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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2383 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (204 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (199 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (109 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1248 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (396 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)

ENGINEERING (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 275)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [226 journals]
  • Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and
           high-resolution melting (HRM) markers from the chloroplast genome of
           Glycyrrhiza species

    • Abstract: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an important medicinal crop often used as health foods or medicine worldwide. The molecular genetics of licorice is under scarce owing to lack of molecular markers. Here, we have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by comparing the chloroplast genomes of two Glycyrrhiza species (G. glabra and G. lepidota). The CAPS and HRM markers were tested for diversity analysis with 24 Glycyrrhiza accessions. The restriction profiles generated with CAPS markers classified the accessions (2–4 genotypes) and melting curves (2–3) were obtained from the HRM markers. The number of alleles and major allele frequency were 2−6 and 0.31–0.92, respectively. The genetic distance and polymorphism information content values were 0.16–0.76 and 0.15–0.72, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships among the 24 accessions were estimated using a dendrogram, which classified them into four clades. Except clade III, the remaining three clades included the same species, confirming interspecies genetic correlation. These 18 CAPS and HRM markers might be helpful for genetic diversity assessment and rapid identification of licorice species.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
       
  • Identification, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of
           Iron-deficiency-specific clone 3 ( Ids3 )-like gene in hexaploid wheat

    • Abstract: Graminaceous plants secrete hydroxylated phytosiderophores encoded by the genes iron-deficiency-specific clone 2 (Ids2) and iron-deficiency-specific clone 3 (Ids3). An effort was made to identify a putative ortholog of Hodeum vulgare Ids3 gene in hexaploid wheat. The protein structure of TaIDS3 was modeled using homology modeling and structural behavior of modeled structure was analyzed at 20 ns. The simulation trajectory using molecular dynamics simulation suggested the model to be stable with no large fluctuations in residues and local domain level RMSF values (< 2.4 Å). In addition, the ProFunc results also predict the functional similarity between the proteins of HvIDS3 and its wheat ortholog (TaIDS3). The TaIds3 gene was assigned to the telomeric region of chromosome arm 7AS which supports the results obtained through bioinformatics analysis. The relative expression analysis of TaIds3 indicated that the detectable expression of TaIds3 is induced after 5th day of Fe starvation and increases gradually up to 15th day, and thereafter, it decreases until 35th day of Fe-starvation. This reflects that Fe deficiency directly regulates the induction of TaIds3 in the roots of hexaploid wheat. The identification of HvIds3-like gene in wheat has opened up new opportunities to enhance the nutrient quality in wheat through biofortification program.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
       
  • Bioactive characteristics and optimization of tamarind seed protein
           hydrolysate for antioxidant-rich food formulations

    • Abstract: Tamarind seed has been a source of valuable nutrients such as protein (contains high amount of many essential amino acids), essential fatty acids, and minerals which are recognized as additive to develop perfect balanced functional foods. The objective of present work was to optimize the process parameters for extraction and hydrolysis of protein from tamarind seeds. Papain-derived hydrolysates showed a maximum degree of hydrolysis (39.49%) and radical scavenging activity (42.92 ± 2.83%) at optimized conditions such as enzyme-to-substrate ratio (1:5), hydrolysis time (3 h), hydrolysis temperature (65 °C), and pH 6. From this study, papain hydrolysate can be considered as good source of natural antioxidants in developing food formulations.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
       
