nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms for the synthesized samples showed the presence of a hysteresis loop which is the evidence for mesoporous structure of the powders. Absorption spectra of nanocomposites showed a bathochromic shift compared with the absorption band of pure TiO2. It was found that modification of titanium dioxide with sulphur and carbons leads to bandgap narrowing of composites. Nanocomposite samples showed higher photocatalytic activity in the destruction of safranin T under ultraviolet and visible irradiation compared to pure titanium dioxide. It can be connected with the participation of additives in the inhibition of electron–hole recombination, prolongation of charges lifetime, increasing of efficiency of interfacial charge separation, and formation of doping electronic states.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
  • Non-Newtonian nanoliquids thin-film flow through a porous medium with
           magnetotactic microorganisms

    • Abstract: Gravity-driven non-Newtonian nanoliquids (Casson and Williamson) thin-film flow through a porous medium containing both nanoparticles and magnetotactic microorganisms is analyzed using passively controlled nanofluid model boundary conditions. Buongiorn’s nanofluid model is used. The thin bio-nanoliquid films contain the copper nanoparticles and magnetotactic microorganisms simulating the forced/free bioconvection in buoyancy-driven flow. The comparison between the role of both the thin nanoliquid films has carefully noticed and discussed the differences in behaviors in detail. The governing equations accompanying the boundary conditions of the problem are reduced to non-linear differential equations by applying particular transformations. These equations along with the boundary conditions are solved analytically by employing homotopy analysis method. The solution consists of the expressions of four different profiles, and with the help of different curves, these profiles are shown graphically and discussed for the impacts of each parameter.
      PubDate: 2018-07-06
  • An investigation of nanobubbles in aqueous solutions for various

    • Abstract: The distinctive properties of nanobubbles (< 200 nm in diameter) attributed their use in many engineering fields. This paper enumerates the simplest method for generation of nanobubbles in different aqueous solutions with their practical applications. Tap water, distilled water, slurry water and sea water with and without the presence of nanobubbles were tested for chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, chromium and sulphide level. Measurement of size of nanobubbles by atomic force microscopy, measurement of density, viscosity, laser beam width and time taken for heating and cooling of aqueous solutions with and without the presence of nanobubbles were also presented in this experimental investigation. In the presence of nanobubbles, the porous nature of the material increases drastically so the original properties of the material changes. While the density of the material changes, its fluidity and other properties were changed. The presence and absence of nanobubbles influence drastic changes in properties of the chosen samples and hence different samples were examined. The result we obtained was good agreement of the previous results especially density and temperature variation in nanobubbles water. Tested nanobubbles aqueous solutions were applied for aquaculture, germination of green pulses and washing of utensils and the results are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
  • Decoration of mesoporous graphite-like C 3 N 4 nanosheets by NiS
           nanoparticle-driven visible light for hydrogen evolution

    • Abstract: Separation of photogenerated electrons from holes is an important factor that increases hydrogen evolution rate in the water splitting reaction. This recombination prevention can be achieved by co-catalyst’s deposition onto the semiconductor material’s surfaces. In this contribution, synthesis of mesoporous C3N4 of graphite-like structure by a combustion technique employing high mesoporous silica as a template has been achieved. Subsequently, NiS nanoparticles were decorated as g-C3N4 nanosheets at various NiS contents (5–20%). the photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared NiS/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was investigated and compared with those of pure NiS and g-C3N4 for evolution of hydrogen using glycerol as a scavenger upon visible light illumination. The findings indicated that the content of deposited NiS nanoparticles onto g-C3N4 is significant in the enhancement of the photocatalytic response of g-C3N4. 15% NiS/g-C3N4 nanocomposite is the optimized photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity is larger than both NiS and g-C3N4 by about 48 and 114 times, respectively. 15% NiS/g-C3N4 nanocomposite has photocatalytic stability up to five times. The enrichment of the photocatalytic efficiency of NiS/g-C3N4 photocatalyst could be attributed to the presence of NiS nanoparticles as co-catalyst, which enables efficient charge carrier separation of g-C3N4, mesostructure, large surface area and narrow band gap.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
  • Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers
           for drug delivery applications

