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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2285 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1206 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (383 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (91 journals)

ENGINEERING (1206 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Future Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Marine Engineering Innovation and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover Engineering Journal
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  • Simulation of Dynamic Behaviour of a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant
           in South East Queensland, Australia using Bio-Win Software

    • Authors: Chathurani Moragaspitiya, Jay Rajapakse, Wijitha Senadeera, Imtiaj Ali
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Wastewater treatment is the process of removing pollutants from liquid waste using physical, chemical and biological methods by converting it into an acceptable final effluent before discharging into a water body or reuse, and to safely dispose of solids generated during the treatment process. Limited parameters in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) are usually measured due to the significant cost and time involved with them. The mathematical modelling is increasingly becoming a well-established technique among researchers as well as practicing engineers to study the behaviour of wastewater treatment process as it provides more accurate predictions within the limited time frame at a reduced cost. Therefore, this technique can be used to study the engineering design of modern water resource recovery facilities that experience in increasing demands on control of effluent quality. The research work presented here is focused on studying the dynamic (time dependent) behaviours of the wastewater treatment plant in south east Queensland, Australia using the mathematical modelling technique implemented using Bio-Win software. The model developed has been calibrated and validated based on the measured data from the WWTP. The main benefit of this research work is that the developed and validated model can be used to study the non-measured important parameters of the WWTP.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.1
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) Membrane for Dye
           Removal of Synthetic Remazol Dye Wastewater

    • Authors: Nita Aryanti, Fathikatul K. Ika Sandria, Reza Harena Putriadi, Dyah Hesti Wardhani
      Pages: 23 - 35
      Abstract: Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration Membrane (MEUF) is one of promising technology to separate low molecular weight substances such as dyes. The MEUF process involves a combination of ultrafiltration and surfactant at a concentration higher than surfactant’s Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). This research was focused on the application of MEUF for synthetic Remazol dye wastewater containing Remazol Yellow/Black B/ Turquoise Blue at different dye concentration. In the MEUF system, a PolyEther Sulphone Ultrafiltration membrane and Cetyl Pyridinum Chloride (CPC) surfactant at concentration of 2 times of its Critical Micelle Concentration were used. Evaluation of MEUF performance was determined based on flux profile and rejection.  It was confirmed that dye concentration did not change the flux profile significantly. Flux reduction was effected by the addition of surfactant in the MEUF system. Flux decline in the MEUF was due to the formation of surfactant micelle aggregates with dye generating a deposited layer on the membrane surface.  As the CPC is an ionic surfactant, the formation of the micelle is attributed to a balance between the attraction of hydrocarbon chain (hydrophobic tail) and ionic repulsion.  Scanning Electron Microscopy images verified that there was an additional layer on the membrane surface after MEUF was performed, indicating a deposited layer. The permeate rejections were more than 70% and 96% for rejection of Chemical Oxygen Demand and Remazol dye, respectively. The rejection of dye ion and Chemical Oxygen Demand were attributed due to anionic dye solubilization in the surfactant micelles. The solubilization was formed by adsorbtion through electrostatic attraction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.23
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Spontaneous Ignition of Bagasse Stockpiles in Thailand: A Fire Safety
           Concern

    • Authors: Nathasak Boonmee, Pongsak Pongsamana
      Pages: 37 - 50
      Abstract: The sugar industry is confronted with the problem of safe bagasse storage over extended periods. In term of fire safety, there have been many instances that the spontaneous ignition promotes ignition inside a large bagasse stockpile and eventually the spontaneous ignition process develops to a flaming fire. This paper presents a method to determine a safe size for bagasse stockpile from spontaneous ignition. The kinetic parameters for spontaneous ignition of bagasse were estimated based on two methods: the Frank-Kamenetskii method and the crossing point method. The bagasse activation energies experimentally determined were ranged from 89 to 109 kJ/mol. Based on the calculated kinetic parameter values, the bagasse stockpile safe sizes for a sugar factory were estimated in term of graphical solutions. For a fixed surrounding temperature, as the bagasse stockpile radius or length increases, the height of the stockpile that spontaneous ignition does not occur decreases and approaches the asymptotic value as the stockpile radius or length approaches infinity. The graphical solutions showed that a bagasse stockpile with any radius or length stored with height below the asymptotic height for a given surrounding temperature was considered to be safe from spontaneous ignition. Applying the calculated activation energy of 89 kJ/mol, the asymptotic heights for bagasse stockpiles were 10.0 m, 7.8 m, and 6.0 m for surrounding temperatures of 40oC, 45oC and 50oC, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.37
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Determination of Setback Distances for On-Land Seismic Reflection Survey
           in Thailand

