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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2279 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (65 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1203 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Image Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Micro and Nano Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IET Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access  
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Engineering Journal
  [SJR: 0.227]   [H-I: 8]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0125-8281 - ISSN (Online) 0125-8281
   Published by Chulalongkorn University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Prediction of Asbestos Cement Water Pipe Aging and Pipe Prioritization
           Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    • Authors: Wonsiri Punurai, Paul Davis
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: For buried Asbestos cement (AC) pipes in service, internal and external surface degradation occur by dissolution or leaching of cement-based components leading to loss of pipe strength. Since water quality and soil environment cannot be completely specified along a pipeline, a management methodology for AC water pipelines is required to estimate the probability of pipe failure as ageing proceeds. The paper describes the technique and its application to experimental data, which illustrates in three parts. First, the degradation rates in AC pipes are computed from 360 aggregated independent pipe segments residual strength test data taken from different pipe diameter sizes used in various water utilities locations in Thailand. Second, the predictions of service lifetime for AC pipes are estimated using Monte Carlo simulation in conjunction with the physical failure state formulations. Output from the simulation provides a number of failures recorded over time, which then allows the economic analysis for optimal pipe replacement scheduling. All is described in the third part. The end results can be used for water utilities to allocate government funds for future pipe maintenance activities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Removal of Paraquat from Aqueous Solutions onto Zeolite LTL

    • Authors: Wilaiporn Insuwan, Kunwadee Rangsriwatananon
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: Zeolite LTL (K_LTL and H_LTL) was used as adsorbent for the adsorption of herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution. The characterization of zeolite LTL has been carried out through various techniques: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR and surface analysis. The adsorption occurred through cation exchange and the results showed that the adsorption capacity of paraquat onto K_LTL (161.71 mg/g) is higher than H_LTL (25.67 mg/g). These results can be explained by the amount of Al in the structure of zeolite and affinities of negative sites in zeolite and extra-framework cations (K+ and H+). The equilibrium data was best adjusted using the Langmuir model which has high correlation coefficient values (0.99).
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.15
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Chemically Modified Cissus Populnea Fibers on Mechanical,
           Microstructural and Physical Properties of Cissus populnea/High Density
           Polyethylene Composites

    • Authors: Taofik Oladimeji Azeez, Onukwuli Dominic Okechukwu
      Pages: 25 - 42
      Abstract: The effect of chemically modified Cissus populnea (C. populnea) fiber using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on mechanical, morphological and physical (density and water absorption behaviour) properties of C. populnea fiber/recycled HDPE composites was aimed to be investigated. The composites of unmodified and modified C. populnea fiber/HDPE were prepared using injection molding machine. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, hardness and impact strength), interfacial shear stress, density, water absorption behaviour, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope were studied. The results shows that C. populnea fiber improved the mechanical properties of HDPE matrix with reduced impact strength of the composites. The NaOH and SLS treatments, respectively, improved the mechanical properties of C. populnea fiber/HDPE composites, although NaOH treated C. populnea fiber reduced the tensile modulus. The change in morphology and functional group, respectively, due to the modification was observed in SEM and FTIR. The density and water absorption of the composites, respectively, reduced when SLS modified C. populnea fiber was used compared to untreated C. populnea fiber/HDPE composites. The SLS treated C. populnea fiber prove to be superior for reinforcement, stiffness and light weight material.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.25
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Outdoor-Indoor Atmospheric Corrosion in a Coastal Wind Farm Located in a
           Tropical Island

