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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [224 journals]
  • The effects of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of
           Blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato ( Solanum betaceum
           Cav.) pollen grains

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length. To study pollen morphology, pollens were extracted by hand pressure and was analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The viable pollen grains were identified by staining with 1% acetocarmine. Even though Tree tomato and Blackberry pollen grains are morphologically similar, their exine shapes differ. We observed four times increase in pollen germination rate when suspended in nutrient solution (Sucrose with Boric acid) than control (water). Pollen grains under nutrient solution were subjected to different groups of pesticides for the period of 2, 4, and 6 h. With respect to pesticide affect, the Blackberry pollen grain germination followed the following order: Lecaniceb > Beauveb > Metazeb => Myceb > Control. However, the effect on Tree tomato pollen grains was as follows: Lecaniceb > Myceb > Cantus > Bacillus thuringiensis > Kripton > Control. As per as pollen grain germination is concerned, we observed that the chemical pesticides are more harmful than other pesticides. So, it is necessary to perform screening test for different pesticides and their effect on pollen grain germination before applying to the fields.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
  • Recombinant 20.8-kDa protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp.
           paratuberculosis -based sero-diagnosis of paratuberculosis

    • Abstract: Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants caused by the intracellular pathogen. The control of the Johne’s disease is hampered by lack of specific diagnostic tests. In this study, we have cloned and expressed the N-terminal region of the locus tag Map 1637c encoding 20.8-kDa (r20.8) protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The recombinant protein r20.8 was expressed in high levels in Escherichia coli. The protein r20.8 was purified by single-step chromatography using Ni–NTA agarose. The protein r20.8 was reacted with anti-r20.8 antibodies as well as cattle sera infected with Map on Western blot. ELISA using well-characterized sera (both positive and negative; n = 60 each) Map-infected and non-infected cattle, respectively, yielded a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 98.3%. The 20.8 kDa protein expressed in the present study will prove useful as reagent in diagnostic test.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
  • Bioremediation of palm industry wastes using vermicomposting technology:
           its environmental application as green fertilizer

    • Abstract: Several technologies are being applied for treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Among them, the biological treatments (vermicomposting) have widely been recognized as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials into valuable products. The present study focuses on vermicomposting of acidic palm oil mill effluent (POME) mixed with the palm pressed fibre (PPF) which are found difficult to decompose in the environment. The industrial waste (POME) was vermicomposted using Lumbricus rubellus under laboratory conditions for a period of 45 days. A significant improvement in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content was monitored during vermicomposting process. In addition, the decline in C:N ratio of vermicompost (up to 17.20 ± 0.60) reflects the degree of stabilization of POME–PPF mixture. Different percentages of the vermicompost extract obtained from POME–PPF mixture were also examined for the germination of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed. The results showed that 75% vermicompost extract demonstrated better performance for the seed germination. On the basis of significant findings, POME–PPF mixture can be successfully used as a feeding material for the earthworms, while on the other hand, it can also be used as a cost-effective fertilizer for the germination and the proper growth of mung bean.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
  • An efficient process for the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid
           by a strain of Bacillus megaterium

    • Abstract: Betulinic acid as a derivative of betulin is widely reported for its anti-HIV and antitumor activities. Betulin has three most significant positions, i.e., primary hydroxyl group at position C-28, secondary hydroxyl group at position C-3, and alkene moiety at position C-20, where chemical modifications were performed to yield pharmacologically more active derivatives. Bioconversion optimization was performed for the enhancement in the percentage of conversion using statistical approach by opting temperature, pH and betulin concentration as independent variables. Three hundred fifty isolates were screened from natural sources under selective medium containing up to 3 g/l of betulin for their tolerance and bioconversion efficiency. Isolate KD235 was found to grow in 3 g/l betulin with 23.34 ± 0.57 g/l biomass and 0.67 ± 0.06 g/l betulinic acid production. New isolate KD235 was characterized by molecular analysis and named as Bacillus megaterium KD235. Molecular characterization of a potentially active isolate for the transformation of betulin to betulinic acid was suggested as isolate Bacillus megaterium KD235. Maximum bioconversion (22 ± 1.5%) was found at optimized conditions, i.e., pH 6.5, temperature 30 °C and at 3 g/l betulin. Validations of experiments as ~11% more bioconversion i.e., 1 ± 0.1 g/l betulinic acid were obtained using 5 l lab fermenter as compared to shake flask.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
  • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw by cellulases from
           Aspergillus niger BK01

