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ENGINEERING (1204 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [224 journals]
  • Concurrent production and relative quantification of vasicinone from in
           vivo and in vitro plant parts of Malabar nut ( Adhatoda vasica Nees)

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study documents a simultaneous production and comparative assessment of extracted vasicinone from in vivo (leaves and stems) and in vitro (leaves, stems and calli) plant parts of Adhatoda vasica Nees, a well-known medicinal plant. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the above-mentioned plant parts, collected at their 60-day-old growth stage, was performed via methanolic extraction and with the aid of toluene:butanol:butyl acetate (9:0.5:0.5; v/v/v) solvent system. The method was validated with the help of aluminium sheet precoated with silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates, following the ICH guidelines in order to maintain accuracy, precision and repeatability. Correlation coefficient, limit of detection and limit of quantification values were found to be reasonable. The outcome revealed a linearity that ranged between 2 and 6 µg/spot. During the comparison of estimated vasicinone quantity from in vivo and in vitro plant parts, it was evident that in vitro samples produced relatively higher vasicinone than that of the in vivo counterparts. Maximum vasicinone (6.402 ± 0.010% of dry weight) production was quantified from in vitro leaves followed by calli (5.222 ± 0.092% of dry weight) and in vitro stems (2.007 ± 0.041% of dry weight). On the other hand, in vivo leaves and stems produced comparatively lower quantities of vasicinone (2.412 ± 0.139 and 1.933 ± 0.046% of dry weight, respectively) suggesting the in vitro clonal propagation as a superior approach in comparison to in vivo propagation. Nonetheless, simultaneous production from both the sources (in vivo and in vitro plant parts) provides a new avenue for augmented production of vasicinone.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
  • Activity of chitosan–lysozyme nanoparticles on the growth, membrane
           integrity, and β-1,3-glucanase production by Aspergillus parasiticus

    • Abstract: Abstract Synthesis of nanocomposites from antimicrobial biopolymers such as chitosan (CS) and lysozyme (LZ) is an important and promising area in bionanotechnology. Chitosan–lysozyme (CS–LZ) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method, using commercial chitosan of 153 kDa. TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were carried out to evaluate the morphology, size, dispersion, and Z potential. Association efficiency of lysozyme was determined using Coomassie blue assay. The antifungal activity of NPs against Aspergillus parasiticus was evaluated through cell viability (XTT), germination and morphometry of spores, and reducing sugars production; the effects on membrane integrity and cell wall were also analyzed. NPs’ size were found in the range of 13.4 and 11.8 nm for CS–LZ and CS NPs, respectively, and high Z potential value was observed in both NPs. Also, high association of lysozyme was presented in the CS matrix. With respect to the biological responses, CS–LZ NPs reduced the viability of A. parasiticus and a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of spores (100% of inhibition) was observed at 24 h in in vitro assays. CS–LZ and CS NPs affected the membrane integrity and the cell wall of spores of fungi with respect to control, which is consistent with the low amount of reducing sugars detected. CS–LZ NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation promise to be a viable and safe alternative for use in biological systems, with a possible low or null impact to humans and biota. However, the potential benefits and the environmental and health implications of NPs need to be globally discussed due to its possible negative effects.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
  • Biosurfactant and enzyme mediated crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas
           stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil. The optimal conditions for P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 for biodegradation were pH of 8 and 7; temperature of 30 and 40 °C, respectively. P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 produced 3.81 and 4.68 g/L of BS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that BS was mainly composed of fatty acids. Furthermore, the role of the degradative enzymes, alkane hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and laccase on biodegradation of crude oil are explained. Maximum biodegradation efficiency (BE) was recorded for mixed consortia (86%) followed by strain P. stutzeri NA3 (84%). Both bacterial strains were found to be vigorous biodegraders of crude oil than other biosurfactant-producing bacteria due to their enzyme production capabilities and our results suggests that the bacterial isolates can be used for effective degradation of crude oil within short time periods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
  • Screening of Neem extracts for microbial anti-chaperone activity by
           employing in vitro enzyme refolding assay