    • Authors: Abel Abelito Castañeda, Francisco Corvo, Dainerys Fernández, Cecilia Valdés
      Pages: 43 - 62
      Abstract: Atmospheric corrosion is important to consider for energy production and transmission. Important and valuable information have been accumulated in this subject; however, the application of new knowledge obtained is not completed. In order to contribute to a decrease in economic losses caused by atmospheric corrosion in wind farms, studies toward application of this knowledge should be carried out. One of the most common reasons for the failure of coastal structures and infrastructures is deterioration failure which is the result of structure deterioration and lack of project maintenance. Atmospheric corrosion was evaluated at outdoor and indoor exposure sites located at different distances from the sea in a wind farm region. Carbon and galvanized steel, copper and aluminum specimens were exposed. Main pollutants and atmospheric parameters were measured. Significant differences between outdoor corrosivity determined by dose response functions established on ISO standard respecting direct weight loss evaluation were found. Estimation carried out using dose response functions overestimate corrosivity (excepting copper). Main factors causing outdoor corrosion are different to indoor. Very high outdoor and indoor corrosivity classifications were determined.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.43
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Mixed Zero-Inflation Method and Probability Distribution in Fitting Daily
           Rainfall Data

    • Authors: Kwanchai Pakoksung, Masataka Takagi
      Pages: 63 - 80
      Abstract: In hydrological processes, rainfall is one of the important components of water supply for human life. We considered how well the statistical distribution simulates rainfall intensity. We propose an asymmetric statistical probability distribution joined by zero-inflated to fit the daily continuous record of rainfall data in Thailand. The candidate statistical probabilities are General Pareto, Exponential, Beta, Gamma, Generalize extreme value, Extreme Value, Normal, Lognormal, Weibull and Rayleigh distribution. The daily data from 123 rain gauges in Thailand collected and removed in a given year, using the null value. The statistical distributions estimated on the statistical coefficient, using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method and resulted in a cumulative density function (CDF). The CDF compared to the CDF of observed data that estimated, using Kaplan-Meier algorithm. The comparisons were evaluated by Goodness of fit (GOF) in 3 null hypothesis tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Square test). The best fit distribution was identified by minimum residual (R) index and maximum correlation (Cor) index based on difference value between the estimated and observed data. The Weibull distribution matched to the 118 rain gauges while 5 rain gauges were best fitted by the Gamma distribution.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.63
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A Comparative Analysis of Weed Images Classification Approaches in
           Vegetables Crops

    • Authors: Camilo Andrés Pulido Rojas, Leonardo Enrique Solaque Guzman, Nelson Fernando Velasco Toledo
      Pages: 81 - 98
      Abstract: This paper exposes a comparative analysis of three weed classification strategies based on area and texture features over images of vegetable crops, focus on provide a technological tool to support farmers in their maintenance tasks. The classification alternatives embrace a basic approach which defines an umbral according to scene features, indeed, a detection with a certain degree of uncertainty on the decision region is purposed and a rigid boundary decision arrangement are exposed. A first mode carry out an unsupervised learning, it uses area and color features with a practical thresholding classifier to differentiate between weed and vegetable classes, the following two, extracts statistical measures of autocorrelation, contrast, correlation and others, from grey level co-occurrence matrices to calculate texture features, next, a principal component analysis is made for dimensionality reduction. These patterns serve as basis for training K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine classifiers. The algorithms performance is measured calculating sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive and negative predicted values (PPV and NPV), also, the execution time is stored and tabulated in order to evaluate the proposed methods. Finally, the results show a similar performance of correct classification over 90 and 80% on SN and SP indices respectively, however, approaches present a clear difference in execution time respect of train an evaluation stages.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.81
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of Biochar Preparation from Acacia Wood for Soil Amendment

    • Authors: Pinitpon Pituya, Thavivongse Sriburi, Saowanee Wijitkosum
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: Biochar was prepared from Acacia wood by slow pyrolysis process under different conditions in order to determine the optimum condition of the pyrolysis temperature and time. The temperature was varied from 300 - 500 OC meanwhile the time was varied from 1-3 hours. The regression analysis was applied to investigate the relationship between surface area, APD, and pH of biochar (response variables) and the independent factors (temperature and time). The response surface methodology was used for determining the optimum condition of biochar preparation from Acacia wood. The relationship between all response variables and the pyrolysis temperature and time is fit to the first order linear regression model. The pyrolysis temperatures have the significant impact (at 95% confident interval) on the surface area and APD of biochar meanwhile the pyrolysis times do not. The optimum condition for preparing biochar from Acacia wood using the laboratory electrical furnace is at 434.8 OC, 1 hour of pyrolysis temperature and time. In addition, the proposed range of the optimum pyrolysis temperature is 413 – 450 OC and the range of the optimum pyrolysis time is 1 – 2 hours.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.99
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ethylenediamine Functionalized Saponite as
           Adsorbent of Nickel from Aqueous Solution

