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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover 3 Biotech
  [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-572X - ISSN (Online) 2190-5738
   Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [226 journals]
  • Gene expression of an arabinogalactan lysine-rich protein Ca AGP18 during
           vegetative and reproductive development of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum

    • Abstract: Lysine-rich (Lys-rich) proteins encoded by AGP17, AGP18, and AGP19 genes are cell wall-associated glycopeptides related to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. This subclass belongs to classical arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) widely studied in model plants like Arabidopsis. In this study, we identified the CaAGP18 cDNA from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), as well as its expression pattern during vegetative and reproductive development. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a Lys-rich AGP18 protein of 238 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 22.85 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.7. The protein is predicted as canonical AGP due to the presence of a small Lys-rich region and a C-terminal sequence essential for posttranslational modification with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaAGP18 is clustered together with NtAGP18, SpAGP18, StAGP18 and NaAGP18 from Solanaceae species. CaAGP18 expression through plant phenological stages had the highest transcription level in leaves at the seedling stage, whereas in reproductive organs there was a significant up-regulation in pistils during anthesis, also in petals 2 days post-anthesis (DPA), and in fruit at the expansion stage. Our results open future research for possible roles of CaAGP18 in cell expansion as a wall-associated plasticizer and reproductive processes like pistil interactions and petal cell death.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
  • Culture of Spirogyra sp. in a flat-panel airlift photobioreactor

    • Abstract: Spirogyra is a green filamentous freshwater algae on which recent studies reveal several promising properties and potential application possibilities in biotechnology. However, little is known about cultivation of Spirogyra and even less about large-scale cultivations in closed growth systems. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elaborate the growth kinetics of Spirogyra sp. in a commercially available and scalable photobioreactor. For this purpose, Spirogyra sp. was grown indoors in distinct flat-panel airlift photobioreactors equipped with culture-flow directing installations. Hereby, special attention was laid on light administration and specific light availability and it was found that Spirogyra sp., in combination with the photobioreactor in question, required high photon-flux densities (100 µmol m−2 s−1 g DW −1 ) for maximum proliferation which is in accordance with its abundance in epipelagial waters in nature. Applying photon-flux densities of up to 1400 µmol m−2 s−1, a maximum volumetric productivity and final biomass concentration of 1.15 gDW L−1 day−1 and 14.28 gDW L−1 were achieved, respectively, the highest to be reported for the alga. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report on the growth of Spirogyra in a flat-panel photobioreactor.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
  • Optimization of a resazurin-based microplate assay for large-scale
           compound screenings against Klebsiella pneumoniae

    • Abstract: A new resazurin-based assay was evaluated and optimized using a microplate (384-well) format for high-throughput screening of antibacterial molecules against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Growth of the bacteria in 384-well plates was more effectively measured and had a > sixfold higher signal-to-background ratio using the resazurin-based assay compared with absorbance measurements at 600 nm. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics revealed that the optimized assay quantitatively measured antibacterial activity of various antibiotics. An edge effect observed in the initial assay was significantly reduced using a 1-h incubation of the bacteria-containing plates at room temperature. There was an approximately 10% decrease in signal variability between the edge and the middle wells along with improvement in the assay robustness (Z′ = 0.99). This optimized resazurin-based assay is an efficient, inexpensive, and robust assay that can quantitatively measure antibacterial activity using a high-throughput screening system to assess a large number of compounds for discovery of new antibiotics against K. pneumoniae.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Diversity of intestinal bacterial lactase gene in antibiotics-induced
           diarrhea mice treated with Chinese herbs compound Qi Wei Bai Zhu San

