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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2312 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (196 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1213 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (389 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1213 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 258)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [226 journals]
  • The acyl-CoA binding protein affects Monascus pigment production in
           Monascus ruber CICC41233

    • Abstract: The present study verified whether acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA)-binding protein (ACBP) affected the production of Monascus pigments (MPs) in Monascus ruber CICC41233 (MrACBP). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned Mracbp gene, which encoded the MrACBP protein, exhibited the closest match (99% confidence level) to the gene from Penicilliopsis zonata. The MrACBP and maltose-binding protein (MBP) were simultaneously expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta DE3 in the form of a fusion protein. The microscale thermophoresis binding assay revealed that the purified MBP–MrACBP exhibited a higher affinity for myristoyl-CoA (Kd = 88.16 nM) than for palmitoyl-CoA (Kd = 136.07 nM) and octanoyl-CoA (Kd = 270.9 nM). Further, the Mracbp gene was homologously overexpressed in M. ruber CICC41233, and a positive transformant M. ruber ACBP5 was isolated. The fatty acid myristic acid in M. ruber ACBP5 was lower than that in the parent strain M. ruber CICC41233. However, when compared with the parent strain, the production of total MPs, water-soluble pigment, and ethanol-soluble pigment in M. ruber ACBP5 increased by 11.67, 9.80, and 12.70%, respectively, after 6 days. The relative gene expression level, as determined by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, of the key genes acbp, pks, mppr1, fasA, and fasB increased by 4.03-, 3.58-, 1.67-, 2.11-, and 2.62-fold after 6 days. These data demonstrate the binding preference of MrACBP for myristoyl-CoA, and its influence on MPs production.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
       
  • Effect of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 on Musa – Pseudocercospora
           fijiensis interaction

    • Abstract: The effect of antifungal activity of culture filtrate (CF) of Bacillus pumilus strain CCIBP-C5, an isolate from a phyllosphere of banana (Musa) leaves, was determined on Pseudocercospora fijiensis challenged banana plants. The CF was shown to decrease the fungal biomass and induce changes in banana plant. In this sense, at 70 days post inoculation (dpi), a lower infection index as well as a decrease in fungal biomass after 6 dpi was obtained in treated plants with respect to control ones. At the same time, changes in the activities of several enzymes related to plant defense responses, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases were observed. These results indicate that B. pumilus CCIBP-C5 has a potential role for biological control of P. fijiensis possibly due to the production of antifungal metabolites.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
       
  • Characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 78 α- l -rhamnosidase
           from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 and identification of
           functional residues

    • Abstract: A putative glycoside hydrolase family 78 α-l-rhamnosidase BtRha78A from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzymatic properties of recombinant BtRha78A were characterized in detail. Recombinant BtRha78A might efficiently hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside. BtRha78A displayed the highest activity at 60 °C in pH 6.5. BtRha78A exhibited a good pH stability and relatively high thermostability. BtRha78A could be tolerant of a low concentration of alcohols. These attractive advantages made it a promising alternative biocatalyst for industrial applications. The catalytic general acid Asp335 and general base Glu595 of BtRha78A were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Alanine scanning mutagenesis based on sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that the conserved residues Asp330, Arg334, Trp339, Asp342, Tyr383, Trp440, and His620 were crucial for enzyme catalysis. Most functional residues located at the conserved general acid motif (Asp330–Asp342) and were completely conserved in the subfamily I Rha78s.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
       
  • Molecular characterization of phytoplasma associated with four important
           ornamental plant species in India and identification of natural potential
           spread sources

