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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Ain Shams Engineering Journal
  [SJR: 0.434]   [H-I: 14]   [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2090-4479
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Design and analysis of 0.127m (5″) Cutthroat flume

    • Authors: Rajib Das; Milan Nayek; Subhasish Das; Prasun Dutta; Asis Mazumdar
      Pages: 295 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Rajib Das, Milan Nayek, Subhasish Das, Prasun Dutta, Asis Mazumdar
      The aim of the present work was to perform series of detailed laboratory experiments under steady-state flow conditions through a Cutthroat flume of throat width 0.127m (5″) and length 0.918m. It is very important to perform research and propose equations for Cutthroat flume of throat-width 5″ as very rare work could be found on Cutthroat flume of this dimension. Experiments were conducted in laboratory designed and constructed 5″ throat width Cutthroat flume. Free flow and submerged flow calibrations were done within flow range of 0.005–0.0267m3/s. Equations applicable for both free flow and submerged flow regime were proposed and Ditchrider’s table for field implementation of the flume was prepared. Results of the calibration show that under favorable operating conditions of the discharge within calibrated flow, the proposed equation can determine accurately the discharge with maximum error up to +5% in both free flow and submerged flow regime.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.017
  • Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages

    • Authors: Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash
      Pages: 305 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mona A. Abdel-Fatah, H.O. Sherif, S.I. Hawash
      Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.04.008
  • Quantifying and modeling of stream network using digital elevation models

    • Authors: Daisy Paul; V. Ravibabu Mandla; Tejpal Singh
      Pages: 311 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Daisy Paul, V. Ravibabu Mandla, Tejpal Singh
      Quantifying and modeling of stream network using DEMs is the primary objective to understand earth surface processes. In the present study, DEMs of different quality, i.e. resolution, are evaluated for stream network quantification and modeling. The results are very encouraging in terms of the shape and geometry of the stream network. They emphasize the strong control of the DEM resolution and thresholding of flow accumulation/drainage area. Further, comparisons of the various morphometric parameters are also quite promising. The study highlights different relationships between various morphometric parameters obtained from the two DEMs used, thereby paving the way for the use of DEMs of different resolutions, interchangeably.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.09.002
  • Fourier spectral methods for numerical solving the problem of boundary
           control of the linear wave equation

    • Authors: Hassan Zarei
      Pages: 333 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hassan Zarei
      In this paper, a Fourier spectral method is used to reduce the optimal boundary control problem for a two-dimensional wave equation to a countable number of control problems for a one-dimensional wave equation which are transformed to the optimal control problems with integral constraints using the Laplace transform. The numerical integration and differentiation methods are used to approximate the resulting problems with quadratic programming problems. An illustrative numerical example is presented to indicate the efficiency of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.018
  • Radiative nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a non-linear permeable
           sheet with slip conditions and variable magnetic field: Dual solutions

    • Authors: Puneet Rana; Ruchika Dhanai; Lokendra Kumar
      Pages: 341 - 352
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Puneet Rana, Ruchika Dhanai, Lokendra Kumar
      Objective This paper addresses numerical investigation of steady, magneto-hydrodynamic boundary-layer slip flow of a nanofluid past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with thermal radiation using RKF45 with shooting technique. The effect of viscous dissipation, suction/injection, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, partial velocity slip and thermal slip is taken into account and controlled by the non-dimensional parameters. Results and conclusions The dual solutions are obtained for the skin friction, Nusselt number, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction with pertinent parameters in the domain χ c , ∞ and s c , ∞ . The study shows that the Nusselt number decreases with an increase in thermophoresis parameter Nt and thermal slip parameter δ but increases with thermal radiation R and Prandtl number Pr. Practice implications The present problem has numerous applications in engineering and petroleum industries such as glass blowing, annealing and thinning of copper wires. The study of radiation heat transfer plays an important role in the industrial applications at high temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.016
  • Dissipation effect on MHD mixed convection flow over a stretching sheet
           through porous medium with non-uniform heat source/sink

    • Authors: D. Bhukta; G.C. Dash; S.R. Mishra; S. Baag
      Pages: 353 - 361
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): D. Bhukta, G.C. Dash, S.R. Mishra, S. Baag
      Dissipative effect on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective unsteady flow of an electrically conducting fluid over a stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of non-uniform heat source/sink has been investigated in this paper. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations governing flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena are reduced into set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are solved numerically by using Runge–Kutta fourth order method associated with shooting technique. The numerical computation of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is presented in tables. The work of previous authors is compared with the present work as particular cases in the absence of unsteady parameter, solutal buoyancy, Darcy dissipation and chemical reaction. The results of steady and unsteady cases are also discussed. The important findings are as follows: effect of electric field enhances the skin friction contributing to flow instability. Higher Prandtl number is suitable for the reduction of coefficient of skin friction which is desirable.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.017
  • Fibonacci-regularization method for solving Cauchy integral equations of
           the first kind

    • Authors: Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi; Samad Noeiaghdam
      Pages: 363 - 369
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi, Samad Noeiaghdam
      In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to solve the first kind Cauchy integral equation over a finite interval. For this purpose, the regularization method is considered. Then, the collocation method with Fibonacci base function is applied to solve the obtained second kind singular integral equation. Also, the error estimate of the proposed scheme is discussed. Finally, some sample Cauchy integral equations stem from the theory of airfoils in fluid mechanics are presented and solved to illustrate the importance and applicability of the given algorithm. The tables in the examples show the efficiency of the method.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.018
  • Artificial chemical reaction optimization of neural networks for efficient
           prediction of stock market indices