    • Abstract: The current investigation is trying to study the impact of the mixture of Chinese herbs Qi Wei Bai Zhu San (QWBZS) on bacterial lactase gene from antibiotics-induced diarrhea (AAD) mice, as the good curative effect of QWBZS on diarrhea. Mice (6 mice per group) were randomly selected as control, model and treatment groups. To induce diarrhea, mice in both model and treatment groups were intragastrically injected with mixture of gentamycin sulfate and cefradine (23.33 mL kg−1 day−1) twice per day and continuously for totally 5 days. After the success of establishing diarrhea model, the mice in treatment group were gavaged with QWBZS for 3 days. Intestinal contents in all three groups were then collected and DNA was extracted in aseptic environment for the following sequencing. The results showed that mice from QWBZS treatment group had obviously detectable levels of intestinal bacteria, such as Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which produce phyla lactase specifically. In comparison with other groups, the mice in treatment group had more abundant expression of lactase gene from Acidovorax sp. KKs102, Stenotrophomonas sp. LMG11000, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Eggerthella and Burkholderia. Interestingly, the Shannon index decreased significantly after the treatment with QWBZS (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). 63.1% of lactase genes detected in the mice in treatment group were unclassified, and 32.8% of them were non-homologous to any fragments in the gene bank, which means that most of lactase-producing bacteria are novel. Our results indicate that treatment with QWBZS did not increase the diversity of bacterial lactase gene. Its curative effect on diarrhea may be relevant to its role in facilitating the growth of novel or some key lactase-producing strains.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Efficient genetic transformation of Momordica charantia L. by
           microprojectile bombardment

    • Abstract: Here, we report the optimized conditions for biolistic particle delivery-mediated genetic transformation of bitter melon using petiole segments. In this study, DNA-coated gold particles of 0.6 µm were used for optimizing the parameters of transformation and eventually regeneration of bitter melon putative transgenics. Initially, biolistic parameters namely helium pressure and macrocarrier to target tissue distance, were optimized using binary vector pBI121 carrying both β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a reporter and as a selectable marker gene, respectively. The effect of optimized physical parameters on the frequency of transient (79.2 ± 1.52%) and stable (41.9%) expressions has been investigated. The optimized biolistic parameters for petiole segments of Momordica charantia L. were determined as follows: 650 psi helium pressure and 6 cm target distance. Using the optimized parameters, transformation of bitter melon was carried out for generation of putative transformants from bombarded tissues on SRM-K medium, with a mean number of 50.3 explants surviving at the end of the final selection (50 mg l−1 kanamycin) round. Finally, the transformants produced were subjected to GUS histochemical assay, and integration of the transgenes (GUS and npt II) into the nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR analysis. DNA blot analysis confirmed the transgene integration in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for developing transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant for enhanced metabolic engineering pathways and production of biopharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
  • Quinolone-resistant clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated
           from University Hospital in Tunisia

    • Abstract: In this study, we examined mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA and parC genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) clinical isolates collected from patients hospitalized in University Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia. A total of 81 P. aeruginosa strains, obtained from clinical specimens, were included in the present study. Isolates were tested against 11 different antibiotics by a disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were evaluated by E test method. The gyrA and parC sequences genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were sequenced. The highest resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (100%), gentamicin (96%) and ticarcillin (93%). The lower resistance rates were obtained for imipenem (74%) and ceftazidime (70%). Notably, 54% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin were determined to be multi-drug resistant. The investigation of mutations in the nucleotide sequences of the gyrA and parC genes showed that 77% of isolates have a single mutation in both gyrA (Thr-83 → Ile) and parC (Ser-87 → Leu). The emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa requires the establishment of appropriate antibiotherapy strategies in order to prescribe the most effective antibiotic treatment for preventing the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa strains.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
  • Silicon bioavailability in exocarp of Cucumis sativus Linn.

    • Abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) techniques have been used to detect the silicon bioavailability in the exocarp of warty cucumber surface. Warts appear at the time of anthesis and are remnant part of spines/trichomes which on further fruit maturation abscised from the exocarp. Results of EPMA and phytolith analysis clearly revealed that the surface of exocarp (fruit) of Cucumis sativus Linn. containing warts has greater quantity of silicon as compared to the other part of the fruit. Besides silicon, some other elements were also found, on the fruit exocarp and its surrounding area. The other elements are magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and sodium. The percentage of silica is highest followed by Ni, Ca, Al, P, Mg, Fe, S, Cu, K, and Cl. Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that Cucumis sativus Linn. fruits which are used as salads and appetizers on daily basis are loaded with silicon and other useful elements and possess numerous health benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
  • Effects of iron nanoparticles on iron-corroding bacteria

    • Abstract: The toxicological effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were evaluated with an iron-corroding bacterium (ICB) for preventing the biocorrosion of iron. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 18 nm were successfully prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). A halophilic ICB strain L4 was isolated from Ribandar saltpan Goa, India and identified biochemically and by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Halanaerobium sp. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles in increasing doses (0.1–100 mg/L) caused transformation in growth and sulfide production of ICB strain L4. SEM–EDS analysis revealed a deformed cell structure with adsorption of nanoparticle on the cell surface and increased cell size. Comet assay revealed genotoxic effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on strain L4 which resulted in dose-dependent DNA damage by increasing percentage tail DNA from 5 to 88% with increasing Fe3O4 nanoparticles concentration. Furthermore, sulfide production rate was reduced to 11.8% in presence of 100 mg/L Fe3O4 nanoparticles which reduced the corroding property of ICB strain L4; thus, it was unable to corrode the iron nail in presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticle. This work suggests the possible application of Fe3O4 nanoparticle in addressing biocorrosion problems faced by different industries.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
  • Analytical study of effective biodegradation of p -cresol using Serratia
           marcescens ABHI001: application in bioremediation

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the capability of Serratia marcescens ABHI001 to effectively degrade p-cresol through different techniques. The molecular identity of the laboratory isolate S. marcescens ABHI001 was confirmed through the 16S ribosomal DNA gene pattern, and its morphological features were investigated through field-emission scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the degradation behavior of the isolate for cresol was verified using several techniques, including UV–visible spectroscopy, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The maximum degradation percentage of 85% for p-cresol could be achieved after 18 h of incubation with S. marcescens ABHI001. The formation of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoate, and protocatechuate metabolites was confirmed through HPLC. The study results indicate that S. marcescens ABHI001 may have applications in the bioremediation of organic pollutants, such as p-cresol.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
  • Optimized production and isolation of antibacterial agent from marine
           Aspergillus flavipes against Vibrio harveyi

    • Abstract: Statistical methodologies, including Plackett–Burman design and Box–Behnken design, were employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for the production of active substances against aquatic pathogen Vibrio harveyi by marine-derived Aspergillus flavipes strain HN4-13. The optimal crucial fermentation values for maximum production of active substances against V. harveyi were obtained as follows: X 1 (peptone) = 0.3%, X 2 (KCl) = 0.25%, and X 3 (inoculum size) = 4.5%. The predicted diameter of inhibitory zone against V. harveyi was 23.39 mm, and the practical value reached 23.71 ± 0.98 mm with a 62.3% increase. Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the acquisition of two compounds whose structures were identified as questin (1) and emodin (2). Questin exhibited the same antibacterial activity against V. harveyi as streptomycin (MIC 31.25 µg/mL). This is the first time to report questin as a potential antibacterial agent against aquatic pathogen V. harveyi.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
  • Molecular characterization of Turnip mosaic potyvirus ( TuMV )-infecting
           radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) crop in India