    • Abstract: Phytoplasma suspected symptoms of phyllody, witches’ broom, leaf yellowing, stunting and little leaf were observed in Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bougainvillea glabra, Jasminum sambac and Callistephus chinensis during survey of flower nurseries and experimental ornamental fields at Delhi, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka from 2014 to 2016. Pleomorphic bodies typical to phytoplasma structures were observed in the phloem sieve elements of ultrathin sections of all the four symptomatic ornamental plants (stem tissue) in transmission electron microscope. Amplification of 1.8 and 1.2 kb phytoplasma DNA products was observed in all the four test plants in PCR assays using universal primer pairs P1/P7 followed by nested primer pair R16F2n/R16R2, respectively. Pairwise sequence comparison, phylogeny and virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA sequences confirmed the association of two phytoplasma subgroups (16SrI-B and 16SrII-D) in four ornamental plant species. ‘Ca. P. aurantifolia’ subgroup D (16SrII-D) was found associated with chrysanthemum phyllody and leaf yellowing at Delhi and Tamil Nadu, bougainvillea little leaf and yellowing at Delhi and Chinese aster phyllody at Bengaluru, Karnataka. However, jasmine little leaf and yellowing at Bengaluru, Karnataka and chrysanthemum stunting at Pune were found to be associated with ‘Ca. P. asteris’ subgroup B-related strains (16SrI-B). The identification of 16SrII-D subgroup phytoplasma infecting bougainvillea and 16SrI-B subgroup infecting jasmine are the new reports to the world. Besides weed species, Cannabis sativa showing witches’ broom in jasmine fields at Bengaluru and Parthenium hysterophorus showing witches’ broom symptoms in chrysanthemum fields at Delhi were identified to be caused by phytoplasma strains classified under subgroups 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D, respectively, by PCR assays and 16Sr DNA sequence comparison analysis. Among the three major leafhopper species identified, only Hishimonas phycitis was identified positive for 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups of phytoplasmas from chrysanthemum fields at Delhi and jasmine fields at Bengaluru, respectively. The identity of similar phytoplasma strains infecting ornamental species in leafhopper and the weed species in the present study suggested that H. phycitis and weeds may act as potential natural sources for secondary spread of the identified phytoplasma strains.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
       
  • Characterisation of the simultaneous molybdenum reduction and glyphosate
           degradation by Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp.
           AQ5-13

    • Abstract: In this novel study, we report on the use of two molybdenum-reducing bacteria with the ability to utilise the herbicide glyphosate as the phosphorus source. The bacteria reduced sodium molybdate to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue), a colloidal and insoluble product, which is less toxic. The characterisation of the molybdenum-reducing bacteria was carried out using resting cells immersed in low-phosphate molybdenum media. Two glyphosate-degrading bacteria, namely Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, were able to use glyphosate as a phosphorous source to support molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue. The bacteria optimally reduced molybdenum between the pHs of 6.25 and 8. The optimum concentrations of molybdate for strain Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was observed to be between 40 and 60 mM, while for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the optimum molybdate concentration occurred between 40 and 50 mM. Furthermore, 5 mM of phosphate was seen as the optimum concentration supporting molybdenum reduction for both bacteria. The optimum temperature aiding Mo-blue formation ranged from 30 to 40 °C for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12, whereas for Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, the range was from 35 to 40 °C. Glucose was the best electron donor for supporting molybdate reduction, followed by sucrose, fructose and galactose for both strains. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source in supporting molybdenum reduction. Interestingly, increasing the glyphosate concentrations beyond 100 and 300 ppm for Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp. AQ5-13, respectively, significantly inhibited molybdenum reduction. The ability of these bacteria to reduce molybdenum while degrading glyphosate is a useful process for the bioremediation of both toxicants.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
       
  • Whole-genome resequencing and transcriptomic analysis of genes regulating
           anthocyanin biosynthesis in black rice plants

    • Abstract: Anthocyanins are involved in many diverse functions in rice, but their benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated. Our objective in this study was to identify anthocyanin-related genes in black rice plants. We identified anthocyanin-related genes in black rice plants using a combination of whole-genome resequencing, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), microarray experiments, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using multi-layer screening from 30 rice accessions, we identified 172,922 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1276 differentially expressed genes that appear to be related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. We identified 18 putative genes from 172,922 SNPs using intensive selective sweeps. The 18 candidate genes identified from SNPs were not significantly correlated with the RNA-seq expression pattern or other well-known anthocyanin biosynthesis/metabolism genes. We also identified nine putative genes from 1276 differentially expressed genes using RNA-seq transcriptome analysis. In addition, we identified four phylogenetic groups from these nine candidate genes and 51 pathway-network genes. Finally, we verified nine anthocyanin-related genes using a newly designed microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We suggest that these nine identified genes appear to be related to the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and/or metabolism.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
       
  • Single and combined effects of acetic acid, furfural, and sugars on the
           growth of the pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii

    • Abstract: The tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii to the inhibitors released after the biomass hydrolysis, such as acetic acid and furfural, was surveyed. We first verified the effects of acetic acid and cell concentrations and initial pH on the growth of a M. guilliermondii strain in a semi-synthetic medium containing acetic acid as the sole carbon source. Second, the single and combined effects of furfural, acetic acid, and sugars (xylose, arabinose, and glucose) on the sugar uptake, cell growth, and ethanol production were also analysed. Growth inhibition occurred in concentrations higher than 10.5 g l−1 acetic acid and initial pH 3.5. The maximum specific growth rate (µ) was 0.023 h−1 and the saturation constant (ks) was 0.75 g l−1 acetic acid. Initial cell concentration also influenced µ. Acetic acid (initial concentration 5 g l−1) was co-consumed with sugars even in the presence of 20 mg l−1 furfural without inhibition to the yeast growth. The yeast grew and fermented sugars in a sugar-based medium with acetic acid and furfural in concentrations much higher than those usually found in hemicellulosic hydrolysates.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
       
  • Genomic insights of aromatic hydrocarbon degrading Klebsiella pneumoniae
           AWD5 with plant growth promoting attributes: a paradigm of soil isolate
           with elements of biodegradation

    • Abstract: This research employs draft genome sequence data of Klebsiella pneumoniae AWD5 to explore genes that contribute to the degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and stimulate plant growth, for rhizosphere-mediated bioremediation. Annotation analysis suggests that the strain AWD5 not only possess gene clusters for PAH utilization, but also for utilization of benzoate, fluorobenzoate, phenylacetate (paa), hydroxyphenylacetic acid (hpa), 3-hydroxyphenyl propionate (mhp). A comparative genome analysis revealed that the genome of AWD5 was highly similar with genomes of environmental as well as clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. The artemis output confirmed that there are 139 different genes present in AWD5 which were absent in genome of clinical strain K. pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and 25 genes were identified to be present in AWD5 genome but absent in genome of environmental strain K. pneumoniae KP-1. Pathway analyzed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enzyme database revealed the presence of gene clusters that code for enzymes to initiate the opening of aromatic rings. The polyaromatic hydrocarbon and benzoate degradation were found to be metabolized through ortho-cleavage pathway, mineralizing the compounds to TCA cycle intermediates. Genes for plant growth promoting attributes such as Indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization were detected in the genome. These attributes were verified in vitro, including IAA (14.75 µg/ml), siderophore production (13.56%), phosphate solubilization (198.28 ng/ml), and ACC deaminase (0.118 mM α-ketobutyrate/mg) in the presence of pyrene, and also compared with results obtained in glucose amended medium. K. pneumoniae AWD5 enhanced the growth of Jatropha curcas in the presence of pyrene-contaminated soil. Moreover, AWD5 harbors heavy metal resistance genes indicating adaptation to contaminants. The study revealed the genomic attributes of K. pneumoniae AWD5 for its catabolic characteristics for different aromatic compounds, which makes it suitable for rhizoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
       
  • Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis 157 isolated from Eucommia
           ulmoides with pathogenic bacteria inhibiting and lignocellulolytic enzymes
           production by SSF

    • Abstract: Bacillus velezensis 157 was isolated from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides, and exhibited antagonistic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Moreover, B. velezensis 157 also showed various lignocellulolytic activities including cellulase, xylanase, α-amylase, and pectinase, which had the ability of using the agro-industrial waste (soybean meal, wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, maize flour and maize straw) under solid-state fermentation and obtained several industrially valuable enzymes. Soybean meal appeared to be the most efficient substrate for the single fermentation of B. velezensis 157. Highest yield of pectinase (19.15 ± 2.66 U g−1), cellulase (46.69 ± 1.19 U g−1) and amylase (2097.18 ± 15.28 U g−1) was achieved on untreated soybean meal. Highest yield of xylanase (22.35 ± 2.24 U g−1) was obtained on untreated wheat bran. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the B. velezensis 157, composed of a circular 4,013,317 bp chromosome with 3789 coding genes and a G + C content of 46.41%, one circular 8439 bp plasmid and a G + C content of 40.32%. The genome contained a total of 8 candidate gene clusters (bacillaene, difficidin, macrolactin, butirosin, bacillibactin, bacilysin, fengycin and surfactin), and dedicates over 15.8% of the whole genome to synthesize secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In addition, the genes encoding enzymes involved in degradation of cellulose, xylan, lignin, starch, mannan, galactoside and arabinan were found in the B. velezensis 157 genome. Thus, the study of B. velezensis 157 broadened that B. velezensis can not only be used as biocontrol agents, but also has potentially a wide range of applications in lignocellulosic biomass conversion.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
       
  • Understanding the molecular basis of differential grain protein
           accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through expression profiling
           of transcription factors related to seed nutrients storage