    • Authors: S.C. Nayak; B.B. Misra; H.S. Behera
      Pages: 371 - 390
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): S.C. Nayak, B.B. Misra, H.S. Behera
      The underlying system models of time series prediction are complex and not known a priori, hence, accurate and unbiased estimation cannot be always achieved using well known linear techniques. The estimation process requires more advanced prediction algorithms, such as multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). This paper presents an artificial chemical reaction neural network (ACRNN), which uses artificial chemical reaction optimization (ACRO) to train the MLP models for forecasting the stock market indices. The underlying motivation for using ACRO is the ability to overcome the issues of convergence, parameter setting and overfitting and to accurately forecast financial time series data even when the underlying system processes are typically nonlinear. Historical data of seven different stock indices have been collected for 15years to test the performance of the ACRNN approach. After extensive experimentation, it is observed that the ACRNN technique demonstrates significant improvements in prediction accuracy over the MLP approach.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.07.015
  • DSTATCOM allocation in distribution networks considering load variations
           using bat algorithm

    • Authors: T. Yuvaraj; K. Ravi; K.R. Devabalaji
      Pages: 391 - 403
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): T. Yuvaraj, K. Ravi, K.R. Devabalaji
      This paper proposes a new method of scheduling for optimal placement and sizing of Distribution STATic COMpensator in the radial distribution networks to minimize the power loss. In the proposed method Voltage Stability Index is used to search the optimal placement for installation of DSTATCOM. Optimal size of DSTATCOM is found by using bat algorithm. The feeder loads are varied by linearly from light load to peak load with a step size of 1%. In each load step, the optimal placement and sizing for DSTATCOM are calculated. By using the Curve Fitting Technique, the optimal sizing for DSTATCOM per load level is formulated in the form of generalized equation. The proposed approach will help the Distribution Network Operators to select the DSTATCOM size according to the load changes. To check the feasibility of the proposed method, system has been tested on two standard buses such as IEEE 33 and 69 bus radial distribution systems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.006
  • Improvement of Protection Coordination for a Distribution System Connected
           to a Microgrid using Unidirectional Fault Current Limiter

    • Authors: Mazen Abdel-Salam; Ahmed Abdallah; Rashad Kamel; Mohamed Hashem
      Pages: 405 - 414
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mazen Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Abdallah, Rashad Kamel, Mohamed Hashem
      The presence of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution systems increases the fault current level, which disrupts the existing coordination time interval of the protective overcurrent relays. One of the ways for decreasing DG effects on the coordination of protective devices is re-coordination of the relays by installing unidirectional fault current limiter (UFCL) between the main grid (upstream network) and the microgrid (downstream network). The UFCL does not limit fault current contribution of the upstream network when fault occurs in downstream but limits fault current contribution of the downstream network when fault occurs in the upstream. Moreover, it preserves the coordination between all of the relays. Several case studies are carried out for illustrating the performance of the UFCL in maintaining the relay coordination.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.008
  • A new approach for power quality improvement of DFIG based wind farms
           connected to weak utility grid

    • Authors: Hossein Mahvash; Seyed Abbas Taher; Mohsen Rahimi
      Pages: 415 - 430
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hossein Mahvash, Seyed Abbas Taher, Mohsen Rahimi
      Most of power quality problems for grid connected doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) with wind turbine include flicker, variations of voltage RMS profile, and injected harmonics due to switching in DFIG converters. Flicker phenomenon is the most important problem in wind power systems. This paper described an effective method for mitigating flicker emission and power quality improvement for a fairly weak grid connected to a wind farm with DFIGs. The method was applied in the rotor side converter (RSC) of the DFIG to control the output reactive power. q axis reference current was directly derived according to the mathematical relation between rotor q axis current and DFIG output reactive power without using PI controller. To extract the reference reactive power, the stator voltage control loop with the droop coefficient was proposed to regulate the grid voltage level in each operational condition. The DFIG output active power was separately controlled in d axis considering the stator voltage orientation control (SVOC). Different simulations were carried out on the test system and the flicker short term severity index ( P st ) was calculated for each case study using the discrete flickermeter model according to IEC 61400 standard. The obtained results validated flicker mitigation and power quality enhancement for the grid.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.09.001
  • Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation
           studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    • Authors: Ahmet Mete Vural; Kamil Çağatay Bayındır
      Pages: 431 - 443
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ahmet Mete Vural, Kamil Çağatay Bayındır
      Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM) are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.07.004
  • Dynamic power management techniques in multi-core architectures: A survey

    • Authors: Khaled M. Attia; Mostafa A. El-Hosseini; Hesham A. Ali
      Pages: 445 - 456
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Khaled M. Attia, Mostafa A. El-Hosseini, Hesham A. Ali
      Multi-core processors support all modern electronic devices nowadays. However, power management is one of the most critical issues in the design of today’s microprocessors. The goal of power management is to maximize performance within a given power budget. Power management techniques must balance between the demanding needs for higher performance/throughput and the impact of aggressive power consumption and negative thermal effects. Many techniques have been proposed in this area, and some of them have been implemented such as the well-known DVFS technique which is used in nearly all modern microprocessors. This paper explores the concepts of multi-core, trending research areas in the field of multi-core processors and then concentrates on power management issues in multi-core architectures. The main objective of this paper is to survey and discuss the current power management techniques. Moreover, it proposes a new technique for power management in multi-core processors based on that survey.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.08.010
  • Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA
           Transient software

    • Authors: P.U. Akpan; S. Jones; M.N. Eke; H. Yeung
      Pages: 457 - 466
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): P.U. Akpan, S. Jones, M.N. Eke, H. Yeung
      Pressure transients in conduits such as pipelines are unsteady flow conditions caused by a sudden change in the flow velocity. These conditions might cause damage to the pipelines and its fittings if the extreme pressure (high or low) is experienced within the pipeline. In order to avoid this occurrence, engineers usually carry out pressure transient analysis in the hydraulic design phase of pipeline network systems. Modelling and simulation of transients in pipelines is an acceptable and cost effective method of assessing this problem and finding technical solutions. This research predicts the pressure surge for different flow conditions in two different pipeline systems using WANDA Transient simulation software. Computer models were set-up in WANDA Transient for two different systems namely; the Graze experiment (miniature system) and a simple main water riser system based on some initial laboratory data and system parameters. The initial laboratory data and system parameters were used for all the simulations. Results obtained from the computer model simulations compared favourably with the experimental results at Polytropic index of 1.2.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.09.006
  • Homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions in stagnation point flow of Casson
           fluid due to a stretching/shrinking sheet with uniform suction and slip