    • Authors: Is Fatimah, Septian Perwira Yudha
      Pages: 107 - 121
      Abstract: Surface modification of saponite clay by surface functionalization using N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine was performed. This study of the physicochemical characteristics of modified saponite as a function of its functional compound content was investigated using XRD, a gas sorption analyzer, FTIR, TG analysis and SEM. It was observed that the content of N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine increases the basal spacing (d001) of the saponite structure, which changes the specific surface area and surface profile of the solid. The study of nickel adsorption provides evidence of the increased adsorption capacity of the modified saponite. The adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetics and fits the Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. Increased content of the modifying agent results in increased adsorption capacity. The material is reusable because regenerated materials retain greater than 90% of the adsorption capacity of fresh material.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.107
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Activated Carbon and Cationic Exchange Resin Pretreatments on
           Groundwater Defluoridation by Reverse Osmosis Process

    • Authors: Praphasiri Chantharawong, Aunnop Wongrueng, Pharkphum Rakruam, Suraphong Wattanachira, Satoshi Takizawa
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the effects of a pretreatment using activated carbon and cationic exchange resin on groundwater defluoridation by a reverse osmosis membrane. Actual groundwater containing a high fluoride concentration was collected and examined. Experiments were operated under controlled conditions: a transmembrane pressure of 0.6 MPa and temperature of 25°C. The reverse osmosis system with activated carbon and cationic exchange resin pretreatments had higher fluoride removal than the one without the pretreatments, 97% compared to 95%, respectively. Additionally, the reverse osmosis system with the pretreatments also produced a higher permeate flux, 1.1 x 10-5 compared 9.6 x10-6 m3/m2·s without the pretreatment. When the reverse osmosis systems with and without pretreatments were fouled, they showed a decrease in fluoride rejection, as well as a permeate flux decline. After the fouled reverse osmosis membranes were chemically cleaned, the permeate flux recovery and the fluoride rejection of the osmosis system with the pretreatments improved.  It could be concluded that the activated carbon and cationic exchange resin played an important role in improving the reverse osmosis system as they contributed to high fluoride rejection and high permeate flux.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.123
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation of Reducing Operating Pressure Effect on
           the System Hydrodynamics in a Downer Reactor

    • Authors: Pilaiwan Chaiwang, Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan, Pornpote Piumsomboon
      Pages: 133 - 149
      Abstract: The effect of the system hydrodynamics in a circulating fluidized bed downer (CFBD) reactor with a reducing operating pressure and solid mass flux on the hydrodynamics in a downer reactor were evaluated using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation. Five low operating pressure conditions (0.90 to 0.99 atm) and four different solid mass fluxes (250 to 1,000 kg/m2 s) were explored. The simulation results demonstrated that the CFBD reactor had a higher mean free path when operated with a low solid mass flux than with a high solid mass flux. Moreover, a large difference between the operating and atmospheric pressures induced a high system turbulence or oscillation. The CFBD reactor with hydrodynamic fluctuation showed a good solid circulation between the gas and solid particles, as reflected by the solid volume fraction and velocities and granular temperature. These phenomena will be suitable for the chemical reaction systems. Therefore, a suitable solid mass flux was in the range of 500 to 750 kg/m2 s for all operating pressures
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.133
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Seismic Shear Demands of RC Core Walls in Thailand
           Determined by RSA Procedure

