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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Ain Shams Engineering Journal
  [SJR: 0.434]   [H-I: 14]   [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2090-4479
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Optimal operation of power system incorporating wind energy with demand
           side management

    • Authors: M.H. Alham; M. Elshahed; Doaa Khalil Ibrahim; Essam El Din Abo El Zahab
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): M.H. Alham, M. Elshahed, Doaa Khalil Ibrahim, Essam El Din Abo El Zahab
      The high penetration of the wind energy in the power systems raises some issues such as ramping and mismatch between the wind power and power demand. One of the possible solutions to these issues is the demand side management (DSM). In this paper, dynamic economic dispatch (DED) incorporating different penetration levels of wind energy and utilizing the DSM is proposed to solve the issues related to high penetration of wind energy. The effect of utilizing the DSM on the operation cost with different test cases is discussed. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) using BARON as a solver and genetic algorithm (GA) with hybrid function are used to solve the proposed DED model and a comparison between them is assessed. The proposed model is applied to a six units’ generation system to test the effectiveness of the proposed model.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.004
  • Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under
           multi-event contingency conditions

    • Authors: S. Ravindra; Chintalapudi V. Suresh; S. Sivanagaraju; V.C. Veera Reddy
      Pages: 9 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): S. Ravindra, Chintalapudi V. Suresh, S. Sivanagaraju, V.C. Veera Reddy
      Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s) and/or generator(s) contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO) algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC), it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.006
  • Effect of using swimmer bars on the behavior of normal and high strength
           reinforced concrete beams

    • Authors: Heba A. Mohamed
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Heba A. Mohamed
      Shear failure of RC beams is often sudden and catastrophic. The shear cracks progress rapidly without warning, and the diagonal cracks are considerably wider than the flexural cracks. In this study, two types of shear reinforcement are used, traditional stirrups and swimmer bars. Swimmer bar system is a new type of shear reinforcement defined as inclined bars welded to longitudinal top and bottom bars. High strength concrete is a more brittle material than normal strength concrete, and the cracks that form in high strength concrete will propagate more extensively than in normal strength concrete. Ten beams are tested, and the main variables investigated were two different shapes of swimmer bars in addition to traditional stirrups, number of swimmer bar planes, and compressive strength of concrete. The test results will be presented and discussed in order as deflection, ultimate loads, ultimate shear stress, cracking stress and failure modes. Moreover, shear strain is calculated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.007
  • Application of the finite element method for investigating the dynamic
           plate loading test

    • Authors: Mohamed M. Tawfik; Yasser M. El-Mossallamy
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed M. Tawfik, Yasser M. El-Mossallamy
      The dynamic plate loading test using the Light Falling Weight Deflectometer (LFWD) is an innovative and very simple method used for quick assessment of the field compaction quality. The basic outcome of the LFWD test is the dynamic resilience modulus of the tested soil. This paper concisely presents the state-of-the-art for the theory and applications of the LFWD test. Moreover, an attempt is made in this study to use the finite element method for simulating the LFWD test and investigating the consequent soil response. An axisymmetric model is established to simulate a realistic case study of in-situ LFWD test. Different soil models are examined for adequately simulating the soil performance, including linear elastic, Mohr–Coulomb and Hardening-Soil models. The finite element analysis is applied to investigate the factors that probably affect the LFWD results. Furthermore, an attempt to ascertain the influence depth of the LFWD is provided.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.011
  • Computational approaches for annual maximum river flow series

    • Authors: Harinarayan Tiwari; Subash Pd. Rai; Nayan Sharma; Dheeraj Kumar
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Harinarayan Tiwari, Subash Pd. Rai, Nayan Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar
      Studies of annual peak discharge and its temporal variations are widely used in the planning and decision making process of water resources management. Very recently, soft computing techniques are gaining ground for time series analysis of hydrological events such as rainfall and runoff. In this study Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used in combination with wavelet to model the annual maximum flow discharge of rivers. The results of ANN-Wavelet (WANN) model indicate overall low coherence (R 2 =0.39) better than ANN (R 2 =0.31) in isolation. In the present analysis, the authors also conceded a probabilistic distributional analysis of river flow time series which has greater potential to better reflect peak flow dynamics. The results highlight that the overall performance of probability distribution models is superior to WANN model. Instead of that WANN is better than probabilistic models to find the global maxima of the series.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.016
  • Solving second order delay differential equations using direct two-point
           block method

    • Authors: Hoo Yann Seong; Zanariah Abdul Majid
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hoo Yann Seong, Zanariah Abdul Majid
      This paper will consider the implementation of direct two-point fourth and fifth order multistep block method in the form of Adams–Moulton method to solve second order delay differential equations (DDEs) directly without transforming the equations into system of first order DDEs. The proposed methods will compute the numerical solutions at two points simultaneously which are implemented in predictor–corrector (PECE) mode. The formulation and stability analysis of the block method are discussed. The block method will approximate the computing solutions using constant step size. Numerical results are presented to show that the proposed methods are suitable for solving second order DDEs compared with the existing methods.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.014
  • Radiation and mass transfer effects on MHD flow through porous medium past
           an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature

    • Authors: Jyotsna Rani Pattnaik; Gouranga Charan Dash; Suprava Singh
      Pages: 67 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jyotsna Rani Pattnaik, Gouranga Charan Dash, Suprava Singh
      An analysis of unsteady MHD free convection flow, heat and mass transfer past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate embedded in a saturated porous medium with uniform permeability, variable temperature and concentration has been carried out. The novelty of the present study was to analyze the effect of angle of inclination on the flow phenomena in the presence of heat source/sink and destructive reaction. The Laplace transformation method has been used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the material parameters, magnetic field and the permeability of the porous medium are discussed. From the present analysis it is reported that the presence of magnetic field and porous medium prevents the flow reversal. Angle of inclination and heat source sustains a retarding effect on velocity. The present study has an immediate application in understanding the drag experienced at the heated/cooled and inclined surfaces in a seepage flow.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.014
  • Entropy analysis of convective MHD flow of third grade non-Newtonian fluid
           over a stretching sheet