    • Authors: Tirawat Boonyatee, Nattawut Hemathulin
      Pages: 51 - 62
      Abstract: Explosives are commonly used to generate strong impulsive waves for on-land petroleum exploration. For each exploration area in Thailand, a concessionaire shall submit an environmental impact assessment report that commits minimum distances, or setback distances, between an explosive and various types of structures to a regulatory authority. However, the basis for determining the setback distances is not described and or based on surface mine blasting researches. To establish a guideline for exploration contractors in Thailand, ground vibrations were measured from ten exploration sites across the country which can be grouped into three geology conditions, namely sandy ground, clayey ground and sandy ground with rock boulders. Explosives in this study were buried and packed in boreholes at depths of 9 ~ 23 m, having weights of 1 ~ 4 kg and length-to-diameter ratios of 6 ~ 25. The measured data were used for determining the attenuation of particle velocities over distance and the frequency content of vibrations. The geometric damping was found to be the main cause of attenuation while the material damping was negligible. The attenuation in sandy ground with rock boulders was found to be stronger than sandy ground and clayey ground. Since the dominant frequencies of vibration in each ground type varied over wide range, the frequencies at the 2.5th percentile were used for the conservative sake in the vibration assessment according to DIN 4150. Based the proposed formula, the setback distances between residential buildings and a 2-kg explosive are 53, 149 and 221 m for sandy with rock boulders, sandy and clayey grounds, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.51
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Properties of Biochar Prepared from Acacia Wood and Coconut Shell for Soil
           Amendment

    • Authors: Pinitpon Pituya, Thavivongse Sriburi, Saowanee Wijitkosum
      Pages: 63 - 75
      Abstract: The biochar produced from the agricultural wastes was aimed to amend the extreme degraded soil. The properties of biochar prepared from Acacia wood and coconut shell were investigated by different pyrolysis conditions in order to identify the suitable initial biomass of biochar applied for sandy soil amendment. The slow pyrolysis was applied for preparing biochar under different conditions. The temperature was varied from 300, 400 and 500 oC meanwhile the pyrolysis times were varied to 1, 2 and 3 hours. The parameters indicating biochar property are SA, APD, elemental contents of C, H, O and N, pH, CEC, and WHC. The properties of Acacia biochar and coconut shell biochar were compared using paired T-test at 95% confident interval to analyze the significant difference. The results indicated that the types of the initial biomass and the pyrolysis conditions have an impact on the properties of biochar for both physical and chemical. The suitable temperature was 500 °C for 2 hours. The different types of biomass are significantly effect on the SA, C and O contents, pH, CEC and WHC of the prepared biochar (P<0.05). Properties of Acacia wood biochar indicate that it is more suitable than coconut shell biochar to be applied as sandy soil amendment due to its higher SA, higher CEC, and neutral pH. Meanwhile, coconut shell biochar also can be applied for the typical soil appropriate and increase crop yield.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.63
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Two-Dimensional Modeling of the Oxidative Coupling of Methane in a Fixed
           Bed Reactor: A Comparison among Different Catalysts

    • Authors: Salamah Manundawee, Amornchai Arpornwichanop, Suttichai Assabumrungrat, Wisitsree Wiyaratn
      Pages: 77 - 99
      Abstract: A proposed two-dimensional model of the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) to C2 hydrocarbons (e.g., C2H4 and C2H6) in a fixed bed reactor operated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions is described which can provide more accurate predictions of experimental data than the simplified one-dimensional model. The model includes a set of partial differential equations of the continuity, mass transfer and energy balance equations. The performance of the OCM using different catalysts was assessed in terms of CH4 conversion, C2 selectivity and C2 yield with respect to key operating parameters, such as feed temperature (973-1173 K), CH4/O2 ratio (3.4–7.5) and gas hour space velocity (GHSV) (18000-30000 h-1). The simulation results indicated that the Na-W-Mn/SiO2 catalyst exhibits the best performance among all of the catalysts. The C2 yield were 20.16% and 20.00% for non-isothermal and isothermal modes respectively which the OCM reactor is operated at a CH4/O2 ratio of 3.4, a feed temperature of 1073 K and a GHSV of 9720 h-1. An increase in the operating temperature increases the CH4 conversion but decreases the C2 selectivity. However, the effects of the CH4/O2 ratio and the GHSV exhibit an opposite trend to that of the operating temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.77
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Efficiencies of NF and RO Membranes on Pharmaceutical Removal and Membrane
           Fouling Effects