    • Authors: Kimleng Khy, Chatpan Chintanapakdee
      Pages: 151 - 172
      Abstract: ASCE 7 allows structural engineers to use Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) procedure to compute the seismic design forces of the structures. However, seismic shear demands of reinforced concrete (RC) walls determined by RSA have been found to be inadequate by many researchers. This paper aims to investigate the seismic shear demands of RC core walls from low-rise to high-rise buildings. RC split core walls in five buildings varying from 5 to 25 stories subjected to earthquake ground motions in Bangkok and Chiang Mai of Thailand were first designed by RSA procedure in ASCE 7-10. Then nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA) was conducted to compute more accurate seismic demands of the structures. The results demonstrated that shear demands of core walls from NLRHA were significantly larger than those from RSA procedure. The shear amplifications of core walls in cantilever-wall direction were larger than those in coupled-wall direction. The two building locations having different spectrum shapes led to different shear amplifications. Hence, an empirical formula cannot be applied to every location. In Bangkok, it is found that Rejec et al. (2012)’s equation could well estimate shear forces in cantilever direction of core walls but it significantly overestimated shear forces in coupled direction of core walls. In Chiang Mai, Luu et al. (2014)’s equation provided good estimation of shear forces in both directions of core walls. Beside these two equations, the shear magnification factor equation in EC8 is found acceptable to be adopted to multiply with shear force from RSA procedure before using it as design shear force of RC core wall in both Bangkok and Chiang Mai.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.151
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Preparation of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Waste Cotton Fabrics Using
           Gamma Irradiation

    • Authors: Deni Swantomo, Giyatmi Giyatmi, Satrio Hadiid Adiguno, Doonyapong Wongsawaeng
      Pages: 173 - 182
      Abstract: Recycling process of waste cotton fabrics into value added products is still limited. Cotton fabrics are made of cotton fiber, which is a high cellulose source and it can be converted into microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). In this research, MCC was prepared by dissociation of waste cotton fabric using gamma irradiation with various radiation doses in dried phase and in wet phase by 35 % H2O2 solution. The properties of the prepared MCC were investigated and compared with standard Avicel PH101 MCC. The results from FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns show that the obtained MCC has typical similarity to commercial MCC. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystallinity percentage (%Cr) was increased while crystallite size was decreased through gamma irradiation. At the same dose, degree of polymerization (DP) and solubility in water in dried phase, i.e. 135; 5.46 % were higher than wet phase irradiation i.e. 123; 4.38 %. Degree of polymerization and solubility in water decreases with increasing total irradiation dose. The investigated physicochemical properties of the obtained MCC conform to the European Pharmacopoeia requirements. The results indicated that waste cotton fabrics have a great potential as a low cost MCC raw material and can lead to many applications.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.173
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Architecture of Micro Energy Harvesting Using Hybrid Input of RF, Thermal
           and Vibration for Semi-Active RFID Tag

    • Authors: Tengku Norliza Tengku Mohamad, Jahariah Sampe, Dilla Duryha Berhanuddin
      Pages: 183 - 197
      Abstract: This research work presents a novel architecture of Hybrid Input Energy Harvester (HIEH) system for semi-active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The proposed architecture consists of three input sources of energy which are radio frequency signal, thermal and vibration. The main purpose is to solve the semi-active RFID tags limited lifespan issues due to the need for batteries to power their circuitries. The focus will be on the rectifiers and DC-DC converter circuits with an ultra-low power design to ensure low power consumption in the system. The design architecture will be modelled and simulated using PSpice software, Verilog coding using Mentor Graphics and real-time verification using field-programmable gate array board before being implemented in a 0.13 µm CMOS technology. Our expectations of the results from this architecture are it can deliver 3.3 V of output voltage, 6.5 mW of output power and 90% of efficiency when all input sources are simultaneously harvested. The contribution of this work is it able to extend the lifetime of semi-active tag by supplying electrical energy continuously to the device. Thus, this will indirectly  reduce the energy limitation problem, eliminate the dependency on batteries and make it possible to achieve a batteryless device.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.183
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • An Analysis of Seismic Behavior of Two Non-coplanar Tunnels

