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 Catalysis Surveys from Asia   [SJR: 0.784]   [H-I: 40]   [3 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 1574-9266 - ISSN (Online) 1571-1013    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2335 journals]
• Highly Ordered Mesoporous Cobalt-Copper Composite Oxides for Preferential
CO Oxidation
• Authors: Mingshi Jin; Zhenghua Li; Wenxiang Piao; Jing Chen; Long Yi Jin; Ji Man Kim
Abstract: Highly ordered mesoporous cobalt-copper composite oxides were prepared by the nanocasting method with various Co and Cu ratios. The catalysts obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, H2-temperature programmed reduction, CO-temperature programmed desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All of the catalysts had uniform mesopores and high surface areas. The distinct catalytic properties of these well-characterized mesoporous materials were demonstrated for preferential CO oxidation. It is found that the mesoporous cobalt-copper composite oxides, exhibited the higher catalytic activity for CO conversion and selectivity compared with the mesoporous Co3O4 and mesoporous CuO. Among these catalysts the mesoporous cobalt-copper catalyst with Co:Cu molar ratio of 70:30, shows the best catalytic activity and the broadest operating temperature “window” for the high CO conversion in the range of 125–200oC. The higher catalytic activity was attributed to the higher CO adsorption and oxygen vacancies.
PubDate: 2017-02-16
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-017-9224-3

• Sulfonic Acid-Functionalized Solid Acid Catalyst in Esterification and
Transesterification Reactions
Abstract: The recent development of an environmentally benign solid acid catalyst has been a relatively cutting-edge area of research in the synthesis of value added esters and biodiesel. Solid acid catalysts are economically viable, effective, and environmentally amicable than conventional homogeneous catalysts and reusability of the catalyst is another advantage of these catalysts. The applicability of sulfonic acid-functionalized solid acid catalysts in the well-known esterification and transesterification reactions for the synthesis of esters and biodiesel, respectively along with their reusability aspect are discussed in this review.
PubDate: 2017-02-14
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-017-9226-1

• CeO 2 –ZrO 2 –Al 2 O 3 Ternary Oxides Synthesized via Supercritical
Anti-Solvent and as a Support for Pd Catalyst for CO Oxidation
• Authors: Haoxi Jiang; Xiaohui Wu; Caixia Wang; Pan Huang; Yonghui Li; Minhua Zhang
Abstract: CeO2–ZrO2–Al2O3 ternary oxides as a support for CO oxidation was synthesized successfully via supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) precipitation using CO2 as the anti-solvent and methanol as the solvent. It was found that the CeO2–ZrO2–Al2O3 fabricated by SAS precipitation (CZA1) had superior resistance to sintering compared to the traditional co-precipitation method (CZA2). Meanwhile, the oxygen storage/release rate of CAZ1 was almost 1.5 times higher than that of CZA2 and the total oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of CAZ1 was almost twice as high as CZA2. The interactions between the Pd and the CeO2–ZrO2–Al2O3 support were stronger for the support synthesized by SAS precipitation. The conversion of CO oxidation of Pd/CZA1 was even better than that of Pd/CZA2, especially at high GHSV.
PubDate: 2017-02-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-017-9225-2

• The Influence of Alkali Treatment for Synthesizing Hierarchical Zeolite on
Behavior of Cobalt Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts
• Authors: Yuelun Wang; Xuewen Cao; Yuan Jiang; Hong Zhang; Jing Liang; Hui Wang; Zhuo Li; Jinhu Wu
Abstract: Hierarchical zeolites were synthesized by alkali treatment and their applications in Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis were studied. It was found that alkali treatment not only created hierarchical structure but also could tune cobalt-support interaction. The dissolution of Si by alkali treatment became easier with the increase of Si/Al ratio, and thus the amount of mesopority increased. An optimal Si/Al molar ratio was identified over the zeolite with Si/Al ratio of 80, which was found to be superior to other catalysts in terms of better diesel selectivity and lower CH4 selectivity due to its relatively narrow bimodal pore size distribution and moderate cobalt-support interaction. Meanwhile alkali treatment could enhance cobalt-support interaction via the formation of ɑ-SiO2, Co/MZ-120 catalyst showed the lowest FT activity and higher CH4 selectivity due to the increase of such new phase.
PubDate: 2017-01-19
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9223-9