    • Abstract: Alkali-assisted acid pretreated rice straw was saccharified using cellulase from Aspergillus niger BK01. The cellulase production by the fungus was enhanced by parametric optimization using solid-state fermentation conditions. Maximum cellulase production (12.0 U/gds of carboxymethyl cellulase, CMCase) was achieved in 96 h, using 6.0% substrate concentration, 7.5% inoculum concentration, 1:2 solid to liquid ratio, at pH 5.5, and temperature 28 °C, by supplementation of the fermentation medium with 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose and 0.1% ammonium nitrate. Characterization of crude cellulases showed that highest CMCase activity was observed at pH 4.8 and temperature 40 °C. The CMCase was stable from pH 4.8–5.5 and at a temperature range of 35–50 °C. The pretreated biomass was subjected to hydrolysis with the fungal cellulases. The saccharification optimization studies showed that 2% (v/v) enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time of 2.5 h were optimum for maximum yield, i.e, 23.78% sugars and 35.96% saccharification value.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
  • Erratum to: A molecular phylogenetic framework for Bacillus subtilis using
           genome sequences and its application to Bacillus subtilis subspecies
           stecoris strain D7XPN1, an isolate from a commercial food-waste degrading

    • PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Virulence factors associated with Coagulase Negative Staphylococci
           isolated from human infections

    • Abstract: Infections caused by commensal organisms by changing to infectious life style generate much challenge to the current treatment strategies. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are one of them, with their coexisting biofilm forming and multiple antibiotic resistance properties form important agents of nosocomial infection. To evaluate species distribution, biofilm formation, and antibiogram, CoNS isolates from various clinical samples were isolated. The presence of biofilm and associated genes icaAB, aap, atlE, embp, bhp, and fbe in CoNS was screened by PCR. The biofilm chemical composition and its correlation with the genotypes were also analysed. Staphylococcus epidermidis (59%) was found to be the most prevalent CoNS species. Most of the CoNS isolates harboring biofilm gene showed carbohydrate-protein-eDNA biofilm, whereas carbohydrate-protein biofilms were also observed. High percentage of multiple drug resistance, and biofilm gene frequency among these CoNS isolates point towards the need of periodic surveillance as CoNS are recently identified to cause difficult to treat infections.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Improved activity of β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus sp.
           N - 227 via mutagenesis of the conserved residues

    • Abstract: β-Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (β-CGTase) belongs to the α-amylase family of enzymes and converts starch to cyclic oligosaccharides called β-cyclodextrins (β-CD). The β-CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. N-227 was separately mutagenized to give three site-directed β-CGTase mutants, Y127F, R254F and D355R, that showed enhanced cyclization activity towards a starch substrate from 1.64 to 2.1-folds. Kinetic studies indicate that the mutants had higher affinity towards the substrate than the wild type β-CGTase. The Y127F mutant had the highest affinity which was indicated by the lowest K m of 15.30 mM and the highest catalytic activity. Increasing hydrophobicity around the catalytic center appeared to favor the cyclization activity of the mutants. The β-CGTase and the three mutants showed optimal enzyme activity at 60 °C and pH 6.0. All the enzymes were stable for at least 60 min across a wide pH range (5.0–7.0).
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Recombinant expression, characterization and application of a
           dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with diaphorase activity from Bacillus

    • Abstract: Diaphorases are flavin-containing enzymes with potential applications in biotransfomation reactions, biosensor design and in vitro diagnostic tests. In this communication, we describe recombinant expression, characterization and application of a lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) with diaphorase activity from a strain of Bacillus sphaericus. The DLD gene consisting of 1413 bp encoding a protein of 470 amino acids was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. B. sphaericus DLD catalyzed the reduction of NAD+ by dihydrolipoamide and exhibited NADH-dependent diaphorase activity. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was about 50 kDa, and determined to be a monomeric protein. Diaphorase was active and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0 with an optimal activity at pH 8.5. It showed its maximal activity at temperature of 30 °C and was almost stable at temperatures between 25 and 30 °C. Different metal ions and inhibitors showed no influence on the activity of target enzyme. The K m and V max values for NADH were estimated to be 0.33 mM and 200.0 U/ml, respectively. Moreover, recombinant B. sphaericus diaphorase exhibited considerable potential to be used as a component of diagnostic tests for the quantification of metabolites. In conclusion, considering the properties of diaphorase from B. sphaericus PAD-91, it can have potential application as a diagnostic enzyme.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Fabrication, optimization, and characterization of noble silver
           nanoparticles from sugarcane leaf ( Saccharum officinarum ) extract for
           antifungal application

