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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2543 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (214 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1332 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1332 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

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Ain Shams Engineering Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.589
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2090-4479
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm based on velocity
           updating mechanism

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Chunfeng Wang, Wenxin Song Due to less parameters and simple operations in PSO, PSO has attracted the attention of many researchers. However, it amy fall into local optimum and the search precision is not high. Therefore, this paper introduces an improved PSO (CNPSO). There are two new formulas: (1) when the individual is not the best particle, the gbest is replaced by a particle, which is selected from a set based on the probability calculation. Such mechanism can help the algorithm to escape local position. (2) when the individual is the best particle, it is combined with a randomly selected particle to generate a convex combination, after that opposite learning is adopted to get a reverse solution. This operation can maintain the diversity of population. Finally, CNPSO is compared with several algorithms in three experiments, and used to optimize the spring design problem. The results indicate CNPSO has good performance and high search precision.
  • The effects of height and vertical position of slot on the reduction of
           scour hole depth around bridge abutments

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Mehdi Osroush, Seyed Abbas Hosseini, Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Amir Khosrojerdi This paper investigates the effects of the height and vertical position of slots on the reduction of scouring on the periphery of rectangular abutments by constructing various slot models in different dimensions under varying flow conditions.For the purpose, 25 experiments were conducted under clear water conditions. The results of this study indicated that the closer the slot was placed to the bed, the more it would reduce scouring in models with slots featuring identical dimensions and heights equal to the half of the size of the flow depth. In other words, the slot model the height of which was measured from the water surface to underneath the erodible bed or more than the water depth showed the best performance among other slot models. The results of this research showed that the use of slots in abutments was more effective in reducing scouring than the use of bridge piers.
  • A transition integral transform obtained from generalization of the
           Fourier transform

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Rafael G. González-Acuña, Julio C. Gutiérrez-Vega We introduce a generalized integral transform (GIT) whose integration path lies on the complex plane. The GIT has both bilateral and unilateral versions, and generalizes a set of known integral transforms, e.g. Fourier, Laplace, allowing to solve integro-differential equations with initial conditions in a more efficient way. We discuss the inversion formula of the new transform and give some particular examples of its application for solving differential and integral equations. The basic properties of the new integral transform are discussed in detail.
  • Experimental investigation of strengthening slab-column connections with
           CFRP fan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Khaled F. El-Kashif, Eman A. Ahmed, Hamed M. Salem This paper investigates experimentally the punching shear behavior of flat slabs-column connections strengthened with CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced polymer) string having a fan shape as a new strengthening technique. Six square slabs with middle column heads were casted monolithically at the center of the slabs. All the specimens had the same dimensions and the same reinforcement detailing. Four slabs were strengthened with CFRP fan, one strengthened with steel bolts while the reference specimen was tested without strengthening.The results showed that the proposed strengthening technique improved the punching shear capacity and enhanced the ductility of the flat slabs column connections compared with un-strengthened connections. Punching shear failure load achieved by experimental testing showed a reasonable agreement with the calculated punching failure loads based on formulas adopted by different codes: ECP (Egyptian code of practice), ACI-318 (American concrete institute) and JSCE (Japan society of civil engineers).
  • Explicit solutions for turbulent flow friction factor: A review,
           assessment and approaches classification

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Lotfi Zeghadnia, Jean Loup Robert, Bachir Achour The Colebrook –white equation is widely used in many fields, like civil engineering for calculation of water distribution systems and in all fields of engineering where fluid flow can be occurred. Numerous formulas have been proposed since 1947 in order to simplify the computation of the friction factor, to avoid the iterative procedures methods and to alter the Colebrook-white equation in practice. most of the existing explicit formulas for computation of the friction factor for turbulent flow in rough pipes proposed are cited, where thirty three “33” equations have been inventoried. The goal of this paper is to assess the accuracy of each model and to propose an arrangement from the best to the lower accuracy according to a proposed method combined of three criteria which are: simplicity of the formula, maximum deviations and the coverage of the entire range of Moody diagram.
  • A new approach for the stability analysis of high-frequency series
           resonant inverter-fitted induction heater

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Kaushik Neogi, Moumita Sadhu, Niladri Das, Pradip Kumar Sadhu, Agamani Chakraborty, Ankur Ganguly, Atanu Banerjee This paper presents a new approach for the stability analysis of a high-frequency series resonant inverter (HFSRI) in induction heating system. Here the mathematical analysis of HFSRI is described and the stability analysis is obtained by using MATLAB. The analytical method likely gradient method is also used to get stability of high frequency series resonant inverter. So the stability of high-frequency series resonant inverter is obtained and compared between MATLAB simulation output and gradient method output. From this simulation analysis and analytical analysis, the required specifications can be gratified so the appropriate influence of forward path gain and the feedback coefficient of the system are investigated. Hence, the system reliability of proposed topology is checked from the stability analysis of high frequency inverter circuit which is the heart of the induction heating system. More system stability indicates the higher reliability of the system.
  • Numerical solution of third order boundary value problems using one-step
           hybrid block method

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Ra’ft Abdelrahim Numerical hybrid block methods have been thought to be an appropriate method for solving ordinary differential equation. Therefore, this paper introduces a one-step hybrid block method of order five for directly solving third order boundary value problems. Power series of order seven is used for the development of the new method by using collocation and interpolation approach. The proposed method together with shooting technique will solve third order BVPs. Some numerical examples are involved to show the efficiency of the method. The numerical results clearly show that the developed method is able to generate good results when it is compared with existing method in terms of error. It has been noted, the new proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of accuracy.
  • A DFT-ED based approach for detection and classification of faults in
           electric power transmission networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Ch.D. Prasad, Paresh Kumar Nayak This paper proposes a fast and reliable fault detection and classification scheme for electric power transmission networks using the estimated Euclidean distance between successive samples of actuating signal. In the proposed method, magnitudes of fundamental components of three-phase current phasors estimated through discrete Fourier transform are used as actuating signal. Performance of the proposed method is tested for numerous fault cases (symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults with varying fault inception angle, fault type, fault location and fault resistance) and non-fault cases (switching on/off of large loads and capacitor banks) by generating data through MATLAB/Simulink software on a two-bus test power system. Results clearly shows that using the proposed technique a fast and reliable fault detection and classification task can be accomplished.
  • Illumination simulation of working environment during the testing of
           cutting materials durability

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Darina Dupláková, Michal Hatala, Ján Duplák, Lucia Knapčíková, Svetlana Radchenko Illumination in the workplace is one of factors, which substantially acts on worker, his performance, error rate and last but not least his health. It is necessary to create the suitable illumination of environment for the sake of interpretation of needed working performances and provision of efficiency. The suitable illumination is possible to ensure by modelling in various simulation tools. It is one of low – economically. Presented article is focused on illumination simulation of working environment during testing of cutting materials durability by simulation software Dialux. On the basis of input data, it is created the model of indoor illumination of real working environment which is subsequently optimized in accordance with standard: STN EN 12464 – 1: Light and lighting; Lighting of workplaces. Part 1: Indoor workplaces. Then this optimized model is compared with real state before optimization. The results are presented in the results section of this article.
  • Dispersion of toxic gases (CO and CO2) by 2D numerical

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Jacqueline Furlan, Jairo Aparecido Martins, Estaner Claro Romão It is known that air pollution is responsible for causing numerous respiratory problems in the population, and in critical situations can even lead people to death. Because of this, a study was started here to analyze the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which cars that run daily on a highway near the city of Lorena-SP-Brazil scatter through the air. From a study carried out using the software COMSOL Multiphysics® three different situations (geometries) will be simulated numerically and a discussion will be presented.
  • Modeling of inverted pendulum system with gravitational search algorithm
           optimized controller

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Mohamed Magdy, Abdallah El Marhomy, Mahmoud A. Attia The inverted pendulum (IP) is a common classical control theory problem. Many controllers are used to keep the pendulum rod upraise via the control the position of the cart. In this paper, Modelling of IP system is carried out and then verifies the model through comparison with other models in literature. The viscous damping effect on the IP system has been also considered in this work. The PID controller is used to control the IP and is tuned by using both Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) and Genetic Algorism (GA). Examination of GSA efficiency has been demonstrated, and then comparison with Genetic Algorism (GA) in the tuning of PID controller is presented. The results proved the superiority of the controller which is tuned by using GSA (PID-GSA). Finally, the optimized controller (PID-GSA) performance is checked through carrying out the robustness test.
  • Adaptive point-to-point control system design using friction-based optimal
           state feedback

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Esam H. Abdelhameed This paper presents an adaptive control system design for high-precision positioning of a point-to-point (PTP) servo actuator. These mechanisms are characterized by nonlinear friction behaviour, vibrational modes, and dead times which are limitations to precise motion. In the proposed strategy, adaptation of a primary controller (PID) efforts is obtained depending on an optimal state feedback. As a new methodology, estimating the states of a PTP servo actuator was carried out based on the observed friction forces besides the control signal. Performances of the proposed control systems were verified using numerical simulations and compared with that of the primary controller. The results demonstrate that, the proposed scheme achieved high-precision positioning of the PTP servo actuator regardless of the presence of its dynamics problems. Moreover, the simplicity of the proposed control technique and its effectiveness for getting high-precision motion support its applicability to variety of applications.
  • Separation of huntite and hydromagnesite from magnesite in combination of
           physicochemical treatment and size reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Hüsnügül Yilmaz Atay, Mustafa Çirak Huntite and hydromagnesite are important minerals in the synthesizing of fire-safe composites. They are mostly not pure and associated with gangue minerals like magnesite, dolomite, aragonite and calcite. In this study, run of mine ore was subjected to the physicochemical treatment as a function of different size fraction. For observing the wetting behaviour, the contact angle measurements were carried out. It was found that the addition of Na-oleate rendered the particle surface hydrophobic and this finding confirmed the adsorption capability of this collector on the powdered sample. Flotation results indicated that the grade of huntite and hydromagnesite increased from 50% to 84% by decreasing the particle size of the mineral powder. The optimum degree of liberation was achieved at 38 µm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to perform the phase analysis, surface morphology and elemental analysis of the mineral.
  • Comparison of evolutionary multi objective optimization algorithms in
           optimum design of water distribution network