    • Authors: Mariam Sheikh; Zaheer Abbas
      Pages: 467 - 474
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mariam Sheikh, Zaheer Abbas
      This study deals with the effects of homogeneous–heterogeneous reaction on boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid near a stagnation point over a porous stretching/shrinking sheet with a constant suction. In this analysis Casson fluid is used to indicate the non-Newtonian fluid behavior by taking diffusion coefficients of both reactant and autocatalysis equal. The basic flow equations in form of partial differential equations are converted into a system of ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically. The influences of physical and fluid parameters on the velocity and concentration profiles are analyzed, presented and discussed through graphs. An increase in fluid velocity slip parameter reduces the magnitude of the velocity as well as increases the concentration in the boundary layer region. Furthermore, a unique solution is possible for all values of the stretching parameter (λ >0), while in case of shrinking parameter (λ <0), solutions are possible only for its limited ranges.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2015.09.010
  • Processing of a metastable titanium alloy (Ti-5553) by selective laser

    • Authors: C. Zopp; S. Blümer; F. Schubert; L. Kroll
      Pages: 475 - 479
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 8, Issue 3
      Author(s): C. Zopp, S. Blümer, F. Schubert, L. Kroll
      The metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr is characterised by multifaceted mechanical properties (high - strength, hardened, ductile) depending on applied heat treatment. Compared to α-β titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, a higher tensile strength up to 1400MPa as well as a yield strength of 1250MPa can be achieved. As a result, Ti-5553 is used for special aerospace applications e.g. landing gear components or helicopter rotors. Aim of this paper is to study the processibility of Ti-5553 by using selective laser melting. First, a suitable and stable process parameter set for a reference grain fraction (10–63μm) have been developed. Second, variations of grain size distribution will be taken into account, so that a high material density as well as high surface quality can be achieved. Furthermore, an identical process window was applied on fine and coarse grain fractions to show effects regarding material porosity. Material densities above 99.93% were achieved by optimisation of energy input during selective laser melting process. However, the use of reference fraction (10–63μm) allowed the highest material density. Regarding to surface quality, an impact of coarse grain (53–63μm) was identified and an optimised grain size distribution derived. An optimum averaged surface roughness could be calculated, using a grain size between 25–32μm.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2016.11.004
  • Simulation of EAF refining stage

    • Authors: M.M. Elkoumy; M. El-Anwar; A.M. Fathy; G.M. Megahed; I. El-Mahallawi; H. Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M.M. Elkoumy, M. El-Anwar, A.M. Fathy, G.M. Megahed, I. El-Mahallawi, H. Ahmed
      The refining stage in the electric arc furnace contributes to the enhancement of the metallurgical and industrial parameters and the improvement of performance in steelmaking plants. The aim of this study is to compare effects induced by natural and forced convection stirring. Two 3D computational fluid dynamics models were prepared to analyze the melt flow and heat profiles inside the electric arc furnace using FLUENT software. The modeling utilized transient solver with realize k-ɛ turbulence model, in natural and forced convection cases. The results of this work (represented by screenshots for velocity and temperature distributions) indicated maximum and minimum values locations. The maximum melt velocity inside the electric arc furnace was found at the steel melt outlet. Aim The refining stage in the electric arc furnace contributes to the enhancement of the metallurgical and industrial parameters and the improvement of performance in steelmaking plants. The aim of this study is to compare effects induced by natural and forced convection stirring. Methods Two 3D computational fluid dynamics models were prepared to analyze the melt flow and heat profiles inside the electric arc furnace using FLUENT software. The modeling utilized transient solver with realize k-ɛ turbulence model, in natural and forced convection cases. Results screenshots for velocity and temperature distributions indicated maximum and minimum values locations. Conclusions the maximum melt velocity inside the electric arc furnace was found at the steel melt outlet.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.10.002
  • Stability improvement of power systems connected with developed wind farms
           using SSSC controller

    • Authors: Ahmed Rashad; Salah Kamel; Francisco Jurado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Rashad, Salah Kamel, Francisco Jurado
      This paper studies the performance of SCIG wind farm, DFIG wind farm, and a combined wind farm (CWF) during three-phase grid fault. The SCIG and DFIG wind farms are equipped with Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) whereas the combined wind farm did not have one. Since the CWF is composed of an equal number of Double Feed Induction Generators (DFIGs) and Squirrel Cage Induction Generators (SCIGs), it incorporated the main advantages of both types of generator. More specifically, the SCIG has a lower cost, but its drawback lies in its negative impact on system stability, especially when it operates without a shunt compensator. On the other hand, the DFIG, though more expensive, is better able to maintain the stability of the system. The SCIG and DFIG wind farms are equipped with SSSC controller to control the active and reactive line power flow. The results of a comparative study of DFIG and SCIG wind farms with SSSC and combined wind farm without SSSC during a three-phase grid fault showed that even though the SSSC improved the performance of the DFIG and SCIG wind farms, the CWF without the SSSC controller is found to have the best performance. The stability of the three wind farms is examined using Voltage Stability Index (VSI). All of the test scenarios are simulated with MATLAB.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.015
  • Hybrid fuzzy back-propagation control scheme for multilevel unified power
           quality conditioner