• Density Functional Study of Catalytic Activity of Cu 12 TM for Water Gas
Shift Reaction
• Authors: Zhaoru Cao; Ling Guo; Naying Liu; Xiaoyu An; Aixia Li
Pages: 63 - 73
Abstract: Based on density functional theory calculations, we have systematically studied the WGS reaction on various nanosized Cu12TM of Co, Ni, Cu (from the 3d row), Rh, Pd, Ag (from the 4d row), Ir, Pt, Au (from the 5d row). The reaction mechanism proposed by Langmuir–Hinshelwood has been followed, which corresponds to $${\text{CO* + OH* }} \to {\text{COOH*}} \to {\text{CO}}_{2} {\text{ + H*}}$$ . The comparison of the Gibbs free energy profiles of carboxyl mechanism on different Cu12TM systems concludes that WGS reaction is determined by the steps of H2 forming and OH* reacting with CO* to form COOH*. BEP relationship between activation barriers (Ea) and reaction energies (ΔH) on a series of Cu12TM clusters is very good. What’s more, the activation barrier of rate-determining step of Cu12Au is the smallest. TOF, with the aid of An Energetic Span Model (ESM), is used to estimate the efficiency of the different Cu12TM clusters. The results show that the values of TOFs in doping Cu12Rh, Cu12Ir and Cu12Pt are smaller than that in pure Cu. Moreover, the values of TOFs in doping Cu12Co, Cu12Ni, Cu12Pd, Cu12Ag, and Cu12Au are higher than that in Cu13. The higher value of TOF, the more favorable catalysts they are. This results shoud be helpful in developing efficient catalysts for WGS reaction. Finally, d-band center is used to explain the binding energy of CO and H2O. It shows that there is a good liner relationship between d-band center and binding energy of CO but not for H2O.
PubDate: 2016-01-07
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-015-9207-1
Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2016)

• Preparation of CuO/SiO 2 Hollow Spheres for Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol
• Authors: Fei Xie; Li Wang; Kai Wang; Dongxu Hua; Wenjiang Li
Pages: 74 - 81
Abstract: Porous CuO/SiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized via an impregnation method using pure SiO2 hollow microspheres as the supporter, and Cu species as the functional material. The hollow microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, temperature-programmed reduction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The catalytic activities of the CuO/SiO2 hollow microspheres were investigated via the removal of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the oxidation of phenol solution with air as an oxidant. The influence of various reaction parameters such as the reaction temperature, the partial pressure of O2, and the initial pH of the solution were studied in detail. The coordination, dispersion and aggregation degree of copper species on porous materials play an important role for the COD removal of the phenol aqueous solution.
PubDate: 2016-01-19
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9208-8
Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2016)

• Design of a Highly Efficient Indium-Exchanged Heteropolytungstic Acid for
Glycerol Esterification with Acetic Acid
• Authors: Zhong Sun; Xixin Duan; Meilin Tao; Xiaohong Wang; Dandan Zhou
Pages: 82 - 90
Abstract: A series of highly active, selective, and stable solid indium-exchanged tungstophosphoric acid catalysts had been prepared, characterized and evaluated for bio-derived glycerol esterification with acetic acid to produce valuable biofuel additives. It was found that the Inx/3H3−xPW with nanotube structure owns Lewis acidity and Brønsted acidity in one, which favors for the efficient esterification of glycerol into monoglycerides with higher selectivity. Among all, In0.8H0.6PW presented exceptionally high activity with 88 % conversion and 96 % selectivity to MAG within 30 min of reaction time at 120 °C using 4:1 molar ratio. The better performance came from its remarkable stability, due to the unique Keggin structure, high acidity as well as nanotube structure. In addition, this In0.8H0.6PW catalyst did not suffer from deactivation of water in the six consecutive reaction tests.
PubDate: 2016-03-07
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9209-7
Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2016)