    • Abstract: Metal nanoparticles obtained from green route are gaining significant prominence as a result of their potential applications in nanomedicine and material engineering. Overall metal nanoparticles studied, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) clutch prominent place in nanoparticles research field. Herein, we have reported the green synthesis of Saccharum officinarum leaf biomass extract-mediated synthesis of AgNPs. Initial nanoparticle production was confirmed by visual observation as color change from light yellow to bright brown color with yellow shade and spectrophotometrically at 450 nm and the various reaction conditions were optimized. The FTIR spectra of the biomass extract and synthesized AgNPs authorized the presence of phyto constituents as capping agent. The High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) analyses confirm the morphology and the average particle size of AgNPs as ~28.2 nm. The crystalline nature oxide state and mean particle diameter of AgNPs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern and face-centered cubic (FCC). The obtained AgNPs show moderate to good antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum acutatum and Cladosporium fulvum as 10, 12 and 14 mm zones of inhibition against synthesized AgNPs at 250 μg/well, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Solid-state fermentation for production of a bioherbicide from Diaporthe
           sp. and its formulation to enhance the efficacy

    • Abstract: In this study, a bioherbicide was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Diaporthe sp. Adjuvants were employed in a formulation to enhance the herbicidal activity towards the target (Cucumis sativus). The study was divided into two steps: (1) the fermentation condition for bioherbicide production was assessed; (2) evaluation of different formulations containing palm oil, Tween® 80 and Span® 80, in order to increase phytotoxicity. In step 1, the maximum herbicidal activity (1.23% of the leaves had lesions) was obtained at 25 °C, moisture content of 50 wt%, supplemented with 10 wt% of corn steep liquor and soybean bran and inoculum density of 15 wt%. In step 2, the formulation containing 8.2 wt% of palm oil, 8.2 wt% of Tween® 80 and Span® 80, resulting in an HLB of 12.8 showed the highest phytotoxicity on the leaves. At this condition, dry matter and height of target were reduced about 36% in comparison with control. Diaporthe sp. has the potential to produce molecules with herbicidal activity and the use of adjuvants enhanced three times its efficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Identification of siderophore producing and cynogenic fluorescent
           Pseudomonas and a simple confrontation assay to identify potential
           bio-control agent for collar rot of chickpea

    • Abstract: In soil, plant roots coexist with bacteria and fungi that produce siderophores capable of sequestering the available iron. Microbial cyanogenesis has been demonstrated in many species of fungi and in a few species of bacteria (e.g., Chromobacterium and Pseudomonas). Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P29, P59, P144, P166, P174, P187, P191 and P192 were cyanogenic and produced siderophores in the presence of a strong chelater 8-Hydroxyquinoline (50 mg/l). A simple confrontation assay for identifying potential antagonists was developed. Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P66, P141, P144, P166 and P174 were antagonistic against both Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Vigorous plant growth was observed following seed bacterization with P141, P200 and P240. In field experiments, seed bacterization with selected bacterial isolates resulted in reduced collar rot (S. rolfsii) incidence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Purification, characterization and retting of Crotolaria juncea fibres by
           an alkaline pectin lyase from Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 1755

    • Abstract: Using solid-state fermentation, production of an industrially important pectin lyase from a fungal strain Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 1755 was attempted, which was further subjected to purification and characterization. The enzyme was purified by three steps, namely ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation-exchange chromatography on CM cellulose followed by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G-100 column. A 16-fold purification with 31.2% yield and 3.2 U/mg specific activity was achieved. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 9.0 and stability ranged from pH 5.0–7.0 for 24 h. Optimum temperature of purified enzyme was found to be 40 °C while temperature stability ranged from 10 to 50 °C for 30 min. The K m and k cat of the enzyme was 1.75 mg/ml and 83.3 s−1, respectively. The purified enzyme was found to be highly stimulated by Ca2+ ions while sugars like mannitol and sorbitol, and salts like NaCl and CaCl2 enhanced the thermostability. The purified pectin lyase was found suitable for retting of Crotolaria juncea fiber.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Proteomic characterization and bio-informatic analysis of differentially
           expressed E. coli Nissle 1917 proteins with response to cocoti wine stress