    • Authors: V. Veera Nagireddy; Venkata Reddy Kota; D.V. Ashok Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): V. Veera Nagireddy, Venkata Reddy Kota, D.V. Ashok Kumar
      To increase the lifetime and performance of equipment in utility distribution systems, the enhancement of power quality is essential. In this paper, to enhance the power quality, we present the design of a hybrid fuzzy back-propagation control scheme for a unified power quality Conditioner. The gating pulses of the UPQC are generated using hybrid fuzzy-back propagation controllers. The reference currents for the controller are estimated using back-propagation algorithms with source currents and load currents as input control parameters. The reference voltages for the controllers are estimated using fuzzy logic controllers for the dc voltage regulator with a terminal voltage, and a dc voltage for the input control parameters. We perform this analysis in zero-voltage regulation mode and power factor correction mode in a multilevel UPQC-connected distribution system. We analyze the results of the total harmonic distortion, dynamic performance, load balancing and mitigation of the voltage sag using MATLAB/Simulink.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.09.004
  • The importance of cultural dimensions in the design process of the
           vernacular societies

    • Authors: Gasser Gamil Abdel-Azim; Khaled Abdul-Aziz Osman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Gasser Gamil Abdel-Azim, Khaled Abdul-Aziz Osman
      Reviewing the thought of modernity and its impacts on architecture is based on the reconsideration of cultural differences among communities. It is an approach to remedy the consequences of applications of modern architectural theories in dealing with the vernacular societies. This research focuses on the significant role that cultural characteristics play in creating designs for such communities. Therefore, it represents the concept of considering patterns of events in the employment of the communal psychological dimension through the process of design. This research is divided into two phases: highlighting the various definitions of the key terms in the study, and analyzing the mechanism that considers the cultural characteristics of represented communities; Shibam in Yemen, Edfu in Upper Egypt, and Draa in Morocco. The main objective of the research is to use the vernacular prototypes and patterns to reach a design that is most culturally and environmentally adapted.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.09.005
  • Quantifying students' perception for deconstruction architecture

    • Authors: Yasmine Sabry Hegzi; Noura Anwar Abdel-Fatah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Yasmine Sabry Hegzi, Noura Anwar Abdel-Fatah
      Deconstruction in architecture is like a symbol of liberty. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida started the idea basically in language, and then his idea spread to reach architecture. Deconstruction move produced unique differentiated buildings, where difference was the main idea behind deconstruction. This actually made a deep debate, whether deconstruction was an out of the box philosophy or just a strange architectural composition. The research addressed that this kind of architecture needs complete architectural education to value the philosophy behind it, in addition to highlight how students of architecture in both (juniors level and seniors level), how they perceive deconstruction; an experimental approach was used to find out if the scientific material given in architectural theories about deconstruction may affect the perception levels of the students, these students joined the architectural program at faculty of engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt, and the experiment applied on selected pioneers of deconstruction famous buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.09.006
  • Determining the Gestation Age through the automated measurement of the
           bi-parietal distance in fetal ultrasound images

    • Authors: Mariam Saii; Zaid Kraitem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mariam Saii, Zaid Kraitem
      The proposed method has implemented series of steps. First the ratio of existing noise is reduced depending on Wiener Filter, followed by the stage of image borders removing in order to enrich high-density primary regions and suppress remaining ones. Thresholding stage has converted the image into a binary form, then the small foreground elements are removed in a binary image, after that the Skeletonization stage is applied in order to reduce the data points, then a matrix containing all data points which are lying on the target ellipse to be drawn. Detection of the ellipse corresponding to the limits of the fetus head in the input ultrasound image is done via the Least Square Fitting (LSF) algorithm, which returns the ellipse parameters including the minor axis which corresponds to the bi-parietal distance measure. The results of auto-measurements are compared with manual measurements of a specialist to improve the effective of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T02:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.08.008
  • Production cost development for commercial exhaust systems

    • Authors: Ahmad Abosrea; Waleed El-Sallamy; Tarek Osman; Tamer Elnady
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmad Abosrea, Waleed El-Sallamy, Tarek Osman, Tamer Elnady
      Muffling devices are essential parts of any vehicle/machine that uses internal combustion engines. From automotive manufacturers point of view, they contribute massive sheet metal processing and production time, especially mufflers that are produced at high rates for commercial vehicles. This paper is concerned with applying manufacturing procedures to reduce the production cost of any commercial automotive mufflers through theoretical studies and experimental measurements verification. Mufflers design parameters such as transmission loss, flow generated noise and pressure drop were selected for performance judgment, parameters were simulated and experimentally measured. The transfer matrix method was used to calculate the propagation of sound waves along the muffler. A commercial automotive muffler with a hybrid combination of dissipation and reflection was selected for application and a new design was proposed for this muffler with a reduced manufacturing cost. The manufacturing processes were reduced by 77.7% and consequently the cost relative to the original muffler.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T02:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.09.003
  • Harmonization between architectural identity and energy efficiency in
           residential sector (case of North-West coast of Egypt)

    • Authors: Reham El-Dessuky Hamed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Reham El-Dessuky Hamed
      Environmental design concept is a significant factor, regionally and locally. Architectural formation will be applied on the North-West coast of Egypt. The research keeps an eye on the relationship between architectural identity and energy efficiency of housing sector in Marsa Matrouh, where architecture identity has must be respected to achieving environmental requirements, conserving energy, and reaching users environmental and functional comfort. The purpose of this research is to promote environmental design concepts in residential sectors using building design tool such as Ecotect software; as a visual design modeling concerning with energy performance simulation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.09.001
  • Effect of waste tyre rubber on mechanical and durability properties of
           concrete – A review

    • Authors: Sofi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): A. Sofi
      Disposal of waste tyre rubber has become a major environmental issue in all parts of the world representing a very serious threat to the ecology. One of the possible solutions for the use of scrap tyre rubber is to incorporate it into concrete, to replace some of the natural aggregate. An estimated 1000 million tyres reach the end of their useful lives every year and 5000 millions more are expected to be discarded in a regular basis by the year 2030. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tyres are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. The volume of polymeric wastes like tyre rubber and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) is increasing at a fast rate. This paper reviews the tests performed to determine the compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, water absorption and water penetration of using rubber tyre waste concrete samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were also presented in this paper. It was observed that the compressive strength, flexural tensile strength and depth of water penetration of the rubberized concrete were less than that of the control mix, while the abrasion resistance and water absorption (up to 10% substitution) exhibited better results than that of the control mix concrete. This paper also reviews the performance of concrete mixtures incorporating 5%, 7.5% and 10% of discarded tyre rubber as aggregate and cement replacements. Numerous projects have been conducted on replacement of aggregates by crumb rubbers but scarce data are found on cementitious filler addition. Hence to examine characteristics of tyre crumb-containing concrete, two sets of concrete specimens were made. In the first set, different percentages by weight of chipped rubber were replaced for coarse aggregates and in the second set scrap-tyre powder was replaced for cement. Selected standard durability and mechanical test were performed and the results were analysed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:22:07Z
  • Improving the performance of evacuated tube heat pipe collectors using oil
           and foamed metals