    • Authors: Katanchalee Phadunghus, Aunnop Wongrueng, Pharkphum Rakruam, Suraphong Wattanachira, Patiparn Punyapalakul
      Pages: 101 - 112
      Abstract: The efficiencies of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in removing carbamazepine (CBZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were studied. To do this, the NF and RO membranes NF-1 and RO-1 were used, and the isoelectric points of the NF-1 and RO-1 membranes were determined to be at approximate pH of 6.0. The NF-1 membrane’s CBZ rejections at solution pH values of 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were in a slight range of 92-93%. Additionally, SMX rejections by the NF-1 membrane at the same three solution pH values were 87%, 91%, and 94%, respectively. Meanwhile, the RO-1 membrane’s CBZ rejections at those solution pH values were also in a narrow range of 92-94%, and its SMX rejections were 94%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. Solution pH was found to have no effect on CBZ rejection but it did affect SMX rejection. Mixed pharmaceuticals showed insignificant change in rejections compared with those of single pharmaceutical. The effect of membrane fouling on SMX removal was observed. It was found that when the membranes were fouled by tannic acid (TA) in the presence and absence of calcium chloride (CaCl2), the membrane’s rejection of SMX was improved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.101
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Predicting the Floc Characteristics and Settling Velocity of Flocs under
           Variable Dosage of Polyacrylamide

    • Authors: Zhipeng Shi, Gen-guang Zhang, Guo-liang Pei, Guo-yun Zhang
      Pages: 113 - 122
      Abstract: In this study, floc characteristics such as fractal dimension and settling velocity were investigated through a flocculantion process with a polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculant over a range of suspended particle concentrations, suspension type and flocculant dosage. The floc’s structure and morphology were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. Floc settling velocity was measured in a settling column in a laboratory. The results showed that, the surface fractal dimension ranged from 1.044 to 1.415, which quantitatively confirmed the round and layered structure of flocs observed in SEM analyses. The PAM flocculant was proved to be more effective in flocculantion process, increasing the settling velocity. Therefore, an appropriate PAM dosage is an excellent candidate as efficient flocculant. A possible flocculantion mechanism for PAM was further analyzed. For alkaline or neutral environments, adsorption and bridging effects are dominant while charge neutralization is favored in acidic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.113
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Modeling of Root-reinforced Soil Slope under Rainfall Condition

    • Authors: Suched Likitlersuang, Akihiro Takahashi, Kreng Hav Eab
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of geotechnical centrifuge and numerical modeling study of root-reinforced systems on soil slopes. The centrifuge models were designed to simulate a soil slope reinforced by vetiver grass root system commonly grows in Southeast Asian countries. Unreinforced and root-reinforced soil slope models were subjected to heavy rainfall using a rainfall simulator designed for a geotechnical centrifuge. Results of the study show that the root system causes a reduction of rainwater infiltration rate, delay in the response of groundwater table, and increasing in soil shear strength. The results were validated by comparing centrifuge modeling test results with numerical modeling analyses based on limit equilibrium and finite element methods. The transient seepage analysis results were employed in the slope stability analysis. The numerical analysis shows a good agreement in failure mechanisms with the observations from centrifuge modeling tests.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.123
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Commercial Feasibility Study on Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) in
           Bangkok Dealing with Random Parameters

