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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1199 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [224 journals]
  • Effect of glucose and olive oil as potential carbon sources on production
           of PHAs copolymer and tercopolymer by Bacillus cereus FA11

    • Abstract: In this study, the influence of different physicochemical parameters on the yield of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by Bacillus cereus FA11 is investigated. The physicochemical factors include pH, temperature, time, inoculum size and its age, agitation speed and composition of the glucose rich peptone deficient (GRPD) medium. During two-stage fermentation, B. cereus FA11 produced a significantly high (p < 0.05) yield (80.59% w/w) of PHAs copolymer using GRPD medium containing glucose (15 g/L) and peptone (2 g/L) at pH 7, 30 °C and 150 rpm after 48 h of incubation. On the other hand, the presence of olive oil (1% v/v) and peptone (2 g/L) in the GRPD medium resulted in biosynthesis of tercopolymer during two-stage fermentation and the yield of tercopolymer was 60.31% (w/w). The purified PHAs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton resonance magnetic analysis. Proton resonance magnetic analysis confirmed that the tercopolymer was comprised of three different monomeric subunits, i.e., 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate and 6-hydroxyhexanoate.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
       
  • Acknowledgement to referees

    • PubDate: 2017-05-13
       
  • Cloning and characterization of WRKY gene homologs in Chieh-qua (
           Benincasa hispida Cogn. var. Chieh-qua How) and their expression in
           response to fusaric acid treatment

    • Abstract: The WRKY transcription factors play an important role in plant resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we cloned 10 WRKY gene homologs (CqWRKY) in Chieh-qua (Benincasa hispida Cogn. var. Chieh-qua) using the rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) or homology-based cloning methods. We characterized the structure of these CqWRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences with cucumber homologs suggested possible structural conservation of these genes among cucurbit crops. We examined the expression levels of these genes in response to fusaric acid (FA) treatment between resistant and susceptible Chieh-qua lines with quantitative real-time PCR. All genes could be upregulated upon FA treatment, but four CqWRKY genes exhibited differential expression between resistant and susceptible lines before and after FA application. CqWRKY31 seemed to be a positive regulator while CqWRKY1, CqWRKY23 and CqWRKY53 were negative regulators of fusaric resistance. This is the first report of characterization of WRKY family genes in Chieh-qua. The results may also be useful in breeding Chieh-qua for Fusarium wilt resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity of sesame accessions collected from
           different ecological regions using sequence-related amplified polymorphism
           markers

    • Abstract: Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity among a collection of 52 sesame accessions representing different geographical environments, including eight Saudi landraces. A combination of seventeen primers generated a high number of alleles (365) with 100% polymorphism. The polymorphic information content (PIC) and primer discrimination power (DP) recorded overall means of 0.88 and 5.88, respectively. Genetic similarity values based on Jaccard coefficients ranged from 0.12 to 0.49, with an average similarity value of 0.30, indicating both high genetic distance and a wide genetic basis of the investigated accessions. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram grouped 48 of 52 accessions into seven main clusters, and five accessions failed to form clusters and were separated individually. However, subclusters separated the accessions and, considering the relatedness of accessions and their geographical origin, formed distinct diversity among groups. Saudi landraces showed the widest genetic basis compared with other introduced accessions that were distributed throughout the dendrogram, indicating that agro-ecological zones were indistinguishable by cluster analysis. SRAP analysis revealed a high degree of genetic polymorphism in sesame accessions investigated and showed weak association between geographical origin and SRAP patterns. This wide genetic variability should be considered for sesame breeding programs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Sources of β -galactosidase and its applications in food industry

    • Abstract: The enzyme β-galactosidases have been isolated from various sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeast, vegetables, and recombinant sources. This enzyme holds importance due to its wide applications in food industries to manufacture lactose-hydrolyzed products for lactose-intolerant people and the formation of glycosylated products. Absorption of undigested lactose in small intestine requires the activity of this enzyme; hence, the deficiency of this enzyme leads to lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance affects around 70% of world’s adult population, while the prevalence rate of lactose intolerance is 60% in Pakistan. β-Galactosidases are not only used to manufacture lactose-free products but also employed to treat whey, and used in prebiotics. This review focuses on various sources of β-galactosidase and highlights the importance of β-galactosidases in food industries.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Identification and characterization of a grain micronutrient-related
           OsFRO2 rice gene ortholog from micronutrient-rich little millet ( Panicum
           sumatrense )

