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ENGINEERING (1326 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 230)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
3 Biotech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.511
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [235 journals]
  • Determination of organic acids for quality evaluation in Coptis herbs by
           ion chromatography

    • Abstract: Coptis herbs are important herbal medicinal materials. The bioactive composition, the quality and medicinal efficacy of these herbs, are determined significantly by their geo-authentic features. Among the effective components of these herbs are seven organic acids (quinic, acetic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, and oxalic acids). However, no quantitative data of these seven acids in these herbs are available. Therefore, we developed a method for simultaneous separation and determination of the seven organic acids in Coptis herbs using gradient ion chromatography (mobile phase and gradient were shown in Table 1). The seven acids were separated and determined in no more than 35 min. We found that the organic acid levels in C. teeta was obviously higher than in C. chinensis and C. deltoidea, in particular, the content of quinic acid in C. teeta was about eight times than that in C. chinensis and C. deltoidea. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationships between the contents of organic acids and clinical effects, and found that organic acids (content of total acids or content of quinic acid) could act as an reference ingredient for quality evaluation in Coptis herbs. Our studies would lay the foundation for effective quality evaluation of these herbs.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
  • Inhibitory effects of Lepidium sativum polysaccharide extracts on TNF-α
           production in Escherichia coli -stimulated mouse

    • Abstract: The present study was designed to study the quantitative effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent to sample ratio on the yield of Lepidium sativum polysaccharides (LSP) using a Box–Behnken design. The activities of the optimized LSP extract were then tested in an in vivo experimental system of Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced endotoxin shock. The optimal polysaccharide extraction conditions were established by the equation of regression and evaluation of the response surface contour plots: extraction time 5.2 h; temperature 95 °C and ratio of water to raw material 31.89 mL/g. Subsequently, an in vivo endotoxin shock was induced in mice with a single E. coli i.p. injection. Septic mice showed a substantial raise in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma, whereas mice treated with LSP after E. coli injection showed considerable lower plasma levels of TNF-α (P < 0.05). These results suggest that LSP have beneficial effects when administered to mice with endotoxin shock by diminishing the pro-inflammatory response. The systemic activity of LSP indicated that the extract has a significant inhibitory effect against E. coli-induced inflammation by reducing the circulating levels of TNF-α. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical implications of such observations.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
  • Engineering fungal morphology for enhanced production of hydrolytic
           enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 using microparticles

    • Abstract: Effect of microparticles and silver nanoparticles was studied on the production of hydrolytic enzymes by a potent phytase-producing mould, Aspergillus oryzae SBS50. Addition of microparticles, viz. talc powder and aluminum oxide enhanced phytase production from 2894 to 3903 and 2847 to 4204 U/L, cellulase from 2529 to 4931 and 2455 to 3444 U/L, xylanase from 9067 to 9642 and 9994 to 14,783 U/L, amylase from 5880 to 11,000 and 6130 to 13,145 U/L, respectively. Fungal morphology was also engineered by the use of microparticles. Fungal pellet size was significantly reduced (~ 90%) by the addition of microparticles. Fermentation time was reduced from 4 to 3 days after the addition of microparticles, thus increasing the productivity of the enzymes significantly. These results confirmed the importance of microparticles in engineering fungal morphology for enhanced production of hydrolytic enzymes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
  • Assessment of chemical and genetic variability in Tanacetum gracile
           accessions collected from cold desert of Western Himalaya