    • Authors: Tanakan Chua, Punnamee Sachakamol, Kongkiti Phusavat
      Pages: 133 - 155
      Abstract: Demolished concrete is found a lot.In developed countries, there is a clever method to dispose such demolished concrete by recycling to get a near quality as natural aggregate in order to reduce natural resources and help concrete waste disposal which is called recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). However, in Bangkok, it is now no strict regulation to dispose demolished concrete. This research studied a feasibility of RCA in Bangkok by simulation which many criteria in the model were assumed to be random parameters; therefore, this research created a model by Monte Carlo Simulation which is differed from other RCA business model simulations that normally use constant parameters. In additions, four conditions were set, first: 100-ton-per-hour constant supplied plant, second: 50-ton-per-hour constant supplied plant, third: 100-ton-per-hour uncertain supplied plant, and fourth: 50-ton-per-hour uncertain supplied plant. The result showed the trend of output rather than 1 simple output thanks to the random inputs. In details, the both constant supplied plant can make a profit, additionally; 100-ton-per-hour plant was more worthwhile than 50-ton-per-hour plant thanks to the economics of scale. On the other hand, for the uncertain supply, 100-ton-per-hour plant was loss, but 50-ton-per-hour plant still made a profit.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.133
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Models for Predicting Hydration Degree and Adiabatic Temperature Rise of
           Mass Concrete containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    • Authors: Arosha Dabarera, Warangkana Saengsoy, Krittiya Kaewmanee, Kanako Mori, Somnuk Tangtermsirikul
      Pages: 157 - 171
      Abstract: Predicting adiabatic temperature rise is essentially useful for investigating thermal cracking potential especially in early stage of mass concrete.  Existing prediction methods and models have some problems such as constant thermal properties are mostly utilized for predicting temperature rise. This study is aimed to develop time-dependent models for predicting hydration degrees of cement and slag, free water amount, specific heat, and total heat generation of concrete incorporating slag.  These models are then composed to predict the adiabatic temperature rise of mass concrete incorporating slag.  The model is able to predict adiabatic temperature rise in mass concrete with different water to binder ratios, slag replacements, physical properties of slag, and initial temperature conditions.  The validity of the proposed model was evaluated by comparing the model predictions with test results for adiabatic temperature rise of slag concrete.  The model simulations can be used to predict the experimentally measured data from different
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.157
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Preliminary Study for Design Core of Nuclear Research Reactor of TRIGA
           Bandung Using Fuel Element Plate MTR

    • Authors: Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Aryadi Suwono, Efrizon Umar, Nathanael Panagung Tandian
      Pages: 173 - 181
      Abstract: The nuclear reactor has two types of power reactors based on the function that is used as electrical energy and research reactors and radioisotope used as a producer of nuclear science and technology research. Indonesia has three research reactors are two types of TRIGA research reactor in Bandung with a power of 2 MW and in Yogyakarta with a power of 100 kW and a research reactor in PUSPIPTEK Serpong with nominal power of 30 MW. For the second fuel elements TRIGA type reactor that is currently using elements of cylindrical material, while the fuel elements RSG-GAS reactor in Serpong-shaped plate. Reactor TRIGA Bandung is a reactor that can be used to predict the buffer reactor. However, this reactor has a problem because of the limited number of existing fuel element. Meanwhile, production of TRIGA fuel elements abroad already closed. Given that Indonesia has the ability to produce nuclear fuel elements for research reactors fueled plate it is proposed to modify the reactor core of TRIGA Bandung of the terrace patio made from a cylinder into fuel plates. In this research will be studied more deeply about aspects thermal-hydraulics TRIGA research reactor using fuel elements plate replacement to cylinder fuel element. The method used is the modeling and simulation of the fuel element plate using porous media and non-porous media with the program of CFD Code. Results of the simulation show that the phenomenon of flow and temperature distribution closer to the comparison of the design elements used fuel plate. So later this plate fuel elements can be used in a nuclear reactor core TRIGA research Bandung, Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.173
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on Design and Development of Human Breast Phantoms
           for Ultra-Wide Band Breast Cancer Imaging Systems

    • Authors: Ikram E. Khuda
      Pages: 183 - 206
      Abstract: Microwave ultra-wide band UWB imaging system is a contemporary biomedical imaging technology for early detection of breast cancers. This imaging system requires the development of breast phantoms for experimental data analysis. In order to obtain realistic results, it is very important that these phantoms mimic the characteristics of real biological breast tissue as close as possible. For this purpose, scientists and engineers make use of the dielectric properties of human breast. This paper takes a survey of mathematical formulations used to determine biological dielectric properties and then takes a review of current breast phantoms being used in UWB imaging systems with reference to the analytical dielectric measurements. At present, breast phantoms are made, both, manually in laboratory utilizing different chemicals and also by using computational electromagnetic algorithms to introduce better heterogeneity in them. They can then easily be tested by doing computer simulations. In this review paper, emphasis is made on the phantoms which are made in laboratory for doing hardware experimentations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.183
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of Turbulence Models for Flow Past NACA0015 Airfoil Using
           OpenFOAM