    • Authors: M.S. Abd-Elhady; M. Nasreldin; M.N. Elsheikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): M.S. Abd-Elhady, M. Nasreldin, M.N. Elsheikh
      The objective of this research is to improve the heating capability of evacuated tubes that comprises heat pipes. Thermal oil is inserted in the evacuated tube in order to improve the rate of heat transfer, such that the mode of heat transfer from the inner surface of the evacuated tube to the heat pipe becomes convection via the oil, as well as conduction through the installed fin. The finned surface has been replaced by a foamed-copper. An experimental setup has been developed to study the influence of oil and foamed metals on the performance of evacuated tubes with heat pipes. It has been found that the bulb temperature as well as the heating efficiency of the evacuated tube heat pipe has increased in case of inserting oil in the evacuated tube and replacing the finned surface with foamed copper. Also, the thermal oil acts as a heat storage.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:22:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.10.001
  • The role of nanotechnology in improving the efficiency of energy use with
           a special reference to glass treated with nanotechnology in office

    • Authors: Ahmed Reda Abdin; Ashraf Roushdy El Bakery; Mahmoud Attiya Mohamed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Reda Abdin, Ashraf Roushdy El Bakery, Mahmoud Attiya Mohamed
      The correct use of glass in office buildings plays a key role in the efficient use of energy especially with the application of nanotechnology. The main aim of this paper was to identify the capability of the different types of glass used in the building envelope to reduce energy consumption in office buildings. The chosen type will be combined with different Window to Wall Ratios (WWRs) and orientations to verify its efficiency. For this purpose, a simulation tool was used (Design Builder 3.1), then a comparison was done to test the performance of different types of glass and different orientations with the same glass thicknesses. The results are put into comparison in order to identify the best type of glass which can help in reducing the cost of energy consumption and how can it comply with the Egyptian energy code requirements for glass type which achieve energy efficiency. The results indicate that the use of glass treated with nanotechnology (Low-E) which have indices of (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)=0.23), (Light Transmission (LT)=0.42), (U Value (UV)=1.55) reduces energy consumption by more than 20% compared to the standard 6mm clear glass.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.07.001
  • Making conditionally negative definite radial basis function interpolation
           well-conditioned by adding cardinal basis functions

    • Authors: Saeed Kazem; Edmund A. Chadwick; Ali Hatam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Saeed Kazem, Edmund A. Chadwick, Ali Hatam
      A class of basis functions so called well-conditioned RBF (WRBFs) has been introduced. This basis has been manipulated by adding cardinal functions to the conditionally negative definite RBFs of order 1, such as Multiquadric functions 1 + ( ∊ r ) 2 (MQ) and log ( 1 + ( ∊ r ) 2 ) (LOG). The condition number of the interpolation matrix arising from this basis is of O ( N ) , where N is the number of center nodes. This order is independent of shape parameter and therefore applying this basis functions would recover the ill–posed linear system associated with the order 1 conditionally negative definite RBFs interpolation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.013
  • Golden section search based maximum power point tracking strategy for a
           dual output DC-DC converter

    • Authors: R. Gayathri; G.A. Ezhilarasi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): R. Gayathri, G.A. Ezhilarasi
      This paper introduces an Golden Section Search based algorithm, along with an single input multi output DC-DC converter for photovoltaic systems. In contemplation for photovoltaic (PV) systems to escalate their efficiency of power generation, it is mandatory to locate the Maximum power point (MPP) under all possible illumination conditions. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller is expected to obtain the MPP irrespective of the device and climatic changes. The basic principle and the implementation of the system is elaborated in this paper, along with an comparison of different hill-climbing algorithms. The analytic and simulated results show that the new method has the advantages of fast convergence, noise-resistance, and robustness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.04.008
  • Parameterless earth fault locator algorithm based on transient surges
           resulting from single-pole breaker opening

    • Authors: Eman S. Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Eman S. Ahmed
      This paper proposes a novel concept for ground faults locating on the basis of the traveling waves principles for EHV transmission systems. The transient surges generated due to single-pole breaker opening are localized in order to determine the accurate fault distance on the basis of single-end measurements. The proposed fault location concept is independent of the propagation speed. Also, the proposed strategy of creating traveling surges is exploited with synchronized double-end measurements. Time extraction of traveling surges is performed using the second derivative of the aerial mode voltage after breaker pole opening. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using transmission systems of multiple terminals. The results provide evidence the efficacy of the proposed fault location mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.08.002
  • Estimating the future energy efficiency and CO2 emissions of passive
           country housing applying domestic biogas reactor: A case study in Egypt

    • Authors: Mohammad Fahmy; Mohamed M. Mahdy; Hosam Rizk; Marwa F. Abdelaleem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad Fahmy, Mohamed M. Mahdy, Hosam Rizk, Marwa F. Abdelaleem
      This paper investigates the role of passive design strategies and using biogas in reducing energy consumption, annual energy cost and CO2 emissions of a new productive country housing model in an ongoing sustainable community development project near Cairo, Egypt. The country housing character follows the vernacular architecture of such hot arid areas through the application of courtyards, vaults and domes with two different materials for the building envelop. The traditional 25cm red bricks were used in the first case, whilst the second sustainable one is a prefabricated sandwich panel construction of 15cm GRC walls. The opportunity of using 2m3 biogas reactors is promising in such housing projects that have an area for raising domestic animals along with the waste supplies from each house agriculture zone. Design Builder simulations took place in present and future showed considerable reductions of energy consumption, annual energy cost and CO2 emissions estimations in the sustainable option with the biogas passive house.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T22:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.08.004
  • A semi-analytical iterative method for solving differential algebraic