    • Authors: M.M. Rashidi; S. Bagheri; E. Momoniat; N. Freidoonimehr
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): M.M. Rashidi, S. Bagheri, E. Momoniat, N. Freidoonimehr
      The purpose of this article is to study and analyze the convective flow of a third grade non-Newtonian fluid due to a linearly stretching sheet subject to a magnetic field. The dimensionless entropy generation equation is obtained by solving the reduced momentum and energy equations. The momentum and energy equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity method. The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The effects of the magnetic field, Biot number and Prandtl number on the velocity component and temperature are studied. The results show that the thermal boundary-layer thickness gets decreased with increasing the Prandtl number. In addition, Brownian motion plays an important role to improve thermal conductivity of the fluid. The main purpose of the paper is to study the effects of Reynolds number, dimensionless temperature difference, Brinkman number, Hartmann number and other physical parameters on the entropy generation. These results are analyzed and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.012
  • Effect of magnetic field on unsteady natural convective flow of a
           micropolar fluid between two vertical walls

    • Authors: Hari R. Kataria; Harshad R. Patel; Rajiv Singh
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hari R. Kataria, Harshad R. Patel, Rajiv Singh
      We study theoretically the boundary layer flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid under uniform magnetic field and motion takes place due to the buoyancy force between vertical walls. The governing unsteady boundary layer momentum, angular momentum and energy equations of micropolar fluid are nondimensionalized and solved numerically. Analytic result for steady state case is also discussed. The effects of magnetic parameter (M), vortex viscosity parameter (R), Prandtl number (Pr) and material parameter (b) on velocity, micro-rotation and Temperature profiles are discussed through several figures.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.013
  • Overlapping domain decomposition method for singularly perturbed third
           order reaction-diffusion problems

    • Authors: J. Christy Roja; A. Tamilselvan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): J. Christy Roja, A. Tamilselvan
      In this paper, we present an analysis of overlapping Schwarz method for singularly perturbed third order reaction-diffusion problems. The Schwarz method invokes two fine mesh subdomains and one coarse mesh subdomain. On each subdomain we use a standard finite difference operator with a uniform mesh. The numerical approximations generated from the method are shown to be almost second order uniformly convergent. Furthermore we show that for small ε , two iterations are sufficient to achieve the expected accuracy. Numerical examples are presented to support the theoretical results.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:36:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.09.018
  • Simulation of counter-current imbibition phenomenon in a double phase flow
           through fracture porous medium with capillary pressure

    • Authors: Hardik S. Patel; Ramakanta Meher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hardik S. Patel, Ramakanta Meher
      In this paper, the counter-current imbibition phenomenon in a fracture porous media is studied and Adomian decomposition method is applied to find the saturation of wetting phase and the recovery rate of the reservoir. A simulation result is developed for the saturation of wetting phase in fracture matrix and in porous matrix for some interesting choices of parametric value to study the recovery rate of the oil reservoir with dimensionless time. This problem has a great importance in the oil recovery process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.09.017
  • A systematic literature review: Refactoring for disclosing code smells in
           object oriented software

    • Authors: Satwinder Singh; Sharanpreet Kaur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Satwinder Singh, Sharanpreet Kaur
      Context Reusing a design pattern is not always in the favor of developers. Thus, the code starts smelling. The presence of “Code Smells” leads to more difficulties for the developers. This racket of code smells is sometimes called Anti-Patterns. Objective The paper aimed at a systematic literature review of refactoring with respect to code smells. However the review of refactoring is done in general and the identification of code smells and anti-patterns is performed in depth. Method A systematic literature survey has been performed on 238 research items that includes articles from leading Conferences, Workshops and premier journals, theses of researchers and book chapters. Results Several data sets and tools for performing refactoring have been revealed under the specified research questions. Conclusion The work done in the paper is an addition to prior systematic literature surveys. With the study of paper the attentiveness of readers about code smells and anti-patterns will be enhanced.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.002
  • Septic B-spline method for second order self-adjoint singularly perturbed
           boundary-value problems

    • Authors: Ram Kishun Lodhi; Hradyesh Kumar Mishra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ram Kishun Lodhi, Hradyesh Kumar Mishra
      In the present paper, we develop a septic B-spline method for solving a self-adjoint singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problem. This method is applied directly to the numerical solution of the problems without reducing its order. The convergence analysis is also given and the method is shown to have a convergence of order six. Numerical illustrations are given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of our method by using the MATLAB.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.09.016
  • Operational matrix based on Genocchi polynomials for solution of delay
           differential equations

    • Authors: Abdulnasir Isah; Chang Phang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abdulnasir Isah, Chang Phang
      In this paper, we present a new simple and effective algorithm for solving generalized Pantograph equations, delay differential equations with neutral terms and delay differential system with constant and variable coefficients.The new method is based on one of the Appell polynomials, namely Genocchi polynomials. We first introduce the properties of Genocchi polynomials and employed them to construct the operational matrices of derivative. Collocation method based on this operational matrix is used. Error estimate for this scheme based on the Generalized pantograph equations is reproduced. Only few terms of Genocchi polynomials are needed to obtain very good results. Numerical examples with comparison show the simplicity, efficiency and accuracy of the method.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:03:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.09.015
  • Thermophoresis and Soret-Dufour on MHD mixed convection mass transfer over

    • Authors: Hiranmoy Mondal; Dulal Pal; Sewli Chatterjee; Precious Sibanda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hiranmoy Mondal, Dulal Pal, Sewli Chatterjee, Precious Sibanda
      An analysis is presented to investigate thermophoresis and Soret-Dufour on MHD mixed convective heat and mass transfer of a semi-infinite permeable inclined flat plate in the presence of non uniform heat source/sink and chemical reaction. The governing differential equations are transformed into a set of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations and solved using a numerical technique with appropriate boundary conditions for various physical parameters. The numerical solution for the governing nonlinear boundary value problem is based on the numerical integration scheme over the entire range of physical parameters. The effects of various physical parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are depicted graphically and analyzed in detail. Favorable comparisons with previously published work on various special cases of the problem are obtained. Finally, numerical values of the physical quantities, such as local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number are presented in tabular form.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T18:50:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.015
  • A multi-objective optimal sizing and siting of distributed generation
           using ant lion optimization technique