    • Abstract: Abstract Microbial heat shock proteins (Hsps) play an important role in pathogenesis and development of resistance to existing drugs. New compounds that target microbial molecular chaperones have the potential of combating the challenge of anti-microbial resistance. The present study was aimed at assessing the employment of in vitro enzyme refolding assay to detect anti-chaperone activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts. Protein extracts of thermotolerant Escherichia coli cells were used as a source of Hsps or chaperones. Thermotolerance was found to be induced by pre-treating E. coli cells at 47 °C before subjecting them to a lethal temperature of 55 °C. This thermotolerance correlated with over-expression of specific proteins and reduced aggregation as evident from the SDS-PAGE profiles. Refolding assays of denatured enzymes exhibited 45% activity regain in presence of cell protein extracts containing chaperones compared to less than 5% regain in BSA negative controls. The chaperone activity was found to be ATP dependent. Addition of Neem extracts to refolding reaction mixtures distinctly reduced the activity regain (20%) in a dose dependent manner (500 and 1000 ppm). The negative influence of plant extract on refolding of the enzyme in the presence of chaperones gives evidence to its anti-chaperone activity. We propose that the employment of in vitro enzyme refolding assays will help not only to analyze the activity of known and putative chaperones but also to screen natural compounds for anti-microbial-Hsp activity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
  • Improved production of kojic acid by mutagenesis of Aspergillus flavus

    • Abstract: Abstract Two wild-type (WT) Aspergillus strains, A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2, were selected for kojic acid (KA) biosynthesis. Malt extract sucrose culture medium (MES) was the best culture medium for maximum production of KA. The maximum production of KA has been estimated at pH 4 after 7 days of incubation at 30 °C. Overproduction of KA was attained by mutagenesis of both A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2 through their exposer to different doses of gamma irradiation. The mutant strains (MT) A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A. oryzae HAk2-M26 were the most stable mutants for maximum production of KA through four generations. Yield of KA by A. oryzae HAk2-M26 and A. flavus HAk1-M2 has been 2.03-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, higher than their wild-type strains. All WT and MT strains were used for KA production from different agricultural raw materials. Apple peel was the best waste for KA production by WT strains of A. flavus and A. oryzae, while orange peel and rice stalk are best material for KA production by MT strains, A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A. oryzae HAk2-M26, respectively. All experimental strains have the ability to produce considerable amounts of KA from sugarcane molasse (SCM) and sugar-beet molasse (SBM). SBM was better than SCM for KA production by all strains. The antioxidant activity of biosynthesizing KA was strongly affected with production conditions, where the highest antioxidant activity of all strains was recorded at the optimum environmental and nutritional conditions for KA production.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
  • Evaluation of model parameters for growth, tannic acid utilization and
           tannase production in Bacillus gottheilii M2S2 using polyurethane foam
           blocks as support

    • Abstract: Abstract Production of tannase from B. gottheilii M2S2 was studied under solid-state fermentation with an optimized medium consisting of polyurethane foam matrix of dimension 40 × 40 × 5 mm, impregnated with a liquid medium comprising (w/v): 4% tannic acid; 2% NH4NO3; 0.1% KH2PO4; 0.2% MgSO4; 0.1% NaCl and 0.05% CaCl2·2H2O in distilled water, having a pH of 4.7. Maximum tannase production of 56.87 U/L was obtained after 32 h of fermentation at 32 °C in static condition. This study deals with the evaluation of unstructured kinetic models to understand the behavior of biomass, tannase production and tannic acid degradation, with the fermentation time. The growth rate of B. gottheilii M2S2 was 0.0703 h−1 at 32 h of fermentation. Product (Y x/s) and biomass yield (Y p/s) coefficients were estimated as 1.77 U/g of tannic acid and 0.276 g of biomass/g of tannic acid. All the kinetic constants µ, α, β, m and n were evaluated using MATLAB 2015Rb program. The experimental and model-generated data showed a good correlation, which indicated that these models will describe tannase production and fermentation process.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
  • High frequency direct shoot organogenesis of leaf explants and a
           comparative evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant potential of wild
           vs. in vitro plant extracts of Lysimachia laxa