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): H. Monsef, M. Naghashzadegan, A. Jamali, R. Farmani In this paper, the application of three well-known multi-objective optimization algorithms to water distribution network (WDN) optimum design has been considered. Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), Multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) and Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithms are applied to benchmark mathematical test function problems for evaluating the performance of these algorithms. The Accuracy and computational runtime are the two indicators used for the comparison of these three algorithms. The optimization results of mathematical test functions show that all three algorithms were able to accurately produce Pareto Front, but the computational time of MODE algorithm to achieve the optimal solutions is lower than the two other algorithms. Then, the discussed algorithms have been used to optimize the WDN design problem. Comparison of the generated solutions on the Pareto Front for WDN design shows that the obtained Pareto Front of MODE is more accurate and faster.
  • DWT approach based differential relaying scheme for single circuit and
           double circuit transmission line protection including STATCOM

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): S.K Mishra, L.N Tripathy, S.C Swain This paper describes fault detection and classification in a double–circuit transmission line with presence of STATCOM (Static Synchronous compensator) in one circuit. DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) approach based differential relaying scheme is used to detect and classify the fault pattern in the above transmission line. The scheme starts with current signals extracted from both end of the transmission line synchronously and processed through DWT to obtain Spectral Energy (SE). The Differential Spectral Energy (DSE) is computed by subtracting SE obtained from both sending end and receiving end of the line which is the key indicator for fault detection and classification. The proposed scheme is extensively tested on faulted conditions with wide variation in operating parameters and the test result indicate that it can reliably detect and classify fault both in single and double circuit line in presence of STATCOM with a relay response time of less than one cycle.
  • Studying comfort and energy usage for different room arrangements using a
           simplified flow pattern for highly-cooled and conventional operations

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Asmaa F. Ahmed, Ehab M. Mina, Raouf N. AbdelMessih, Gamil W. Younan Simulations are carried out on 2-D models representing rooms having different supply/return arrangements with flat and curved ceiling. The velocity and temperature fields are used to assess comfort and energy usage. A simplified flow pattern is deduced from the flow field. This pattern describes the flow as a main stream travelling from the inlet to the exit adhered to walls along its path, thus collecting the load directly from these walls. This main stream induces an eddy that collects the load from the rest of the boundaries and transfers this load to the main stream. When this main stream passes directly through the occupied zone, the large velocity disturbs comfort. The larger the portion of load carried directly by the main stream, the lesser is the energy use. When the inlet and exit are on the same wall, the main stream might follow a short-cut beyond certain supply angles. Curving the ceiling is seen to retard the onset of the short-cut.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Experimental investigation on DI diesel engine with fatty acid oil from
           by-product of vegetable oil refinery

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): P. Deivajothi, V. Manieniyan, S. Sivaprakasam This paper concerns about bio fuel production from renewable biomass resource and its characteristics in diesel engines. In this research work, Free Fatty Acid Oils (FFAO) from oil refineries was considered as biomass renewable resource for the production of biodiesel. These free fatty acid oil are one of the waste by product in edible oil extraction refineries and its potential energy can be easily converted into useful biodiesel in bio fuel sector by the process of transesterification. Due to ethanol catalyst used in transesterification process, Ethyl esters of free fatty acid oils (EEFFAO) were extracted from FFAO. These EEFFAO were blended with diesel in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 80 and pure EEFFAO) to indentify the maximum possibility to use an biodiesel in diesel engines. From the results, possibilities of biofuel from free fatty acid oil can be replaced at 20 percentage in existing fossil fuel depletion.
  • An improved genetic algorithm for optimizing total supply chain cost in
           inventory location routing problem

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Ahmad Sayed Saif-Eddine, Mohammed Mostafa El-Beheiry, Amin Kamel El-Kharbotly Integrating inventory, location, and routing decisions in supply chains may considerably impact their performance. In this paper, the Inventory Location Routing Problem (ILRP) is considered while adopting the Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) strategy. A mathematical model is formulated to minimize the total supply chain cost. Being NP-hard, an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) is designed and used to solve the problem. Two instances (10 and 30 customers) are solved; to study the effect of the total vehicles capacity (number of available vehicles per depot and vehicle capacity), on the total supply chain cost. The results show that, the IGA outperforms the GA in reaching lower cost, especially for high number of customers. The superiority of the obtained solution performance is basically achieved on the expense of computational time. For the considered problem, the total cost decreases with the increase of vehicle capacity due to the usage of fewer depots.
  • Prediction of sand kinematic pressure and fluid-particle interaction
           coefficient as means of preventing sand-induced corrosion in crude oil

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Samuel Eshorame Sanni, Sam Sunday Adefila, Ambrose Nwora Anozie Sand-induced corrosion and scaling of petroleum pipes is a serious situation that barely knows any solution by conventional or new methods of corrosion control. This is because, the mechanism behind sand corrosion and scaling of petroleum pipes is yet to be unravelled. Rather than avoid the situation, the integration of sand filters in petroleum lines also contribute to the problem. In this work, a three phase model was used to simulate upstream flow conditions where sand is produced alongside water and crude oil. The effects of fluid-particle interaction coefficient/forces and sand kinematic pressure, in relation to conditions that favour sand deposition, corrosion and scaling of petroleum pipes were determined. Based on the results, on a 2–3 h basis, periodic checks need be conducted at the 12–18 m points where sand kinematic pressures and interaction coefficients of the components require flow adjustments in order to avoid situations leading to pipeline wear.
  • Advanced parallel classifier model for dynamic stability diagnosis in
           power system

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): N.N. Au, L.T. Nghia, Q.H. Anh, P.T.T. Binh Data for dynamic stable state in power system are very large. This leads to making difficult for a single classifier to learn boundaries of classes. This paper proposes a procedure to build Advanced Parallel Classifier Model (APCM) for dynamic stability diagnosis in power system with the aim of improving diagnosis accuracy. To build APCM, the Sequential Forward Floating Search is applied to select feature subset, and the Hybrid K-means is applied to choose data reduction and partition subsets. To find feature subset and sub-dataset, K-nearest neighbour classifier is employed to evaluate the classification accuracy. Then, the APCM is built by three kinds of classifiers as follow: the Multi-layer Perceptron Network, the Generalize Regression Neural Network, and the Support Vector Machines. The study is implemented on IEEE 39-bus power system network. The simulation results showed that the proposed the APCM can achieve classification accuracy higher than that of the single classifier.
  • Assessment of flexible pavement fatigue life of Turkish typical sections
           using mechanistic empirical pavement design approach for coastal region

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Osman Nuri Çelik, Saadoon O. Eyada Due to rapid progressing in the economy of Turkey, the Turkish Transportation Authority has increased the Motorway and Provincial road lengths. The ESALs have reached several hundreds of millions and accompanied with an increase in the weights of axles. The old AASHTO 1993 is still the design method used in Turkey. This method has many limitations due to, the authors in this work are trying to use the new Mechanistic-Empirical M-E Pavement Design method for the assessment of the Fatigue Life FL of Typical Sections in Turkey TTS. The Coastal (hotter) Region is selected. Antalya city is representing the climate of Coastal Region. The MnPave M-E design software has been used for the calculations. Many types of asphalt have been used to study the effect of asphalt type on FL. The results were very important and the recommendation of the transition of Turkey towards the new M-EDM is recorded.
  • Macro mechanical properties of self healing concrete with crystalline
           admixture under different environments

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): T. Chandra Sekhara Reddy, A. Ravitheja The civil research community has been attracted to concrete with self-healing properties since they are an intelligent solution for sustainable infrastructures with long duration. The present study is analyzing the self- healing capability of early age and structural cracks in concrete by using crystalline admixture as self-healing agent under four different exposure conditions by assessing the regained mechanical properties of concrete. Physical (morphological) and chemical composition of the hardened pastes, were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The analysis showed that for all exposure conditions the compressive strength and split tensile strength of the tested concrete with crystalline admixture (CCA) samples regains after early age and structural cracks. This is due to substantial increase in the calcite content which is evident from SEM-EDS and FTIR analysis.
  • Instantaneous d frame driven shunt active filter for harmonics and
           reactive power mitigation using Xilinx System Generator

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Ramakrishnan Sriranjani, Subbaiah Jayalalitha Instantaneous d frame driven Shunt active filter (SAF) alleviate harmonics and reactive power. This control algorithm evolved from elemental synchronous reference frame engenders the fundamental reference signal from the load current with a phase shift of zero angle. The proposed algorithm is tested in harmonic load and reactive load and it is verified by implementing the model in MATLAB Xilinx system generator. The comparison study was carried out for the proposed algorithm and conventional algorithm and the results are presented in this paper.
  • Detection of High Impedance Fault in Distribution Networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Sekar Kavaskar, Nalin Kant Mohanty This paper presents a new detection methodology for High Impedance Faults (HIFs) in power distribution networks based on Mathematical Morphology (MM). In the proposed method, the current signals are observed from the distribution feeder to detect HIFs. MM is used to extract the features in a time domain and a simple rule based algorithm to classify HIFs from other power system disturbances. An electric power distribution system was used to generate data such as HIFs, Low Impedance Faults (LIFs) and other switching transients using MATLAB/SIMULINK. From the results of the proposed method, it is found that the method could detect and differentiate HIFs from other disturbances in less time compared to other methods with high security and dependability. The function of the proposed method is not affected by various conditions such as the location, inception time, and type of fault.
  • Investigation the Effect of Speed Humps on Merging Time of U-turn Traffic

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Jalal Al-Obaedi The median U-turn involving allowing traffic to move toward opposing direction through providing special paths on a highway’ median. Such left turn movements causing delays for both merging and the opposing main stream traffic. In order to ease the turning process, speed humps are widely used to by impeding the upstream opposing traffic. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of using such humps through using real traffic data taken from three sites at Al-Diwaniya city, Iraq. The selected sites representing the cases of with and without speed humps. Video recordings is used to collect traffic data and the average time spent (ATS) while turning (merging) is used as a factor to show the effectiveness of using speed humps. The results show that the speed humps cause in significant reduction in ATS for turning traffic. Regression models have been developed to estimate merging time spent based on opposing flow rates.
  • Horizontally connected high-rise buildings under earthquake loadings