    • Authors: Majeed Al-Jawary; Sinan Hatif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Majeed Al-Jawary, Sinan Hatif
      This work presents new implementation of an iterative method proposed by Temimi and Ansari namely (TAM) for approximate solutions of differential algebraic equations that arises in many engineering and applied sciences applications. The solution is obtained with easy computed components without any restrictive assumptions to deal with the nonlinear terms. The numerical results obtained by TAM are better accuracy and faster convergence in comparison to the homotopy perturbation method. Error analysis of the approximate solution is studied using the absolute error and high convergence is achieved. A symbolic manipulator Mathematica®10 was used to evaluate terms in the iterative process.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.07.004
  • Evaluation of local scour around bridge piers for various geometrical
           shapes using mathematical models

    • Authors: Ahmed Moustafa Ahmed Moussa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed Moustafa Ahmed Moussa
      Bridges are one of the important structures across the Nile River; these bridges may be subjected to collapse if there is no monitoring or safety precaution for local scour during high floods. This research was commenced in order to evaluate the scour around bridge piers. 1-D and 2-D mathematical models were applied to Aswan and El Minia bridges, in the 1st and 4th reaches, respectively. The two bridges are considered two major bridges so their impacts should be studied. Total Scour (local, contraction and long-term degradation) was evaluated and the expected morphological changes were estimated. The local scour and contraction scour at Aswan Bridge is higher than El-Minia Bridge due to the big dimensions of piers. 2D model gives accurate results especially in the non-uniform cross sections. It was found that the smallest local scour was obtained in case of sharp nosed piers at normal flow to the piers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.08.003
  • Improvement of transient stability of DFIG based wind generator by using
           of resistive solid state fault current limiter

    • Authors: Md Emrad Hossain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Md Emrad Hossain
      Currently, the application of variable wind speed machines, especially doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) becomes very effective in the fast growing wind generator (WG) market due to its advantageous property of partial converter ratings and ability to adapt to variable wind speed. The foremost concern for the DFIG based WG system is to maintain the transient stability during fault, as the stator of the DFIG is directly connected to the grid. In this paper, a simple controller based resistive solid-state fault current limiter (R-type SSFCL) is proposed to augment the transient stability of the DFIG based WG system. In simulations, temporary balanced and unbalanced faults were applied in the test system model to investigate the R-type SSFCL transient stability performance. A series dynamic braking-resistor (SDBR) and an LR-type solid-state fault current limiter (SSFCL-LR) are also considered to compare their performance with the proposed R-type SSFCL. These simulations were performed with Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results clearly indicate that the R-type SSFCL enhances the transient stability of the DFIG system and it works better than the SDBR and SSFCL-LR in every aspect.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.014
  • A cuckoo search algorithm optimizer for steady-state analysis of
           self-excited induction generator

    • Authors: Hany M. Hasanien; Gamal M. Hashem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Hany M. Hasanien, Gamal M. Hashem
      Renewable energy systems especially the wind energy grows worldwide continuously. Also, installations of the wind farms increase in remote area applications. The self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is an effective choice for using in these applications due to its merits. This paper presents a cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) optimizer for steady state analysis of the SEIG. The mathematical model of the SEIG is based on equivalent circuit loop impedance method. The target of optimization is to minimize the total equivalent circuit impedance of the generator in order to obtain the frequency and any other unknown parameter of the SEIG. In this study, the frequency and magnetizing reactance define the search space for the optimization problem. The MATLAB CSA optimization toolbox is used to solve optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed optimizer is evaluated on a 220V, 0.75kW induction generator for various operating conditions. The effectiveness of the CSA model is then compared with other conventional optimization models. The validity of the proposed optimizer is verified by experimental results. With this proposed CSA optimization technique, a faster and an accurate prediction for steady state analysis of the SEIG are achieved.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.07.003
  • A comparative study of soft computing methods to solve inverse kinematics

    • Authors: Ahmed El-Sherbiny; Mostafa A. Elhosseini; Amira Y. Haikal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed El-Sherbiny, Mostafa A. Elhosseini, Amira Y. Haikal
      Robot arms are essential tools nowadays in industries due to its accuracy through high speed manufacturing. One of the most challenging problems in industrial robots is solving inverse kinematics. Inverse Kinematic Problem concerns with finding the values of angles which are related to the desired Cartesian location. With the development of Softcomputing-based methods, it's become easier to solve the inverse kinematic problem in higher speed with sufficient solutions rather than using traditional methods like numerical, geometric and algebraic. This paper presents a comparative study between different soft-computing based methods (Artificial Neural Network, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System & Genetic Algorithms) applied to the problem of inverse kinematics. With the help of proposed method called minimized error function, both ANN and ANFIS are able to outperform other methods. The experimental test are done using 5DOF robot arm and analyzing the results proved the simulation results.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.08.001
  • Frequency-domain modeling of time-periodic switched electrical networks: A