    • Authors: Sina Pourzahedi, Iman Aghayan
      Pages: 199 - 211
      Abstract: With regard to increase in growth of population in metropolitan areas around the world, the development of urban infrastructures in a way that is responsive to the population has become a major concern. Today, many cities are willing to use rail transport system which this requires conducting detailed studies of engineers in the field of traffic engineering for the optimal locating in rail lines. Hence in the field of structural and geotechnical engineering for detailed design and structure analysis of tunnels due to applied loads on it and their behavior against the vibrations generated by train movement or earthquake. Then, in order to achieve more realistic results, the urgent need to use three-dimensional analyses and non-linear models can be seen. In the present study, three-dimensional analysis of vibrations caused by simultaneous passing of two trains over each other in two tunnels with different directions, three-dimensional analysis of land subsidence caused by excavation of two passing tunnels and three-dimensional seismic analysis of two passing tunnels were discussed with the help of non-linear dynamic modeling. The results of this research showed although the soil at the bottom of the upper tunnel was on the verge of shear failure; however, the relative displacement of tunnels to each other was less than 0.175. And also, the geometry section deformation of tunnels was around 0.8 mm which was negligible values. Thus, the studied tunnels had considerable stability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.199
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Micro-Silica and Zeolite on
           Repair Mortar of Concrete Pavements

    • Authors: Saeed Farzin, Gholam Ali Shafabakhsh, Ehsan Teymouri, Mohammad Reza Aeine Heydari, Mana Motamedi
      Pages: 213 - 225
      Abstract: In the recent years, by replacing a part of our country's asphalt pavements with concrete pavements, it is necessary to perform appropriate actions in order to preserve and repair destructions (due to executive weaknesses, loading and environmental conditions) during pavement lifetime. In order to increase mechanical properties and durability of repair mortars, micro-silica and zeolite were used as pozzolan, polypropylene fibers for controlling crack (due to fluctuations in concrete and temperature change) and the cement type 3 for obtaining high resistivity in short-term. In this study, 11 mixing designs were investigated, and the composition of polypropylene fibers with micro-scale thickness with cement complements can be considered as the most optimal mixing design in 0.2% of fibers with 10% micro-silica and 15% zeolite in order to promote effective parameters of elasticity modulus, modulus of rupture and decrease of contraction in repair mortars of concrete pavements. By adding polypropylene fibers, the samples were not completely ruptured in the tension of primary strength that they showed. The samples containing 0.4% fibers with deformation from spherical state to elliptical state with splay value in rupture surface showed individual characteristic which caused minimizing rupture and crunch in the repaired area.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.213
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Performance Assessment and Mathematical Modeling of Process Parameters in
           Electrical Discharge Machining of EN-31 Tool Steel Material Using Taguchi
           DOE

    • Authors: P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Santa Rao
      Pages: 227 - 236
      Abstract: In non-traditional machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM) has tremendous potential on account of versatility of its applications and is successfully, commercially used in modern industries. EDM process is capable to machine geometrically complex, hard material components, tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics and carbides. In EDM, Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Tool wear rate (TWR) are generally analyzed to assess its performance. For this, a perfect combination of input variables is required. In the present study, machining is done on Tool steel workpiece material using a pure copper electrode. The input parameters like Pulse-ON time, Pulse- OFF time, Current and Gap voltage are selected for experimentation and Taguchi method is employed for the DOE by considering 4 factors and 3 levels. A total of 27 experiments (L27 orthogonal array) have been designed with a possible combination of selected input parameters. The present work mainly focuses on development of an extensive mathematical model for correlating the input and output variables using a conventional regression analysis. The adequacy of proposed model was tested with the help of some collected data through experimentation using taguchi optimized DOE. The proposed linear multi-variable regression equation was found to be a best fitted model with 98% confidence levels.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.227
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Modeling and Simulation of UWB Wave Propagation for Early Detection of
           Breast Tumors in Cancer Dielectric Imaging Systems