    • Authors: Mohammad Jafar Hadidian-Moghaddam; Saber Arabi-Nowdeh; Mehdi Bigdeli; Davood Azizian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad Jafar Hadidian-Moghaddam, Saber Arabi-Nowdeh, Mehdi Bigdeli, Davood Azizian
      In this paper, a new optimization method is proposed to solve the optimal sizing and siting problem of distributed generation (DG) in a distribution system (DS). The optimization problem is solved using a new ant lion optimizer (ALO) with considering different objectives. These objectives are reduction of purchased energy cost from upstream network (due to DGs’ power generation), reliability improvement, reduction of DGs’ application cost, reduction of DS losses and reduction of buses’ voltage deviation. This problem is solved as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) in addition of a single-objective optimization (SOO). The proposed DGs optimal sizing and siting is implemented on 33 and 69-bus IEEE networks. The obtained results show that the ALO has the best performance in extracting the solution of DGs optimal sizing and siting problem in comparison to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA).

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.001
  • Design and implementation of BGP novel control mechanism (BGP-NCM) based
           on network performance parameters

    • Authors: M.T. Moubarak; Ashraf Diaa Elbayoumy; Mohamed Helmy Megahed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M.T. Moubarak, Ashraf Diaa Elbayoumy, Mohamed Helmy Megahed
      Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the defecto standard routing protocol of the internet and has served as backbone technology for logical routing tasks to provide global connectivity in the world. Unfortunately, there are limitations on network performance factors such as latency or link utilization which are not used in BGP routing decisions. These limitations have a great effect on internet services, especially bandwidth sensitive application, where BGP does not automatically redistribute the traffic over different Multihomed links based on link utilization or latency. In this paper, a novel control mechanism for BGP (BGP-NCM) is proposed. BGP-NCM is a software controller which has been developed and injected in the Enterprise or internet service provider BGP multihomed network to force the traffic redistribution over the available links based on the link utilization or latency. The BGP-NCM has been developed using Python programming language and it consists of three modules which are Monitoring, Traffic Calculation and Configuration modules. BGP-NCM will keep an eye on link utilization by checking the monitoring tool log and when the link utilization reaches a predefined value, the BGP-NCM traffic calculation module will be triggered to determine the amount of traffic and corresponding IP prefix as well as the target link with available bandwidth to accommodate the redistributed traffic. Our results show that BGP-NCM solves the traffic redistribution problem without any change in both BGP protocol and running internet infrastructure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.008
  • Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance
           under field conditions using the stress indices

    • Authors: A. Jamshidi; H.R. Javanmard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): A. Jamshidi, H.R. Javanmard
      Developing a suitable method for properly screening barley tolerance under salt stress is of great significance. Barley (an excellent model for the prediction of crop response to climate change) salt tolerance was investigated using stress tolerance indices. The experiments were conducted using 26 barley genotypes at two research sites, without stress (soil salinity=3dS/m) and with stress (soil salinity=14dS/m, and irrigation water of 12dS/m). Using the grain yield under non-stress and stress conditions, the salinity stress indices of barley genotypes including salinity susceptibility index (SSI, 0.68–1.12), tolerance index (TOL, 2570–11877), stress tolerance index (STI, 0.01–0.33), geometric mean productivity (GMP, 1433–7625), and mean productivity (MP, 633–6431) were determined. The ten most tolerant barley genotypes including 4Shur, Torkman, Makouei, Karoon, 5Shur, Bahman, Sahra, Torsh, Reihan and Goharjo were determined by the stress indices. The variation of the stress indices indicated that Nimruz was the most sensitive barley genotype under stress. The stress indices were highly correlated and accordingly useable for determining the relative salt tolerance of barley genotypes. The coefficients of variation were also used as the indicators of barley tolerance under salinity stress by revealing the most and the least variable traits of barley under stress. The findings are of practical significance to agricultural fields with salinity stress, resulting in their higher yield productivity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-16T15:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.006
  • Numerical study on the effect of the spur dikes on sedimentation pattern

    • Authors: Abolfazl Nazari Giglou; John Alex Mccorquodale; Luca Solari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abolfazl Nazari Giglou, John Alex Mccorquodale, Luca Solari
      The spur dikes are structures that usually used for flow diversion from erodible wall and they usually create a appropriate path for directing the flow, flood control, protection of external walls, and some other cases. Through modifying the hydraulic conditions and creation of smooth flow, spur dikes can decrease water erosion force and power of sediment transport. In this study, the channel and spur dike related to the Heltz Laboratory model have been simulated using Flow-3D numerical model. The RNG turbulence model has been applied for turbulence modeling. The turbulent flow field around inclined spur dike and the effect of such parameters as angle, hydraulic conditions and sedimentation pattern have been investigated. The results showed that increasing the angle of spur dike affects the length and width of sedimentation area. When angle of spur dike increases from 90 to 120deg, the width and length of the sedimentation area will increase up to about 71 and 92 percent, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T11:15:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.007
  • Performance analysis of bulk arrival queue with balking, optional service,
           delayed repair and multi-phase repair

    • Authors: Charan Jeet Singh; Madhu Jain; Sandeep Kaur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Charan Jeet Singh, Madhu Jain, Sandeep Kaur
      In this investigation, single repairable server queueing system with bulk input and state dependent rates is analyzed by considering the general distributions for the repair, delay to repair and service processes. The server is capable of rendering two stages of the service in which the first stage service is essential and the second stage service is optional. During the repair, the server has to undergo through m-different compulsory phases of the repair. To examine the steady state behavior and to obtain the various performance indices of the system, the probability generating functions of the queue size distributions are derived by using the supplementary variable technique. By setting the appropriate parameters, some special cases are discussed. The sensitivity analysis is performed by facilitating the numerical results for the suitable illustration.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T11:15:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.025
  • Innovating green products as a mean to alleviate poverty in Upper Egypt