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Sayed Mahmoud Responses to lateral loads induced by wind and earthquakes are among the governing factors in the structural design of these structures. In the current trend, adjacent tall buildings are being horizontally connected for different purposes. However, such horizontal linkages potentially change the behavior of the structure, which limits the applicability of design codes. This research comprehensively assesses the response of linked high-rise buildings under earthquake loads, following design-code requirements. The effect of sky-bridge location on the induced responses is examined as well. The building configurations were excited by a set of ground-motion records with different peak ground accelerations. The lateral dynamic earthquake loads were separately applied in two orthogonal directions (the sky-bridge and perpendicular directions) and the responses to each load were investigated. The connecting bridge location affected the predicted dynamic load-induced responses of the building structures slightly in some scenarios, but dramatically in one scenario.
  • Investigation of voltage stress on a single switch boost-fly-back
           integrated high gain converter with light load condition

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Tanmoy Roy Choudhury, Byamakesh Nayak, Subhendu Bikash Santra In this paper, investigation of voltage stress on a single switch Boost-Fly-back integrated (SSBFI) DC-DC converter is carried out for light load condition. During this condition, reverse recovery occurs on the switches of the converter enabling resonance condition on the parasitic elements of the devices causing an increased device voltage stress. An appropriate snubber parameter design is a prerequisite to save the devices from the affect of such stress. A proper snubber design can be achieved with a detailed realization of the parasitic elements and suitably evaluated through a complex and tedious analysis. However, an indirect method using maximum voltage stress analysis can also be a suitable alternative for proper snubber design. A detailed study is carried out in this regard mainly focusing on power electronic device voltage stress in steady state under variation of load condition. The theoretical analysis is validated through a laboratory prototype with a capacity of 50 W.
  • A continuous solution of solving a class of nonlineartwo point boundary
           value problem using Adomian decomposition method

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): I.L. EL-Kalla, A.M. El Mhlawy, Monica Botros In this paper, a modified version of Adomian decomposition method is used to solve a class of nonlinear boundary value problems. It is easy to solve IVP using ADM but there exist some difficulties in solving BVP. But by using our modification of ADM, we solve the BVP by easily and directly method. As well we get a continuous solution of BVP. This technique gives a continuous solution and improves the work done by El-Kalla 2013. Some numerical examples are introduced to verify the efficiency of the new results.
  • Effect of canal width contraction on the hydraulic parameters and scour
           downstream water structures

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): Mohamed A. Ashour, Tawab E. Aly, Mahmoud M. Mostafa The dimensions of many water streams, which satisfy the proper hydraulic condition, may not be compatible with the designed dimensions of an irrigation work needed to be constructed in some locations. The design requirements of such irrigation works may need to make a contraction in the channel width in the location of constructions. This contraction, of course, affects the different flow properties and the scour hole formed downstream these structures. So, the present experimental study aims to investigate the effect of the transition angle and the contraction ratio on the flow properties and on the scour phenomenon downstream water structures. Through 454 experimental runs, carried out on 20 experimental models, the study proved that, for an efficient hydraulic performance and economic design, the best transition angle (θ) for the approaches of water structures is 30° with a contraction ratio (r) not less than 0.6.
  • Generalization of the modified Lindstedt-Poincare method for solving some
           strong nonlinear oscillators

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1Author(s): M.S. Alam, I.A. Yeasmin, Md.S. Ahamed The modified Lindstedt-Poincare method has been generalized for solving strongly nonlinear oscillators. The original formula (presented by Cheung et al.) covers a class of nonlinear problems. So, it requires another formula to cover the remaining class. Usually two solutions can be found for all nonlinear oscillators (utilizing the original and proposed formulae), but one of them is suitable only. The new formula has been derived in a similar way of Cheung et al. However, using two simple conversion formulae such approximate solutions can be found easily from the classical Lindstedt-Poincare solution. For some rare nonlinear oscillators it requires their combination. In lack of linear restoring force the original formula (of Cheung et al.) fails. The generalized method also covers it.
  • Smart material systems and adaptiveness in architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Yahya S. Abdullah, Hoda A.S. Al-Alwan The past decades have witnessed a growing interest in the knowledge acquisition of smart materials and their applications in different fields, especially in the field of architecture and building technology. Smart materials may not be relatively new, but researchers work to develop smart materials and compose a system that controls and guides the materials to create a living environment with more adaptive qualities and less negative impacts.The research aims to explore the qualities and advantages of smart material systems in the field of architecture, to better understand the impact smart material systems have on the design and construction processes, and to explore the way to create architecture with better adaptive characteristics, to ultimately reach the state of “adaptiveness”, providing the optimal environment for the users, reflected on the structural, climatic, and architectural performances.
  • Unsteady flow of a Burgers’ fluid with Caputo fractional
           derivatives: A hybrid technique

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Nauman Raza, Aziz Ullah Awan, Ehsan Ul Haque, Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Mehdi Rashidi The shear stress and velocity field related to the oscillatory motion of a fractional Burgers’ fluid model in an infinitely circular cylinder are examined using modified Bessel equation and Laplace transformation. The fluid is at rest initially and after t=0+, because of shear, it instantly starts to move along the axis of cylinder. The procured results are expressed in modified Bessel fields I0(·) and I1(·) and fulfill both initial and boundary conditions. Inverse Laplace transformation has been found numerically using Matlab software. In the end, numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the behavior of fractional parameter α, similarity parameter β, relaxation time λ1, retardation time λ3, radius of the circular cylinder R and material parameter λ2 on our obtained solutions of velocity field and shear stress. The comparison between numerical and exact results are also presented in graphical and tabular form.
  • Numerical modeling of reinforced masonry walls under lateral loading at
           the component level response as opposed to system level response

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Ahmed Abdellatif, Marwan Shedid, Hussien Okail, Amr Abdelrahman Many experimental and analytical investigations were carried out on fully-grouted reinforced masonry shear walls types (rectangular, flanged or end-confined) to investigate their behavior under lateral loads. These studies mainly focused on evaluating the seismic response parameters for reinforced masonry shear walls (RMSW) such as ductility capacity, energy dissipation, stiffness degradation and strength. Yet, most of the research was conducted on studying each wall individually (component level response) and quite few investigations were carried out considering the system level response when different wall types are combined in a single building/system. In this paper, a simple numerical macro finite element model for walls is verified and used to simulate the in-plane response of a structure composed of ten RMSW having different ductility capacities but designed to have the same ultimate strength. The model was initially verified against available experimental data in the literature, then a parametric study was introduced to represent the effect of reinforcement ratio and axial compression on wall behavior prior to modeling structures composed of several walls. The current investigation intended to introduce how the structure ductility is affected when walls, having different ductility capacity, are interacting within one lateral load resisting system in the structure. Three methods were proposed to measure the yield displacement of the entire system to determine the value of displacement ductility for the structure and compared it to that of the individual walls within the system. Finally, a set of fragility curves were represented to illustrate the enhancement of seismic performance of masonry structures through adding end confined and flanged walls inside the structure. The results of this study showed that the displacement ductility of a structure could be significantly improved when flanged and end-confined boundary walls are included in the system as opposed to that constructed using only rectangular walls. The effect of adding end-confined masonry walls in improving structure displacement ductility is found to be more significant compared to adding flanged ones. Using fragility curves, the effect of end confined and flanged wall in the enhancement of the structure performance and delaying the damage state appears clearly in third and fourth damage states but did not have any contribution in enhancement of the first and second damage states.
  • Axisymmetric bending and free vibration of symmetrically laminated
           circular and annular plates having elastic edge constraints

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Sumit Khare, Narain Das Mittal To fill the gap noticed in the literature, this paper presents free vibration results of symmetrically laminated circular and annular plates having elastic edge constraints. Some static bending results have also been presented. Each layer is having cylindrical/polar orthotropy. A Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) based methodology is utilized for spatial discretization. The problem of shear-deformable laminated circular/annular plates having translational as well as rotational edge constraints is studied. By varying the edge stiffnesses, several combinations of free, simply supported, clamped and free edge conditions have been simulated. The results have been verified with the help of convergence study in terms of the number of discretization nodes and by comparison with the results of isotropic circular plates and of laminated circular/annular plates available in the literature. Some parametric studies in terms of material and geometrical variables are also reported.
  • Optimal Design of an Intelligent Mobile Microcontroller: Assembling and
           Maintaining Objects in 3D

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Mohamed AbdElhamid Abbas Mobile microcontrollers are one of the areas of application artificial intelligent. The aim of this research is to develop an ideal design for mobile microcontrollers can move in a vacuum in order to conduct the installation with little cost. This design of mobile microcontrollers gives them the ability to move an arm with high starting torque enable it to perform their tasks efficiently. The main objective of this paper is to present an optimal design of mobile microcontrollers have an arm with high starting torque and with low cost. To verify this objective, Nelder Mead simplex search algorithm is used to obtain the optimal values of manufacturing parameters. The results depict a reduction of the total cost that represents cost of unit weight of copper, cost of unit weight of iron, the laminations cost, the copper cost and the rotor-end-ring cost by 4.64% and a reduction in the angular velocity by 25%.
  • Identifying key risks in infrastructure projects – Case study of Cairo
           Festival City project in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Laila M. Khodeir, Mohamed Nabawy Infrastructure is an asset class vulnerable to high political, regulatory and execution risk. The successful delivery of infrastructure projects (IP) is challenging due to uncertain events which might appear, and which generate threats towards project activities. This paper is concerned with identifying key threats arising from the internal and external environment of stakeholder’s organization during construction of IP. The methodology of the paper includes a literature review of infrastructure challenges, followed by identification and classification of risk factors using risk breakdown structure. Furthermore, a check list analysis of key risks was performed. The ‘Cairo Festival City” project was analysed as a case study of infrastructure project. Purposive sampling was used in order to target 70 specific experts related to infrastructure projects. Finally, the paper generated a full risk register that presents identified challenges gathered from the literature as well as agreed risks which resulted from the Egyptian case study.
  • A variation tolerant data dependent clock gating approach for PSN
           attenuated low power digital IC