    • Abstract: Abstract The present studies were attempted to develop direct shoot organogenesis from in vitro grown leaf explants of Lysimachia laxa and comparative evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant potential of in vitro raised and wild plants extracts. The fresh leaves of this species are used for deworming gastrointestinal worm infection in traditional medicine. Overexploitation of this species and poor regeneration has led to rapid decline in wild population, therefore, present investigation was attempted to develop an efficient rapid mass propagation protocol for this species. Our result showed significantly (P < 0.05) high adventitious shoot proliferation of 17.21 ± 0.24 number per leaf explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with 1.25 mg L−1 thiadizuron and 1.0 mg L−1 α-naphthalene acetic acid. Further enhancement was achieved through elongation medium fortified with 1.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine by average shoot number of 31.1 ± 0.80 and length of 5.96 ± 0.13 cm. Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with 0.50 mg L−1 Indole-3-acetic acid showed high rooting induction (100%) with average root number of 11.70 and length 7.35 cm. All rooted plants were successfully acclimatized in greenhouse and transferred to field condition with a survival rate of 97%. The contents of phenolic and flavonoid were higher in in vitro raised plant in compared to wild plant extracts. Antioxidants assay showed high radical scavenging activity of IC50 1.61 ± 0.07 mg dry material and reducing power of 49.79 ± 0.11 mg/g ascorbic acid equivalent by aqueous methanol extracts of in vitro raised 3-months-old plants in compare to the wild plants. The present protocol is a viable option for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical industries for sustainable utilization of L. laxa with enhanced of phytochemical and antioxidant potency which is not reported elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
  • Solid bioprocess of tarbush ( Flourensia cernua ) leaves for
           β-glucosidase production by Aspergillus niger : initial approach to
           fiber–glycoside interaction for enzyme induction

    • Abstract: Abstract Commercial cellulase production has increased in recent years and consistent research has been carried out to improve levels of β-glucosidase. Bioprocesses have been successfully adapted to produce this enzyme, with solid-state fermentations as the best-suited technique involving fungi. The aim of this study was to use leaves of tarbush (Flourensia cernua), an abundant shrub of the Chihuahuan Desert, as a carbon source for β-glucosidase production by Aspergillus niger. During the solid bioprocess, this enzyme reached its peak production at 36 h of culture with 3876.6 U/L. There is a particular interest in the substrate composition because of the possibility of phenolic glycosides having an important role in β-glucosidase production. HPLC–MS analyses showed that glycosides were present with the highest accumulation at 36 h of fungal culture. Luteolin and apigenin glycosides [1.8 and 2.4 absorbance units, respectively] were also detected and showed their highest point of detection alongside the highest β-glucosidase activity. No apparent changes in cellulose were observed, while hemicellulose content decreased, which could be related to production and activity of β-glucosidase. This study shows that leaves of F. cernua are an important raw material for β-glucosidase production and give a source of compounds of added value which also may have an important role for β-glucosidase production.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Development of functional fermented whey–oat-based product using
           probiotic bacteria

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study was to formulate a fermented whey product using probiotic bacteria and whey protein concentrate (WPC containing 70% of proteins) to obtain a fermented product with low lactose and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) content. Several factors such as starter culture concentration (1, 5, and 10%) and fermentation time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h) were optimized on the basis of growth activity in terms of viable count, pH, and acidity. Starter culture concentration and fermentation time of 5% and 10 h, respectively, show the optimal viable count (9.8 × 1010) and pH (4.42) as per the requirement. Proteolysis of WPC by a mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus was found to be 98.8 μg/ml. Hydrolysis of whey proteins by probiotic bacteria was detected by SDS-PAGE. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in cell viability and pH was observed as the refrigerated storage period goes on increasing (0–15 days).
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Silicon and water-deficit stress differentially modulate physiology and
           ultrastructure in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Abstract: Abstract Plants combat drought stress by coordinating various metabolic enzymes, and endogenous phytohormones, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the present study, 37-day-old wheat seedlings were subjected to the Hoagland solution with 20% PEG for 7 days (to create the artificial osmotic stress environment) in the greenhouse, and were supplemented with an optimized concentration (1.0 mM) of silicon (Si) to alleviate the negative effects of former stress on physiological, biochemical and phytohormones contents. Exogenous Si significantly improved plant growth parameters under osmotic stress compared to PEG treatment alone (the increase was up to 6 and 9% for shoot and root fresh weight, 4 and 12% for shoot and root dry weight, respectively). Moreover, Si significantly decreased the H2O2, MDA contents, electrolyte leakage, antioxidant enzyme activity (POD), and mineral contents (K and Ca) under osmotic stress but markedly increased the ascorbic acid(AsA), soluble sugar and mineral (Mg and Si) contents. Interestingly, Si application under water-deficit stress differently modulated the endogenous levels of ABA, IAA and JA in wheat plants compared to PEG treatment alone. This study suggests that exogenous Si improves the plant growth by modulating the nutrient (Na, Mg and Si) uptake and phytohormone levels in wheat under water-deficit stress.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
  • Expression of codon-optimized TgMIC16 in three Escherichia coli strains