    • Abstract: In this study, iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were loaded into poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofıber mats via electrospinning method and the composite materials were characterized. MNPs were synthesized by a conventional co-precipitation method and treated by oleic acid to obtain hydrophobic nanoparticles. The MNPs were added to PCL solution before electrospinning at varying MNP feed concentrations (1:25, 2:25, 4:25, 8:25, 16:25 and 32:25; weight ratio of MNPs:polymer). The chemical structure of the nanofibrous membranes was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses by optical and confocal microscopes demonstrated that MNP-loaded PCL nanofibers (MNP@PCL NFs) were homogeneously distributed in the membranes. Fiber diameter changed and bead formation occurred as the concentration of MNPs increased from 1:25 to 32:25. The effect of MNPs concentration on drug loading, the encapsulation efficiency and the release properties of the composite nanofibers was investigated using hydrophilic (Rhodamine-B, RhodB) and hydrophobic (Nile Red, NR) dyes, compared with plain PCL nanofibers. The dyes were used as model drug compounds to simulate drug release from MNP@PCL NFs. The release rate of RhodB from the plain PCL nanofiber mats was faster compared to the composite materials. The results showed that the release of the model molecule was affected by the hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of the drug. MNP@PCL NFs may have the potential for using as localized drug delivery vehicles for tissue engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • High conductive PPy–CNT surface-modified PES membrane with
           anti-fouling property

    • Abstract: Membrane fouling limits membrane performance and membrane applications. Changing the membrane surface properties may effectively alleviate membrane fouling. Preparing conductive membranes is an efficient way to achieve this goal. In this paper, the polypyrrole–carbon nanotube/polyethersulfone composite membranes (PPy–CNT/PES) were successfully fabricated via a process of chemical polymerization of pyrrole on the CNT/PES substrate. The resistivity, pure water flux, as well as the fouling prevention performance of the PPy–CNT/PES membrane were systematically studied. The electric resistance of the PPy–CNT/PES membrane was greatly reduced to 450 ± 40 Ω cm-1, and the pure water flux for the PPy–CNT/PES membrane was about 136.2 ± 5.1 L m− 2 h− 1 bar− 1. The flux recovery rate of the PPy–CNT/PES membrane was increased from 68.18 to 76.38% compared with the pristine PES membrane. An electric field of 1 V/cm was applied between the titanium sheet and the PPy–CNT/PES membrane as a cathode, and the flux recovery rate of the PPy–CNT/PES membrane was improved to 81.78%. Therefore, the membrane cathode could effectively prevent the pore clogging, meaning that the prepared PPy–CNT/PES membrane has significant potential for practical applications in anti-fouling.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • A flexible ultrasonic micro tool-based AgNS fabrication process

    • Abstract: Silver nano sheets (AgNSs) have very good potential applications in fabrication of photonic devices and nano sensors, and chemical methods have been the major means to fabricate it. Here, we report a mechanical method to on-site fabricate AgNSs on a solid substrate by a nano rolling process. In the method, a flexible ultrasonic micro tool is proposed and utilized to roll commercialized AgNWs and micro Ag particles into AgNSs. The thickness of fabricated AgNSs can be as thin as several tens of nanometers, and it may be further decreased by using thinner AgNWs as the raw material and optimizing the structure and working conditions of the micro tool. The rolling effect is not sensitive to the preload when the micro tool vibration is sufficiently large, and the vibrating micro tool does not damage the substrate due to the circular shape of the micro tool.
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
  • The critical role of metal oxide electron transport layer for perovskite
           solar cell

    • Abstract: Recent developments in perovskite solar cells have achieved efficiency around 22%. However, degradation of perovskite material on contact with moisture is still an issue. In this study, inverted planar perovskite solar cells via solution processing at low temperature are prepared with different electron transport layers. The zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide are used as electron selective layer between PCBM and back contact. The metal oxides act as protective layer resulting in increased stability against moisture. Furthermore, this interlayer improves charge transfer and collection, leading to significantly increased short circuit current density and fill factor. The champion cell with power conversion efficiency 12.01% is obtained for doped zinc oxide interlayer obtained under 1-sun condition.
      PubDate: 2018-06-30
  • Electrolyte–electrolyte phase separation under the influence of a DC
           magnetic field