    • Abstract: Increasing nutritional value of cereals is one of the important research and breeding objectives to overcome malnutrition in developing countries. The synthesis of grain seed proteins during grain filling is controlled by several mechanisms including transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications. In the current investigation, transcript abundance analysis of three allelic variants of seed storage protein activator (Spa A, Spa B and Spa D) and NAM-B1 affecting seed nutrient concentration was carried out in two genotypes (UP 2672 and HS 540) of bread wheat differing in grain protein content. Expression profiling of transcription factor genes was performed using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Positive correlation and significant p value > 0.05 was observed among the fold expression in developing stages of both the genotypes. Maximum expression of Spa genes was observed at S3 stage and maximum fold expression was observed for Spa B gene in case of UP 2672, the genotype with high protein content. The transcript profiling of NAM-B1 gene revealed threefold higher expression in UP 2672 than that of HS 490 at S4 stage. The findings revealed the role of transcriptional regulation in differential grain protein accumulation through varied expression and existence of their allelic variants in wheat genotypes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
       
  • Synthesis of gold nanomaterials and their cancer-related biomedical
           applications: an update

    • Abstract: Recently, the advances in the synthesis of new types of nanomaterials have created several opportunities in drug delivery and targeted therapy applications. Among the various nanostructures, gold nanostructures with controllable physical and chemical properties have received attention for various biomedical uses, including sensing of biomolecules, in vitro and in vivo bioimaging (as advanced contrast agents for photothermal and bioimaging techniques), photothermolysis of cancer cells, and targeted drug delivery. The attractive properties of gold nanomaterials, particularly, anti-angiogenic properties, are highly useful in a variety of cancers studies. In addition, they can bind many proteins and drugs and can be actively targeted to cancer cells over-expressing cell surface receptors and they are biocompatible in nature with a high atomic number, which directs to greater absorption of kilovoltage X-rays and provides greater contrast than standard agents. In this review, we have summarized the synthesis, structure and functionalization of gold nanostructures, and their biomedical applications with special reference to cancer studies.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
       
  • Analysis of differential transcript expression in chickpea during
           compatible and incompatible interactions with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp .
           ciceris Race 4

    • Abstract: The present study reports the transcriptome analysis of resistance (WR315) and susceptible (JG62) genotypes of chickpea in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) race 4 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridization. Altogether, 162 chickpea-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from two libraries and analyzed to catalog eight functional categories. These ESTs could be assembled into 18 contigs and 144 singletons with 10 contigs and 68 singletons from compatible and 8 contigs and 70 singletons from incompatible interaction. The largest category consisted of ESTs which encode for proteins related to hypothetical proteins (22.8%), followed by energy and metabolism (20.3%)-related genes, defense and cell rescue-related genes (17.9%) and signal transduction-related genes (16%). Among them, 17.1 and 18.7% were defense-related genes in compatible and incompatible interaction, respectively. These ESTs mainly includes various putative genes related to oxidative burst, pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Induction of putative superoxide dismutase, metallothionein, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, heat shock proteins and cysteine proteases indicated oxidative burst after infection. The ESTs belonged to various functional categories which were directly and indirectly associated with defense signaling pathways. Quantitative and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression of candidate genes and detected higher levels in incompatible interaction compared to compatible interaction. The present study revealed partial molecular mechanism associated with the resistance in chickpea against Foc, which is the key to design a strategy for incorporation of resistance via either biotechnological means or introgression of resistance genes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
       
  • Drought stress impact on leaf proteome variations of faba bean ( Vicia
           faba L.) in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau of China

    • Abstract: Water scarcity is a major abiotic stress factor that strongly influences growth, development and yield of grain legumes in arid and semi-arid area of the world. Drought stress frequently occurs during the seedling stage and finally affects yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). However, the responses of plant leaf to drought have not been documented very well at the proteomic level. “Ga da dou” of the drought-tolerant faba bean cultivar was exposed to drought to examine the proteome changes of leaves. In this study, 2-week-old seedlings were subjected to water deficit by 7 days drought stress, whereas control plants were regularly irrigated. After withdrawing water, plants exposed to drought for 7 days and control plants at the same developmental stage were included in quantitative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels of proteins in combination with mass spectrometry. Over 300 proteins were detected by 2-DE, 50 differentially expressed proteins were detected by t test and 30 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, in which 25 proteins were clearly downregulated and five proteins were upregulated. The quantified proteins were grouped into five functional groups, mainly regulatory proteins (46.7%), energy metabolism (23.3%), cell cytoskeleton (6.7%), other functions (20%) and unknown function (3.3%). Chitinase was upregulated under drought, suggesting that it was an important part of the plant defense system, playing an important role in stress resistance. 50S ribosomal protein was upregulated under drought, suggesting its role in protecting plants against stress by re-establishing normal protein conformations. The abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis such as chitinase, Bet protein and glutamate–glyoxylate aminotransferase was upregulated under drought stress. These proteins could play important roles in drought tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of “Ga da dou”.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
       