    • Abstract: Genetic diversity is essential for survival and adaptation of high altitude plants such as those of Tanacetum genus, which are constantly exposed to environmental stress. We collected flowering shoots of ten accessions of Tanacetum gracile Hook.f. & Thomson (Asteraceae) (Tg 1–Tg 10), from different regions of cold desert of Western Himalaya. Chemical profile of the constituents, as inferred from GC–MS, exhibited considerable variability. Percentage yield of essential oil ranged from 0.2 to 0.75% (dry-weight basis) amongst different accessions. Tg 1 and Tg 6 were found to produce high yields of camphor (46%) and lavandulol (41%), respectively. Alpha-phellendrene, alpha-bisabool, p-cymene and chamazulene were the main oil components in other accessions. Genetic variability among the accessions was studied using RAPD markers as well as by sequencing and analyzing nuclear 18S rDNA, and plastid rbcL and matK loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of RAPD markers ranged from 0.18 to 0.5 and the analysis clustered the accessions into two major clades. The present study emphasized the importance of survey, collection, and conservation of naturally existing chemotypes of medicinal and aromatic plants, considering their potential use in aroma and pharmaceutical industry.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
  • Cultivated methanotrophs associated with rhizospheres of traditional rice
           landraces from Western India belong to Methylocaldum and Methylocysti s

    • Abstract: Aerobic methanotrophs associated with Indian rice plants have rarely been cultivated. In the present study, we cultured aerobic methanotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere regions of rice plants. Rhizospheric soils from seven rice landraces traditionally grown and maintained by tribal people in Jawhar region belonging to part of the Western Ghats in India, were used. Seven methanotrophic cultures were isolated from the last positive dilution (10− 4). Methanotrophs were identified by analyzing the partial methane monooxygenase gene, pmoA gene and three of these belonged to the genus Methylocaldum (gammaproteobacterial, Type I methanotrophs) and four belonged to the genus Methylocystis (alphaproteobacterial, Type II methanotrophs). We present here the first report on the cultivation of methanotrophs from Indian traditional rice landraces originating from a biodiversity hotspot.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Changes in antioxidant and biochemical activities in castor oil-coated
           Capsicum annuum L. during postharvest storage

    • Abstract: This study, for the first time, evaluates the efficiency of castor oil when used as an external coating on Capsicum annuum L., to increase postharvest storage-life at 4 ± 1 °C. The castor oil-coated fruits were successfully stored for 36 days, while the non-coated fruits could only sustain for 18 days. Throughout the storage period (at 9-day intervals), different antioxidants and biochemical assays (allied with storage) such as titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total sugar estimation, and enzymatic study of polyphenol oxidase and pectate lyase, were assessed. During storage, the castor oil-coated fruits showed a substantial decrease in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, including antioxidant activities such as reducing power and DPPH activity; however, an increase in ferrous ion chelating activity, total soluble sugar content, polyphenol oxidase activity and initial pectate lyase activity was observed, in contrast to that of the non-coated fruits. The application of castor oil proved to be effective in delaying the ripening process of fruits during storage.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Heliomycin and tetracinomycin D: anthraquinone derivatives with histone
           deacetylase inhibitory activity from marine sponge-associated Streptomyces
           sp. SP9

    • Abstract: Several actinomycetes strains were isolated from different marine sponges collected from the Red Sea shore in Egypt. The efficiency of their crude extracts to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme was investigated in the nuclear extract of Hela cell line. The crude extract corresponding to Streptomyces sp. SP9 isolated from the marine sponge Pseudoceratina arabica showed a promising HDAC inhibitory activity with 64 and 81% at 50 and 100 µg/ml, respectively. The strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. by phylogenetic analyses based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The major compounds of Streptomyces sp. SP9 were isolated and purified by different chromatographic methods. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was identified on the basis of their spectroscopic data including mass, 1H and 13C NMR, and by comparison with those of authenticated samples. Structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established as heliomycin and tetracenomycin D, respectively. These compounds exhibited HDAC inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 29.8 ± 0.04 µg/ml for heliomycin (1) and 10.9 ± 0.02 µg/ml for tetracenomycin D (2). A computational docking study for compounds 1 and 2 against HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 was performed to formulate a hypothetical mechanism by which the tested compounds inhibit HDAC. Tetracenomycin D (2) showed a good binding interactions with HDAC2 (− 5.230 kcal/mol) and HDAC3 (− 6.361 kcal/mol).
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Recent advances and future prospects of iron oxide nanoparticles in
           biomedicine and diagnostics

    • Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are considered as chemically inert materials and, therefore, being extensively applied in the areas of imaging, targeting, drug delivery and biosensors. Their unique properties such as low toxicity, biocompatibility, potent magnetic and catalytic behavior and superior role in multifunctional modalities have epitomized them as an appropriate candidate for biomedical applications. Recent developments in the area of materials science have enabled the facile synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) offering easy tuning of surface properties and surface functionalization with desired biomolecules. Such developments have enabled IONPs to be easily accommodated in nanocomposite platform or devices. Additionally, the tag of biocompatible material has realized their potential in myriad applications of nanomedicines including imaging modalities, sensing, and therapeutics. Further, IONPs enzyme mimetic activity pronounced their role as nanozymes in detecting biomolecules like glucose, and cholesterol etc. Hence, based on their versatile applications in biomedicine, the present review article focusses on the current trends, developments and future prospects of IONPs in MRI, hyperthermia, photothermal therapy, biomolecules detection, chemotherapy, antimicrobial activity and also their role as the multifunctional agent in diagnosis and nanomedicines.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and treatment of refinery wastewater
           under saline condition by a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from
           marine environment (Red Sea), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: A halophilic bacterial consortium was enriched from Red Sea saline water and sediment samples collected from Abhor, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The consortium potentially degraded different low (above 90% for phenanthrene and fluorene) and high (69 ± 1.4 and 56 ± 1.8% at 50 and 100 mg/L of pyrene) molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different concentrations under saline condition (40 g/L NaCl concentration). The cell hydrophobicity (91° ± 1°) and biosurfactant production (30 mN/m) confirmed potential bacterial cell interaction with PAHs to facilitate biodegradation process. Co-metabolic study with phenanthrene as co-substrate during pyrene degradation recorded 90% degradation in 12 days. The consortium in continuous stirred tank reactor with petroleum refinery wastewater showed complete and 90% degradation of low and high molecular weight PAHs, respectively. The reactor study also revealed 94 ± 1.8% chemical oxygen demand removal by the halophilic consortium under saline condition (40 g/L NaCl concentration). The halophilic bacterial strains present in the consortium were identified as Ochrobactrum halosaudis strain CEES1 (KX377976), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain CEES2 (KX377977), Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain CEES3 (KX377978) and Mesorhizobium halosaudis strain CEES4 (KX377979). Thus, the promising halophilic consortium was highly recommended to be employed in petroleum saline wastewater treatment process.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
  • l -Asparaginase: a feasible therapeutic molecule for multiple diseases

    • Abstract: This note highlights our understanding and thinking about the feasibility of l-asparaginase as therapeutics for multiple diseases. l-asparaginase enzyme (l-asparagine amidohydrolase, EC is prominently known for its chemotherapeutic application. It is primarily used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. It is also used in the treatment of other forms of cancer Hodgkin disease, lymphosarcoma, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, reticulosarcoma and melanosarcoma (Lopes et al. Crit Rev Biotechnol 23:1–18, 2015). It deaminates l-asparagine present in the plasma pool causing the demise of tumor cell due to nutritional starvation. The anti-tumorigenic property of this enzyme has been exploited for over four decades and evidenced as a boon for the cancer patients. Presently, the medical application of l-asparaginase is limited only in curing various forms of cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
  • The grapevine VvWRKY2 gene enhances salt and osmotic stress tolerance in
           transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    • Abstract: Our study aims to assess the implication of WRKY transcription factor in the molecular mechanisms of grapevine adaptation to salt and water stresses. In this respect, a full-length VvWRKY2 cDNA, isolated from a Vitis vinifera grape berry cDNA library, was constitutively over-expressed in Nicotiana tabacum seedlings. Our results showed that transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher seed germination rates and better growth, under both salt and osmotic stress treatments, when compared to wild type plants. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrated that, under stress conditions, transgenic plants accumulated more osmolytes, such as soluble sugars and free proline, while no changes were observed regarding electrolyte leakage, H2O2, and malondialdehyde contents. The improvement of osmotic adjustment may be an important mechanism underlying the role of VvWRKY2 in promoting tolerance and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Principal component analysis of our results highlighted a clear partition of plant response to stress. On the other hand, we observed a significant adaptation behaviour response for transgenic lines under stress. Taken together, all our findings suggest that over-expression of VvWRKY2 gene has a compelling role in abiotic stress tolerance and, therefore, would provide a useful strategy to promote abiotic stress tolerance in grape via molecular-assisted breeding and/or new biotechnology tools.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
  • Bacterial cellulase treatment for enhancing reactivity of pre-hydrolysed
           kraft dissolving pulp for viscose