    • Abstract: Minor millets are considered as nutrient-rich cereals having significant effect in improving human health. In this study, a rice ortholog of Ferric Chelate Reductase (FRO2) gene involved in plant metal uptake has been identified in iron-rich Little millet (LM) using PCR and next generation sequencing-based strategy. FRO2 gene-specific primers designed from rice genome amplified 2.7 Kb fragment in LM genotype RLM-37. Computational genomics analyses of the sequenced amplicon showed high level sequence similarity with rice OsFRO2 gene. The predicted gene structure showed the presence of 6 exons and 5 introns and its protein sequence was found to contain ferric reductase and NOX_Duox_Like_FAD_NADP domains. Further, 3D structure analysis of FCR-LM model protein (494 amino acids) shows that it has 18 helices, 10 beta sheets, 10 strands, 41 beta turn and 5 gamma turn with slight deviation from the FCR-Os structure. Besides, the structures of FCR-LM and FCR-Os were modelled followed by molecular dynamics simulations. The overall study revealed both sequence and structural similarity between the identified gene and OsFRO2. Thus, a putative ferric chelate reductase gene has been identified in LM paving the way for using this approach for identification of orthologs of other metal genes from millets. This also facilitates mining of effective alleles of known genes for improvement of staple crops like rice.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Nanochitosan supports growth of Zea mays and also maintains soil health
           following growth

    • Abstract: The present study evaluated the effect of nanochitosan in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), PS2 and PS10 on maize growth. The PGPR were earlier recognized as Bacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing. The observation revealed enhanced plant health parameters like seed germination (from 60 to 96.97%), plant height (1.5-fold increase), and leaf area (twofold). Variability in different physicochemical parameters (pH, oxidizable organic carbon, available phosphorous, available potassium, ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen) was observed. Activities of soil health indicator enzymes (dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase) were also enhanced 2 to 3 fold. Plant metabolites with respect to different treatments were also analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) and the result revealed an increase in the amounts of alcohols, acid ester and aldehyde compounds. Increase in organic acids indicates increased stress tolerance mechanism operating in maize plant after treatment of nanochitosan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Bioflocculation potentials of a uronic acid-containing glycoprotein
           

    • Abstract: Bioflocculants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms during their growth which have received attentions due to their biodegradability, innocuousness and lack of secondary pollution from degradation intermediates. This study reports on a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus specie isolated from Thyume River in South Africa. The bacterial isolate was identified through 16S rDNA sequencing and the BLAST analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed 99% similarity to Bacillus sp. BCT-7112. The sequence was subsequently deposited in the GenBank as Bacillus sp. AEMREG4 with accession number KP406729. The optimum culture conditions for bioflocculant production were an inoculum size 4% (v/v) (80%) and starch (81%) as well as yeast extract (82%) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Addition of Ca2+ greatly enhanced the flocculating activity (76%) of crude bioflocculant over a wide range of pH 4–10 and retained high flocculating activity when heated at 100 °C for 1 h. Chemical analyses of the purified bioflocculant revealed carbohydrate (79% w/w) as a predominant component followed by uronic acid (15% w/w) and protein (5% w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl groups as the functional groups responsible for flocculation and the high flocculation activity achieved portends its industrial applicability.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Analysis of genetic structure and interrelationships in lentil species
           using morphological and SSR markers