  • Impact of geography on adaptation of Phyllanthus amarus seeds

    • Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate adaptive mechanism in terms of seed characters of Phyllanthus amarus collected from ten different locations of Tamil Nadu, India. The adaptive variations among the collected populations were assessed based on the sink and float percentages of the seeds in water, the percentage of seed germination, total protein, carbohydrates and their seedling’s growth ability such as shoot and root lengths. From this, we observed that the population had a significantly higher germination percentage of sinking seeds that were attributed to its relatively higher carbohydrate and protein contents than the floating seeds. A comparison of the seed population by cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis showed that the Chennai population constituted a single clade that was very distinct from the other nine populations, which were further grouped into two sub-clusters. They exhibited a trend consistent with their geographical proximity. Standardised Mantel’s t tests had revealed that the adaptive diversity of the P. amarus population was significantly affected by the geographic distance (r = 0.78, t = 2.68, P > 0.001), altitude (r = 0.35, t = 21.53, P > 0.05), minimum temperature (r = 0.43, t = 1.49, P > 0.01) and maximum temperature (r = 0.49, t = 1.67, P > 0.001). Seed’s characteristics and geographical conditions were correlated along with 19 bioclimatic variables. In dry season, the seedling’s rooting ability showed positive correlation, while its protein content exhibited a negative correlation. It is clearly evident from this study that the geographical variables significantly influence the adaptive ability of the P. amarus.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
       
  • A combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an
           efficient large-scale propagation in date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.)
           cv. Mejhoul

    • Abstract: An efficient regeneration system via a combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul. Adventitious buds were obtained from shoot-tip explants with a frequency of 53.3% after 9 months of culture: 6 months on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS/2) medium containing 14.2 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 13.4 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 µM 6-(dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), and 3 months on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1.1 µM IAA, 1.1 µM NAA, 0.5 µM 2iP, 2.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.4 µM kinetin. Adventitious bud segments were used as explants to induce somatic embryogenesis, and the effects of different concentrations (22.5, 45, 90, 225 or 450 µM) of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) were evaluated. The optimal medium for somatic embryogenesis induction was MS medium supplemented with 45 µM picloram and 5 µM 2iP, in which the somatic embryogenesis rate was 70%. For somatic embryo maturation, the effects of sorbitol, mannitol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA) were tested. The highest maturation rate (88.6 mature somatic embryos per 100 mg fresh weight callus) was observed on liquid MS medium supplemented with 20 g L−1 PEG. Subsequent somatic embryo germination was achieved with up to 52.0% in MS medium containing 2.5 µM NAA and 2.5 µM BA. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to the glasshouse where 76.0% of them survived.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
       
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of Pif gene from pearl mussel,
           Hyriopsis cumingii , and the gene expression analysis during pearl
           formation

    • Abstract: In the present study, the Pif gene of the freshwater pearl aquaculture mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii (HcPif) was successfully cloned and functionally characterized. The full sequence of HcPif gene consists of 3415 base pairs, which putatively encode two proteins, HcPif90 and HcPif80. A sequence analysis revealed that HcPif contained a von Willebrand factor type A domain and a chitin-binding domain, and shared many functional residues with other Pif homologues. A highly conserved sequence, FKGLDEIELML, at the C-terminus of Pif80s was identified as the key functional site. The corresponding peptide fragment markedly modified the morphology of calcite crystallites in CaCO3 crystallization assay and might play an essential role in the interactive binding between HcPif80 and CaCO3. Moreover, real-time PCR results showed that HcPif gene was dominantly expressed in the pearl secreting tissues and its expression changed in response to the different development status of the pearl sac during pearl aquaculture. The gene expression of HcPif was maximum 7 days after mantle grafting and declined to about the control level on day 30. Our in vitro and in vivo experimental data indicated that HcPif gene possessed the inherent characteristics of a nacre formation gene and its expression might faithfully reflect the pearl secretion status of the pearl mussels examined. Our findings may extend the understanding of the biomineralization mechanism of nacre formation and provide a potential biomarker for pearl farming.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
       
  • Recent advances in conventional and contemporary methods for remediation
           of heavy metal-contaminated soils