    • Abstract: Abstract In a previous study, we found that rabbit anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum was capable of recognizing truncated T. gondii microneme protein 16 (TgMIC16), indicating that TgMIC16 is an essential antigenic T. gondii protein. However, the broad application of this recombinant protein is limited by its low expression level. In this study, we performed codon optimization of TgMIC16 by changing the codon-adaptation index from 0.22 to 1.0 without altering the amino acid sequence and expressed the optimized gene in three different Escherichia coli strains, followed by comparison of soluble recombinant-protein expression and yield. Our results showed that the recombinant protein rTgMIC16 was expressed as inclusion bodies in all three strains following optimization of induction parameters, and western blot analysis revealed the presence of a ~72-kD recombinant protein as a specific band following purification. A shuffle-expression strain was selected to amplify incubation products and induce expression, resulting in an overall rTgMIC16 yield of ~20 mg/L. These findings provide a basis for further investigation of TgMIC16 to elucidate its functions and interaction partners.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
  • Expression of tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein using baculovirus
           expression system and evaluation of its utility as a viral antigen

    • Abstract: Abstract DNA encoding the coat protein (CP) of an Egyptian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) under the control of polyhedrin promoter. The generated recombinant baculovirus construct harboring the coat protein gene was characterized using PCR analysis. The recombinant coat protein expressed in infected insect cells was used as a coating antigen in an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot to test its utility for the detection of antibody generated against TYLCV virus particles. The results of ELISA and dot blot showed that the TYLCV-antibodies reacted positively with extracts of infected cells using the recombinant virus as a coating antigen with strong signals as well as the TYLCV infected tomato and beat plant extracts as positive samples. Scanning electron microscope examination showed that the expressed TYLCV coat protein was self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar in size and morphology to TYLCV virus particles. These results concluded that, the expressed coat protein of TYLCV using baculovirus vector system is a reliable candidate for generation of anti-CP antibody for inexpensive detection of TYLCV-infected plants using indirect CP-ELISA or dot blot with high specificity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
  • A sustainable use of low-cost raw substrates for biodiesel production by
           the oleaginous yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus

    • Abstract: Abstract Over the past decade, the increasing demand of vegetable oils for biodiesel production has highlighted the need for alternative oil feedstocks that do not compete with food production. In this context, the combined use of agro-industrial wastes and oleaginous microorganisms could be a promising strategy for sustainable biodiesel production. The present investigation involves the performance of the oleaginous yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain EC28 to produce lipids from different agro-industrial wastewaters (i.e., deproteinized cheese whey, olive mill wastewater, and wastewaters from confectionary industries) and waste frying oils (i.e., waste oil from frying fish, waste oil from frying potato and waste oil from frying meat). Results indicated that this strain can adequately grow on agro-industrial wastewater-based media and produce substantial amounts of lipids [up to 24%, wt/wt in deproteinized cheese whey-based medium and olive mill wastewater-based medium (75%, v/v in water)] of similar fatty acid composition to that of the most commonly used vegetable oils in the biodiesel industry. However, the addition of frying oils to the culture media resulted in a significant decrease in total lipid content, probably due to excess of available nitrogen released from meat, fish, and potato into the frying oil. The estimated properties of the resulting biodiesels, such as SV (190.69–203.13), IV (61.77–88.32), CN (53.45–59.32), and CFPP (−0.54 to 10.4), are reported, for the first time, for W. anomalus and correlate well with specified standards. In conclusion, W. anomalus strain EC28, for which there is very limited amount of available information, might be regarded as a promising candidate for biodiesel production and additional efforts for process improvement should be envisaged.
      PubDate: 2017-07-29
  • Biobleaching of paper pulp with xylanase produced by Trichoderma