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Pritam Bhattacharjee, Dhiraj Sarkar, Alak Majumder The evolution of semiconductor industry has brought in high current flow across the power rails (‘Vdd’ and ground) of digital integrated circuits (IC) encapsulated by the modern chip packages. This instigates the uncontrollable generation of Power Supply Noise (PSN), along with dynamic and static power dissipation across the chip package. There have been several attempts to control this PSN; but it is the clock gating (CG) technique which is found to be efficient for the purpose. Though the primitive CG schemes are effective in managing the dynamic power dissipation, their performance to alleviate the static power and PSN is limited to certain extent. Therefore in this paper, we introduce a new and compact Data-Dependent CG (DD–CG) scheme which can possibly be the savior against both static and dynamic power as well as the PSN. The performance of the new DD–CG is tested over state-of-the-art master–slave flip-flop (MS–FF) and ISCAS’89 benchmark for 90 nm General Process Design Kit (GPDK) technology using the platform of Cadence Virtuoso® at supply voltage of 1.1 V and 5 GHz clock. It is observed that the new DD–CG based MS–FF smartly reduces the PSN individually by 22.19%, 18.99% and 46.92% in contrast to the prior-arts like NC2MOS–CG, LB–CG and no–gated peer. Accordingly, the static power is reduced by 20.63%, 17.79% and 33.61% and the dynamic power is also reduced by 25.14%, 21.24% and 61.57%. To justify the scalability of the design, we have also tested it for the lower process technologies like 65 nm, 40 nm and 28 nm UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation).
  • A neuro-wavelet approach for the performance improvement in SVC integrated
           wind-fed transmission line

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): S.K. Mishra This paper proposes a combined neuro-wavelet approach of differential relaying for fault detection, classification and performance improvement in SVC (STATIC VAR Compensator) integrated wind-fed transmission line. The scheme starts with extracting the current signals from both sending and receiving ends of the transmission line through the current transformer (CT) and process through discrete wavelet transform (DWT) approach to evaluate spectral energy (SE). The differential spectral energy (DSE) signal input is evaluated by subtracting the SE obtained from sending end and the SE from receiving ends of the line. The DSE of phase current signal is fed to the input of an ANN fault detector to obtain the neuro-wavelet output to detect and classify the fault. The fault detection time (FDT) is obtained from this approach remains within a quarter cycle (5 ms) period of time and validated in single and double circuit line to justify the performance improvement of the scheme.
  • Analysis of unsteady viscous dissipative poiseuille fluid flow of two-step
           exothermic chemical reaction through a porous channel with convective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): S.O. Salawu, N.K. Oladejo, M.S. Dada In this study, the viscous dissipation of heat transfer of poiseuille fluid flow of two-step exothermic chemical reaction through a porous channel is investigated under different chemical kinetics. The flow is pressure-driven past fixed plates with heat generation. The upper wall surface is exposed to heat exchange with the temperature of the ambient aligning with the Newton’s law of cooling. The modeled coupled partial differential equations are non-dimensional and solved using stable and unconditional semi-implicit convergent finite difference method. The results are represented graphical and discussed accordingly for the velocity and temperature profiles showing the effect of some embodiment parameters entrenched in the system. From the results it was noticed that an increase in Frank-Kamenetskii parameters produces significant rises in the temperature distribution.
  • Error analysis and detection procedures for elliptic curve cryptography

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Naglaa F. Saudy, Ihab A. Ali, Reda Al Barkouky In this paper, a fault detection scheme is introduced with the ability to perform with increased protection and reliability of the Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) in realistic environments at a competitive price point. Fall of errors in encrypted/decrypted data delivery with the transmission can create the situation of erroneous data occurring. Without fault detection, in the context of encryption as well as decryption process can create the unprotected system due to random faults, and vulnerable to attack. We are striving to overcome these system weaknesses by introducing the application of nonlinear fault detection codes as it allows safeguarding the elliptic curve point while adding and doubling the operations from the fault attacks. The use of these codes ensures almost perfect error discovery capacity with a reasonably priced upfront cost. The ECC cryptosystem offered a failsafe fault detection scheme using an error detecting code with a proven rate of 99% fault detection coverage.
  • Active and reactive power conditioning using SMES devices with PMW-CSC: A
           feedback nonlinear control approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Walter Gil-González, Oscar Danilo Montoya The active and reactive power conditioning using superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems for low-voltage distribution networks via feedback nonlinear control is proposed in this paper. The SMES system is interconnected to ac grid using a pulsed-width modulated current source converter (PWM-CSC). The dynamical model of the system exhibits a nonlinear structure, which is eliminated by the application of a nonlinear feedback controller based of the expected behavior of the closed-loop system. The steady state analysis under time-domain reference frame to verify the stability properties on the proposed controller is used. The general control rules allow improving different objectives. The robustness and applicability of the proposed controller is tested considering unbalance and harmonic distortion in the voltage provided by the ac grid. It is also considered the possibility to use the SMES system with the proposed controller to compensate the active power oscillations of a wind-generator system.
  • Tustin's technique based digital decentralized load frequency control in a
           realistic multi power system considering wind farms and communications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Gaber Magdy, G. Shabib, Adel A. Elbaset, Thongchart Kerdphol, Yaser Qudaih, Hassan Bevrani, Yasunori Mitani This paper presents a digital model of decentralized Load Frequency Control (LFC) using an optimal PID controller-based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in Egyptian Power System (EPS) considering communication delays. The EPS includes both conventional generation units (i.e., non-reheat, reheat, and hydraulic power plants) with inherent non-linearities and wind power, which extracted from Zafarana wind farm, location in Egypt. Thus, the optimal digital controller-based Tustin’s technique is designed for every subsystem of the EPS separately to guarantee the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The performance of the proposed digital model is tested and compared with the analog model under variation in loading patterns, loading conditions, system parameters, wind farm penetration, and communication delays. Results approved that, the proposed digital model can effectively regulate the system frequency and guarantee robust performance under different conditions. Also, it gives a reliable performance at large sampling times, which means a reduction of implementation cost.
  • Blending effect between the natural gas and the liquefied petroleum gas
           using multiple co- and cross-flow jets on NOx emissions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): H.Z. Barakat, M.M. Kamal, H.E. Saad, B. Ibrahim A burner comprising multiple co- and cross-flow jets was developed to address the effect of blending the natural gas (NG) with the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on the NOx emissions from laminar/turbulent diffusion and triple flames in the normal and inverse configurations. Increasing the NG mole fraction in the blend from 0.0 to 1.0 decreased the effective Schmidt number from 1.4 to 0.7 thus displacing the flame envelope into higher velocity regions such that the corresponding decrease in residence time caused NOx reduction by 46%. While the prompt NOx increased by 11%, there was an additional NOx reduction by 238% due to the residence time decrease pertaining to the density/velocity difference. Conversely, increasing the LPG mole fraction from 0.0 up to 1.0 extended the flame stability limit from 8.2 to 12.7 m/s whereby the residence time decrease caused NOx reduction by 49%. Furthermore, the peak temperature reduction by the flame increased soot-radiation additionally caused exponential NOx reduction. The NG optimum mole fraction in the blend for reaching minimum NOx emissions of about 0.035 g/kW hr in the normal diffusion flame decreased from 0.80 to 0.25 as the firing rate increased 9.5 times, while a further NOx reduction to 0.028 g/kW hr was obtained in the inverse diffusion flame. Employing cross-flow opposing air jets reduced the NOx emissions further to 0.017 g/kW hr and shortened the flame by 36% as increasing the strain rate to 2900 s−1 enlarged the peak turbulent kinetic energy to 11.9 m2/s2 with 12 jets. In the triple flame mode, supplying the LPG across the fuel-rich wing and the NG across the lean wing combined high radiation efficiencies, flame shortening and extensive stability limits of 4.8 m/s. The NOx emission index thus reached 0.3 g/kg fuel for the inverse triple flames.
  • Fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system for micro calcifications
           cancer based on improved mammographic image techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Mai S. Mabrouk, Heba M. Afify, Samir Y. Marzouk Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach is presented as strong frameworks to solve the inaccuracy problems. The major purpose of this paper is to improve a CAD system depended on supervised classification that can be useful in diagnosing and detecting the changes of breast cancers in digitized mammograms earlier, accurately and faster than standard examination programs by applying CAD according to image processing techniques beginning with preprocessing step, segmentation, feature extraction and finally classification stage. The work presented in this study is based on the integration of different features such as shape, texture and invariant moment features. This integration achieved best results for sensitivity and specificity rather than using the one type of features in breast cancer classification. The accuracy of our integration system reached 96% in the automatic mode of ANN while best accuracy accomplished by features result according to invariant moments that reached 97% by ANN in an automatic way.
  • Seepage through homogeneous earth dams provided with a vertical sheet pile
           and formed on impervious foundation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Doaa A. El Molla This paper implements a 2D finite element numerical model to study the effect of adding a vertical sheet pile to an earth dam’s cross section that is formed on impervious foundation. The study aims to determine the effect of existence of sheet pile as well as its height and location on the total seepage discharge and velocities through the dam’s cross section. The research program involves different scenarios for the height and location of the sheet pile and tailwater depth. The results show that the sheet pile’s height has greater effect on the total seepage discharge rather than its location. Increasing the sheet pile’s height decreases the total seepage discharge by a ratio up to 34.4% of its value without sheet pile for (HSP/H) = 0.75. The maximum velocity was detected at the sheet pile’s upper end; and its value is directly proportional to the height of the vertical sheet pile.
  • An empirical investigation into code smells rectifications through

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): M. Sangeetha, C. Chandrasekar Object Oriented Programming has become one of the most established paradigms. It offers us features like encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance etc. By using these features we are able to develop good software’s that are easy to understand. But when the size of the software goes on increasing it poses problems with respect to maintaining the source code. Also we come across the problems like code scattering and code tangling. So object oriented programming has some limitations and this is where Aspect Oriented Programming comes into play. Refactoring is one of the most important activities in software development. It is done to improve the design of the software, to make the software easier and better to understand and to help us in writing programs faster. After the software is refactored, it is important to note the behaviour of that software. Here, we propose new refactorings technique. The refactorings are identified. They are applied on the Systems. The ADA_BOOSTER technique to measure the metrics. By using refactoring we can change the existing software without affecting the behaviour of the software.
  • Structural optimization of concrete arch bridges using Genetic Algorithms