    • Abstract: To improve the process economy of reactivity improvement, crude cellulase from Bacillus subtilis was employed for the treatment and significant dissolving pulp properties were analyzed. With increase in enzyme dose from 0.25 to 2 U/g o.d. pulp, improvement in Fock reactivity and alkali solubilities (S10 and S18) were observed with simultaneous reduction in viscosity and yield. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the molecular level effects on dissolving grade pulp. The most suitable cellulase dose for reactivity improvement with lowering of viscosity was 0.25 U/g o.d. pulp. With increases in enzyme dose, alkali solubilities (S10 and S18) of dissolving pulp showed continuous increment, while alpha-cellulose of pulp showed reduction due to chain scission of long cellulose fiber fraction.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
  • Characterization, phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary trajectories
           of diverse hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms isolated from refinery

    • Abstract: Phylogenic association between bacteria living under harsh conditions can provide important information on adaptive mechanism, survival strategy and their potential application. Indigenous microorganisms isolated from toxic refinery oily sludge with ability to degrade a diverse range of hydrocarbons were identified and characterized. The strains including Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS1, Microbacterium sp. RS2, Bacillus sp. RS3, Acinetobacter baumannii RS4 and Stenotrophomonas sp. RS5 could utilize n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with 2–4 rings and also substituted PAHs as sole substrate. The phylogenetic position of Bacillus sp. RS3 and Pseudomonas sp. RS1 was tested by applying the maximum likelihood (ML) method to the aligned 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of PAH and aliphatic hydrocarbon degrading strains belonging to the corresponding genus. The base substitution matrix created with each set of organisms capable of degrading aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons showed significant transitional event with high values of transition: transversion ratio (R) under all conditions. The guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the hydrocarbon degrading test strains was also found to be highest for the clade which harbored them. The test strains consistently occupied a distinct terminal end within the phylogenetic tree constructed by ML analysis. This study reveals that the refinery sludge imposed environmental stress on the bacterial strains which possibly caused significant genetic alteration and phenotypic adaptation. Due to the divergent evolution of the Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains in the sludge, they appeared distinctly different from other hydrocarbon degrading strains of the same genus.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
  • Prediction of binding potential of natural leads against the prioritized

    • Abstract: The current study aimed to assess the binding potential of herbal lead molecules against the prioritized molecular targets of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) by computational virtual screening and suggests a novel therapeutic intervention. Based on the metabolic pathway analysis and virulent functions, the non-structural and envelop proteins present in CHIKV and DENV were identified as putative drug targets. The structures of the protein not available in their native forms were computationally predicted by homology modeling. The lead compounds from 43 herbal sources were screened and their drug likeliness and pharmacokinetics properties were computationally predicted. The binding potential of selected phytoligands against the prioritized drug targets were analyzed by molecular docking studies. This study revealed that Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromen-4-one) and Chymopain (disodium;4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate), natural flavonols present in Carica papaya and Gossypetin (3, 5, 7, 8, 3′, 4′-hexahydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid available in Hibiscus sabdariffa were demonstrated promising good binding potential with minimum binding energy (kcal/mol) and maximum stabilizing interactions to the putative drug targets of CHIKV and DENV. The selected lead molecules demonstrated ideal drug likeliness, ADMET (adsorption, distribution, excretion, metabolism and toxicity) features required for the drug development. The molecular docking studies suggested that the presence of these compounds probably responsible for the antiviral properties of Carica papaya, which was traditionally known as therapeutic remedy for dengue viral infections. This study provides profound insight for the experimental validation of the applied approach and industrial scale-up of the suggested herbal lead molecules as promising lead candidates against CHIKV and DENV infections.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
  • Biochemical and functional properties of a lectin purified from the seeds
           of Cicer arietinum L.