    • Abstract: On the basis of optical, frequency and zeta-potential investigations, we demonstrate that the gradient magnetic field causes formation of products of electrochemical reactions at metal-electrolyte interface in the form of dispersed phase (magnions). It is shown that two types of magnions with sizes of about 400 and 1000 nm appear in the experiment. Based on the obtained results, we make the conclusion that the formation of magnions of different sizes during electrochemical reactions leads to the electrolyte–electrolyte phase separation and rotation of electrolyte in the stray field of ferromagnetic electrode with own frequencies of magnions and is the reason for the self-assembled structures formation. Also, it essentially influences the electrochemical processes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
  • Injectable nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization:
           processing, sterilization, and size evolution

    • Abstract: Oil-in-water nanoemulsions are promising colloidal dispersions for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The use of polysorbate 80 as stabilizing agent in these formulations can improve the delivery of the drug to the brain, thanks to a tropism for apolipoproteins. The aim of this study was to formulate injectable nanoemulsions stabilized by polysorbate 80, which meet United States Pharmacopoeia particle size requirements for parenteral emulsions. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized in terms of mean hydrodynamic diameter, Gaussian distribution width, and volume-weighted percentage of fat droplets greater than 1.79 µm (PFAT1.79) or 5 µm (PFAT5). The effect of autoclaving, filtration and loading with nile red (a lipophilic fluorescent dye) on the nanoemulsions was evaluated. Real-time and accelerated stability tests were also performed. To satisfy Unites States Pharmacopoeia particle size specifications, nanoemulsions required six homogenization cycles. PFAT5 and PFAT1.79 were the particle size parameters more sensitive to discriminate the effect of homogenization, autoclaving, filtration and loading as well as globule size evolution during real-time stability tests. Results from accelerated stability studies correlated with the PFAT5 values measured over time. Overall, the study demonstrates that all nanoemulsions studied (autoclaved, filtered or loaded) satisfies United States Pharmacopoeia particle size requirements up to 90 days, maintaining PFAT5 to values lower than 0.05% v/v.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
  • Ultrasonic energy-assisted coloration of polyurethane nanofibers

    • Abstract: Herein, we first time present our research on ultrasonic dyeing of polyurethane (PU) nanofibers. The PU nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning process and were subsequently dyed following exhaust method using sonication. The two disperse dyes selected were a low-energy disperse dye (CI Disperse Blue 56) and a high-energy disperse dye (CI Disperse Red 167:1). The ultrasonic energy was used to achieve higher color build-up on PU nanofibers. The temperature/time (T/T) diagram of proposed dyeing process has been suggested; dyeing time and dyeing temperature were optimized. Color build-up properties (measured in terms of K/S values), dye fixation (%), and color fastness properties were studied in detail. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mechanical strength measurements. The results show 70 °C and 40 min as optimum dyeing temperature and time, respectively. The SEM, FTIR, and XRD results did not show any significant effect of ultrasonic dyeing on morphology, chemical, and crystallographic structure of PU nanofibers. Color fastness results revealed excellent light fastness, very good washing, and hot pressing fastness of both dyes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
  • Disorder impact on the optical absorption edge of the tetragonal cadmium

    • Abstract: The influence of disorder at the dielectric constant, as well as at the position of absorption edge in CdP2 has been investigated. The dielectric constant and position of optical absorption edge for the samples with a high concentration of cadmium and phosphorus vacancies as well as samples doped by zinc have been obtained. It was shown that the tailored optical properties can be achieved by variation of the structural disorder in studied samples of CdP2.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
  • Multidimensional dose–response toxicity exploration of silver
           nanoparticles from Nocardiopsis flavascens RD30