    • Abstract: Remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has been drawing our attention toward it for quite some time now and a need for developing new methods toward reclamation has come up as the need of the hour. Conventional methods of heavy metal-contaminated soil remediation have been in use for decades and have shown great results, but they have their own setbacks. The chemical and physical techniques when used singularly generally generate by-products (toxic sludge or pollutants) and are not cost-effective, while the biological process is very slow and time-consuming. Hence to overcome them, an amalgamation of two or more techniques is being used. In view of the facts, new methods of biosorption, nanoremediation as well as microbial fuel cell techniques have been developed, which utilize the metabolic activities of microorganisms for bioremediation purpose. These are cost-effective and efficient methods of remediation, which are now becoming an integral part of all environmental and bioresource technology. In this contribution, we have highlighted various augmentations in physical, chemical, and biological methods for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, weighing up their pros and cons. Further, we have discussed the amalgamation of the above techniques such as physiochemical and physiobiological methods with recent literature for the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soils. These combinations have showed synergetic effects with a many fold increase in removal efficiency of heavy metals along with economic feasibility.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
       
  • Renoprotective effect of cinnamaldehyde in food color induced toxicity

    • Abstract: Present study reports the effects of metanil yellow, a non-permitted food colouring dye, on the biomarkers of oxidative stress and kidney function in blood and renal tissue of albino Wistar rats and its mitigation by cinnamaldehyde, a major phytoconstituents of cinnamon. Oral administration of metanil yellow in rats caused about 70% reduction in ferric reducing ability (FRAP 5.1 μM/L) and 50% decline in reduced glutathione (GSH 59.27 nM/mg protein) content in plasma with simultaneous increase in serum creatinine level. In kidney tissues, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and GSH dropped while malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased. Co-administration of cinnamaldehyde with metanil yellow showed considerable restorative effect on the biomarkers of plasma antioxidant status and kidney function i.e., FRAP (11.5 μM/L), GSH (83–88.5 nM/mg protein), urea, creatinine, SOD, catalase and MDA. Administration of cinnamaldehyde restored the kidney enzyme activities up to 75% of the base level. The study revealed that reno-protective action of cinnamaldehyde was mediated by lowering oxidative stress level.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
       
  • High-titer and productivity of l -(+)-lactic acid using exponential
           fed-batch fermentation with Bacillus coagulans arr4, a new thermotolerant
           bacterial strain

    • Abstract: Bacillus coagulans arr4 is a thermotolerant microorganism with great biotechnological potential for l-(+)-lactic acid production from granulated sugar and yeast extract. The highest l-(+)-lactic acid production was obtained with Ca(OH)2. The maximum production of l-(+)-lactic acid (206.81 g/L) was observed in exponential feeding using granulated sugar solution (900 g/L) and yeast extract (1%) at 50 °C, pH 6.5, and initial granulated sugar concentration of 100 g/L at 39 h. 5.3 g/L h productivity and 97% yield were observed, and no sugar remained. Comparing the simple batch with exponential fed-batch fermentation, the l(+) lactic acid production was improved in 133.22% and dry cell weight was improved in 83.29%, using granulated sugar and yeast extract. This study presents the highest productivity of lactic acid ever observed in the literature, on the fermentation of thermotolerant Bacillus sp. as well as an innovative and high-efficiency purification technology, using low-cost substances as Celite and charcoal. The recovery of lactic acid was 86%, with 100% protein removal, and the fermentation medium (brown color) became a colorless solution.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and application of lipase-conjugated citric
           acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles for ester synthesis using waste frying
           oil

    • Abstract: In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical precipitation of trivalent and divalent iron ions which were functionalized using citric acid. The bacterial isolate Staphylococcus epidermidis KX781317 was isolated from oil-contaminated site. The isolate produced lipase, which was purified and immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for ester synthesis from waste frying oil (WFO). The characterization of MNPs employed conventional TEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. TEM analysis of MNPs showed the particle size in the range of 20–50 nm. FTIR spectra revealed the binding of citric acid to Fe3O4 and lipase on citric acid-coated MNPs. The citric acid-coated MNPs and lipase-conjugated citric acid-coated MNPs had similar XRD patterns which indicate MNPs could preserve their magnetic properties. The maximum immobilization efficiency 98.21% of lipase-containing citric acid-coated MNPs was observed at ratio 10:1 of Cit-MNPs:lipase. The pH and temperature optima for lipase conjugated with Cit-MNPs were 7 and 35 °C, respectively. Isobutanol was found to be an effective solvent for ester synthesis and 1:2 ratio of oil:alcohol observed significant for ester formation. The ester formation was determined using TLC and the % yield of ester conversion was calculated. The rate of ester formation is directly proportional to the enzyme load. Formed esters were identified as isobutyl laurate ester and isobutyl myristate ester through GC–MS analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
       