  • Molecular and biochemical characterization of a thermostable keratinase
           from Bacillus altitudinis RBDV1

    • Abstract: A thermostable keratinase designated as KBALT was purified from Bacillus altitudinis RBDV1 from a poultry farm in Gujarat, India. The molecular weight of the native KBALT (nKBALT) purified using ammonium sulfate and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography with a 40% yield and 80-fold purification was estimated to be ~ 43 kDa. The gene for KBALT was successfully cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant KBALT (rKBALT) when purified using a single step Ni–NTA His affinity chromatography achieved a yield of 38.20% and a 76.4-fold purification. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of rKBALT with known proteases of Bacillus species and inhibitory effect of PMSF suggest that rKBALT was a subtilisin-like serine protease. Both native and rKBALT exhibited higher activity at 85 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ba2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. Interestingly, 70% of their activity was retained at temperatures ranging from 35 to > 95 °C. The keratinolytic activity of both nKBALT and rKBALT was enhanced in the presence of reducing agents. They exhibited broad substrate specificity towards various protein substrates. KBALT was determined for its kinetic properties by calculating its Km (0.61 mg/ml) and Vmax (1673 U/mg/min) values. These results suggest KBALT as a robust and promising contender for enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes in waste processing plants.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
       
  • Genetic variability in selected date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.)
           cultivars of United Arab Emirates using ISSR and DAMD markers

    • Abstract: Nine (9) different date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from UAE, which differ in their flower timings were selected to determine the polymorphism and genetic relationship between these cultivars. Hereditary differences and interrelationships were assessed utilizing inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and directed amplification of minisatellite DNA region (DAMD) primers. Analysis on eight DAMD and five ISSR markers produced total of 113 amplicon including 99 polymorphic and 14 monomorphic alleles with a polymorphic percentage of 85.45. The average polymorphic information content for the two-marker system was almost similar (DAMD, 0.445 and ISSR, 0.459). UPGMA based clustering of DAMD and ISSR revealed that mid-season cultivars, Mkh (Khlas) and MB (Barhee) grouped together to form a subcluster in both the marker systems. The genetic similarity analysis followed by clustering of the cumulative data from the DAMD and ISSR resulted in two major clusters with two early-season cultivars (ENg and Ekn), two mid-season cultivars (MKh and MB) and one late-season cultivar (Lkhs) in cluster 1, cluster 2 includes two late-season cultivars, one early-season cultivar and one mid-season cultivar. The cluster analysis of both DAMD and ISSR marker revealed that, the patterns of variation between some of the tested cultivars were similar in both DNA marker systems. Hence, the present study signifies the applicability of DAMD and ISSR marker system in detecting genetic diversity of date palm cultivars flowering at different seasons. This may facilitate the conservation and improvement of date palm cultivars in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
       
  • Optimisation of culture composition for glyphosate degradation by
           Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12

    • Abstract: The herbicide glyphosate is often used to control weeds in agricultural lands. However, despite its ability to effectively kill weeds at low cost, health problems are still reported due to its toxicity level. The removal of glyphosate from the environment is usually done by microbiological process since chemical process of degradation is ineffective due to the presence of highly stable bonds. Therefore, finding glyphosate-degrading microorganisms in the soil of interest is crucial to remediate this glyphosate. Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 was found to have glyphosate-degrading ability. Optimisation of biodegradation condition was carried out utilising one factor at a time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM). Five parameters including carbon and nitrogen source, pH, temperature and glyphosate concentration were optimised. Based on OFAT result, glyphosate degradation was observed to be optimum at fructose concentration of 6, 0.5 g/L ammonia sulphate, pH 6.5, temperature of 32 °C and glyphosate concentration at 100 ppm. Meanwhile, RSM resulted in a better degradation with 92.32% of 100 ppm glyphosate compared to OFAT. The bacterium was seen to tolerate up to 500 ppm glyphosate while increasing concentration results in reduced degradation and bacterial growth rate.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
       
  • Draft genome sequence of Penicillium chrysogenum strain HKF2, a fungus
           with potential for production of prebiotic synthesizing enzymes