    • Authors: Hamed El-Mously
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hamed El-Mously
      Beginning from August 2010, EGYCOM decided to devote its efforts to combat poverty in Upper Egypt. Based on the UN Human Development report for Egypt, EGYCOM found that 762 of the poorest villages are in the governorates of Assuit, Sohag and Menya in Upper Egypt. Of those 44% are in Menya alone. Poverty has alarming consequences, one of which is migration of youth to big cities or abroad in search for regular wages and better life. A team of 22 members undertook additional research and developed a point system to evaluate the poorest 10 villages in Menya governorate, and the final result pointed to the village of Al Qayat. Palm trees were recognized as an abundant unutilized resource in the village. Many households owned palm trees, and they are an important economic resource for the villagers. In addition, villagers possess a rich cultural and technical heritage, being an accumulation of centuries of their interaction with local resources for the satisfaction of their basis needs. Yet, the drastic change of life style in the village has decreased the need of palm secondary products. This, in turn, has led to the neglect of regular pruning of palm, which has resulted in the increase of danger of fire in palm gardens, as well as the infestation by the red palm weevil threatening the life of the palm. Here innovation has emerged as a necessity to rediscover those neglected palm secondary products with the purposed of alleviating poverty in the villages. New techniques and machinery have been innovated to suit the conditions of work in the village. A wide array of techniques and machining have been innovated for the transformation of palm midribs into strips and mats of regular dimensions to be used as a substitute for imported wood. In order to reach the market, it was necessary to close the loop of innovation. Here the intervention of designers was crucial. Four renounced designers have joined our endeavors by designing new marketable products from palm midrib mats using the uniqueness of palm midrib texture-in comparison with wood- as a competitive advantage. The joint synergetic interaction between the project team responsible for technology development and machine design, on one hand, and the creative product designers, on the other hand, has resulted in successful participation in international furniture and building materials exhibitions paving the route for marketing of palm midrib green products in the local and international markets.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T11:15:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.001
  • Design of conservative, reversible sequential logic for cost efficient
           emerging nano circuits with enhanced testability

    • Authors: Neeraj Kumar Misra; Subodh Wairya; Bibhash Sen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Neeraj Kumar Misra, Subodh Wairya, Bibhash Sen
      The CMOS faces challenges related to the increment in leakage-current to power-consumption. QCA is a promising alternative to overcome these challenges successfully. On the other hand, reversible logic plays a significant role in quantum-computing. Keeping this technique in mind, a conservative-reversible flip-flops and counter are explored here which will bring QCA and reversible computing together in a single-platform. In synthesizing, a reversible-conservative-quantum-cellular-automata (R-CQCA) is proposed. The proposed D, T, JK and dual-edge master-slave flip-flops advocate an improvement of 20%, 46.6%, 50%, and 36.66% respectively than its counterpart in quantum-cost. Further, the 100% fault-coverage by stuck-fault is framed in R-CQCA, which can be useful for a tester to maintain data-integrity. Also, the R-CQCA layout is implemented in QCA, which achieve some parameters such as cell-complexity of 177, leakage-energy-dissipation of 0.1055eV, and size of 0.24µm2. Moreover, R-CQCA is better than FRG, RM, PPRG and MX-cqca regarding QCA-primitives are reported here.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.005
  • Throughflow and G-jitter effects on chaotic convection in an anisotropic
           porous medium

    • Authors: B.S. Bhadauria; Ajay Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): B.S. Bhadauria, Ajay Singh
      The present article is to investigate the effect of various parameters on chaotic convection in an anisotropic porous medium under gravity modulation. For this, the problem is reduced into Lorenz system (non-autonomous) by employing truncated Galerkin expansion method. It is found that the system shows either chaotic or periodic nature for suitable values of scaled Rayleigh number. The influence of amplitude of modulation is to advance the chaotic nature in the system while that of frequency of modulation has tendency to delay the chaotic behaviour. The effects of Péclet number and anisotropic parameters on the chaotic system are also studied and found these are delay the chaotic nature. The phase portrait and time domain diagrams of the Lorenz system for suitable parametric values has been used to analysed the system. Finally, we conclude that the system has either chaotic or periodic solution depending upon the values of the parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.024
  • Oppositional based grey wolf optimization algorithm for economic dispatch
           problem of power system

    • Authors: Moumita Pradhan; Provas Kumar Roy; Tandra Pal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Moumita Pradhan, Provas Kumar Roy, Tandra Pal
      This article proposes an efficient meta-heuristic approach, namely, oppositional grey wolf optimization (OGWO) algorithm for resolving the optimal operating strategy of economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The proposed algorithm combines two basic concepts. Firstly, the hunting behavior and social hierarchy of grey wolves are used to search optimal solutions and secondly, oppositional concept is integrated with the grey wolf optimization (GWO) algorithm to accelerate the convergence rate of the conventional GWO algorithm. To show the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is applied on small, medium and large scale test systems for solving ELD problems of 13-unit, 40-unit and 160-unit systems. Comparative studies are carried out to scrutinize the efficiency of the proposed OGWO approach over the conventional GWO and other approaches available in the literature. The simulation results clearly suggest that the proposed OGWO approach is capable of finding better solutions in terms of computational time and fuel cost than the other techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.023
  • Value engineering for canal tail irrigation water problem