    • Authors: Abner Ramirez; Mohamed Abdel-Rahaman; Taku Noda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abner Ramirez, Mohamed Abdel-Rahaman, Taku Noda
      Power networks are, in nature, nonlinear time-variant systems. Starting with synchronous machines, which function as generators, passing by transmission and distribution networks whose topologies are altered due to different switching actions in the network, and ending with uncontrolled loads, which depend to a large extent on customer behavior and their dynamics. Despite the aforementioned nature, power system analysis mainly relies on taking snap shots of the system to estimate its behavior under different conditions, e.g., normal operation load flow, short circuit analysis, etc. Nevertheless, the time-varying characteristic of modern power systems, e.g., time-periodic switching of power electronic converters, impacts the overall network behavior; such impact can be interpreted as overvoltages, waveform distortion, resonance conditions, and even instability. Here the need to account for time-varying nature in modeling of modern power networks. Frequency-domain (FD) provides a convenient domain to solve a set of differential equations that describes the system as algebraic equations for the aforementioned studies, though limited to linear systems. In performing power system studies, periodic nature of rotating machines is accounted for by Park's transformation, which is able to mask the time-periodic nature of the machine in a manner that does not compromise the simplicity of the solution. Yet, the introduction of converters sidestepped FD for network analyses to the favor of time-domain (TD) analysis tools, albeit their relative complexity and large computational times. However, since the inception of the need to analyze time-periodic (TP) systems in general, numerous techniques evolved with varying degrees of success to provide a practical tool for network studies. This paper provides a brief of those efforts. The paper discusses Floquet theory, Harmonic Domain Dynamic Transfer Functions, and Equivalent Signal theory as tools for analysis of TP power systems, putting special attention to switched networks. Also, the paper compares those tools from the points of view of: (i) computational effort for model preparation, (ii) possible applications to modern power networks, and (iii) suitability for integration with present network analysis tools.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.07.002
  • Simplified iterative reproducing kernel method for handling
           time-fractional BVPs with error estimation

    • Authors: Mohammed Al-Smadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Mohammed Al-Smadi
      In this article, we introduce a novel numerical scheme, the iterative reproducing kernel method (IRKM), for providing numerical approximate solutions of a certain class of time-fractional boundary value problem within favorable aspects of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space in Caputo sense. The algorithm methodology is based on generating an orthonormal basis from the reproducing kernel function to formulate the solution in form of uniformly convergent series, accordance with the constraint conditions in the space ω 5 [ 0 , 1 ] . Error estimates in the ω 5 -norm are obtained as well as numerical experiments are described to represent the hypothesis, and to confirm the design procedure of the proposed algorithm. The numerical results indicate that the IRKA is a significant development tool for handling such issues arising in computer, physics and engineering fields.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.04.006
  • MHD oscillatory flow of a Jeffrey fluid in a vertical porous channel with
           viscous dissipation

    • Authors: R.K. Selvi; R. Muthuraj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): R.K. Selvi, R. Muthuraj
      The aim of this article is to investigate unsteady MHD convective flow in a vertical porous channel with viscous dissipation. The fluid is assumed to be non Newtonian, namely Jeffrey fluid and diffusion-thermo, thermal diffusion effect, suction are also taken into account. The governing coupled partial differential equations of the problem is reduced to ordinary differential equations and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The velocity, temperature and concentration fields are discussed with different values of involved parameter with the help of graphs. In addition, variations on coefficient of skin friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients are tabulated with different values of pertinent parameters. Comparison is made present solution (HAM) with numerical solution by using NDSolver in Mathematica. A suitable comparison has also been made as a limiting case of the considered problem. It is found that increasing magnetic parameter and suction parameter tends to suppress the fluid velocity while the reverse trend can be seen with material parameter. Thermal parameters are lead to enhance the fluid temperature whereas fluid temperature is decreasing function with increasing inertia coefficient. Volume flow rate decreases continuously with increasing suction parameter while it increases gradually with increasing viscosity parameter. Increasing Grashof number tends to enhance skin friction while increasing magnetic parameter leads to decrease the skin friction at the left wall. Further, increasing Soret number leads to suppress Sherwood number gradually at the left wall whereas mixed behavior can be noticed on Sherwood number distribution at the other wall.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T09:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.05.009
  • About Kepler’s Third Law on fractal-time spaces

    • Authors: Alireza K. Golmankhaneh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Alireza K. Golmankhaneh
      In this paper, a mathematical model for fractal-time space is given involving F α -calculus. Differential equations corresponding of the free fall motion and simple harmonic oscillator on fractal-time space are given and solved. Moreover, using scale transformation and invariant properties of physical laws we obtained the generalized Kepler’s Third Law of motion on fractal-time space.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:24:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.06.005
  • A design of Microstrip Patch Antenna using hybrid fractal slot for
           wideband applications

    • Authors: Narinder Sharma; Vipul Sharma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Narinder Sharma, Vipul Sharma
      The paper presents a design of Microstrip Patch Antenna (MPA) using hybrid fractal slot (Koch-Minkowski and Koch-Koch) along with partial ground plane for wideband applications. The length of partial ground plane is varied to optimize the bandwidth and gain of antenna. It has been observed that the ground plane length 8mm exhibits best result in terms of bandwidth and gain. The MPA with Koch-Minkowski slot depicts 2260MHz bandwidth, 6.1dB gain and two resonant frequencies 2.47GHz and 8.92GHz whereas with Koch-Koch slot it reports 2440GHz bandwidth, 5.62dB gain, and resonant frequencies 2.77GHz and 8.62GHz. The proposed antennas are fabricated and measured bandwidth for Koch-Minkowski slot is 3326MHz and for the Koch-Koch slot is 3237MHz. The simulated results of proposed antennas are compared with measured results and observed the reasonable agreement with each other.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.05.008
  • Sentiment analysis in Arabic: A review of the literature

    • Authors: Naaima Boudad; Rdouan Faizi; Rachid Oulad Haj Thami; Raddouane Chiheb
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Naaima Boudad, Rdouan Faizi, Rachid Oulad Haj Thami, Raddouane Chiheb
      Within the last couple of years, Sentiment Analysis in Arabic has gained a considerable interest from the research community. In this respect, the objective of this paper is to provide a review of the major works that have dealt with this research area in this language. A thorough investigation of the available literature revealed that the works were mainly concentrated on dealing with specific Sentiment Analysis tasks. To this end, they used three different approaches, namely supervised, unsupervised and hybrid. The results that these studies achieved are interesting but divergent. This divergence is relatively due to the type of approach opted for, the task that is being analysed as well as to the specificities and intricacies of the Arabic variety understudy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.04.007
  • Bearing fault detection in a 3 phase induction motor using stator current
           frequency spectral subtraction with various wavelet decomposition