    • Authors: Ikram E. Khuda
      Pages: 237 - 251
      Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed an analytical body (breast-tissue) propagation model in terms of scattering parameters towards the design goal of a suitable ultra-wide band, (UWB) transceiver for early breast tumor detection. The scattering parameters are reflection (and transmission coefficients (Τ). We considered a heterogeneous breast model consisting of skin, adipose and glandular tissues as body (breast) channel and planar wave to propagate through it for UWB frequency range. A tumor layer was also considered as an inner layer to investigate tumorous tissue effects. Effective dielectric properties and scattering parameters (through reflected/ scattered or forward transmitted signals) for the whole breast were determined. Due to dispersive nature of heterogeneous breast, Γ and T vary with frequency; showing their decisive nature for a particular center frequency of the UWB transceiver systems. In case of 2.0 GHZ and 4.5 GHz center frequency UWB system, the back propagated (reflected/ scattered) signals showed approximately 45.45% and 63.3% respectively higher amplitude than forward propagated signals for the breast channel with tumor, indicating high value of dispersion present in human breast tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.237
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Optimizing the Cost of Integrated Model for Fuzzy Failure Weibull
           Distribution Using Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Pramote Charongrattanasakul, Adisak Pongpullponsak
      Pages: 253 - 268
      Abstract: This research applies the fuzzy concept in development of an integrated model (Statistical process control and Maintenance management) with Weibull distribution for Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart. Since sample data may contain uncertainties coming from measurement systems and environment conditions, fuzzy number is used to inspect these suspicions. Moreover, the Weibull distribution with fuzzy scale parameters is considers, and the genetic algorithm approach is used to determine the optimal values of six variables that minimize the fuzzy hourly cost. Finally, the fuzzy hourly cost is transformed to crisp number by the centroid defuzzification.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.253
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Synthetic and Natural Zeolite on ASR Expansion

    • Authors: Suvimol Sujjavanich, Chanakorn Wongtanasarasin, Paisan Kongkachuichay
      Pages: 269 - 278
      Abstract: The cation exchange capability (CEC), pozzolanic reaction, and filling effects are important keys of natural zeolite for mitigation of Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR), but variation of the zeolite's composition is a major problem when it is utilized. This may not be the case for synthetic zeolite. This paper presents the effects of natural and synthetic zeolite on Alkali Silica Reaction's expansion control. The percentage cement replacement of synthetic and ground natural zeolite-clinotilolite type (SZ and NZ) varied from 0 to 10 and 0 to 20, respectively. It was found that the large percentage replacement (10-20%) changed behaviors of fresh and hardened mixtures significantly. Large replacements of SZ (i.e., 7.5%and 10%) significantly reduced workability and compressive strength, and increased expansion. Slight reductions in expansion were even found for the use of small percentage replacement (SZ<5.0%). Chemical analysis and strength reactivity index tests revealed the non-pozzolanic properties of synthetic zeolite, but not the ground natural zeolite (NZ). The NZ exhibited both pozzolanic reactivity and the capability to significantly reduce expansion. At 20% replacement of NZ, the expansion significantly reduced to none at 14 days of acceleration and less than 0.02% at the longer duration of 28 days. It was confirmed that the high CEC of the studied synthetic zeolite is not the key factor for the effective mitigation for ASR.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.269
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A Gamma-kL Transition Model for Transitional Flow with Pressure Gradient
           Effects

    • Authors: Ekachai Juntasaro, Abdul Ahad Narejo
      Pages: 279 - 304
      Abstract: A new and complete version of the gamma-kL transition model has been continually developed and proposed in the present paper. This version of the gamma-kL transition model can predict the effects of pressure gradient on the mean flow. The gamma-kL transition model is validated with the ERCOFTAC T3- and T3C-series experimental data of Coupland [1]. The validation shows that the computed results of the gamma-kL transition model are in good agreement with the experimental data. The performance of the gamma-kL transition model is assessed in comparison with those of the kL transition model of Walters and Cokljat [2], the gamma-Re_theta transition model of Langtry and Menter [3], and the gamma transition model of Ge et al [4] in case of the transitional flow through the compressor blade passage of Zaki et al [5]. It is found that the proposed gamma-kL transition model is the only transition model that can consistently capture the separation bubble on the compressor blade.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.2.279
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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