• Value-Added Utilization of the Lignin-Derived Phenol Monomer and
Bioethanol to Synthesize Ethylphenol and Ethyl Phenyl Ether
• Authors: Tiansheng Deng; Guangqiang Lv; Yueqin Li; Yingxiong Wang; Shiyu Jia; Xianglin Hou; Yongxing Yang
Pages: 91 - 97
Abstract: This research focuses on high-value utilization of the lignin-derived phenol monomer and bioethanol from biorefining process. Supported-heteropolyacid is easily used as an efficient catalyst for the ethylation of phenol with bioethanol to obtain value-added products. Through adjusting the loading amount, different acidity amount and strength can be obtained, leading to the tunable selectivity to the phenol ethylation route and regioselectivity.
PubDate: 2016-02-24
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9210-1
Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2016)

• Temperature-Responsive Polyoxometalate Catalysts for DBT Desulfurization
in One-Pot Oxidation Combined with Extraction
• Authors: Shucheng Sun; Xia Yu; Yingna Guo; Li Chen; Xiaohong Wang; Zijiang Jiang
Pages: 98 - 108
Abstract: Intelligent thermo-responsive catalysts [C16H33N(CH3)3]3[PO4{MO(O2)2}4]/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (M = Mo and W, abbreviated as C16PM(O2)2/PNIPAM) have been prepared using thermo-responsive polymer PNIPAM as a support. The thermo-responsive hybrids exhibit novel switchable property based on the change of temperature, while its solubility in organic solvent is reversibly controllable through an external temperature stimulus linking the gap between heterogeneous catalysis and homogeneous one. Moreover, non-polar organic substrates are accumulated around the catalytic sites by two synergistic effects of amphiphilic POM molecules and the existence of PNIPAM. Therefore, this solid hybrid has been successfully used in catalyzing the oxidation of refractory sulfur-containing compound dibenzothiophene into its corresponding sulfone with high selectivity in the presence of H2O2. Application of this catalyst brings about an efficient, useful and green process in desulfurization through extraction and oxidation simultaneously.
PubDate: 2016-03-03
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9211-0
Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2016)

• Chiral Mesoporous Silicates Immobilizing Titanium Dioxide for Catalytic
Asymmetric Epoxidation of Alkenes
• Authors: Benhua Huang; Xiaozhi Jia; Yu Li; Aqun Zheng; Yang Sun
Abstract: Two kinds of titanium-containing silicates were prepared by doping of titanium salt and chiral additive in a sol-gel process, which were further modified by chiral sulfonyl chloride in order for catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes. These titanium-containing materials had good porosities, ordered pore size distributions, high titanium incorporation yields, ordered morphologies, as well as internal chiral configurations. Particularly, they contained a lot of titanium dioxide particles according to TEM. In catalysis, the titanium silicates showed good conversion of alkenes, satisfactory yields and e.e. values of epoxides. The chiral inducing synergy appeared between silicate matrix and attached ligand, which was significant for transformations of styrene and α-methylstyrene. Moreover, iodosylbenzene, tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide were all promising oxidants. In addition, the present titanium catalysts showed satisfactory recycling behaviors and chemical stabilities. This work would contribute to the design of efficient chiral catalysts.
PubDate: 2016-11-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9222-x

• Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide from Hydrogen and Oxygen Using
Tailored Pd Nanocatalysts: A Review of Recent Findings
• Authors: Myung-gi Seo; Ho Joong Kim; Sang Soo Han; Kwan-Young Lee
Abstract: Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen is being actively studied as an alternative to the current manufacturing process. The direct synthesis route has not reached the point of commercialization because of low yields, but significant effort is being spent on enhancing the productivity. With advances in computational capacity, simulation studies based on DFT calculations now offer directions for catalyst improvement, but such modifications can only be realized through the application of nanoparticle synthesis techniques that allow for nanocrystal morphology and size control and unique immobilization. To date, there have only been a small number of studies on such nanoparticles with size and crystallographic homogeneity for the direct hydrogen peroxide synthesis. According to our knowledge no other group has systematically investigated application of nanoparticles in direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and thus included in this review are primarily previous studies conducted by our group. In this review, we discuss the utilization of nanotechnology for the synthesis of Pd catalysts and its effect on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, and we suggest a direction for future studies.
PubDate: 2016-11-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9221-y