    • Abstract: Genetic structure and relationships of 130 lentil accessions belonging to six taxa were analysed. For this purpose, seven morphological traits and 31 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used for this purpose. Morphological traits grouped lentil accessions into five main clusters. SSR primers collectively amplified 139 polymorphic alleles in a range of 2–10 with an average of 4.48 alleles. The size of amplified alleles varied from 50 to 650 bp. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.02 to 0.85 with an average of 0.46. Neighbour-joining tree grouped accessions broadly according to their taxonomic ranks, except L. culinaris ssp. odemensis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a major portion (82.0%) of genetic variance resided within species, while only 18% resided among species. Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis assigned all accessions into five clusters and showed some admixture within individuals. Cluster analysis showed that cultivated Lens accessions of Ethiopian origin clustered separately, from other cultivated accessions indicating its distinct lineage. Among the analysed lentil species, L. culinaris ssp. odemensis seemed to have conserved genetic background and needs revision of its taxonomic status. Results of present study provide important information on genetic diversity and relationships among different wild and cultivated taxa of lentil. Thus, these results can be useful in designing breeding strategies for future improvement and taxonomic implications in lentil.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • EST-SSR marker revealed effective over biochemical and morphological
           scepticism towards identification of specific turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.)
           cultivars

    • Abstract: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., family Zingiberaceae) is one of the most economically important plants for its use in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. Cultivar identification is a major constraint in turmeric, owing to high degree of morphological similarity that in turn, affects its commercialization. The present study addresses this constraint, using EST-SSR marker based, molecular identification of 8 elite cultivars and 88 accessions in turmeric. Fifty EST-SSR primers were screened against eight cultivars of turmeric (Suroma, Roma, Lakadong, Megha, Alleppey Supreme, Kedaram, Pratibha, and Suvarna); out of which 11 primers showed polymorphic banding pattern. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these primers ranged from 0.13 to 0.48. However, only three SSR loci (CSSR 14, CSSR 15, and CSSR 18) gave reproducible unique banding pattern clearly distinguishing the cultivars ‘Lakadong’ and ‘Suvarna’ from other cultivars tested. These three unique SSR markers also proved to be effective in identification of ‘Lakadong’ cultivars when analysed with 88 accessions of turmeric collected from different agro-climatic regions. Furthermore, two identified cultivars (Lakadong and Suvarna) could also be precisely differentiated when analysed and based on phylogenetic tree, with other 94 genotypes of turmeric. The novel SSR markers can be used for identification and authentication of two commercially important turmeric cultivars ‘Lakadong’ and ‘Suvarna’.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Phytochemical profile and free radical nitric oxide (NO) scavenging
           activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract

    • Abstract: Averrhoa bilimbi L. belongs to family Oxalidaceae. Traditionally, people use this plant (root, bark, leaves and fruits) for treating several illnesses include itches, boils, syphilis, whooping cough, hypertension, fever and inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and GC–MS analysis of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract. Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruits were collected for the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antioxidant scavenging activity and biologically important compounds were identified by GC–MS analysis. The preliminary phytochemicals, GC–MS, total phenolic content and NO scavenging activity of the plant were analysed. In the present investigation, the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has major phytochemicals. Among the 151 compounds identified in GC–MS, 15 compounds are found to have diverse biological activity. We also observed that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has high level of total phenolic compounds at a concentration of 209.25 GAE mg/g. Presence of phenolic compound apparently explains the antioxidant activity of the plant. Antioxidant activity of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is proven from its high level of NO scavenging activity of potent IC50 value of 108.10. From the above study, it is apparent that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is a rich source of phytochemicals (natural products) with biological activity. The GC–MS report on this fruit proves that natural products have pharmacologically and biologically active compounds. A high phenolic content is observed in our study. A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is also found to have NO scavenging activity in our study.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
       
  • Effect of different fermentation strategies on β-mannanase production in
           fed-batch bioreactor system