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Mostafa Z. Abd Elrehim, Mohamed A. Eid, Mostafa G. Sayed Concrete bridges are used for both highways and railways roads. They are characterized by their durability, rigidity, economy and beauty. Concrete bridges have many types such as simply supported girder bridges, arch bridges and rigid frame bridges. However, for very large spans, arch bridges are more economic in addition to their beauty appearance. In this research, a geometrical structural optimization study for a deck concrete arch bridges using Genetic Algorithms technique is presented. This research aims mainly to demonstrate a methodology to find the least cost design, in term of material volume, by finding the optimal profile. A Finite Element numerical model is used to represent the arch structure. The MATLAB programing platform is used to develop codes for Genetic Algorithms optimization technique and Finite Element analysis method. The resulted design from the optimization process is compared to traditional design and an obvious cost reduction is obtained.
  • Toward multi-lingual information retrieval system based on internet
           linguistic diversity measurement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Ebtsam Mohamed, Samir Elmougy, Mostafa Aref We introduce a method for measuring the quantity of online content of a set of languages at domain level. This measurement is used for building a Multi-Lingual Information Retrieval (MLIR) system that identifies which languages are strongly represented on the internet about a specific query topic. The system architecture includes two modules; the off-line module builds a linguistic diversity index for languages at topic level and the on-line module, where the suitable language for search is identified based the index for retrieving the relevant documents to the user query in that language. The conducted experiments explore the usefulness of building such an index and its usage effect on both of monolingual and traditional MLIR system. From the obtained results, it has been proven that the more internet resources, the better the accuracy of the retrieved results, and therefore the better the system performance.
  • Examining the role of value management in controlling cost overrun
           [application on residential construction projects in Egypt]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Laila M. Khodeir, Alaa El Ghandour Actual cost of construction projects generally differs from planned cost, where this could reach a value between 21% and 55%. In Residential construction, cost overruns form a crucial problem. A suggested methodology to mitigate this problem is Value Management (VM), which has proven to be an effective approach. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to examine the role of VM in Controlling Cost Overrun, with special reference to Residential Projects in Egypt. A literature review was applied on the basics of project cost implementation. In addition, a qualitative analysis of case studies was performed. Finally, a questionnaire survey that assessed the impact of applying VE on Residential projects in Egypt was performed. Findings of this paper highlighted the value added from applying Methodologies of VM, where it was observed that it could achieve 15–40% savings of the total project cost.
  • Numerical study of stress shielding reduction at fractured bone using
           metallic and composite bone-plate models

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): N. Fouda, Rania Mostafa, A. Saker 3D finite element models for a fractured tibia with Stainless Steel (SS) and Carbon/hydroxyapatite (C/HA) bone-plates are analyzed using ANSYS workbench. Plates with different gaps (0.2, 0.4 and 0.7 mm), and a contact plate with no-gap are examined. von Mises stresses along the fracture site and the tibia bone are also studied under the same loading and boundary conditions. The results of stresses have been compared and presented in graphs. It is found that SS and C/HA bone-plate materials with a gap value 0.7 mm provide higher compressive stress along the fracture site and the bone than the other bone plate models. C/HA bone plate achieves more increasing of stresses than SS bone plate. Using C/HA plate increasing the average stresses by 16% along the fracture site and by 38% along the bone at the final healing stage compared to SS plate of the 0.7 mm gap model.
  • Efficient and simple scalable image compression algorithms

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Ali Kadhim Al-Janabi Most wavelet-based scalable image compression algorithms are optimized for performance only, i.e., they try to produce a compressed bit-stream that gives the best image quality for the selected bit-rate. Unfortunately, the optimization of the coding method may result in a bit-stream that cannot be rearranged easily to support resolution scalability. This paper proposes two algorithms. The first algorithm produces a rate scalable bit-stream that is optimized for performance and scalability. That is, it has good performance and at the same time it produces bit-stream that can be easily rearranged to become highly (rate and resolution) scalable. To this end, the algorithm combines the low complexity and rate scalability features of the set partitioning coding approach, and it exploits the resolution scalability characteristics of the block-based systems. The second algorithm upgrades the first algorithm to produce a highly scalable bit-stream by only arranging and identifying the different resolutions within the bit-stream.
  • Modeling & analysis of grid-tied PMA based offshore wind energy system
           using PSCAD/EMTDC

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Seetha Chaithanya, V. Naga Bhaskar Reddy, R. Kiranmayi A comprehensive dynamic model approach of Permanent Magnet Alternator (PMA) based grid tied wind energy system using PSCAD/EMTDC is presented. This paper proposes an improved dynamic system for controlling a Current Source Inverter (CSI) with a Generic Current Controller (GCC) using Voltage Dependent Current Limits (VDCL). This technique is employed to maintain the continuity of DC link current irrespective of the load conditions and grid voltage with real and reactive power transfer capabilities. The proposed controller reduces the complexity and maintains suitable gate pulse distribution for CSI. Furthermore, the proposed controller is independent of external current limiters, additional monitoring devices and grid voltage and frequency. Based on the system model, the dynamic behavior of the WT system to wind speed variation and inverter control scheme were simulated, output performance is analyzed. Simulation results illustrate the proper performance of the developed dynamic model of the wind turbine and control scheme performance.
  • Impact resistance of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete containing sisal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Srinivasa Rao Naraganti, Rama Mohan Rao Pannem, Jagadeesh Putta Influence of sisal fibres on impact resistance of structural concrete was investigated and the performance was compared with that of Polypropylene (PP) and Steel fibres. Apart from Mono-fibre reinforced concrete (mono-FRC), resistance of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete (HyFRC) containing steel-Polypropylene (S-PP) and Steel-Sisal (S-Si) fibres to impact loading was also evaluated. Fibre dosages of 0%, 0.50%, 1.00%, 1.25% and 1.50% were used. Drop-weight test in accordance with ACI committee 544 was conducted and compressive strength was evaluated for curing periods of 7, 28 and 90 days. Furthermore, liner regression analysis was performed between the compressive strength and impact resistance. It was found that increase in fibre content improved the impact resistance of FRC. Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) outperformed and Sisal FRC (SiFRC) showed least performance among mono-FRC. Though S-Si HyFRC performed better as compared to sisal FRC, HyFRC containing S-PP at a fibre dosage 1.5% exhibited superior performance.
  • Investigation on grinding impact of fly ash particles and its
           characterization analysis in cement mortar composites

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): L. Krishnaraj, P.T. Ravichandran The extensive usage of cement in almost all infrastructure projects will affect the health of construction industry around the world. At present, the entire globe is marching towards sustainable, eco-friendly and energy efficient infrastructure development with economic viabilities. The research elucidates the effect of grinding of Fly Ash (FA) and Ground Fly Ash (GFA) was studied. The fly ash particles are ground from 727 cm2/g to 3526 cm2/g specific surface area Ground fly ash were analyzed from the Blaine’s fineness test and particle size and optimized with 120 min of grinding to achieve the ultra-fine particle size. The Cement replacement by 15% FA and 30% GFA were determined from the mechanical strength of blended mortar specimens. The investigation is aimed to increase the consumption of fly ash and enable to reduce the usage of natural resources for the cement production with ultrafine fly ash as an efficient replacement material.
  • Observations of changes in acoustic emission parameters for varying
           corrosion defect in reciprocating compressor valves

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Salah M. Ali, K.H. Hui, L.M. Hee, M. Salman Leong, Ahmed M. Abdelrhman, Mahdi A. Al-Obaidi Acoustic Emission (AE) technology is probably one of the most recent entries in the field of machinery condition monitoring. This paper investigates the application of AE parameters for valve faults detection in reciprocating compressor. The defective valves were designed by emulating the actual valve corrosion with varying sizes such that defects could be applied onto the reciprocating compressor. A set of experiments was performed to acquire the AE signal. The primary source of AE signal was verified using waveform analysis. The AE parameters versus different operational and valve condition were illustrated individually. In addition, the significance of the change and sensitivity of AE parameters versus different experimental conditions was verified using MANOVA and coefficient of variance analysis. It is concluded that the AE signal parameters can be used to detect the valve faults in the reciprocating compressor with the consideration of the variation in the AE parameters sensitivity.
  • Ground-floor façade design and staying activity patterns on the sidewalk:
           A case study in the Korba area of Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ain Shams Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Dalya M. Hassan, Yasser M. Moustafa, Sherif M. El-Fiki This study investigates the relationship between building ground-floor façade design and activity patterns on the sidewalk. A case study was conducted in two intersecting streets of the Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo. Data collection methods included documentation of ground-floor façade characteristics, observations, and behavioral mapping of sidewalk activities. The study confirmed that ground-floor façade characteristics play an important role in promoting staying activities on the sidewalk. The study also identified a set of specific characteristics associated with increased staying activities on the sidewalk: (1) diversity of building ground-floor uses including in particular food outlets and cafés, (2) physical and visual permeability of ground-floor frontages, (3) the spillover of indoor activities and the territorial appropriations of areas of the sidewalk, (4) high levels of rhythm and complexity in ground-floor façades, (5) appropriate sidewalk width, and (6) the presence of seating opportunities. In its conclusion, the article discusses implications for future research.
  • Quantifying students' perception for deconstruction architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Yasmine Sabry Hegzi, Noura Anwar Abdel-Fatah Deconstruction in architecture is like a symbol of liberty. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida started the idea basically in language, and then his idea spread to reach architecture. Deconstruction move produced unique differentiated buildings, where difference was the main idea behind deconstruction. This actually made a deep debate, whether deconstruction was an out of the box philosophy or just a strange architectural composition. The research addressed that this kind of architecture needs complete architectural education to value the philosophy behind it, in addition to highlight how students of architecture in both (juniors level and seniors level), how they perceive deconstruction; an experimental approach was used to find out if the scientific material given in architectural theories about deconstruction may affect the perception levels of the students, these students joined the architectural program at faculty of engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt, and the experiment applied on selected pioneers of deconstruction famous buildings.
  • Between the turbans and the tops of minarets of the Middle Age in Cairo,
           an approach to designing styles