    • Abstract: A 35 kDa rabbit erythrocyte agglutinating lectin from the seeds of Cicer arietinum was purified and designated as CAL. The lectin was inhibited by fetuin and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine at a concentration of 20 and 50 mM respectively, but not by simple mono or oligosaccharides. CAL is active between pH 5 and 10 presented thermo stability up to 50 °C and demonstrated DNA damage inhibition at 30 µg concentration. The lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity towards mice splenocytes at 7.5 µg ml− 1. CAL exerted an inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with IC50 of 180 µM. CAL abilities in animal bioassay resulted decreased levels of total triglyceride and creatinine. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that CAL may constitute an important role impending biomedical applications.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
  • Diversity of culturable methylotrophic bacteria in different genotypes of
           groundnut and their potential for plant growth promotion

    • Abstract: This study aimed at documenting the culturable methylotrophic bacterial diversity across different groundnut genotypes and evaluating their effect on the growth of groundnut. 80 methylotrophic bacterial isolates were obtained from the phyllosphere of 15 groundnut genotypes collected from Tamil Nadu, India. The bacterial isolates were identified through sequencing of the 16S rDNA and were tested for their plant growth-promoting properties. Groundnut seeds were inoculated with methylotrophic bacteria and their effect on growth was evaluated via in vitro and pot experiments. Molecular identification revealed that the isolates belonged to 30 different species. A higher diversity of methylotrophic bacteria at genus and species level was found in groundnut genotype TMV2. Shannon diversity index was the highest in genotype TMV7, followed by VRI2 and TMV2. Similarly, geographical location also influenced the diversity of methylotrophic bacteria. In vitro seed germination assay revealed that methylotrophic isolates enhanced root growth and improved formation of root hair. The radicle length of treated seeds ranged from 2.7 to 8.4 cm. A higher shoot length was observed in the plants from seeds treated with Methylobacterium radiotolerans VRI8-A4 (27.3 cm), followed by Pseudomonas psychrotolerans TMV13-A1 (26.3 cm) and Bacillus aryabhattai K-CO3-3 (23 cm). The findings of this study strongly suggest that beneficial methylotrophic bacteria associated with the phyllosphere of groundnut play a major role in regulating plant growth.
      PubDate: 2018-05-26
  • Microbial degradation of myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6):
           specificity, kinetics, and simulation

    • Abstract: Microbial degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is crucial to deal with nutritional problems in monogastric animals as well as to prevent environmental phosphate pollution. The present study deals with the degradation of IP6 by microorganisms such as Sporosarcina spp. pasteurii, globiospora, psychrophila, Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii. These microbes were screened for phytase production under laboratory conditions. The specificity of the enzyme was tested for various phosphorylated substrates such as sodium phytate (IP6), sodium hexametaphosphate, phenyl phosphate, α-d-glucose-6 phosphate, inosine 5′ monophosphate and pyridoxal 5′ phosphate. These enzymes were highly specific to IP6. The influence of modulators such as phytochemicals and metal ions on the enzymatic activity was assessed. These modulators in different concentrations had varying effect on microbial phytases. Calcium (in optimal concentration of 0.5 M) played an important role in enzyme activation. The enzymes were then characterized based on their molecular weight 41~43 kDa. The phytase-producing microbes were assessed for IP6 degradation in a simulated intestinal setup. Among the selected microbes, Sporosarcina globiospora hydrolyzed IP6 effectively, as confirmed by colorimetric time-based analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
  • Engineering membrane morphology and manipulating synthesis for increased
           lycopene accumulation in Escherichia coli cell factories