    • Abstract: Mannanases, one of the important enzyme group for industry, are produced by numerous filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus species with different fermentation methods. The aim of this study was to show the best fermentation method of β-mannanase production for fungal growth in fermenter. Therefore, different fermentation strategies in fed-batch fermentation (suspended, immobilized cell, biofilm and microparticle-enhanced bioreactor) were applied for β-mannanase production from glucose medium (GM) and carob extract medium (CEM) by using recombinant Aspergillus sojae. The highest β-mannanase activities were obtained from microparticle-enhanced bioreactor strategy. It was found to be 347.47 U/mL by adding 10 g/L of Al2O3 to GM and 439.13 U/mL by adding 1 g/L of talcum into CEM. The maximum β-mannanase activities for suspended, immobilization, and biofilm reactor remained at 72.55 U/mL in GM, 148.81 U/mL in CEM, and 194.09 U/mL in GM, respectively. The reason for that is the excessive, and irregular shaped growth and bulk formation, inadequate oxygen transfer or substrate diffusion in bioreactor. Consequently, the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced by addition of microparticles compared to other fed-batch fermentation strategies. Also, repeatable β-mannanase activities were obtained by controlling of the cell morphology by adding microparticle inside the fermenter.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28
       
  • Xylitol production from non-detoxified and non-sterile lignocellulosic
           hydrolysate using low-cost industrial media components

    • Abstract: Immobilized Candida tropicalis cells in freeze dried calcium alginate beads were used for production of xylitol from lignocellulosic waste like corn cob hydrolysate without any detoxification and sterilization of media. Media components for xylitol fermentation were screened by statistical methods. Urea, KH2PO4 and initial pH were identified as significant variables by Plackett–Burman (PB) design. Significant medium components were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Predicted xylitol yield by RSM model and experimental yield was 0.87 and 0.79 g/g, respectively. Optimized conditions (urea 1.5 g/L, KH2PO4 1.9 g/L, xylose 55 g/L, pH 6.7) enhanced xylitol yield by 32% and xylose consumption by twofold over those of basal media. In addition, the immobilized cells were reused five times at shake flask level with optimized medium without affecting the xylitol productivity and yield. Xylitol production was successfully scaled up to 7.5 L stirred tank reactor using optimized media. Thus, the optimized condition with non-detoxified pentose hydrolysate from corn cob lignocellulosic waste with minimal nutrients without any sterilization opens up the scope for commercialization of the process.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Pectin from muskmelon ( Cucumis melo var. reticulatus ) peels: extraction
           optimization and physicochemical properties

    • Abstract: Pectin derived from plant waste sources is currently focused as an economical and eco-friendly approach. Optimization of pectin extraction from muskmelon peel by response surface methodology (RSM) was investigated in this study. Box–Behnken Design (BBD) was used to identify the optimal level of the extraction variables such as time, pH and temperature. A second-order model equation for pectin extraction was obtained from multiple regression analysis of experimental data with the correlation coefficient (R 2) value of 0.92. ANOVA results showed that linear effect of temperature and combined effect of pH with temperature were found significant for pectin extraction from muskmelon peel. Validation results had good agreement with the predicted results. Pectin extracted from muskmelon peel was classed as high methoxy pectin with the equivalent weight of 384.5 g/mol. Non-newtonian pseudoplastic flow behaviour was observed for muskmelon pectin from the viscosity studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a halotolerant α-amylase from
           marine metagenomic library derived from Arabian Sea sediments

    • Abstract: Functional screening of a metagenomic library of marine sediment revealed an amylolytic clone BTM109. This report states the purification and characterization of a moderately halotolerant α-amylase, with more than 51% activity in 2.5 M NaCl. The molecular mass of purified protein was determined to be 55.7 kDa by MALDI-TOF MS. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was pH 7 and temperature for maximal activity was 40 °C. At 5 mM concentration, Ca2+ enhanced the enzyme activity indicating that the enzyme is a Ca2+ dependent α-amylase which was confirmed by the starch hydrolysis pattern using TLC. These physico-chemical properties support the suitability of this enzyme for various industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Biodegradation of thermally treated low density polyethylene by fungus
           Rhizopus oryzae NS 5