    • Abstract: In recent decades, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are progressively being used in various applications, nevertheless, their environment-based toxicity studies remain deficient. Hence this article shows the toxicity analysis of AgNPs synthesized from Nocardiopsis flavascens RD30 on Chloroccocum humicola, Artemia salina and Swiss albino mouse. AgNPs were extracellularly synthesized from N. flavascens RD30 extract with sunlight irradiation and the synthesized AgNPs were roughly spherical in shape, with the size range between 5 and 50 nm. Further, the toxicity study on green algae proves that, at 50 µg AgNPs concentration, there was no effect on C. humicola, however, increasing the concentration lead to the cell aggregation which is proposed as a defense mechanism by the algal populations. Similarly, in the case of A. salina, the mortality increased with the increasing concentration of AgNPs, wherein abnormalities such as the improper development of mandibles and underdeveloped endopod and endite were observed in concentrations 60 and 70 µg/mL. Finally, the oral toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated in the mouse model which is portrayed through serum biochemistry and histopathological observations of vital organs. There was no major effect on the liver function in the treated mice, while the negligible reaction was observed in kidneys and intestine of the mice treated with AgNPs after 10 days of oral exposure. Overall results indicate that the biogenic AgNPs are less/non-hazardous to the phytoplanktons, zooplanktons and higher animals when released at a minimal concentration and it could be possibly used in human and environmental applications.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
  • Fabrication of nanoporous film by transfer of colloidal particles and
           application to biomacromolecules

    • Abstract: To fabricate a broad range of practical periodic nanostructures for biotechnological applications, colloidal lithography (nanosphere lithography) techniques are commonly used. Therefore, two-dimensional (2-D) colloidal arrays have been a significant area of research in these biotechnology applications. Simple and scalable colloidal transferring techniques allow the fabrication of 2-D highly ordered nanoarrays based on non-close-packed colloidal crystals on a large variety of substrates, such as plastics and glass. There are not many mass fabrication techniques for monolayer structures that use the current top-down and bottom-up approaches. Using the transfer technique for monolayer arrays, the mixture of urethane and acrylate monomers might be one of the most common materials as a transfer material or even a nano pore membrane. In this study, it is demonstrated that the transfer method might achieve mass production of monolayer nanostructures for potential applications, for example nanopores used to filtrate biomolecules such as miRNAs and tRNAs.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
  • Optical and biomedical properties of eco-friendly metal nanostructures
           synthesized using Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf extract

    • Abstract: Biogenic, eco-friendly, reliable, and cost-effective metal nanostructures were synthesized using Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf extract, which acted as reducing and stabilizing agent with no additional chemical surfactants. Nanoparticle formation was confirmed from UV–Vis absorption, XRD, and FTIR spectra. Morphology and crystallinity of spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NTs) were further confirmed from TEM analysis. Luminescence enhancement and quenching of lanthanide ion complexes were observed and found to be dependent on metal nanostructure concentration. The factors relay on the energy transfers between nanostructures and rare-earth ions (RE). The nonlinear optical studies of Ag NPs and Au NTs were studied using Z-scan and degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) techniques with picosecond and femtosecond lasers. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of the test molecule, rhodamine 6G, was studied to check the performance of Ag NPs and Au NTs in enhancing the Raman scattering signals. In vitro cytotoxic effect of the Ag NPs and Au NTs has been checked against A549 lung cancer cell lines and the efficiency of toxicity depended on the dosage. These experiments demonstrate that the nanostructures are ideal candidates for applications in optics and biology as PL based devices with appropriate concentrations of RE ions, optical switches, SERS substrates, and therapeutic agents towards cancer cell lines.
      PubDate: 2018-06-16
  • Illumination effects on the physical properties of porous silicon prepared
           by PECE

    • Abstract: Laser-assisted etching process was used to prepare porous silicon on n-type silicon substrate of resistivity 10 Ω cm and <100> orientation incubated in hydrofluoric acid of 25% concentration. The porous layers were prepared using laser diode of 645 nm wavelength illumination with different intensities of about 14 and 20 mW/cm2 and current density of 10 mA/cm2 for a fixed etching time (8 min). The morphology and optical characterization of porous silicon were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the power density is a prominent parameter that controls the morphology of pores. The reflectivity decreased with increase in the highest power density to 0.66% and the peak position of PL results increased with increase in power density and moved toward the blue region. These phenomena were due to changing in the characteristics of the surface morphology the change of Si to nanostructures.
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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