    • Abstract: The goal of this work was to improve the lycopene storage capacity of the E. coli membrane by engineering both morphological and biosynthetic aspects. First, Almgs, a protein from Acholeplasma laidlawii that is involved in membrane bending is overexpressed to expand the storage space for lycopene, which resulted in a 12% increase of specific lycopene production. Second, several genes related to the membrane-synthesis pathway in E. coli, including plsb, plsc, and dgka, were also overexpressed, which led to a further 13% increase. In addition, membrane separation and component analysis confirmed that the increased amount of lycopene was mainly accumulated within the cell membranes. Finally, by integrating both aforementioned modification strategies, a synergistic effect could be observed which caused a 1.32-fold increase of specific lycopene production, from the 27.5 mg/g of the parent to 36.4 mg/g DCW in the engineered strain. This work demonstrates that membrane engineering is a feasible strategy for increasing the production and accumulation of lycopene in E. coli.
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
  • Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus CAS-21 tannase with potential
           for propyl gallate synthesis and treatment of tannery effluent from
           leather industry

    • Abstract: One of the tannase isoforms produced by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CAS-21 under submerged fermentation (SbmF) was purified 4.9-fold with a 10.2% recovery. The glycoprotein (39.1% carbohydrate content) showed an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. Optimum temperature and pH for its activity were 30–40 °C and 5.0, respectively. It showed a half-life (t50) of 60 min at 45 and 50 °C, and it was stable at pH 5.0 and 6.0 for 3 h. The tannase activity was insensitive to most salts used, but it reduced in the presence of Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. On contrary, in presence of SDS, Triton-X100, and urea the enzyme activity increased. The Km value indicated high affinity for propyl gallate (3.61 mmol L−1) when compared with tannic acid (6.38 mmol L−1) and methyl gallate (6.28 mmol L−1), but the best Kcat (362.24 s−1) and Kcat/Km (56.78 s−1 mmol−1 L) were obtained for tannic acid. The purified tannase reduced 89 and 25% of tannin content of the leather tannery effluent generated by manual and mechanical processing, respectively, after 2-h treatment. The total phenolic content was also reduced. Additionally, the enzyme produced propyl gallate, indicating its ability to do the transesterification reaction. Thus, A. fumigatus CAS-21 tannase presents interesting properties, especially the ability to degrade tannery effluent, highlighting its potential in biotechnological applications.
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
  • Adaptive physiological response, carbon partitioning, and biomass
           production of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal grown under elevated CO 2

    • Abstract: Winter cherry or Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional and herbal medicine system. Yet, there is no information available on response of this plant to changing climatic conditions particularly elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to examine the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (ECs) on Withania somnifera. The variations in traits of physiological adaptation, net primary productivity, carbon partitioning, morphology, and biomass in response to elevated CO2 concentrations (ambient, 600 and 800 µmol mol−1) during one growth cycle were investigated within the open top chamber (OTC) facility in the foothill of the Himalayas, Dehardun, India. ECs significantly increased photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, soil respiration, net primary productivity and the carbon content of plant tissues (leaf, stem, and root), and soil carbon. Furthermore, ECs significantly enhanced biomass production (root and shoot), although declined night leaf respiration. Overall, it was summarized that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, leaf, and soil carbon and biomass increased under ECs rendering the physiological adaptation to the plant. Increased net primary productivity might facilitate mitigation effects by sequestering elevated levels of carbon dioxide. We advocate further studies to investigate the effects of ECs on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and health-promoting substances of this as well as other medicinal plants.
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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