    • Abstract: Nine isolates of Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV)-infecting radish collected from different regions of Northern India were characterized. All isolates except for New Delhi and Rajasthan isolates resulted positive for TuMV in double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). RNA was isolated from leaves of infected plants and used in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with TuMV coat protein (CP) gene-specific primers. Viral amplicons of expected 1000 bp size were obtained, which were further subjected to cloning and sequencing. CP gene of all the seven isolates was 867 bp long, encoding 288 amino acid residues. Percent homology of CP gene of all the Indian isolates among themselves and with other TuMV isolates retrieved from NCBI was in the range of 87–99 and 92–100% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based upon CP gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other TuMV isolates reported from across the globe using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) inferred classification of test isolates into basal-BR group due to their occurrence nearest to the TuMV isolates belonging to the basal-BR group. Information generated about the characteristic features of TuMV and geographical distribution of particular virus genotype-infecting radish crop will provide a platform for formulating disease resistance strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
  • Saccharification of citrus wastes by immobilized polygalacturonase in an
           improved alginate matrix

    • Abstract: Enzyme immobilization using hydrogels is a low-cost and effective system for the degradation of bulk pectin derived from orange industry residues. Polygalacturonases obtained from four different bacterial strains of Streptomyces genus were immobilized in alginate gel and assayed for pectin hydrolysis. The enzyme from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897 proved to be superior and more stable within the alginate matrix. Furthermore, a new strategy to improve alginate bead stability using a mixture of calcium and strontium is reported; this technique allowed enhancing the mechanical properties by combining different amounts of these cations for ionotropic gelation. The developed biocatalyst showed maximum hydrolysis at 2 h, generating 1.54 mg/mL of reducing sugars and decreasing the viscosity of polygalacturonic acid by 98.9%. Reusability up to 29 successive reactions (58 h) demonstrated a very stable performance. The heterogeneous biocatalyst was used in the enzymatic saccharification of orange peel albedo (2.23 mg/mL) for adding value to this agro-waste by industrial exploitation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Modified microplate method for rapid and efficient estimation of
           siderophore produced by bacteria

    • Abstract: In this study, siderophore production by various bacteria amongst the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria was quantified by a rapid and efficient method. In total, 23 siderophore-producing bacterial isolates/strains were taken to estimate their siderophore-producing ability by the standard method (chrome azurol sulphonate assay) as well as 96 well microplate method. Production of siderophore was estimated in percent siderophore unit by both the methods. It was observed that data obtained by both methods correlated positively with each other proving the correctness of microplate method. By the modified microplate method, siderophore production by several bacterial strains can be estimated both qualitatively and quantitatively at one go, saving time, chemicals, making it very less tedious, and also being cheaper in comparison with the method currently in use. The modified microtiter plate method as proposed here makes it far easier to screen the plant-growth-promoting character of plant-associated bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
  • Overexpression of herbaceous peony miR156e-3p improves anthocyanin
           accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lateral branches

    • Abstract: microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, the function of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) miR156e-3p in the regulation of color formation has been investigated. Firstly, P. lactiflora miR156e-3p precursor sequence (pre-miR156e-3p) was isolated. Subsequently, the overexpression vector of pre-miR156e-3p was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the medium screening, GUS staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the GUS region and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of miR156e-3p all confirmed that the purpose gene had been successfully transferred into Arabidopsis plants and expressed, which resulted in apparent purple lateral branches. And this change in color was caused by the improved anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, expression analysis had shown that the level of miR156e-3p transcript was increased, while transcription level of target gene squamosa promoter binding protein-like gene (SPL1), encoding SPL transcription factor that negatively regulated anthocyanin accumulation, was repressed in miR156e-3p-overexpressing transgenic plants, and its downstream gene dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene (DFR) that was directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly expressed, which resulted in anthocyanin accumulation of Arabidopsis lateral branches. These findings would improve the understanding of miRNAs regulation of color formation in P. lactiflora.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Enhanced production of vanillin flavour metabolites by precursor feeding
           in cell suspension cultures of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., in
           shake flask culture