    • Authors: Chakrit Suvanjumrat
      Pages: 207 - 221
      Abstract: The open source code software, OpenFOAM, was applied for simulating flow past NACA0015 airfoil. Three economical turbulence models for aerospace applications were selected comprising Spalart-Allmaras model, Wilcox  model and Menter SST  model, respectively. The non-dimension y+ was used to analyze the near-wall flow. The C-type domain for airfoil simulation was considered for an appropriate dimension to protect the effect of boundary conditions. The zero pressure gradient problem of the pressure-velocity coupling was used an effective algorithm, SIMPLE, for solving. The central differencing, upwind differencing, and linear upwind differencing (LUD) scheme were used to solve the convection-diffusion equation of the flow past airfoil. The simulation results included lift coefficient (CL) and drag coefficient (CD) were obtained from this computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The turbulence models had been validated to the physical experiment. The wind tunnel was set up to test the flow past NACA0015 airfoil. The Reynolds number (Re) at 160,000 and 360,000 were controlled in order that the NACA0015 airfoil with the large range angle of attack from 0 to 20 degrees was immersed in the low wind speeds and turbulent flow. The suitable turbulence model was the Menter SST  model which employed SIMPLE algorithm and LUD scheme for solving. These CFD results lower the stall angle of attack had the average errors of CL and CD with were less than 13.15% and 22.36%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.207
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Adaptive Gain Control for a Two-Axis, H-Frame-Type, Positioning System

    • Authors: Gridsada Phanomchoeng, Ratchatin Chanchareon
      Pages: 223 - 234
      Abstract: XY gantry systems play an important role in many applications in diverse industries, where they are used to position a part or tool along the xy plane within the working area of the system. The increased demand for enhanced performance and low cost of XY gantry systems has driven research to develop alternative structural designs and improve their capabilities. A two-axis, parallel H-frame XY positioning system (H-Bot) is of increasing interest as a candidate for development due to its low number of moving parts, lightweight, low cost and speed of the system. However, the system has an uncertainty of cart or end-effector position when moving at high speed because of the friction and flexibility of the elastic timing belt. The H-bot developed here using an adaptive gain control showed a good repeatability and improved accuracy, reducing the root mean square error between the desired and the actual trajectory of 32.7% and 53.2% on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, for drawing a 80 mm diameter circle in 36 seconds.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.223
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Transient Modeling of Tubular-Designed IIR-SOFC Fueled by Methane,
           Methanol, and Ethanol

    • Authors: Pannipha Dokmaingam, Sureewan Areesinpitak, Navadol Laosiripojana
      Pages: 235 - 249
      Abstract: It is known that the heating rate during starting-up of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plays an important role of system performance and lifetime. In the present work, an axial 2-D tubular Indirect Internal Reforming SOFC (IIR-SOFC) model fueled by methane, methanol, and ethanol was developed with the aim of predicting the system temperature gradient during the starting-up period. All predicted results was calculated by using COMSOL®. The system was also compared with typical SOFC fueled by hydrogen. It was found that hydrogen heating gas required the lowest time to achieve the steady state (around 2 minutes) with the highest heating rate 0.93 K/s, which is not compatible for the thermal stress of SOFC material. The uses of methane, methanol, and ethanol as primary fuel can enhance compatible heating rate with the cell material, from which IIR-SOFC fueled by methanol is the best option in terms of its slow heating rate and high system efficiency. It is noted that the effects of inlet steam/carbon (S/C) ratio and gas flow pattern were also studied. It was observed that changing in S/C ratio is not significantly influence to temperature behaviors of the system. Meanwhile, IIR-SOFC with co-flow pattern provided smoother temperature gradient along cell and higher power density at steady state condition than that with counter-flow pattern.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.235
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • GRNN-Immune Based Strategy for Estimating and Optimizing the Vibratory
           Assisted Welding Parameters to Produce Quality Welded Joints

    • Authors: Potnuru Govinda Rao, P. Srinivasa Rao, B. B. V. L. Deepak
      Pages: 251 - 267
      Abstract: Welding is the process of producing permanent joints with the application of pressure and/or heat energy. During welding operation, weldments may be subjected to uneven thermal stresses. These stresses influence the metallurgical structure of the component. Due to this, the strength of the weld joint is reduced. Therefore, vibratory weld treatment during welding has been proposed in the present work to enhance the flexural and impact strength of weldments. However, it is found that the mechanical properties have shown nonlinear behavior with the chosen input parameters. Hence, an efficient Neural Network (NN) based prediction tool is developed to approximate the mechanical properties of weldments without performing the experiments, output values can be predicted for the given input values. Further, an immune based strategy is integrated to the developed prediction tool in order to obtain desired quality welded joints.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.251
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Prediction Algorithm for Paddy Leaf Chlorophyll Using Colour Model
           Incorporate Multiple Linear Regression