    • Abstract: In this study, we have characterized a novel set of extracellular enzymes produced by Penicillium chrysogenum strain HKF2. A draft genome data of 31.5 Mbp was generated and annotation suggested a total of 11,243 protein-coding genes out of which 609 were CAZymes, majority of which were found to have homology with Penicillium rubens, Penicillium chrysogenum followed by Penicillium expansum and Penicillium roqueforti. The prominent CAZyme genes identified in the draft genome encoded for enzymes involved in the production of prebiotics such as inulo-oligosaccharides and fructo-oligosaccharides. Corresponding enzyme assay indicated that the isolate possessed the potential to produce 11.8 and 3.8 U/mL of β-fructofuranosidase and inulinase, respectively. This study highlights the significance of Effluent Treatment Plants as novel and under-explored niche for isolation of fungi having the potential for production of prebiotics synthesizing enzymes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
       
  • Morphological, pathological and mycotoxicological variations among
           Fusarium verticillioides isolated from cereals

    • Abstract: Among the 194 Fusarium verticillioides isolates screened from 127 cereal samples, 176 were fumonisin producers and others were non-producers. Representative nine Fusarium verticillioides strains along with one reference standard strain MTCC156 were selected to study their morphological, pathological and mycotoxicological variations by conventional and molecular approaches. Fusarium verticillioides strains FVM86, FVM146, FV200 and FVS3 showed significant pathogenicity and also in pigmentation production but varied in fumonisin production. Fusarium verticillioides strain FVP19 recorded variations in all the assays. Fusarium verticillioides strain FVM42 showed drastic phenotypic variation and it also produced fumonisin. Genetic variation among the strains was independent of geographic area of origin but depended on their ability to produce fumonisin. The strains were independent in their cultural characteristics, pigmentation production, pathogenicity assays, fumonisin production and in their genetic variability without having any correlation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
       
  • Characterization of detergent compatible protease from halophilic
           Virgibacillus sp. CD6

    • Abstract: A halophilic bacterium, Virgibacillus sp. strain CD6, was isolated from salted fish and its extracellular protease was characterized. Protease production was found to be highest when yeast extract was used as nitrogen source for growth. The protease exhibited stability at wide range of salt concentration (0–12.5%, w/v), temperatures (20–60 °C), and pH (4–10) with maximum activity at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl, 60 °C, pH 7 and 10, indicating its polyextremophilicity. The protease activity was enhanced in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ (107–122% relative activity), and with retention of activity > 80% for all of other metal ions examined (K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+). Both PMSF and EDTA inhibited protease activity, denoting serine protease and metalloprotease properties, respectively. High stability (> 70%) was demonstrated in the presence of organic solvents and detergent constituents, and the extracellular protease from strain CD6 was also found to be compatible in commercial detergents. Proteinaceous stain removal efficacy revealed that crude protease of strain CD6 could significantly enhance the performance of commercial detergent. The protease from Virgibacillus sp. strain CD6 could serve as a promising alternative for various applications, especially in detergent industry.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
       
  • Optimization of gluco-amylase production from Aspergillus spp. for its use
           in saccharification of liquefied corn starch

    • Abstract: Fungal gluco-amylase is required for the production of sugars from starchy substrates. Commercially available fungal gluco-amylase is quite costly which makes the process uneconomical. This study was undertaken to standardize physico-chemical parameters for optimum production of gluco-amylases from Aspergillus spp. Two fungal cultures, i.e., Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus, were compared for gluco-amylase activity both under stationary and shake flask conditions. Among two fungal cultures, maximum gluco-amylase activity was shown by A. niger (243.09 U/ml) under stationary conditions as compared to A. terreus (126.34 U/ml). Gluco-amylase activity of A. niger increases by 42.48% from 243.09 to 346.35 U/ml after optimization using response surface methodology, whereby a substrate concentration of 7%, yeast extract 0.25%, temperature 32.5 °C and pH 5.5 were found to be optimum for gluco-amylase production. Crude enzyme was compared with commercial enzyme and it was found that when 500 U of Glucoamylase ex. Rhizopus were inoculated into starch-supplemented minimal media (SSMM) liquefied using 2 g of fungal diastase, it increases the reducing sugar concentration from 2.19 to 21.15 mg/ml and a saccharification efficiency of 77.7% was achieved, whereas 1.5 ml of crude enzyme (extracted from A. niger) was able to produce 14.46 mg/ml of reducing sugars with a saccharification efficiency of 53.2%.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
       
 
 
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