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Sabah el sayed Soliman Minarets are considered one of the most important and characteristic factors of Islamic Architecture. They have different designs which, at first glance, reflect their style and the historical period to which they belong. This research focuses on the different styles of minarets tops, which have various shapes and names. It also presents the head-gear styles of significant characters in the Islamic State, in an attempt to answer the questions: From where had minarets' tops design derived' through hypothesis that the architecture of minarets in the Islamic Civilizations was inspired by costumes fashion of Caliphs, Sultans and officers of the Middle Age in Egypt, By analytical study between the styles of head-gears and minarets tops, the research conclude that the unique existences of the resemblance between the shapes of the minarets' tops and head-gears give a great probability that the architecture of minarets was inspired by the art of head-gears.
  • Effect of clamping force and coefficient of friction on the
           elastic-plastic behavior of cracked bolted joint

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Amr A. Abd-Elhady The effect of clamping force, Fc, and coefficient of friction, μ, on the elastic-plastic behavior of cracked bolted joint has been studied numerically using 3-D elastic-plastic extended finite element method. Two different failure modes of a single steel plate which contain a fastener hole are considered, i.e. net tension and bearing mode of failures.It was found that, Fc and μ have a significant effect on the development of the monotonic plastic zone around the tip of the crack emanating from fastener hole. The effect of Fc and μ on mode I stress intensity factor, KI, of such a crack is more pronounced when the crack tip still beneath the washer. In this region, KI is almost constant regardless the length of the crack. When the crack grows outside the washer, second region, KI increased with increasing the crack length. In both regions, KI decreased with increasing Fc and μ.
  • Trust prediction in online social rating networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Amr M.T. Ali-Eldin Previous research on trust prediction in online social rating networks focused on users’ history of interactions in evaluating the reputation of other users, service providers or products. Nevertheless, these approaches still suffer from malicious or inconsistent recommendations where the prediction problem turns out to be rather difficult. In this paper, we take up the challenge of coming up with a better solution by introducing a new global trust computation model that makes use of the recommendations made by what we call trusted parties in weighing users ratings. These entities gain higher reputation levels compared to others. Further, a sampling approach is proposed to capture new developments or changes during runtime based on a trust propagation technique. The proposed techniques are applied on the dataset. Empirical work shows the effectiveness of the proposed techniques in trust prediction compared to related work.
  • Nanofiltration systems and applications in wastewater treatment: Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Mona A. Abdel-Fatah Nanofiltration membrane (NF) is one of the most important activities employed in wastewater treatment field. It is a relatively recent development in membrane technology and it can be aqueous or non-aqueous. Characteristics of NF fall between UF and RO, and functions by both pore-size flow (convective) and the solution-diffusion mechanisms. Membrane charges play an important role in membrane function and often NF membrane as have surface negative charges. NF technique is used in a variety of water and wastewater treatment (WWT) in different industrial applications. The main job of NF is the selective removal of ions and organic substances and it is used in some specified seawater desalination application. The main objective of this review is to illustrate the main applications of NF process in water reuse, WWT as tertiary treatment, water softening and desalination fields. Comparison of basic economic analyses with other alternative processes in profitability is also performed.
  • Buckling strength of axially loaded cold formed built-up I-sections with
           and without stiffened web

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Metwally Abu-Hamd, Maheeb M.E. Abdel-Ghaffar, Basel M. El-Samman This paper presents a numerical procedure using finite element analysis for the calculation of axial strength of cold formed steel built-up I-sections composed of two back-to-back channels or stiffened web sigma (Σ). The material nonlinearity of the plane and curved parts of the section were considered in the model. The effects of initial local and global geometric imperfections as well as the membrane residual stresses have been taken into consideration in the FE model. The results of the nonlinear FEA were compared with the available experimental data, and with the calculated theoretical buckling capacities based on the AISI design provisions. A parametric study was performed using the developed FE model to investigate the effects of member and geometries and imperfection values on the capacity of CFS built-up I-columns. A comparison is performed between the member’s axial capacities results from the parametric study and the design capacities calculated using the AISI. The results of the parametric study state that the design specification noted in the AISI are generally conservative for long and medium length columns, but may give un-conservative estimates for some of the short columns.
  • Physical characteristics and perceived security in urban parks:
           Investigation in the Egyptian context

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Amira M. Mahrous, Yasser M. Moustafa, Manal A. Abou El-Ela The objective of this study is to investigate in the Egyptian context the physical factors identified in the international literature as being associated with perceived security in urban parks. Survey questionnaires were administrated to a sample of lay-people and design professionals. The questionnaires asked the participants to rate photographs representing scenes of urban parks in Cairo in terms of perceived security. The design professionals were asked to rate the photographs in terms of eight physical characteristics: (1) level of spatial definition, (2) density of vegetation, (3) level of maintenance, (4) signs of vandalism, (5) amount of light, (6) amount of signage, (7) possibility of being seen, and (8) possibility of seeing around. Results yielded significant correlations between each of the physical characteristics investigated and perceived security. A factor analysis identified “landscape design and upkeep” factor and “visibility and way-finding” factor to be important predictors of perceived security in urban parks.
  • The role of energy-scape elements in creating sustainable economic project
           in Egyptian parks

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Rania Rushdy Moussa Electricity, have recently became the backbone of all industrial, information and service sectors. Moreover, the global energy consumption has doubled in the last century, a global demand to use alternative sources of sustainable energy has increased. The current work focuses on a major concern in developing countries such as Egypt, where its neighborhoods and cities are facing shortage in their basic needs of electricity supply, which effect the economic state and the urban developments of theses countries and relaying on fossil fuel is not a solution. This research introduce a solution that will provide the electricity demand for the urban projects and became self-sustain projects by using the wide spread of landscape elements in the major projects and the overall urban context to generate efferent and clean energy using renewable energy (RE) devices. Integrating RE devices with landscape elements will create new elements called 'Energy-scape' elements. The results shows that using three Energy-scape elements can satisfy the energy consumption of the park services while using four Energy-scape elements will produce more than the energy consumed in this urban project with Zero carbon emissions.
  • Power management system for Ethernet-based IoT devices

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Khaled Ahmed, El-Sayed Hasaneen, Mohamed Orabi A novel four switches single inductor differential output synchronous buck converter architecture for the power-over-Ethernet (PoE) system is proposed in this paper. A powered device (PD) interface is designed to meet the PoE IEEE Std 802.3af. The proposed system is designed using 0.18 μm CMOS technology and simulated using SIMUCAD. The simulation results show that the converter has a maximum efficiency of 95% at a switching frequency of 800 kHz. Also, it has a percentage of undershoot and overshoot less than 1% as the load current changes from 0.5 A to 1 A. Using a compensator increases the bandwidth from 61 kHz to 80 kHz and the phase margin increases from 20.7° to 49.96°. To validate the proposed converter architecture and design, a comparison between the proposed work and other reported architectures is provided. It shows that the proposed technique has the highest peak efficiency compared with others.
  • A novel wavelet based hybrid method for finding the solutions of higher
           order boundary value problems

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Geeta Arora, Ratesh Kumar, Harpreet Kaur In this paper, a new wavelet based hybrid method is developed for obtaining the solution of higher order linear and nonlinear boundary value problems. The proposed method is based on approximation of solution by non-dyadic wavelets family with dilation factor 3. Discretization of domain is done by collocation method. The nonlinearities in boundary value problems are tackled by Quasi-linearization technique. Eleven numerical experiments are performed on linear and nonlinear boundary value problems with order ranging from eighth to twelfth to prove the successful application of the proposed method. Also, the obtained solutions are compared with exact and numerical solutions available in the literature to prove the efficiency of the method over other methods.
  • Safeguarding images over insecure channel using master key visual

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): May A. Salama, Mona F.M. Mursi, Manal Aly Sharing secrets and safeguarding them while being sent over insecure channel is a crucial matter. Visual Cryptography still has the strong potential to secure this critical issue. In this paper, a new master key (n,n) visual cryptography scheme is proposed. The novelty of the proposed scheme is the generation of the master key using Station-to-Station Diffie Hellman algorithm. Moreover, one or more hierarchical shares could be generated for each secret image depending on the degree of security required. The performance of the shares generation technique is compared to others where it proves to be more robust to attacks. The algorithm satisfies all the basics of security: confidentiality, integrity and availability. This was evaluated by different tests like histograms, and entropy. Its security was analyzed against other vulnerabilities by evaluating the effect of man in middle attack and Evesdropping. Experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is highly secure.
  • Oxidation characteristics of porous Ni-12 wt%Cr alloy at
           1000 °C in air

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Lamiaa Z. Mohamed, Wafaa A. Ghanem, Omayma A. El kady, Mohamed.M. Lotfy, Hafiz A. Ahmed, Fawzi A. Elrefaie The oxidation kinetics of porous Ni-12 wt%Cr alloy with 23.7% porosity was investigated for 100 h at 1000 °C in air. The phases forming the oxide scale were determined by using X-ray diffractometry. The topography of the surface of the oxide scale and the microstructure of the cross-section of the oxide scale were investigated by utilizing optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive analysis. The oxidation rate was initially rapid and then it gradually decreased to lower values over a period of about 24 h until realizing the steady-state condition with linear rate constant of about 3.7 × 10−8 g/m2 sec. Double multilayered porous scale of NiO-Cr2O3 sublayers with internal precipitates of nickel spinel within the NiO layers was formed. The growth of the double multilayer scale was explained on the basis of inward migration of molecular oxygen.
  • Constitutive behavior of Port-Said Clay under seismic and small strain
           static conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Mohamed F. Mansour Port-Said Clay is very soft to firm clay deposited in the delta of an old tributary of the Nile at the east of Port-Said, Egypt. Despite the detailed characterization carried out for Port-Said Clay, no tests were carried out to measure its seismic or small strain properties except for some measurements for clays in offshore Egypt. In this paper, the maximum shear modulus, modulus reduction ratio and damping ratio of Port-Said Clay are predicted by utilizing available measurements for clays in offshore Egypt and other similar soft clay deposits. These measurements, along with the characteristic properties of Port-Said Clay and well-established empirical correlations, are utilized in this study to recommend correlations and/or charts that predict the seismic and small strain properties of Port-Said Clay. The study also suggests a modification to some existing correlations and delivers the required parameters for seismic and small strain modeling of Port-Said Clay.
  • Effect of hydrogen embrittlement on the microstructures of electroplated
           steel alloy 4130