  • Codon optimization significantly enhanced the expression of human 37-kDa
           iLRP in Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: 37-kDa immature laminin receptor protein (iLRP), the precursor of 67-kDa laminin receptor protein (LRP), is overexpressed on the surface of most cancer cells and recognized as a universal tumor antigen. The role makes it a potential target for cancer immunotherapy, which has been well-studied. Our study aimed to produce high quality of human iLRP in bacteria so that the needs in research of its clinical application could be met. The powerful system for heterologous protein expression, pET system was used. Two types of DNA sequences encoding the same amino acid sequences were separately cloned into the vector pET30a(+). One of the resulting vectors includes the wild-type iLRP, and other one includes the codon-optimized iLRP. The expression by both genes was then compared in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Our results revealed that the performance of codon optimization was crucial for the expression of human iLRP in Escherichia coli. The yield was significantly enhanced up to 300 mg/L of bacterial culture by this approach.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
       
  • Biochemical events during somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica L.

    • Abstract: Several biochemical components associated with different stages of somatic embryogenesis in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) are investigated using foliar explants. Soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids and total proteins were extracted and quantified at different stages of somatic embryogenesis, such as foliar segments (initial explants), primary calluses, embryogenic calluses, globular embryos, torpedoes, cotyledonary embryos and mature fruit zygotic embryos. Total soluble sugar levels increased sixfold at the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis induction. During this period, total soluble sugar in the cultures contained approximately 99.3% glucose and fructose. At 67.4 μg/mg MS, no significant changes were observed in total sugar content during the embryo’s somatic maturation and regeneration. During this stage, total soluble sugar was composed of 60% sucrose. After primary callus formation, starch contents increased gradually until the culture’s conclusion. Total free amino acids, particularly arginine, lysine, methionine, asparagine, glutamine and histidine, revealed a higher synthesis until the formation of the primary callus, after which they remain statistically constant up to the end of the process. During the induction of calluses, a gradual increase of total proteins occurred, which, in the differentiating and maturing of somatic embryos, did not differ statistically till the formation of a cotyledonary embryo, when rates decreased 21.8%.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
       
  • Enhanced saccharification of rice straw using combined ultra-high pressure
           and ionic liquid microemulsion pretreatments

    • Abstract: Energy efficiency ratio is significant in completely estimating lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. In this work, rice straw (RS) was pretreated by ultra-high pressure (UHP), ionic liquid microemulsion (ILM), and a combination of UHP and ILM (ILM + UHP) at mild temperature. The chemical composition, crystalline structure, surface morphology, and enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated and pretreated RS samples were compared. After ILM pretreatment ([Emim]Ac/cyclohexane/Triton X-100/n-butanol = 0.25/0.15/0.45/0.15) at 500 MPa, 50 °C for 4 h, the cellulose content of the regenerated RS increased by 62.5, 66.2% of the lignin was removed, 37.3% of crystallinity index decreased, and the reducing sugar yield of 89.6% was achieved. All results show that the ILM + UHP pretreatments were more effective than sole UHP or ILM treatment at low temperature.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
       
  • Therapeutic applications of bacterial pigments: a review of current status
           and future opportunities