    • Authors: Walaa Younes El-Nashar; Ahmed Hussien Elyamany
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Walaa Younes El-Nashar, Ahmed Hussien Elyamany
      Shortage of irrigation water is a challenge frequently occurs at Canal Tail-end (CT). This paper uses Value Engineering (VE) methodology to find solutions of this problem. VE methodology includes collecting information about the water shortage at CT, analyze functions of canals, develop creative ideas, assess creative ideas based on evaluation criteria, obtain a short list of value alternatives, and develop value alternatives using Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Study results indicate that VE methodology is a problem solving tool that helps in finding solutions with focus on achieving the basic function of the system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.004
  • Data hiding inside JPEG images with high resistance to steganalysis using
           a novel technique: DCT-M3

    • Authors: Abdelhamid Awad Attaby; Mona F.M. Mursi Ahmed; Abdelwahab K. Alsammak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abdelhamid Awad Attaby, Mona F.M. Mursi Ahmed, Abdelwahab K. Alsammak
      Information security relies mainly upon encryption, and in some cases, steganography for an extra layer of security. Steganography is the science and art of secret communication between two sides that attempts to conceal the existence of the message. Many steganographic techniques have been proposed, all of them make statistically noticeable changes in the properties of the cover carrier particularly when the message payload is high. In this paper, we propose a new methodology of transform domain JPEG image steganography technique that provides high embedding performance while introducing minimal changes in the cover carrier image. The algorithm, named DCT-M3, uses modulus 3 of the difference between two DCT coefficients to embed two bits of the compressed form of the secret message. The proposed algorithm reduces significantly the number of changes in the cover image; the embedding capacity has been improved by 16.7% approximately while maintaining minimum detectability against blind steganalysis schemes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.003
  • Variation of parameters method with an auxiliary parameter for initial
           value problems

    • Authors: Waseem Sikandar; Umar Khan; Naveed Ahmed; Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Waseem Sikandar, Umar Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
      In this paper, an unknown auxiliary parameter is inserted in Variation of Parameter Method to solve Evolution and RLW equations. The proposed algorithm is very effective and is practically well suited for use in these problems. Three practical examples are given to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the developed technique. Comparison with the standard VPM is made to show the reliability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.09.014
  • Multiobjective hybrid evolutionary approach for optimal planning of shunt
           capacitors in radial distribution systems with load models

    • Authors: K. Muthukumar; S. Jayalalitha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K. Muthukumar, S. Jayalalitha
      This article proposes a novel hybrid heuristic search algorithm based on Harmony search and particle artificial bee colony algorithm (HSA-PABC) for shunt capacitor placement problem. The objective function is framed to minimize power loss and to maximize voltage stability. To search for the optimal location of shunt capacitors, the combinatorial use of loss sensitivity factor and hybrid HSA-PABC algorithm is utilized. In this paper, different types of voltage dependent load models are taken into consideration to investigate their influence on the active power loss and voltage stability of the RDN. Simulation results shows that the voltage dependent load models lead to completely different solutions interms of power loss reduction, voltage stability improvement and net annual savings which are the crucial parameters in the decision process of optimal shunt capacitor placement problem. The result outcomes of the proposed hybrid algorithm outperform the results of other heuristic techniques in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.02.002
  • Utilizing residual sensing slots to enhance energy efficiency of
           opportunistic cognitive radio networks

    • Authors: Amr A. Fahmy; Asmaa M. Saafan; Hesham M. El-Badawy; Salwa H. El-Ramly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Amr A. Fahmy, Asmaa M. Saafan, Hesham M. El-Badawy, Salwa H. El-Ramly
      In Broadband Communications (BBC), terms like “Green Communication (GC)”, “Energy Efficiency (EE)”, and “Opportunistic Cognitive Radio (OCR)” are pursuing methods for saving energy consumption while accomplishing communications. Good implementations of these terms/concepts contribute in reducing pollution and preserve nature resources. Forthcoming mobile generations will face many tradeoffs between EE considerations versus system performance parameters especially throughput. In a multi-channel OCR system, the Secondary User (SU) senses some selected candidate primary channels based on a “belief” concept. This belief state represents the occupancy/vacancy state of the primary channel and is deduced via a Partial Observation Markov Decision Process (POMDP). Within the OCR transmission frame, a fixed time-period at the beginning of this frame is dedicated for sensing multi primary channels. The SU performs the sensing needed to explore the state of occupancy/vacancy/fading of primary channels -within the sensing period- by dedicating a sensing slot for sensing each primary channel, then, SU updates its channel state belief accordingly. SU may not find it necessary to continue sensing more channels -using more sensing slots- in case of “low belief”, “bad CSI”, “highly believed to be occupied”, or even “sleep” if no candidate channels exist. This will lead to residual (not used) sensing slots which will be a wasted time in the frame time interval. This paper proposes an enhanced algorithm (to a previous work Feng and Gan, 2015) where these unused sensing slots are utilized to enhance the system EE. This is done by manipulating extended variable time induced from using these residual slots to extend the available transmission time. This induced variable time will increase throughput while keeping sensing energy. The metric used in this work is the Normalized Energy Efficiency (NEE) which is in consistence with many research directions in this field. In Feng and Gan (2015), the obtained NEE results reached ∼93% after about 20 transmitted frames, as well as, when 20 primary channels exist in the system. This work proposed an enhanced optimum and approximate algorithms that obtain as high as ∼135% of NEE after about 20 transmitted frames, they also obtained ∼228% using the optimum algorithm, or, ∼138% using the approximate algorithm when 20 primary channels are available.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.009
  • Analytical solution of the time fractional Navier-Stokes equation

    • Authors: Khaled K. Jaber; Rami S. Ahmad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Khaled K. Jaber, Rami S. Ahmad
      In this paper we will use the residual power series (RPS) method to generate the solution of the nonlinear time fractional Navier-Stokes equation in two dimensions in the form of a rapidly convergent series, where we adopted the definition of Caputo to the fractional differential derivative of time. We gave an illustrative application to demonstrate the effectiveness and leverage of the proposed method, where numerical results and graphical representations reveal that the proposed method performs extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity and it can be utilized to solve more problems in the field of non-linear fractional differential equations (FDEs).