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Y. Reda, A.M. El-Shamy, Ashraf K. Eessaa In this work, the behavior of hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion of nickel, cadmium and copper electroplating steel alloy 4130 were examined. The microstructures of exposed steel 4130 characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gained results specify that the hydrogen is diffused through the coated steel alloy 4130 at the ambient temperatures producing corrosion products. The hydrogen concentration through the steel alloy 4130 is depending on the current density, and increasing as current density increases. The current density is responsible for weakness of steel alloy surface due to the promotion of hydrogen induced crack. Also it is noticed that the hydrogen induced crack is initiated firstly at the intergranular spaces between ferritic and pearlitic groups.
  • Energy efficient image coding techniques for low power sensor nodes: A

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): G. Suseela, Y. Asnath Victy Phamila Visual Sensors Networks (VSN) are spatially dispersed distributed networks, consisting of small sensing units and image sensors. They are scattered over a region to sense, collect and transfer data and are involved in domains such as environmental monitoring, surveillance and tracking. The resource restrictions imposed on sensor nodes are the challenges for image transmission. Sensor nodes are battery power supplied. The greatest operative solution is image compression for energy efficient image communication. With the advent of VSNs, energy-aware compression algorithms have gained wide attention. Since the application of the conventional standards are not energy beneficial. New strategies and mechanisms for power-efficient image compression algorithms are developed. The scope of this review is to provide a holistic review of such energy efficient image compression algorithms for camera equipped VSN. This survey enumerates the benefits and limitations of conventional image compression standards to latest compression technique developed and adapted for VSN.
  • Thermodynamic performance analysis of direct evaporative cooling system
           for increased heat and mass transfer area

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Amrat Kumar Dhamneya, S.P.S. Rajput, Alok Singh This paper demonstrates the thermodynamic performance analysis of direct evaporative cooling system by increasing sides of cooling media. In this paper, a different configuration of cooling media has been developed for determining the behaviour pattern of the direct evaporative cooling system based on performance characteristics using Aspen fibers media. The effect of inlet air temperature, humidity and mass flow rate of air has been discussed in detail by using the different configuration of cooling media. The result indicates that the saturation efficiency is approximately same for entire developed top flow and ordinary lateral flow configurations excluding triangle top flow configuration. The highest saturation efficiency were observed for triangle configuration 97% for case-I. Maximum saturation efficiency of the triangular configuration of an evaporative cooling system was found to be 97%, 88%, nil and 89% for case-I, case-II, case-III and case-IV respectively, over ordinary and other top flow DEC system.
  • A fuzzy based hybrid multi criteria decision making methodology for phase
           change material selection in electronics cooling system

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Arulmurugan Loganathan, Ilangkumaran Mani The phase change material (PCM) selection plays a vital role in successful designing of electronic cooling systems. Since large numbers of competitive materials are available today, with each having its own characteristics, applications, advantages, and limitations, the decision for selecting a suitable PCM involves several evaluation criteria. In this article, a novel hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) model is proposed for evaluating a suitable PCM for thermal management systems. The decision model consists of 10 alternative materials with eight evaluation criteria. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) - integrated with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I KompromisnoResenje (VIKOR) and Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) are proposed and applied in the numerical example. The results obtained from FAHP-TOPSIS, FAHP-VIKOR and FAHP- PROMETHEE are compared. The results show that RT-80 is the apt material for thermal management of power electronic devices.
  • Fuzzy logic control for a grid-connected PV array through
           Z-source-inverter using maximum constant boost control method

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Hanan A. Mosalam, Ragab A. Amer, G.A. Morsy The paper presents an alternative scheme using fuzzy logic methodology to control a grid-connected photovoltaic system through ZSI using MCBC method. The system model and control are implemented using MATLAB-SIMULINK simulation toolbox. In view of control, Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) are designed to enhance the system stability. To ensure a unity power factor operation, the inverter modulation index is controlled to manage the phase current of the grid. Also, the control in the shoot-through ratio controls the output voltage of the PV array, so the maximum power (MP) is extracted. The simulation results using FLCs are compared with others obtained using Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. This is under the same normal operating and transient conditions which are irradiation variation, three-phase short circuit fault at point of connection and voltage variation of the grid. The simulation results of FLCs achieve supplementary enhancement of the system stability over various operating conditions.
  • Multimodal student attendance management system (MSAMS)

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Khaled Mohammed, A.S. Tolba, Mohammed Elmogy Effective student attendance management in higher educational institutions represents a big challenge for faculty members that need fast and accurate approaches. The traditional attendance manual approach is prone to spoofing and wasting a lot of faculty/students time and poor accuracy especially in the case of large student numbers. This paper presents an effective solution for the real-time student attendance management problem in large lecture halls. Fast response time and high accuracy imply using high-speed technologies and processes for student identification. In this paper, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and novel face recognition and identification approaches have been proposed and evaluated. A multimodal approach for student identification combined the power of both the traditional RFID approach and Multi-Scale Structural Similarity (MS-SSIM) index. Capturing the authentic face variability from a sequence of video frames has been considered for the recognition of faces and resulted in system robustness against the variability of facial features. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the performance of the proposed system compared to the state-of-the-art approaches at a rate between 2% and 5%. In addition, it decreased the time three times if compared with the state-of-the-art techniques, such as Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). Finally, it achieved an accuracy of 99%.
  • Heritage conservation management in Egypt: A review of the current and
           proposed situation to amend it

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Khaled Abdul-Aziz Osman The study at hand is a review of the non-democratic administrative system to the heritage conservation in Egypt, and includes an analysis and re-drafting of this system to address current situation’s problems. The research methodology is based on a theoretical foundation and a practical one. It defines and reviews the heritage conservation management in Egypt. In order to achieve an effective democratic system to the heritage conservation management in Egypt, the study defines the following: The heritage sites conservation problems, the specific legislation and laws governing the process of heritage conservation in Egypt, most of the administrative bodies concerned with such sites, the current status of the management of heritage conservation in Egypt, and, finally, the modification of this system on its three levels: strategic, planning, and site management. The study also discusses the findings in order to give insight into the topic.
  • Effective Power quality improvement using Dynamic Activate compensation
           system with Renewable grid interfaced sources

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Ritesh Dash, Sarat Chandra Swain Rapid Industrialization and demand for Energy makes the distribution system more complicated. To address such issue robust control system is being developed for newly implemented microgrid and smart grid concepts. These control systems being a complex structure interconnects the renewable sources with the conventional sources of energy production. The power quality issues arising due to interconnection of number of variable generation system makes it more dynamic and fault oriented. The dynamics of the system is due to the use of power conditioning unit in the renewable system. Most of the power conditioning unit are of current source inverter type. However if these inverters can be made up of voltage source type then reactive power compensation can be achieved in addition to the active power supplied by the inverter into the grid. Dynamic Active Compensation System (DACS) is simulated through MATLAB to validate the performance.
  • Assessment of non-sinusoidal reactive power of shunt capacitors in the
           presence of distorted substation voltage in radial distribution systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Narinder Kumar, Ashwani Kumar In this paper, an analytical assessment of non-sinusoidal reactive power of shunt capacitors in the presence of substation voltage harmonics in radial distribution systems has been attempted. The paper proposes a novel technique of assessing harmonic amplification in shunt capacitor banks due to distorted substation voltage. The proposed algorithm is based on the computation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of bus voltages and shunt capacitor currents in which various non-sinusoidal terms are quantified as per IEEE-1459-2010 Standard. The article also highlights the extent of overloading of shunt capacitor banks and propagation of voltage distortion in various downstream buses of the distribution system under investigation. Proposed method is tested on two radial distribution systems and demonstrates good convergence characteristics.
  • Solving 2D-Poisson equation using modified cubic B-spline differential
           quadrature method

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Ahmed M. Elsherbeny, Rabab M.I. El-hassani, Hesham El-badry, Mohamed I. Abdallah In this study a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCBDQM) is used to solve the two dimensional Poisson equation. Using the cubic B-spline functions, explicit expressions of weighting coefficients for approximation of derivatives are obtained. Examples of two dimensional Poisson equation under Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions are studied using the method. Comparisons between the results of the method, the results of using Shu's general approach and results of other methods are presented. Good agreement with Shu's general approach and with the other methods is reached in case of Dirichlet boundary condition. The differential quadrature based on modified cubic B-splines is found to be an efficient method to solve the two dimensional Poisson equation.
  • Enhancing the performance of motor imagery classification to design a
           robust brain computer interface using feed forward back-propagation neural

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Gopal Chandra Jana, Aleena Swetapadma, Prasant Kumar Pattnaik This paper proposes a feed forward back-propagation neural network (FFBPNN) based method to enhance the performance of the motor imagery classification. The dataset consists of fifty nine channels of EEG signals which are first normalised using minmax method and then given as input to the FFBPNN network. Experimental outcomes of the FFBPNN are recorded in term of ‘0’s or ‘1’s for two classes of motor imagery signals. The accuracy of the proposed FFBPNN method has been measured using confusion matrix, mean square error and percentage accuracy. However, accuracy of the FFBPNN based method is recorded up to 99.8%. Hence the proposed method gives better accuracy of the classification which will ultimately help in designing robust BCI.
  • Multi control scheme with modified Smith predictor for unstable first
           order plus time delay system

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Medarametla Praveen Kumar, Komanapalli Venkata Lakshmi Narayana A multi control scheme is proposed for unstable first order plus time delay (UFOPTD) system. The proposed control structure consists of two controllers which are intended for two distinct roles, set point tracking and disturbance rejection. A PI controller cascaded with a first order filter is employed as servo controller and a PID controller in series with a lead/lag filter is employed for disturbance rejection. The controller parameters are derived systematically using polynomial approach. The proposed scheme decouples the servo response from the regulatory response under nominal conditions which facilitates to tune the controllers independently. Analytical rules for the tuning of controllers are proposed based on maximum sensitivity (MS) which is a measure of robust stability. Set point weighting is employed to reduce the overshoot and settling time in the servo response. Several examples are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed structure.
  • Design and analysis of variable switching frequency controlled integrated
           switched mode power converter for class C & class D appliances