    • Abstract: The flavour rich tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii are known for its edible and medicinal use and have become endangered due to commercial over-exploitation. Besides 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB), other flavour metabolites in tuberous roots include vanillin, 4-Methoxy Cinnamic acid derivatives, aromatic alcohols etc. So far, there are no reports on the pathway of 2H4MB biosynthesis nor there is an organized work on biotransformation using normal and cell suspension cultures for obtaining these metabolites using precursors. The main aim of the study is to develop a method for enhanced production of flavour attributing metabolites through ferulic acid (FA) feeding to the D. hamiltonii callus culture medium. Biomass of D. hamiltonii cell suspension cultures was maximum (200.38 ± 1.56 g/l) by 4th week. Maximum production of 2H4MB was recorded on 4th week (0.08 ± 0.01 mg/100 g dry weight) as quantified by HPLC. Addition of 0.1–1.5 mM ferulic acid as precursor in the culture medium showed significant (p < 0.001) effect on suspension cultures biomass and respective phenylpropanoid metabolites content and 2H4MB accumulation. The maximum accumulation of vanillin, 2H4MB, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were of 0.1 ± 0.02 mg/100 g, 0.44 ± 0.01 mg/100 g, 0.52 ± 0.04 mg/100 g, 0.18 ± 0.02 mg/100 g DW respectively in 4 weeks of cultured cells supplemented with 1 mM ferulic acid as a precursor. The results indicate that, substantial increase in the levels of flavour metabolites in D. hamiltonii callus suspension culture was achieved. This would be having implications in biosynthesis of respective vanilla flavour attributing metabolites at very high levels for their large scale production.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Optimized extraction process and identification of antibacterial
           substances from Rhubarb against aquatic pathogenic Vibrio harveyi

    • Abstract: Response surface optimization was applied for the extraction of antibacterial substances from Rhubarb (ASR) against aquatic pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Based on the experimental results of single factors, the optimal extraction conditions were determined by Box–Behnken design combined with response surface methodology with conditions: 100% ethanol as extraction solvent, liquid/material ratio of 29 mL/g and extraction temperature at 88 °C for 148 min. The factual value of inhibition zones can reach 21.31 ± 0.95 mm and is not different from the predicted value (21.74 mm), which showed that the response surface methodology applied to the extraction optimization of antibacterial substances from Rhubarb against V. harveyi is feasible. Moreover, the yield of ASR was 30.29 ± 2.27%. Five compounds, namely, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, were identified in ASR by comparing the HPLC chromatogram of the reference mixtures and the sample. Contents of the five compounds were 0.68 ± 0.02, 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.78 ± 0.07, 6.68 ± 0.97 and 0.58 ± 0.15%, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ASR, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were 0.625, 0.125, 0.015, > 1, > 1, and > 1 mg/mL, respectively, which indicated that aloe-emodin and rhein are the main antibacterial compounds of Rhubarb.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Phytochemical profile, aldose reductase inhibitory, and antioxidant
           activities of Indian traditional medicinal Coccinia grandis (L.) fruit

    • Abstract: Coccinia grandis (L.) fruits (CGFs) are commonly used for culinary purposes and has several therapeutic applications in the Southeast Asia. The aim of this work was to evaluate phytochemical profile, aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI), and antioxidant activities of CGF extract. The CGFs were extracted with different solvents including petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol, and water. The highest yield of total extractable compounds (34.82%) and phenolic content (11.7 ± 0.43 mg of GAE/g dried extract) was found in methanol extract, whereas water extract showed the maximum content of total flavonoids (82.8 ± 7.8 mg QE/g dried extract). Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) analysis of methanol and water extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and glycosides in the CGFs. Results of the in vitro ARI activity against partially purified bovine lens aldose reductase showed that methanol extract of CGFs exhibited 96.6% ARI activity at IC50 value 6.12 µg/mL followed by water extract 89.1% with the IC50 value 6.50 µg/mL. In addition, methanol and water extracts of CGF showed strong antioxidant activities including ABTS*+ scavenging, DPPH* scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging. Our results suggest that high percentage of both flavonoids and phenolic contents in the CGFs are correlated with the ARI and antioxidant activities. The fruits of C. grandis are thus potential bifunctional agents with ARI and antioxidant activities that can be used for the prevention and management of DM and associated diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Biases during DNA extraction affect bacterial and archaeal community
           profile of anaerobic digestion samples