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.021
  • Development of synthetic rainfall distribution curves for Sinai area

    • Authors: Eman Ahmed Hassan El- Sayed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Eman Ahmed Hassan El- Sayed
      Rainfall time distribution hyetograph of the design storm is highly needed to run hydrological models. This paper derives a dimensionless rainfall time distribution from observed storms based on the SCS TP149 procedure of re-arranging the storm pattern so that the greatest depth values occurs at the middle of the total duration. One hundred twenty-seven rainfall storms for Sinai area were categorized into four groups according to the total duration. Finally, the cumulative design distribution curves are calculated and renamed WRRI distribution. The developed synthetic rainfall distribution curves were compared to the most common distributions such as the standard 4 Soil Conservation Service (SCS) profiles. The performance of the developed rainfall pattern is evaluated using real cases. There was a significant difference in computing runoff between the proposed WRRI and SCS distributions. The research recommends using the developed curves to create storm hyetograph of any design storm for Sinai.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.010
  • Selfie video based continuous Indian sign language recognition system

    • Authors: G. Ananth Rao; P.V.V. Kishore
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): G. Ananth Rao, P.V.V. Kishore
      This paper introduces a novel method to bring sign language closer to real time application on mobile platforms. Selfie captured sign language video is processed by constraining its computing power to that of a smart phone. Pre-filtering, segmentation and feature extraction on video frames creates a sign language feature space. Minimum Distance and Artificial Neural Network classifiers on the sign feature space is trained and tested iteratively. Sobel edge operator's power is enhanced with morphology and adaptive thresholding giving a near perfect segmentation of hand and head portions compensating for the small vibrations of the selfie stick. Word matching score (WMS) gives the performance of the proposed method with an average WMS of around 85.58% for MDC and 90% for ANN with a small variation of 0.3s in classification times. Neural network classifiers with fast training algorithms will certainly make this novel selfie sign language recognizer application into app stores.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T07:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.013
  • Influence of viscous dissipation on unsteady MHD natural convective flow
           of Casson fluid over an oscillating vertical plate via FEM

    • Authors: G. Jithender Reddy; R. Srinivasa Raju; J. Anand Rao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): G. Jithender Reddy, R. Srinivasa Raju, J. Anand Rao
      In this paper, an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic natural convection, heat transfer, electrically conductive non-Newtonian Casson fluid over an oscillating vertical porous plate taken in to the account with an influence of viscous dissipation. An efficient computational Finite Element Method (FEM) employed to solve non-dimensional boundary layer partial differential equations for velocity and temperature distribution with the influence of emerging dimensionless parameters. Also, the local Skin-friction and local Nusselt number coefficients are obtained and analyzed through graphical and tabular forms. The results shows that increasing of Eckert number leads to increase in the velocity and temperature distribution while decrease in the local Skin-friction and Nusselt number coefficients. An increasing of Casson parameter leads to decrease in the velocity distribution and the local Skin-friction coefficient. Compared the present results with earlier reported studies of analytical solutions of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow problems. The current results are in excellent agreement with earlier existed results. The velocity and temperature distributions are closure for various mesh (grid) size. Therefore, these computational results are stable and converge. FEM is flexible and simplest method to solve this type of problems in various cases like Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow problems.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.012
  • Improving energy dissipation on stepped spillways using breakers

    • Authors: Gamal M. Abdel Aal; M. Sobeah; Esam Helal; M. El-Fooly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Gamal M. Abdel Aal, M. Sobeah, Esam Helal, M. El-Fooly
      Stepped spillways have many applications in dam structures, and river engineering. Moreover, stilling basins can be constructed with lower costs as energy dissipation by adding appurtenances to these stilling basins. This study aims to investigate the over-flow, through-flow, and under-flow breakers in stepped spillways and to evaluate their effect on energy dissipation. For this purpose, physical models of four steps were carried out on stepped spillways. Breakers were installed over the steps of spillway; the energy dissipation can be increased by different quantities, according to the characteristics of the breakers (height, width, arrangement of breaker heights and perforated holes). So studying the effect of the breaker on stepped spillway on the energy dissipation is very important issue. The dimensional analysis was used to correlate the different parameters affecting the studied phenomena. Comparison of flow energy dissipation over the toe of stepped spillway with breakers and classical stepped spillway shows that the stepped spillway with breakers type had dissipated more energy than the classical stepped spillway type.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.008
  • A new improved DTC of doubly fed induction machine using GA-based PI

    • Authors: Abderrahim Zemmit; Sabir Messalti; Abdelghani Harrag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abderrahim Zemmit, Sabir Messalti, Abdelghani Harrag
      This paper presents a new improved Direct Torque Control of doubly fed induction motor using PI controller tuned using genetic algorithm. The classical DTC control of DFIM is well known and is widely used due to its simplicity and easy implementation. However, the performances of conventional DTC are often characterized by high torque and flux ripples as well as variable switching frequency. To overcome the previous drawbacks of the classical DTC control, a new combined DTC-GA method using PI controller optimized by genetic algorithm is presented. The GA selects PI parameters that optimize the performances of conventional DTC. The PI parameters are optimized in offline mode where several values have been tested; then the best PI gains are used in online mode. The proposed DTC-GA method applied to DFIM has been validated using Matlab/Simulink environment. Many improvements related to torque and flux ripples overshoot and response time have been demonstrated. Which torque and flux ripple have been reduced more than 64.44% and 50 % respectively. The speed overshoot and torque overshoot have been reduced about 90% and 86% respectively. In addition, more details are presented and discussed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.011
  • A numerical solution of time-fractional coupled Korteweg-de Vries equation
           by using spectral collection method