    • Abstract: Non-toxicity, biodegradability and non-carcinogenicity of the natural pigments, dyes and colorants make them an attractive source for human use. Bacterial pigments are colored metabolites secreted by bacteria under stress. The industrial uses of bacterial pigments have increased many folds because of several advantages over the synthetic pigments. Among natural resources, bacterial pigments are mostly preferred because of simple culturing and pigment extraction techniques, scaling up and being time economical. Generally, the bacterial pigments are safe for human use and therefore have a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, textile, cosmetics and food industries. Therapeutic nature of the bacterial pigments is revealed because of their antimicrobial, anticancer, cytotoxic and remarkable antioxidant properties. Owing to the importance of bacterial pigments it was considered important to produce a comprehensive review of literature on the therapeutic and industrial potential of bacterial pigments. Extensive literature has been reviewed on the biomedical application of bacterial pigments while further opportunities and future challenges have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
       
  • Bioremediation of phenol from synthetic and real wastewater using
           Leptolyngbya sp.: a comparison and assessment of lipid production

    • Abstract: Bioremediation of wastewater is gaining popularity over chemical treatment due to the greener aspect. The volume of literature containing algal biodegradation is small. Especially, removal of toxic materials like phenol from coke-oven wastewater using fast-growing cyanobacteria was not tried. The current study, therefore, targeted at bioremediation of phenol from wastewater using Leptolyngbya sp., a cyanobacterial strain, as a finishing step. Furthermore, the growth of the strain was studied under different conditions, varying phenol concentration 50–150 mg/L, pH 5–11, inoculum size 2–10% to assess its ability to produce lipid. The strain was initially grown in BG-11 as a reference medium and later in phenolic solution. The strain was found to sustain 150 mg/L concentration of phenol. SEM study had shown the clear difference in the structure of cyanobacterial strain when grown in pure BG-11 medium and phenolic solution. Maximum removal of phenol (98.5 ± 0.14%) was achieved with an initial concentration 100 mg/L, 5% inoculum size at pH 11, while the maximum amount of dry biomass (0.38 ± 0.02 g/L) was obtained at pH 7, initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, and 5% inoculum size. Highest lipid yield was achieved at pH 11, initial phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, and 5% inoculum size. Coke-oven wastewater collected from secondary clarifier of effluent treatment plant was also treated with the said strain and the removal of different pollutants was observed. The study suggests the utilization of such potential cyanobacterial strain in treating industrial effluent containing phenol.
      PubDate: 2018-03-31
       
  • Genotype-independent and enhanced in planta Agrobacterium tumefaciens-
           mediated genetic transformation of peanut [ Arachis hypogaea (L.)]

    • Abstract: Agrobacterium infection and regeneration of the putatively transformed plant from the explant remains arduous for some crop species like peanut. Henceforth, a competent and reproducible in planta genetic transformation protocol is established for peanut cv. CO7 by standardizing various factors such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, duration of co-cultivation, sonication and vacuum infiltration. In the present investigation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301–bar was used for transformation. The two-stage selection was carried out using 4 and 250 mg l−1 BASTA® to completely eliminate the chimeric and non-transformed plants. The transgene integration into plant genome was evaluated by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blot hybridization. Among the various combinations and concentrations analyzed, highest transformation efficiency was obtained when the 2-day pre-cultured explants were subjected to sonication for 6 min and vacuum infiltrated for 3 min in Agrobacterium suspension, and co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 150 µM acetosyringone for 3 days. The fidelity of the standardized in planta transformation method was assessed in five peanut cultivars and all the cultivars responded positively with a transformation efficiency ranging from minimum 31.3% (with cv. CO6) to maximum 38.6% (with cv. TMV7). The in planta transformation method optimized in this study could be beneficial to develop superior peanut cultivars with desirable genetic traits.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
  • Purification of an alpha amylase from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 and
           molecular characterization of its nucleotide gene sequence