    • Authors: K.C. Deekshit Kompella; Mannam Venu Gopala Rao; Rayapudi Srinivasa Rao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): K.C. Deekshit Kompella, Mannam Venu Gopala Rao, Rayapudi Srinivasa Rao
      Induction motors consumes 90% of total power consumed by industries due to large scale utilisation. Even though these motors are rugged in structure, they often face unexpected failure due to long usage without maintenance. Bearing failure is a major problem among various faults, which cause catastrophic damage to machine when unnoticed at incipient stage. So the bearing faults in induction machines should be continuously monitored. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has become popular for detection and localisation of these faults and has attracted concentration of many researchers. In this paper stator current is monitored by means of frequency spectral subtraction using various wavelet transforms to suppress dominant components. The spectral subtraction using discrete wavelet transform (DWT), stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is performed and a comparative analysis is carried out by means of different fault indexing parameters. The proposed topology is examined using 2.2kW induction machine test bed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.06.002
  • Effect of soil-foundation-structure interaction on the seismic response of
           wind turbines

    • Authors: Sam Austin; Sukhvarsh Jerath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Sam Austin, Sukhvarsh Jerath
      Soil-foundation-structure interaction can affect the seismic response of wind turbines. This paper studies the effects of soil-foundation-structure interaction on the seismic response of 65kW, 1MW, and 2MW horizontal-axis wind turbines with truncated cone steel towers. Four types of foundations with frequency-based design were analyzed, including spread foundation, mono pile, pile group with cap, and anchored spread foundation. Soil is modeled both implicitly (subgrade reaction modulus) and explicitly. The finite element model developed using the ANSYS program was first validated using experimental data. Numerical models are then analyzed in both frequency and time domains using the Block Lanczos and generalized HHT-α formulations. Recommendations were given to simplify the soil-foundation-structure interaction analysis of wind turbines subjected to seismic loading.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.05.007
  • Understanding the behavior of RTD-loaded NMOS inverter through
           compact-form analysis

    • Authors: Sherif M. Sharroush
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Sherif M. Sharroush
      Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) find a wide variety of applications in oscillators, digital circuits, and latches due to their reduced circuit complexity, low power, and high speed. Since the inverter is the main building block in digital design, in this paper, the analysis of the RTD-loaded NMOS inverter is addressed quantitatively with its static and dynamic characteristics investigated and compared with that of the conventional static CMOS inverter. Specifically, compact-form expressions are derived for the critical points of the voltage-transfer characteristics (VTC), the low-to-high, and the high-to-low propagation delays along with the fan-out. Also, the static- and dynamic–power consumption are investigated and equations are derived for them. The results obtained from this analysis can be generalized to RTD-MOS logic-circuit family in which the pull-down network contains properly connected and appropriately sized NMOS transistors and the pull-up network is the RTD device. The results of the quantitative analysis are discussed and verified by comparison with the simulation results using the Berkeley predictive-technology model (BPTM) of the 45nm CMOS technology with a power-supply voltage of 1V.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.06.001
  • Condition monitoring of wind turbine for rotor fault detection under non
           stationary conditions

    • Authors: Himani; Ratna Dahiya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Himani, Ratna Dahiya
      Condition monitoring of Wind Turbine based induction generators still faces challenges due to their operation in harsh and aggressive environments. The detection of anomalies at an initial stage is necessary for reducing the downtime of Wind Turbines. Depending on wind speed, the wind turbine generator operates continuously in non-stationary conditions. Under non-stationary conditions, the rotor fault frequency components present at generator output spreads out on bandwidth proportional to the speed which complicates its detectability. Therefore, this paper proposes a potential approach based on the use of wavelet analysis for diagnosing rotor eccentricity fault using WTG electrical signals. Its effectiveness under speed and load varying conditions is validated by experiments on a wind turbine condition monitoring test rig. The effectiveness of the setup was benchmarked with already proven WT test rigs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.04.002
  • Numerical simulation of scour and flow field for different arrangements of
           two piers using SSIIM model

    • Authors: Amirreza Hamidi; Seyed Mostafa Siadatmousavi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Amirreza Hamidi, Seyed Mostafa Siadatmousavi
      Scour around bridge piers in the flow is an inevitable issue. In this study, the numerical model SSIIM was used to simulate both the flow field and scour pattern around side by side piers. Both k – ɛ and k – ω turbulence models were employed to solve the eddy viscosity of flow equations and their performances were evaluated. Temporal investigation of the higher accurate turbulence model were presented. Moreover, the model was skill-assessed for different pile spacing ( G / D ) in side by side piers and several angles of piers (α) in staggered arrangements and their numerical results were obtained. Although model was successful in reproducing the scour depth in front of piers for side by side piers, it overestimated the bed scour depth between the piles. Furthermore, in the staggered arrangements, the numerical model underestimated the scour depth in front piles while good agreements were achieved between the piers in different angles of attack.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.03.012
  • NERC’s control performance standards based load frequency controller for
           a multi area deregulated power system with ANFIS approach

    • Authors: Abhijith Pappachen; A. Peer Fathima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Ain Shams Engineering Journal
      Author(s): Abhijith Pappachen, A. Peer Fathima
      This paper presents the design of a North American Reliability Council (NERC) standards BAL-001-2 based Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS) controller for multi-area deregulated power system under different contract scenarios. The proposed controller is tested on the Indian regional grid system and its control performance standards are compared with the conventional PID controller and ANFIS controller. The major objectives are (i) To find a suitable control for mitigating the diverse LFC problems in a deregulated power system (ii) to comply with the NERC control performance standards which are CPS1, CPS2 and BAAL, and (iii) to reduce the wear and tear of the generating units. Dynamic modelling of controllers, test system and simulation studies are performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results validate that the NERC standards based ANFIS controller is one of the best controller for the four area Indian regional grid under deregulated environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2017.05.006
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