    • Authors: Basim Albuohimad; Hojatollah Adibi; Saeed Kazem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Basim Albuohimad, Hojatollah Adibi, Saeed Kazem
      In this paper, we present a numerical method proficient for solving a system of time–fractional partial differential equations. For this sake, we use spectral collection method based on shifted Chebyshev polynomials in space and finite difference method for time fractional derivative. Furthermore, we employ this method to solve the time-fractional coupled Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.010
  • Optimized coordinated control of frequency and voltage for distributed
           generating system using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    • Authors: Pankita Mehta; Praghnesh Bhatt; Vivek Pandya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Pankita Mehta, Praghnesh Bhatt, Vivek Pandya
      The distributed generating system may employ hybrid power system consists of diesel and wind power generating units based on synchronous and induction generator (IG), respectively, to supply small isolated load. Frequency and voltage controls are major problems for such system as smaller synchronous generator (SG) offers lesser inertia and IG draws reactive power for its operation. In this paper, the voltage control loop governed by automatic voltage regulator of SG has been integrated with frequency control loop to yield optimized transient responses for frequency and voltage deviations. The linearized model of hybrid system with coordinated control of voltage and frequency has been developed. The dynamic responses of frequency and voltage deviations are compared for different active and reactive load disturbances. The gains of controller of SG and Static Var Compensator (SVC) at the terminal of IG have been optimized with Cuckoo Search Algorithm to minimize frequency and terminal voltage deviations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.019
  • Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a
           closed-conduit UV reactor

    • Authors: Tipu Sultan; Zeshan Ahmad; Zahid Anwar; Muhammad Shahzad Khurram
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Tipu Sultan, Zeshan Ahmad, Zahid Anwar, Muhammad Shahzad Khurram
      Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV) reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED) and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance) were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.022
  • On some rotational flows of non-integer order rate type fluids with shear
           stress on the boundary

    • Authors: Azhar Ali Zafar; Nehad Ali Shah; Niat Nigar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Azhar Ali Zafar, Nehad Ali Shah, Niat Nigar
      This article presents rotational flows of some rate type fluids with non-integer order derivatives. The fluid fills an infinite straight circular cylinder and its motion is generated by a time dependent torsion, applied to the surface of the cylinder. As novelty, the dimensionless governing equation related to the non-trivial shear tension is used and the first exact solutions analogous to a ramped shear stress on the surface are obtained using integral transforms. The results that have been obtained allow us to provide solutions for ordinary Oldroyd-B, non-integer order Maxwell and ordinary Maxwell fluids performing similar motions. In addition, the control of non-integer order framework on shear stress and velocity profiles is analyzed by numerical simulations and graphical interpretations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:46:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.018
  • A new four-dimensional chaotic attractor

    • Authors: Ababneh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M. Ababneh
      A new four-dimensional chaotic system is introduced in this paper, it is mainly consist of four multiplier terms and four simple terms. The system has different structure and topology of existing four-dimensional systems and produces two equilibrium points with one at the origin. The fundamental characteristics of the new system are investigated by means of equilibrium points, their stabilities, power spectrum, bifurcation diagram, and Poincaré map. Furthermore, an optimal controller using Riccati equation is established to run system trajectories to the zero equilibrium. The dynamics of the new system is simulated using Matlab and Simulink.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:23:04Z
  • Scale dependent prediction of reference evapotranspiration based on
           Multi-Variate Empirical mode decomposition

    • Authors: S. Adarsh; Sulaiman Sanah; K.K. Murshida; P. Nooramol
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): S. Adarsh, Sulaiman Sanah, K.K. Murshida, P. Nooramol
      This study proposes a novel method for estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo ) by accounting the time scale of variability using the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEMD). First the ETo and the four predictor variables such as solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity are decomposed into different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue using MEMD. To model ETo , first the modes are modeled separately using the Stepwise Linear Regression (SLR) after identifying the significant predictors at different time scales based on the p-value statistics. Subsequently, the predicted modes are recombined to obtain ETo at the observation scale. The method is demonstrated by predicting the monthly ETo from Stratford station in United States. The results of the study clearly exhibited the superior performance of the proposed MEMD-SLR model when compared with that by M5 model tree, SLR and the EMD-SLR hybrid model.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T01:23:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.10.014
  • Reactive power control of three-phase low voltage system based on voltage
           to increase PV penetration levels

    • Authors: Elham Mohamed Darwish; Hany M. Hasanien; Ahmed Atallah; Soliman El-Debeiky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Elham Mohamed Darwish, Hany M. Hasanien, Ahmed Atallah, Soliman El-Debeiky
      High penetration levels of distributed (PV) generation on electrical distribution system show many opportunities and challenges for Egyptian Distribution Utilities. The sovereign purposiveness of this threshing was to augment the penetration level of the PV power production in three-phase LV grids, by using solar inverters with reactive power control inconvertibility, imposed by certain grid codes. This method, which is based on the grid voltage profile for location – dependent PF set premium could be cushioned to whole solar inverter. The main target was to mitigate unnecessary Q absorption. This method combines two droop function power factor active power and Q-(V) strategies. The performance of each inverter is to compare the output voltage measured and control the quantity of Q. Therefore, improvement of the voltage profile at a certain bus can reduce the total losses, saving consumed power by customer and increase the system capacity by 4.5%.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T19:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.006
  • Spatial analysis of the urban system in the Nile Valley of Egypt