    • Abstract: Abstract This study is aimed at assessing the biobleaching activity of fungal xylanase on paper pulp isolated from Tirumala forest, Eastern Ghats of India. Of the 98 fungal isolates obtained after initial screening, eight isolates were selected and one potential strain was further cultivated under submerged fermentation for production of xylanase. The biobleaching efficiency on waste paper pulp and paper industry effluent was tested with crude enzyme. Xylanolytic activity by the chosen organism in submerged fermentation reached the maximum (981.1 U ml−1) on the 5th day of incubation. Molecular characterisation of the isolate led to its identification as Trichoderma asperellum which exhibited the production of enzyme even at alkaline pH of the culture medium. Xylanase pretreatment of paper pulp had shown reduction in the Kappa number by 4.2 points and increased brightness by 4.0 points. FTIR and SEM studies revealed loosening of pulp fibres after enzyme treatment. In conclusion, xylanase of Trichoderma asperellum was effective as a pulp biobleaching agent and the process is economical as well as eco-friendly.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
  • Molecular characterization of EcCIPK 24 gene of finger millet ( Eleusine
           coracana ) for investigating its regulatory role in calcium transport

    • Abstract: Abstract Finger millet grains contain exceptionally high levels of calcium which is much higher compared to other cereals and millets. Since calcium is an important macronutrient in human diet, it is necessary to explore the molecular basis of calcium accumulation in the seeds of finger millet. CIPK is a calcium sensor gene, having role in activating Ca2+ exchanger protein by interaction with CBL proteins. To know the role of EcCIPK24 gene in seed Ca2+ accumulation, sequence is retrieved from the transcriptome data of two finger millet genotypes GP1 (low Ca2+) and GP45 (high Ca2+), and the expression was determined through qRT-PCR. The higher expression was found in root, shoot, leaf and developing spike tissue of GP45 compared to GP1; structural analysis showed difference of nine SNPs and one extra beta sheet domain as well as differences in vacuolar localization was predicted; besides, the variation in amino acid composition among both the genotypes was also investigated. Molecular modeling and docking studies revealed that both EcCBL4 and EcCBL10 showed strong binding affinity with EcCIPK24 (GP1) compared to EcCIPK24 (GP45). It indicates a genotypic structural variation, which not only affects the affinity but also calcium transport efficiency after interaction of CIPK-CBL with calcium exchanger (EcCAX1b) to pull calcium in the vacuole. Based on the expression and in silico study, it can be suggested that by activating EcCAX1b protein, EcCIPK24 plays an important role in high seed Ca2+ accumulation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
  • Isolation, identification and characterization of arsenic transforming
           exogenous endophytic Citrobacter sp. RPT from roots of Pteris vittata

    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the arsenic (As) transformation potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of Pteris vittata plant. The endophytic bacterium was tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against As. The endophytic strain RPT exhibited the highest resistance to As(V) (400 mg/l). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence suggested that strain RPT was a member of genus Citrobacter. The As transformation assay revealed As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction potential of Citrobacter sp. RPT. The As resistance mechanism was further confirmed by amplification of arsC and aoxB genes. The growth kinetics of strain RPT was altered slightly in the presence of different concentration (100–400 mg/l) of As stress. Temperature and pH influenced the As removal rate. The maximum As removal was observed at pH 7.0 (74%) and 37 °C (70.9%). The results suggest that strain RPT can survive under the As stress and has been identified as a potential candidate for application in bioremediation of As in contaminated environments.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
  • Development and characterization of polymorphic EST based SSR markers in
           barley ( Hordeum vulgare )

    • Abstract: Abstract In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study. A cDNA library of the cultivar Gwanbori was constructed for use in analysis of genetic relationships, and 58 EST-SSR markers were developed and characterized. In total, 47 SSR markers were employed to analyze polymorphisms. A relationship dendrogram based on the polymorphism data was constructed to compare genetic diversity. We found that the polymorphism information content among the examined cultivars was 0.519, which indicates that there is low genetic diversity among Korean barley cultivars. The results obtained in this study may be useful in preventing redundant investment in new cultivars and in resolving disputes over seed patents. Our approach can be used by companies and government groups to develop different cultivars with distinguishable markers. In addition, the developed markers can be used for quantitative trait locus analysis to improve both the quantity and the quality of cultivated barley.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
  • Biosynthesis of MgO nanoparticles using mushroom extract: effect on peanut
           ( Arachis hypogaea L. ) seed germination