    • Abstract: The present study emphases the comparative proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 under cocoti palm wine stress and identified differentially expressed proteins. Protein samples were analyzed by 2-D, MALDI-TOF combined with MS access. In 2-D electrophoresis, eight differentially expressed proteins were identified: five up-regulated, two down-regulated and one newly expressed protein. Protein spots were digested with trypsin for MALDI-TOF–MS analysis; protein sequences were obtained from MASCOT search. Sequences were aligned with template using Swiss Model server. Phyre-2 was used to predict homology modeling, RasMol was used to analyze the modeling structures, PSVS server was utilized to validate the protein structure by Ramachandran’s plot analysis, physical and chemical properties were analyzed using ProtParam server, Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Mega4. UniProt search helps to find protein functional information of differentially expressed proteins, involved in catalytic activities, regulation mechanisms, DNA damage stimulus, anti-termination and termination process, protein binding, electron transport mechanism, and cell signaling process functions. A detailed exploration of the proteins under cocoti palm wine stress have provided the composition, structure and functions of the expressed proteins for further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • A modified protocol yields high-quality RNA from highly mucilaginous
           Dioscorea tubers

    • Abstract: Extraction of RNA from Dioscorea is difficult because of rich mucilage and secondary metabolite content. High-quality RNA is required for RT-PCR and transcriptome analysis. Different protocols and common extraction kits were used for RNA extraction in Dioscorea, but the results were not satisfactory. A CTAB based protocol with lithium chloride precipitation yielded good quality RNA. The RNA isolated using this protocol was successfully used for RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing experiments. Mucilage content varies at different developmental stages of Dioscorea and the present protocol was effective in isolating RNA from such samples. Although the protocol was originally modified for tuber tissues, it can be used also for extraction of RNA from rhizome, root, shoot and leaf.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Discriminatory power of rbcL barcode locus for authentication of some of
           United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants

    • Abstract: DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species. The sequences were submitted to GenBank; accession numbers were obtained for all the rbcL sequences and for 6 of matK sequences. We suggest rbcL as a promising barcode locus for the tested group of 51 plants. In the present study, an inexpensive, simple method of identification of rare desert plant taxa through rbcL barcode is being reported.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Optimization of cultivation conditions for biotechnological production of
           lipid by Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae )
           SY89 for biodiesel preparation

    • Abstract: Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89, an oleaginous yeast, isolated from Ethiopian soil, was grown under nitrogen-limited media. The capacity this with respect to biomass production, lipid yield and lipid content was evaluated. The influence of inoculum size, carbon sources, variations in glucose concentration, nitrogen sources, C/N ratio, pH, temperature, agitation, and aeration rate and incubation period were investigated. Inoculum size of 10% v/v, glucose as a carbon source at 50 g/L glucose, 0.50 g/L yeast extract and 0.31 g/L (NH4)2SO4, C/N ratio of 120, pH 5.5, incubation temperature of 30 °C, 225 rpm, 0.2 as aeration ratio and 144 h of incubation were found to be optimum conditions for lipid production. Then the yeast was grown in a batch bioreactor by combining the different optimized parameters together. Under the optimized conditions, the yeast gave maximum biomass (15.34 ± 1.47 g/L), lipid yield (8.60 ± 0.81 g/L) and lipid content (56.06 ± 1.70%). The dominant fatty acids exhibited in order of their relative abundance (%w/w), were oleic, palmitic, linoleic, stearic, linolenic and palmitoleic acids. The concentration of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids adds up 78.63 ± 2.19%. This suggests that this strain could be used as a good feedstock for biodiesel production.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Molecular characterization of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains
           isolated from Kashmir valley

    • Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. In the present study, new indigenous B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. For this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider webs were collected from ten districts of Kashmir valley (India). Of 1447 bacterial strains screened, 68 Bt strains were identified with 4 types of crystalline inclusions. Crystal morphology ranking among the Bt strains was spherical (69.11%) > spore attached (8.82%) > rod (5.88%) = bipyramidal (5.88%) > spherical plus rod (4.41%) > spherical plus bipyramidal (2.94%) = cuboidal (2.94%). SDS-PAGE investigation of the spore–crystal mixture demonstrated Bt strains contained proteins of various molecular weights ranging from 150 to 28 kDa. Insecticidal activity of the 68 indigenous Bt strains against Spodoptera litura neonates showed that Bt strain SWK1 strain had the highest mortality. Lepidopteron active genes (cry1, cry2Ab, cry2Ab) were present in six Bt strains. Further, analysis of a full-length cry2A gene (~1.9 kb) by PCR–RFLP in strain SWK1 revealed that it was a new cry2A gene in Bt strain SWK1 and was named as cry2Al1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ149819.1) using the Bt toxin nomenclature ( Insect bioassays with neonate larvae of S. litura and H. armigera showed that the purified Cry2Al1 is toxic to S. litura with LC50 2.448 µg/ml and H. armigera with LC50 3.374 µg/ml, respectively. However, it did not produce any mortality in third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae/pupae insects (100 µg/ml) at 28 ± 2 °C and 75 to 85% relative humidity under a photoperiod of 14L:10D.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Ginger extract as green biocide to control microbial corrosion of mild

    • Abstract: In latest years, various techniques and chemicals have been used for the control of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) of metals. The application of botanical-based biocides is one of the effective and practical techniques in the fight against MIC. In the present study, the role of aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) (GIE) as green biocide to control MIC of mild steel 1010 (MS) in a cooling water system was investigated. Biocorrosion behavior of Bacillus thuringiensis EN2 on MS and its control by GIE was analyzed by electrochemical measurements. Polarization, electrochemical studies (ES), weight loss measurements (WL), and surface analysis (XRD, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and FTIR, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy) were performed under various incubation periods up to 4 weeks. We observed that EN2 forms a thick biofilm on the MS metal surface at the end of the incubation period and the WL significantly increased to 993 mg at fourth week when compared to the initial immersion period (194 ± 2 mg). In contrast, with addition of GIE, WL was reduced about 41 ± 2 mg over biotic system (993 ± 2 mg). GC–MS analysis confirmed the adsorption of active component of GIE (β-turmerone) on the metal surface as a protective layer to prevent the biofilm formation and thus leads to reduction of corrosion. The optimum 20 ppm of GIE was found to be effective corrosion inhibition efficiency which was about 80%. From the results of WL, ES, XRD, FTIR, and GC–MS, GIE was identified as biocide and thus inhibits the bacterial growth on MS metal surface and it leads to control MIC. XRD showed that the GIE with EN2 resulted in less formation of corrosion products over biotic and abiotic systems. Overall, this research first shed light on the antibacterial activity of GIE inhibiting biofilm formation, thus reducing the corrosion of MS in cooling water systems.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
  • Using an artificial neural network to predict the optimal conditions for
           enzymatic hydrolysis of apple pomace

    • Abstract: The enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass such as apple pomace is a complex process influenced by a number of hydrolysis conditions. Predicting optimal conditions, including enzyme and substrate concentration, temperature and pH can improve conversion efficiency. In this study, the production of sugar monomers from apple pomace using commercial enzyme preparations, Celluclast 1.5L, Viscozyme L and Novozyme 188 was investigated. A limited number of experiments were carried out and then analysed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to model the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The ANN was used to simulate the enzymatic hydrolysis process for a range of input variables and the optimal conditions were successfully selected as was indicated by the R 2 value of 0.99 and a small MSE value. The inputs for the ANN were substrate loading, enzyme loading, temperature, initial pH and a combination of these parameters, while release profiles of glucose and reducing sugars were the outputs. Enzyme loadings of 0.5 and 0.2 mg/g substrate and a substrate loading of 30% were optimal for glucose and reducing sugar release from apple pomace, respectively, resulting in concentrations of 6.5 g/L glucose and 28.9 g/L reducing sugars. Apple pomace hydrolysis can be successfully carried out based on the predicted optimal conditions from the ANN.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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