    • Authors: Sattarpoom Thaiparnit, Mahasak Ketcham
      Pages: 269 - 280
      Abstract: This paper proposes the chlorophyll prediction in Pathumthani1 rice based on the image processing technique. The algorithm is developed to analyse the colour in the image by separating the components from rice leaf and computing the average value of red, green, and blue colours (RGB colours). The relationship between the average value and the amount of the chlorophyll is measured by using the chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 with multiple linear regressions. The results showed that the average value of the RGB colours is highly correlated with the amount of the chlorophyll from the rice leaf. To evaluate the accuracy, the chlorophyll prediction has been tested with 60 different rice leaves and the accuracy of the proposed method is 96.12%.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.269
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Determining Critical Rail Line Blocks and Minimum Train Headways for Equal
           and Unequal Block Lengths and Various Train Speed Scenarios

    • Authors: Onanong Sangphong, Siradol Siridhara, Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
      Pages: 281 - 293
      Abstract: This paper presents a primary model to maximize rail line capacity by minimizing the train headway, defining block time as the time when a train first enters until it leaves the block. The analysis was conducted under a fixed-block system, which allows only a single train to remain in the block. A critical block was identified to determine the minimum safe headway as a function of the train speed, train length, number of trains, and block length. A time–distance diagram was used to analyze operations with equal and unequal block lengths. For two trains operating at the same speed on unequal blocks, the maximum block length defined the minimum headway. For two trains operating at different speeds, a hierarchical analysis was required to identify the minimum headway. Shorter block lengths and a strategic train order affected rail line capacity. The maximum capacity was achieved when two trains operated at the same speed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.281
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Location Estimation of a Photo: A Geo-signature MapReduce Workflow

    • Authors: Pakpoom Mookdarsanit, Montean Rattanasiriwongwut
      Pages: 295 - 308
      Abstract: Location estimation of a photo is the method to find the location where the photo was taken that is a new branch of image retrieval. Since a large number of photos are shared on the social multimedia. Some photos are without geo-tagging which can be estimated their location with the help of million geo-tagged photos from the social multimedia. Recent researches about the location estimation of a photo are available. However, most of them are neglectful to define the uniqueness of one place that is able to be totally distinguished from other places. In this paper, we design a workflow named G-sigMR (Geo-signature MapReduce) for the improvement of recognition performance. Our workflow generates the uniqueness of a location named Geo-signature which is summarized from the visual synonyms with the MapReduce structure for indexing to the large-scale dataset. In light of the validity for image retrieval, our G-sigMR was quantitatively evaluated using the standard benchmark specific for location estimation; to compare with other well-known approaches (IM2GPS, SC, CS, MSER, VSA and VCG) in term of average recognition rate. From the results, G-sigMR outperformed previous approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.295
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Towards 5G Cellular: Understanding 3D In-Building Single Band and
           Multi-band Small Cells with Control /User-plane Coupled and Separation
           Architectures with a Novel Resource Reuse Approach

    • Authors: Rony Kumer Saha, Yan Zhao, Chaodit Aswakul
      Pages: 309 - 343
      Abstract: In this paper, we present numerous small cell base station, i.e. femtocell base station (FCBS), with control-/user-plane coupled and separation architectures based on the number of transceivers and operating frequency bands to serve control-/user-plane traffic. A single transceiver enabled FCBS can operate at either a co-channel microwave of the overlaid macrocell or a millimeter wave band. For multiple transceivers, dual transceivers are considered operating at both bands. FCBSs are deployed in a number of buildings with each floor modeled as 5×5 square-grid apartments. The co-channel interference with FCBSs is avoided using enhanced intercell interference coordination techniques. We propose a static frequency reuse approach and develop an algorithm by avoiding adjacent channel interferences from reusing frequencies in FCBSs. We also develop a resource scheduling algorithm for FCBSs with CUCA and CUSA to evaluate system level performances with a multi-tier network. It is found that a single transceiver co-channel microwave enabled FCBS with CUCA provides the worse, whereas a single or dual transceivers millimeter wave enabled FCBS with CUSA provides the best overall system capacity and FCBSs’ energy efficiency performances. Besides, we show the outperformances of the proposed resource reuse approach over an existing approach in literature in terms of system capacity and fairness among FCBSs with CUCA. Finally, we point out the applicability of a multi-band enabled FCBS and several features and issues of FCBSs with CUCA and CUSA.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.3.309
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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