    • Abstract: Abstract Current study describes the green, environmental friendly, and cost-effectiveness technique for the preparation of MgO nanoparticles (NPs) via white button mushroom aqueous extract. The synthesized MgO NPs were characterized using equipments such as X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for average crystalline size, particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and weight loss of the materials, respectively. This study reports the application of gardened sizes of (20, 18.5, 18, 16.5, and 15 nm) biosynthesized MgO NPs on seed germination. The smaller size (15 nm) MgO NPs have been enhanced the seed germination and growth parameters as compared with remaining sizes of MgO NPs and control. The magnesium oxide NPs penetrates into peanut seeds and affecting on seed germination and growth rate mechanism. In addition, this germination found to be high in seeds than germination on selected soil plot MgO NPs (0.5 mg/L stable concentrations) compared to different size of MgO NPs and control. Physicochemical methods indicated that the MgO NPs are able to penetrate into the seed coat and support water uptake inside of seeds. Probably, this positive effect may cause for the uptake of MgO NPs by the plants, as indicated in the UV and SEM analyses. As the smaller size (15 nm) of MgO NPs particles stimulates the development of seedling and growth enhancement of peanut, it clearly indicates that the current study is helpful in growing of peanuts in large-scale agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
  • Efficient biodegradation of acephate by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes PS-5
           in the presence and absence of heavy metal ions [Cu(II) and Fe(III)], and
           humic acid

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was intended to investigate the biodegradation of acephate in aqueous media in the presence and in the absence of metal ions [Fe(III) and Cu(II)], and humic acid (HA). Biodegradations were performed using Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes PS-5 (PS-5) isolated from the heavy metal polluted site. Biodegradations were monitored by UV–Visible, FTIR, and electron spray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) analyses. ESI–MS analysis revealed that PS-5 degraded acephate to two metabolites showing intense ions at mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) 62 and 97. The observed kinetic was the pseudo-first order, and half-life periods (t 1/2) were 2.79 d−1 (of PS-5 + acephate), 3.45 d−1 [of PS-5 + acephate + Fe(III)], 3.16 d−1 [of PS-5 + acephate + Cu(II)], and 5.54 d−1 (of PS-5 + acephate + HA). A significant decrease in degradation rate of acephate was noticed in the presence of HA, and the same was confirmed by UV–Visible and TGA analyses. Strong aggregation behavior of acephate with humic acid in aqueous media was the major cause behind the slow degradation rate of acephate . New results on acephate metabolism by strain PS-5 in the presence and in the absence of metal ions [Fe(III) and Cu(II)] and humic acid were obtained. Results confirmed that Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain PS-5 was capable of mineralization of the acephate without formation of toxic metabolite methamidophos. More significantly, the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain PS-5 could be useful as potential biological agents in effective bioremediation campaign for multi-polluted environments.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
  • Role of stereospecific nature of germinants in Bacillus megaterium spores

    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was undertaken with the objective to assess the effect of distinct stereoisomeric forms of nutrient germinants (selected sugars and amino acids) on the process of germination onset in dormant spores of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2949. In this respect, epimers of glucose and enantiomers of alanine were employed in current work. When supplemented with these stereoisomers, spores were found germinated only with d-glucose and d-mannose among epimers of glucose and only with l-alanine among enantiomers of alanine. Interestingly, germination in spores was observed to negligible extent with d-galactose and d-alanine. These findings were obtained on the basis of four type of germination assays, namely reduction in absorbance measured at 600 nm (≤5 to ≥30%), refractility examination (phase bright and dark), esterase assay [fluorescence units 0.455–94.62 (×103)] and fluorescent staining (fluorescent/non-fluorescent signals). Understanding of spores germination process and efficacy of different forms of germinants to trigger germination is of immense importance. It aids in development of sensing and sterilization indicating tools employing chiefly spores as biorecognition elements and in uncovering the mechanism of diseases, food contamination and spoilages resulting from the germination of spores. The findings of current work support the possibility to explore such germination mechanism by significantly giving the clue for potential existence of stereospecific receptor sites on the surface of B. megaterium spores. Perhaps, these sites can specifically differentiate and recognize stereoisomerically diverse forms of germinants for induction of germination.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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