    • Authors: Antar A. AbouKorin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Antar A. AbouKorin
      This paper aims to analyze the spatial distribution and the field of influence of Nile Valley cities in Egypt during the last sixty years (1947–2006), which witnessed rapid and massive socio-economic changes in the region. The paper starts by a qualitative review of literature about urban systems and methods of spatial analysis. Then, it quantitatively examines the spatial-distribution and the field of influence of Nile Valley cities. In the spatial-distribution analysis, the paper examined the spatial distribution pattern (concentration or dispersion), and the size-distance relationship between cities. In the field of influence analysis, the paper tries to quantitatively delineate the field of influence of each city. Through these steps, the paper deductively came to some important recommendations to overcome the revealed spatial imbalances in of the urban system in the Nile Valley, and to manage the urban future in the region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T19:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.011
  • Vertical accuracy assessment for SRTM and ASTER Digital Elevation Models:
           A case study of Najran city, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ismail Elkhrachy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ismail Elkhrachy
      Digital Elevation Model is imperative to many earth surface process analyses. In this study, the quality of DEMs acquired by SRTM ver.3 and ASTER ver.2 is evaluated. The reference levels produced from GPS elevations, and the topographic map is used to assess the vertical accuracy of SRTM and ASTAR DEMs in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. The GPS reference elevations gave us the values of ±5.94m and ±5.07m for used SRTM and ASTER DEMs. Also, by using elevation from the topographic map as a reference elevations the obtained accuracy was ±6.87m and ±7.97m for SRTM and ASTER DEMs. For our study area, the 30m SRTM elevations data featured a much greater absolute vertical accuracy than the absolute vertical accuracy value of ±16m, which published in the SRTM data specification.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T12:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.007
  • Wavelet based feature combination for recognition of emotions

    • Authors: Hemanta Kumar Palo; Mihir Narayan Mohanty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hemanta Kumar Palo, Mihir Narayan Mohanty
      In this paper, authors tried to develop reduced combinational features for emotional speech recognition. The spectral/cepstral features like wavelet coefficient, LPCC (linear prediction cepstral coefficient) and MFCC (mel-frequency cepstral coefficient) are used as baseline features. The frequency variation with respect to time has been evaluated properly using wavelet coefficients. Again, MFCC and LPCC features are derived from wavelets, so that the exact information of the emotion has been fetched and are used as features. The features are reduced with vector quantization method and used in radial basis function network (RBFNN) classifier. The feature sets are also combined and tested in the classifier. This piece of work deals with five emotions as angry, fear, happy, disgust and neutral. These are tested for Berlin (EMO-DB) and Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion (SAVEE) database. The proposed frequency based decomposition and combination choice of features show excellent result and it is exhibited in result section.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T12:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.11.001
  • BIM2BEM integrated approach: Examining status of the adoption of building
           information modelling and building energy models in Egyptian architectural

    • Authors: Laila Mohamed Khodeir; Ashraf Ali Nessim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Laila Mohamed Khodeir, Ashraf Ali Nessim
      Egyptian architectural firms are moving from the use of CAD towards the adoption of BIM. Meanwhile, these firms are challenged with the use of BEM in order to cope with the call for energy conservation. To achieve better collaboration, the approach of BIM2BEM has emerged, aiming to integrate between BEM and BIM, which leads to the production of buildings that cope with updates in environmental policies. Nevertheless, these changes facing Egyptian architectural firms haven’t been examined in an integrated manner in published research work. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to examine the status of the application of both BIM and BEM, in Egypt. The research methodology involved using a semi-structured questionnaire and analysing two office buildings as case studies. Results showed that the application of BIM2BEM approach in Egypt is currently spreading and developing. It also showed that there are several barriers to adoption of this approach.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T12:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.004
  • Comparative analysis on pulse compression with classical orthogonal
           polynomials for optimized time-bandwidth product

    • Authors: Ankur Thakur; Salman Raju Talluri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ankur Thakur, Salman Raju Talluri
      The theme of this paper is to analyze and compare the pulse compression with classical orthogonal polynomials (Chebyshev, Laguerre, Legendre and Hermite polynomials) of different orders. Pulse compression is used in radar systems to improve the range resolution by increasing the time-bandwidth product of the transmitted pulse. It is done by modulating the instantaneous angle of the transmitted pulse. Three types of angle modulations are considered in this paper. Initially, the angle is varied in proportional to the original polynomials. Secondly, the angle is proportional to integral of the polynomial and thirdly, the angle is proportional to derivative the polynomial. The main purpose of this analysis is to obtain and use the best of all these polynomials in pulse compression. This is done by comparing the quantitative parameter of pulse compression - time-bandwidth product. Optimization to maximize the time-bandwidth product is also considered in the analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T12:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.01.003
  • Thermal and species concentration of MHD Casson fluid at a vertical sheet
           in the presence variable fluid properties

    • Authors: K.V. Prasad; K. Vajravelu; Hanumesh Vaidya; Neelufer Z. Basha; V. Umesh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K.V. Prasad, K. Vajravelu, Hanumesh Vaidya, Neelufer Z. Basha, V. Umesh
      The combined effects of thermal and species concentration on the flow, heat and mass transfer of a non-Newtonian Casson fluid at a vertical permeable stretching sheet under the influence of transverse magnetic field with variable fluid properties are investigated. The fluid properties are assumed to be the function of temperature and species concentration. The governing nonlinear PDEs are transformed into a set of highly non-linear coupled ODEs using a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system is then solved via OHAM for various physical parameters and the results are analyzed graphically. OHAM provides the control and adjustment of the convergence region, its solutions agrees well with the exact ones for large values of the independent variable. The accuracy of the analytical solution is verified by plotting the residual errors and comparing with available results in the literature for some special cases and is found to be in excellent agreement.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T12:52:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.08.017
  • Studying comfort in a room with cold air system using computational fluid

    • Authors: Ahmed A. Youssef; Ehab M. Mina; Ahmed R. ElBaz; Raouf N. AbdelMessih
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed A. Youssef, Ehab M. Mina, Ahmed R. ElBaz, Raouf N. AbdelMessih
      Cold air system has proven to offer economic and environmental benefits. However, these systems did not spread because of the fear from cold draft formation leading to unaccepted indoor conditions. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the performance of cold air system inside a 2D space. The flow of cold air was studied at different supply temperatures, velocities, and room thermal loads. The velocity field and the temperature distribution were used to calculate the effective draft temperature. And hence, the comfort level was assessed using the Air Diffusion Performance Index, ADPI. The effect of each factor was studied independently at different loads. It was shown that reduction in supply temperature and velocity each causes limited enhancement on the ADPI. The main source of drafts was the heat flux from the floor. The velocities induced by the floor heat flux were sometimes higher than the jet velocity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:04:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.07.005
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