    • Abstract: In this study, an alpha-amylase enzyme from a locally isolated Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was purified and characterized. The extracellular α-amylase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography at a final yield of 2.55-fold and recovery of 11.73%. The molecular mass of the purified α-amylase was estimated to be 54 kDa using SDS-PAGE and the enzyme exhibited optimal catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and temperature of 50 °C. The enzyme was also thermally stable at 50 °C, with 87% residual activity after 60 min. As a metalloenzymes containing calcium, the purified α-amylase showed significantly increased enzyme activity in the presence of Ca2+ ions. Further gene isolation and characterization shows that the α-amylase gene of A. flavus NSH9 contained eight introns and an open reading frame that encodes for 499 amino acids with the first 21 amino acids presumed to be a signal peptide. Analysis of the deduced peptide sequence showed the presence of three conserved catalytic residues of α-amylase, two Ca2+-binding sites, seven conserved peptide sequences, and several other properties that indicates the protein belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13 capable of acting on α-1,4-bonds only. Based on sequence similarity, the deduced peptide sequence of A. flavus NSH9 α-amylase was also found to carry two potential surface/secondary-binding site (SBS) residues (Trp 237 and Tyr 409) that might be playing crucial roles in both the enzyme activity and also the binding of starch granules.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
  • Recent advancement on chemical arsenal of Bt toxin and its application in
           pest management system in agricultural field

    • Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins. Till date, a wide spectrum of Cry proteins has been reported and most of them belong to three-domain-Cry toxins, Bin-like toxin, and Etx_Mtx2-like toxins. To the best of our knowledge, neither Bt insecticidal toxins are exclusive to Bt nor all the strains of Bt are capable of producing insecticidal Bt toxins. The lacuna in their latest classification has also been discussed. In this review, the updated information regarding the insecticidal Bt toxins and their different mode of actions were summarized. Before applying the Bt toxins on agricultural field, the non-specific effects of toxins should be investigated. We also have summarized the problem of insect resistance and the strategies to combat with this problem. We strongly believe that this information will help a lot to the budding researchers in the field of modern pest control biotechnology.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
  • Production of proteases from organic wastes by solid-state fermentation:
           downstream and zero waste strategies

    • Abstract: Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode). Activity after lyophilisation was tested. Solid waste valorisation after extraction was studied using respiration techniques and biogas production tests, as part of a zero waste strategy. Results showed a maximum extraction yield of 91% for SF and 121% for HS, both in agitated mode and distilled water as extraction agent. An average activity recovery of 95 ± 6 and 94 ± 6% for SF and HS, respectively, was obtained after lyophilisation and redissolution. To reduce the cost of extraction, a ratio 1:3 w:v solid–solvent in static mode is advised for SF, and 1:2 w:v extraction ratio in agitated mode for HS, both with distilled water as extracting agent. Both composting and anaerobic digestion are suitable techniques for valorisation of the waste material.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
  • Development of a yeast heterologous expression cassette based on the
           promoter and terminator elements of the Eremothecium cymbalariae
           translational elongation factor 1α ( EcTEF1 ) gene

    • Abstract: A new expression cassette (EC0) consisting of the fused 5′ and 3′ intergenic regions (IGRs) of the Eremothecium cymbalariae translational elongation factor 1α (EcTEF1) gene was evaluated through expression of the bacterial hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) resistance gene in the common baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Progressively shorter versions of the hph-containing EC cassette (hphEC1 though hphEC6) with trimmed 5′ and 3′ EcTEF1 IGRs were tested for their ability to confer resistance to hygromycin B in S. cerevisiae. Hygromycin B resistance was retained in all six generated hphEC variants up to a concentration of 400 mg/L. The hphEC6 cassette was the shortest cassette to be assayed in this study with 366 and 155 bp of the EcTEF1 5′ and 3′ IGRs, respectively. When tested for deletion of the S. cerevisiae proline oxidase gene PUT1, the hphEC6 cassette was shown to successfully act as a selection marker on hygromycin B-containing medium. The hphEC6 cassette could be placed immediately adjacent to a kanMX4 G418 disulfate resistance marker without any discernable effect on the ability of the yeast to grow in the presence of both hygromycin B and G418 disulfate. Co-cultivation experiments under non-selective conditions demonstrated that a PUT1 deletion strain carrying the hphEC6 cassette displayed equivalent fitness to an otherwise isogenic PUT1 deletion strain carrying the kanMX4 cassette.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
 
 
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