• Fabrication of Cu-Doped CeO 2 Catalysts with Different Dimension Pore
Structures for CO Catalytic Oxidation
• Authors: Yunfei Su; Lingfeng Dai; Qingwen Zhang; Yunzhen Li; Jiaxi Peng; Ren’an Wu; Weiliang Han; Zhicheng Tang; Yi Wang
Abstract: Transition metal oxides (TMOs) applied as catalysts whose catalytic activities are directly affected by their pores size and pores distributions. Herein, two-dimensional Cu-doped CeO2 (2D@Cu–CeO2) and three-dimensional Cu-doped CeO2 (3D@Cu–CeO2) were prepared by adopting the mesoporous silica SBA-15 and KIT-6 as templates, respectively. Nanometer Cu-doped CeO2 (nano@Cu–CeO2) was synthesized by the method of precipitation. All catalysts were evaluated for the catalytic oxidation of CO, and the 3D@Cu–CeO2 catalyst exhibited the highest catalytic activity (complete conversion temperature T100 = 50 °C), which can be ascribed to the three-dimensional porous channel structure, larger specific surface area and abundant active surface oxygen species. In addition, complete conversion of CO had remained the same after 3D@Cu–CeO2 was observed for 12 h, indicating it has the best catalytic stability for CO.
PubDate: 2016-11-03
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9220-z

• Fischer-Trospch Synthesis on Ordered Mesoporous Cobalt-Based Catalysts
with Compact Multichannel Fixed-Bed Reactor Application: A Review
• Abstract: CO hydrogenation to hydrocarbons through Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction is one of the promising chemical processes, which can convert alternative feedstocks such as natural gas or biomass into synthetic fuels. The FTS reaction has received many attentions due to a limited petroleum resource with an increased demand for using alternative carbon sources such as stranded gas or shale gas. Some proper synthetic methods of an effective FTS catalyst having a larger active metal surface area and a lower deactivation rate are the most important issues for a long-term operation. Therefore, some ordered mesoporous materials (OMM) have been widely investigated in the field of CO hydrogenation using some heterogeneous catalysts. The present brief review paper summarized the various preparation methods of the ordered mesoporous materials for the possible applications of FTS reaction with a lower deactivation rate and a higher catalytic performance. The applications of the ordered mesoporous cobalt oxides for FTS reaction are briefly introduced and the ways to improve a structural stability even under reductive CO hydrogenation conditions by using efficient pillaring materials as well as by preparing mixed metal oxides. A higher catalytic activity of the ordered mesoporous cobalt oxide was also verified in a multi-channel fixed-bed compact reactor having the intersected interlayers of micro-channel heat exchanger. The thermal stability of ordered mesoporous cobalt-based catalysts was mainly affected by a structural stability which can easily remove the heavy hydrocarbons from the inner surfaces.
PubDate: 2016-10-06
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9219-5

• Catalytic Conversion of Macroalgae-derived Alginate to Useful Chemicals
• Abstract: Alginate, a main carbohydrate compound of macroalgae, can be hydrothermally converted to valuable organic products, such as furfural and organic acids, over various types of catalysts. In this review, alginate is evaluated as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of the useful chemicals, based on the structural differences between alginate and conventional lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The influence of different catalysts and reaction conditions on the alginate depolymerization and the product distribution is discussed. Finally, future research direction for the catalytic conversion of alginate is suggested.
PubDate: 2016-10-05
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9218-6

• Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of SnO 2 @TiO 2 Core–Shell
Composites Modified by Ag
• Authors: Jianguo Sheng; Hebing Tong; Hui Xu; Cong Tang
Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation is an important method to mediate organic pollution in the environment. This article reports Ag-modified SnO2@TiO2 core–shell composite photocatalysts prepared via a hydrothermal method. The Ag modification and core structure in the composite enhanced the photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO2 in Rhodamine B degradation under visible light irradiation. The composite modified in 0.15 M AgNO3 showed an optimal level of photocatalytic activity, as it degraded 99.14 % Rhodamine B in 60 min while pure TiO2 only degraded 45.7 % during the same time.
PubDate: 2016-07-08
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9217-7

• Recent Advances in the Preferential Thermal-/Photo-Oxidation of Carbon
Monoxide: Noble Versus Inexpensive Metals and Their Reaction Mechanisms
• Authors: Yusuke Yoshida; Yasuo Izumi
Abstract: Preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO is applicable because of its low cost, ease of implementation, and low loss of H2 during purification. Mo–SiO2 and Cr–SiO2 photocatalysts utilized charge separation at metal=O bonds, and the PROX selectivity of CO was high. The CO PROX rates using semiconductor-based photocatalysts were comparable to those of photocatalysts (380 μmol h−1 g cat −1 ) and were also selective (100 %). These photocatalysts are advantageous because they do not activate H2 in comparison to noble metal catalysts. Below 473 K using noble metals, Ru, Rh, Pt, or Au supported on reducible metal oxides exhibited excellent CO thermal-PROX rates of ~4900 μmol h−1 g cat −1 ; however, the CO PROX selectivity of ~48 % was insufficient because of H2 activation on noble metals in nature. CO adsorbed onto TiO2 and O2 was stabilized at the interface between a Ti site and an Au atom. Weakly adsorbed water increased the effective number of active sites by stabilizing Au–OOH or Au–COOH. The PROX rates of CO using Au/TiO2-based catalysts under dark conditions increased under UV–visible light by the effect of charge separation and surface plasmon resonance and the promoted electron transfer to the adsorbed O2. In the case of CuO–CeO2 catalysts, CO adsorbed onto CuO and reacted with lattice O atoms at the boundary between CuO and CeO2 to form CO2 at an O vacancy, which was subsequently filled with an O2 molecule. The combination of Cu or Co with a reducible metal oxides also provided performance comparable to or higher than that of CuO–CeO2 owing to adequate standard reduction potential for Cu2+, Co3+, Mn3+/4+, and Ce4+. Finally, binary metal–organic framework consisting of oxyhydroxide Ti clusters interlinked by organic ligands and Cu oxyhydroxide ligands showed superior CO PROX performance (76 % conversion and 99 % selectivity) to that achieved using CuO–CeO2 owing to effective dispersion of Cu–O–Ti connection in microporous crystallites. Further progress is needed to alleviate the activity loss in the presence of moisture and/or CO2 based on suggestions that steric hindrance of some types of microporous crystallites would suppress the blocking of moisture or CO2. Graphical
PubDate: 2016-07-06
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9216-8

• Review of Acetic Acid Synthesis from Various Feedstocks Through Different
Catalytic Processes
• Authors: Anatta Wahyu Budiman; Ji Su Nam; Jae Hyun Park; Ryan Indra Mukti; Tae Sun Chang; Jong Wook Bae; Myoung Jae Choi
Abstract: Acetic acid (AA) has been largely used with a wide range of applications such as a raw material for a synthesis of vinyl acetate monomer, cellulose acetate or acetate anhydrate, acetate ester and a solvent for a synthesis of terephthalic acid and so on. The present paper briefly summarizes the commercialized chemical processes with their Rh or Ir-based catalytic systems in a liquid-phase carbonylation reaction such as Monsanto, Cativa and Acetica processes. In addition, some alternative catalytic systems such as heterogeneous catalysts to produce AA by direct oxidation or indirect carbonylation of dimethyl ether through BP-SaaBre process in a gas-phase reaction to solve some problems such as a difficult separation of homogeneous catalysts in a corrosive reaction medium. Some home-made heterogeneous catalysts such as a rhodium incorporated graphitic carbon nitride (Rh-g-C3N4) and some heterogenized homogeneous catalysts using the supports of tungsten carbide, iron oxide or graphitic carbon nitride containing rhodium complexes were also introduced for the synthesis of AA through a liquid-phase methanol carbonylation reaction to effectively solve the leaching problem of active rhodium metal as well as to mitigate the separation problem of homogeneous catalysts.
PubDate: 2016-06-21
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9215-9