    • Abstract: The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste for biogas production has received much attention in recent years due to the increasing need for renewable energy and environmentally friendly waste management systems. Identification of the microbial community involved in AD aids in better understanding and optimising of the process. The choice of DNA extraction method is an integral step in any molecular biodiversity study. In the present study, potential biases introduced by DNA extraction methods were examined by comparing quality, quantity and representability of DNA extracted from AD samples using various extraction methods. In spite of the non-kit based method (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) yielding the largest quantity of DNA (approximately 44 µg DNA per gram dry weight), the extracted DNA contained PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, the quantity of extracted DNA was not proportional to species diversity. Diversity, determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was strongly linked to the type of extraction method used. The spin-column filter-based kit that incorporated mechanical and chemical lysis (Macherey-Nagel kit) gave the best results in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity (Shannon–Wiener indices: average 2.5 and 2.6, respectively). Furthermore, this kit was the most effective at lysing hard-to-lyse bacterial and archaeal cells. The choice of DNA extraction method significantly influences the reliability and comparability of results obtained during AD microbial ecology investigations. Moreover, the careful selection of the DNA extraction method is of particular importance when analysing AD samples since these samples are rich in PCR inhibitors and hard-to-lyse cells such as archaea and gram-positive bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Role of calcium-depositing bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its
           influence on corrosion of different engineering metals used in cooling
           water system

    • Abstract: The present investigation deals with the role of calcium-depositing bacterial community on corrosion of various engineering metals, namely, brass alloy (BS), copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and mild steel (MS). Based on the corrosion behavior, Agrobacterium tumefaciens EN13, an aerobic bacterium is identified as calcium-depositing bacteria on engineering metals. The results of the study are supported with biochemical characterization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, calcium quantification, weight loss, electrochemical (impedance and polarization) and surface analysis (XRD and FTIR) studies. The calcium quantification study showed carbonate precipitation in abiotic system/biotic system as 50 and 700 ppm, respectively. FTIR results too confirmed the accumulation of calcium deposits from the environment on the metal surface by EN13. Electrochemical studies too supported the corrosion mechanism by showing a significant increase in the charge transfer resistance (R ct) of abiotic system (44, 33.6, 45, 29.6 Ω cm2) than compared to biotic system (41, 10.1 29 and 25 Ω cm2). Hence, the outcome of the present study confirmed the enhanced bioaccumulation behavior of calcium by the strain, EN13.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
  • Comparative assessment of four RNA extraction methods and modification to
           obtain high-quality RNA from Parthenium hysterophorus leaf

    • Abstract: Isolation of high-quality RNA from weed plants such as Parthenium hysterophorus is a difficult task due to the hindrance caused by numerous secondary metabolites. Such metabolites not only affect the quality and yield of RNA, but also limit the quality of downstream applications. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to design a protocol for yielding RNA with better quality and quantity from P. hysterophorus leaf which could be suitable for functional genomics. To achieve the objective, four different important RNA extraction protocols, viz. acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform, phenol–LiCl precipitation, TRIzol®, and PVP–ethanol were tested. The PVP–ethanol method proved to be best among the tested protocols. This method was further modified for obtaining improved quality and yield of RNA. The modified method successfully enhanced the yield of RNA from 280 to 334 µg g−1 fresh weight. The absorbance ratio (A 260/A 280) was in the purity range of 1.9 that indicated the good quality of RNA. To prove the feasibility of the extracted RNA in PCR-based cDNA synthesis, actin transcripts were targeted and successfully amplified using suitable primers. The improved protocol thus not only improved the yield and quality of RNA, but also gave better results in reverse transcriptase PCR.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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