    • Abstract: Polythene is considered as one of the important object used in daily life. Being versatile in nature and resistant to microbial attack, they effectively cause environmental pollution. In the present study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) have been performed using fungal lab isolate Rhizopus oryzae NS5. Lab isolate fungal strain capable of adhering to LDPE surface was used for the biodegradation of LDPE. This strain was identified as Rhizopus oryzae NS5 (Accession No. KT160362). Fungal growth was observed on the surface of the polyethylene when cultured in potato dextrose broth at 30 °C and 120 rpm, for 1 month. LDPE film was characterized before and after incubation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and universal tensile machine. About 8.4 ± 3% decrease (gravimetrically) in weight and 60% reduction in tensile strength of polyethylene was observed. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed hyphal penetration and degradation on the surface of polyethylene. Atomic force microscope analysis showed increased surface roughness after treatment with fungal isolate. A thick network of fungal hyphae forming a biofilm was also observed on the surface of the polyethylene pieces. Present study shows the potential of Rhizopus oryzae NS5 in polyethylene degradation in eco friendly and sustainable manner.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Isolation, cloning, and characterization of a cuticle collagen gene, Mi -
           col - 5 , in Meloidogyne incognita

    • Abstract: Cuticle collagens form a major part of the nematode cuticle and are responsible for maintaining the overall shape of the animal and its protection from the external environment. Although substantial research on cuticle collagen genes has been carried out in Caenorhabditis elegans, their isolation and characterization in plant parasitic nematodes have been limited to a few genes only. In this study, a cuticle collagen gene, Mi-col-5, was isolated from root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. A partial segment of 402 bp was first cloned and analyzed on Gbrowse followed by subsequent cloning of the 1047 bp long full cDNA specifying the open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 92% sequence identity with that of Mj-col-5. However, a transmembrane helix was predicted in Mi-col-5 which was not present in Mj-col-5. The conserved pattern of cysteine residues in Mi-col-5 suggested that it belonged to group 2 of nematode cuticle collagens but with a longer carboxy terminal region as was the case with Mj-col-5. Domain prediction revealed the presence of a nematode cuticle collagen N terminal domain and a pfam collagen domain along with collagen triple helix repeats. A phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences showed evolutionary relationship of Mi-col-5 with cuticle collagens genes of other nematodes. 3D models for Mi-col-5 were predicted with the best confidence score of −2.78. Expression of Mi-col-5 transcript was found to be maximum in egg masses followed by adult females and J2s suggesting its role in the early stages of the development of the nematode during its life cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • A review on chimeric xylanases: methods and conditions

    • Abstract: Multi-functional enzymes are one of the nature’s solutions to facilitate metabolic pathways, thus several reactions are regulated and performed simultaneously on one polypeptide chain. Inspired by nature, artificial chimeric proteins have been designed to reduce the production costs and improve the performance. One of the interesting applications of this method is in the plant-based industries such as feed additive, waste treatment, biofuel production, and pulp and paper bleaching. In fact, the heterogeneous texture of plants needs using a combination of different enzymes to achieve an optimal quality in the manufacturing process. Given that xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharides in nature, xylanases are widely utilized in the mentioned industries. In this regard, several studies have been conducted to develop the relevant chimeric enzymes. Despite the successes that have been attained in this field, misfolding, functional or structural interference, and linker breakage have been reported in some cases. The present paper reviews the research to introduce the prerequisites to design an appropriate chimeric xylanase.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    • Abstract: Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
  • Green synthesis of silver oxide nanoparticles and its antibacterial
           activity against dental pathogens

    • Abstract: In the present study, the use of silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag2O NPs) synthesized using Ficus benghalensis prop root extract (FBPRE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent is reported and evaluated for its antibacterial activity against dental bacterial strains. The effects of pH, extract concentration, metal ion concentration, and contact time were studied to confirm the optimum production of Ag2O NPs. Our results suggest that, by increasing the extract concentration and the time frame, there will be a significant increase in the formation of nanoparticles. The UV–vis adsorption spectra show the absorbance peak in the range of 430 nm, and FTIR spectral peaks indicate that the phytochemicals in the extract are responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles. The HR-TEM image, SAED, and XRD pattern confirmed the morphology (spherical), silver oxide 42.7 nm and silver 51.4 nm, and crystalline nature of the obtained nanoparticles, respectively. The blend of FBPRE and Ag2O NPs showed excellent antibacterial activities against the two-dental bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli sp. The study results suggest that the blend of synthesized Ag2O NPS and FBPRE will be useful in tooth paste as a germicidal agent after extensive investigation with animal models.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27
       
 
 
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