• A Green, Low-Cost and Efficient Photocatalyst: Atomic-Hydrogenated
α-Fe 2 O 3
• Authors: Qing-Yun Xiang; Jiang-Li Cao; Yue Li; Ya-Li Huang; Yu Shi; Jie Wang; Li-Bin Mo; Wen-Qing Yao
Abstract: The environmental-friendly hematite iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) has important application prospects in the photocatalysis field owing to its narrow indirect band gap. Here, we report a band gap engineering of α-Fe2O3 by incorporation of electrochemically-generated atomic hydrogen at moderate conditions. The ultraviolet–visible spectra show the reduction of the α-Fe2O3 band gap after hydrogenation and the absorption region from 200–800 nm is enhanced, especially in the visible light region. First principles calculation reveals the mixing of the new hybrid energy level with the valence band top resulting in a decrease in the band gap of α-Fe2O3. Further photocatalytic degradation experiments of dyes demonstrate that the photocatalytic efficiency of α-Fe2O3 can be greatly enhanced by the atomic hydrogen incorporation. The hydrogenated α-Fe2O3 can be easily recycled by magnets and has good photocatalytic stability. These findings offer possibilities for utilizing this inexpensive and earth-abundant oxide materials in the pollution controlling areas.
PubDate: 2016-06-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9214-x

• Recent Advances in Catalytic Decomposition of N 2 O on Noble Metal and
Metal Oxide Catalysts
• Authors: Zhiming Liu; Fang He; Lingling Ma; Sha Peng
Abstract: Catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most efficient methods for the removal of N2O which is of high greenhouse potential and ozone-depleting property. Recent progress in the decomposition of N2O has been reviewed with the focus on noble meal and metal oxide catalysts. The influence factors, such as catalyst support, preparation method, alkali metal additives and the reaction conditions (including O2, H2O, SO2, NO and CO2), on the performance of deN2O catalysts have been discussed. Finally, future research direction for the catalytic decomposition of N2O is proposed.
PubDate: 2016-04-27
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9213-y

• Theoretical Study of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction Catalyzed by Tungsten
Carbonyls
• Authors: Xiaoyu An; Ling Guo; Aixia Li; Zhaoru Cao; Naying Liu
Abstract: A density functional theory calculation has been carried out to investigate the mechanism of W(CO)6 and W2(CO)10 catalyzed water-gas-shift reaction (WGSR). The calculations indicate that the bimetallic catalyst (W2(CO)10) would be likely to be more highly active than the mononuclear metal-based catalyst (W(CO)6) due to the possibility of metal–metal cooperativity in reducing the barriers for the WGSR. The energetic span model is a tool to compute catalytic turnover frequencies (TOFs) which is the traditional measure of the efficiency of a catalyst. The one with the highest efficiency usually gives the highest TOF. The bimetallic catalyst (W2(CO)10) exhibits high catalytic activity towards WGSR due to the highest value of the calculated TOF (3.62 × 10−12 s−1, gas phase; 8.74 × 10−15 s−1, solvent phase), which is higher than the value of TOF (8.96 × 10−20 s−1, gas phase; 3.96 × 10−19 s−1, solvent phase) proposed by Kuriakose et al. (Inorg Chem 51:377–385, 2012). Our results will be important for designing a better catalyst for the industrially important reaction.
PubDate: 2016-04-02
DOI: 10.1007/s10563-016-9212-z

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