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): M. Subbarao, Ch. Sai Babu, S. Satyanarayana Variable switching frequency current controller based integrated power factor corrected switched mode power converter for class C and class D appliances has been designed and analyzed in this work. Proposed integrated converter offers low current stress on the switch. Variable switching frequency current controller has been selected owing to its features, viz – fast dynamic response, no compensation circuit and less complexity in design. Integrated converter for 100 W load operating in universal range of voltage (90 V–230 V), 50 Hz has been designed and implemented using MATLAB/Simulink, results of this converter comply with international regulatory standards (IEC 6100-3-2 and IEEE 519-1992). Experimental results conform and validate the analysis.
  • State-feedback control of robot manipulators using polytopic LPV modelling
           with fuzzy-clustering

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Mohammad Hosein Kazemi, Mohammad Bagher Abolhasani Jabali This paper proposes a new algorithm to full state systematic feedback control design for robot manipulators based on fuzzy-clustered polytopic model. At first, a linear parameter varying (LPV) representation of the system is generated via linearization of usual Lagrangian equation about a desired state trajectory and a vector of scheduling signals from the desired trajectory information is produced to construct an initial polytopic model. Then a fuzzy-clustering algorithm is introduced to categorize the vertices of the initial polytopic model in several clusters such that a sufficient condition of asymptotic stability of the closed loop models in each cluster is satisfied. Hence, the number of vertices is reduced to the number of clusters and a new reduced polytopic model is generated with the representative models of the clusters. The proposed algorithm is applied to control of a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic manipulator that illustrates the validity of the proposed scheme.
  • An efficient harmonic detection approach for shunt active filter based on
           wavelet transform

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Indu Maurya, S.K. Gupta, Priyanka Maurya This paper described with the harmonics detection and compensation in power system. The two accepted and impressive methods in noise and harmonic detection field are implemented in this present work. These methods are based on windowing and wavelet transforms technique. These techniques are used in the proposed method namely synchronous reference-frame algorithm. A windowing-wavelet based technique is used like a low pass filter. Now expressions of their enactment on transient response truncated overshot and fluctuation at frequency domain, the db-3 wavelet is selected for this purpose. In harmonic detection process, the identified harmonic is inserted with the help of shunt active filter based on predictive current control technique. Due to the fast transient response, this method is acceptable over the traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based filter. The accessible approach has been substantiated with MATLAB/Simulink environment.
  • Effect of loading and supporting area on shear strength and size effect of
           concrete deep beams

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): G. Hussein, Sayed H. Sayed, Nasr E. Nasr, Ahmed M. Mostafa A theoretical and an experimental program consisting of nine concrete deep beams specimens were carried out to investigate the effect of loading and supporting area on shear strength and size effect phenomenon of concrete deep beams. As shear strength rather than flexural usually dominates the strength of deep beams, and size effect phenomenon typically represented by reduction in shear strength as beam depth increases, it’s of a great importance to understand the shear behavior of such elements. It is generally agreed that whatever controls the strength of the diagonal strut governs the strength of the deep beam. As one of the main factors affecting the strut strength, loading and supporting area will be the focus of this research. Thought the research evidence will be provided that by proper configuration of loading and supporting areas, shear strength of concrete deep beams can be increased, and size effect phenomenon can be mitigated.
  • Characterization of mechanical and wear properties of aluminium based
           composites reinforced with quarry dust and silicon carbide

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme, Bethel Jeremiah Bamike The mechanical and wear behavior of quarry dust (QD) and silicon carbide (SiC) particle reinforced Aluminium based composites was investigated. QD mixed with SiC in varied weight ratios, were used to produce 8 wt% reinforced Al-Mg-Si based composites using double stir casting. Hardness, tensile properties, fracture toughness, wear index, X-ray diffractometry, optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the composites. The quarry dust was observed to consist of quartz (SiO2), magnesium iron aluminosilicate and biotite as mineralogical constituents. Marginal decrease in hardness and wear resistance of 5 and 9%, respectively were observed with increase in QD; and abrasive wear confirmed as the dominant wear mechanism. The tensile and specific strengths of the composites were generally at comparable level with the composite reinforced with SiC only. The ductility and fracture toughness of the composites were markedly improved with the addition of QD reflecting enhanced fracture resistance.
  • Examining the influence of micro-grids topologies on optimal energy
           management systems decisions using genetic algorithm

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Marwa Abuelnasr, Walid El-Khattam, Ibrahim Helal Micro-grids’ Energy Management Systems (EMSs) are systems of tools used to monitor, control and optimize the generation, delivery, and/or consumption of energy within micro-grids and the imported energy from their main grids. Unfortunately, there is no single EMS that can be implemented to improve energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, decrease fuel usage, minimize the amount of imported energy from the main grid, and increase the use of renewable energy for all micro-grids at the same time. Therefore, the main concern of this paper is to investigate the impact of micro-grid’s topologies on developing an efficient micro-grid’s EMS and an optimization model using Genetic Algorithm (GA) that aim to optimally select the objective function that suits each individual micro-grid’s topology. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis is carried out taking into consideration three grid-connected micro-grids topologies; networks, loads profiles, embedded dispatchaple (biomass) and non-dispatchaple (PV) Distributed Generation (DG), storages elements, switching capacitors, and demand response. Three case studies (objective functions) are minimized; micro-grid’s energy loss, imported energy from the main grid, and CO2 emissions, to select the most optimal objective function that suits each individual micro-grid topology. The obtained results are reported, evaluated, and discussed.
  • A new framework to enhance Evolution-COnstructed object recognition method

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Muhammad H. Zayyan, Mohammed F. AlRahmawy, Samir Elmougy This paper presents a new approach for reinforcing a recent method named Evolution-Constructed (ECO). ECO is an ensemble learning approach which combines predictions of multiple weak classifiers. Our framework includes two enhancements. First, we utilize different linear/nonlinear base classifiers. Second, we employ different ensemble types such as bagging and boosting to combine these classifiers. It is our hypothesis that there is no single combination of base classifier and ensemble type used on given datasets that leads to obtain maximum accuracy. Furthermore, we implement our proposed framework to process classifiers concurrently to enhance the running time. Experimental results showed that the proposed method has a competitive performance over contemporary methods for different object datasets.
  • Simulation of EAF refining stage

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): M.M. Elkoumy, M. El-Anwar, A.M. Fathy, G.M. Megahed, I. El-Mahallawi, H. Ahmed The refining stage in the electric arc furnace contributes to the enhancement of the metallurgical and industrial parameters and the improvement of performance in steelmaking plants. The aim of this study is to compare effects induced by natural and forced convection stirring.Two 3D computational fluid dynamics models were prepared to analyze the melt flow and heat profiles inside the electric arc furnace using FLUENT software. The modeling utilized transient solver with realize k-ɛ turbulence model, in natural and forced convection cases. The results of this work (represented by screenshots for velocity and temperature distributions) indicated maximum and minimum values locations. The maximum melt velocity inside the electric arc furnace was found at the steel melt outlet.AimThe refining stage in the electric arc furnace contributes to the enhancement of the metallurgical and industrial parameters and the improvement of performance in steelmaking plants. The aim of this study is to compare effects induced by natural and forced convection stirring.MethodsTwo 3D computational fluid dynamics models were prepared to analyze the melt flow and heat profiles inside the electric arc furnace using FLUENT software. The modeling utilized transient solver with realize k-ɛ turbulence model, in natural and forced convection cases.Resultsscreenshots for velocity and temperature distributions indicated maximum and minimum values locations.Conclusionsthe maximum melt velocity inside the electric arc furnace was found at the steel melt outlet.
  • Stability improvement of power systems connected with developed wind farms
           using SSSC controller

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Ahmed Rashad, Salah Kamel, Francisco Jurado This paper studies the performance of SCIG wind farm, DFIG wind farm, and a combined wind farm (CWF) during three-phase grid fault. The SCIG and DFIG wind farms are equipped with Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) whereas the combined wind farm did not have one. Since the CWF is composed of an equal number of Double Feed Induction Generators (DFIGs) and Squirrel Cage Induction Generators (SCIGs), it incorporated the main advantages of both types of generator. More specifically, the SCIG has a lower cost, but its drawback lies in its negative impact on system stability, especially when it operates without a shunt compensator. On the other hand, the DFIG, though more expensive, is better able to maintain the stability of the system. The SCIG and DFIG wind farms are equipped with SSSC controller to control the active and reactive line power flow. The results of a comparative study of DFIG and SCIG wind farms with SSSC and combined wind farm without SSSC during a three-phase grid fault showed that even though the SSSC improved the performance of the DFIG and SCIG wind farms, the CWF without the SSSC controller is found to have the best performance. The stability of the three wind farms is examined using Voltage Stability Index (VSI). All of the test scenarios are simulated with MATLAB.
  • The importance of cultural dimensions in the design process of the
           vernacular societies

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Gasser Gamil Abdel-Azim, Khaled Abdul-Aziz Osman Reviewing the thought of modernity and its impacts on architecture is based on the reconsideration of cultural differences among communities. It is an approach to remedy the consequences of applications of modern architectural theories in dealing with the vernacular societies. This research focuses on the significant role that cultural characteristics play in creating designs for such communities. Therefore, it represents the concept of considering patterns of events in the employment of the communal psychological dimension through the process of design. This research is divided into two phases: highlighting the various definitions of the key terms in the study, and analyzing the mechanism that considers the cultural characteristics of represented communities; Shibam in Yemen, Edfu in Upper Egypt, and Draa in Morocco. The main objective of the research is to use the vernacular prototypes and patterns to reach a design that is most culturally and environmentally adapted.
  • Comparative study of combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of
           waste cooking-diesel oil blends

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Ahmed Mahfouz, M.S. Gad, Ahmed El Fatih, Ahmed Emara The depletion of fossil fuels have seriously encouraged extensive search for alternative renewable resources. Among these resources are the use of biodiesel (highly expensive, low yield) and the blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with light diesel oil (LDO). The present paper undertakes an experimental investigation to study the effects of varying the blending ratio of WCO/LDO on the flame characteristics, combustor efficiency, and exhaust emissions. This blending ratio is varied from 0% to 100%. For any particular blend, the equivalence ratio is varied from 0.6 to 1.05. The experiments are conducted inside a water cooled, cylindrical, combustor fitted with a coaxially mounted waste oil burner. The measurements include the inflame and exhaust mean gas temperatures and the dry volumetric species concentrations (CO, NOx, CxHy and O2) at the combustor exit. The present results indicate that the blending ratio should not exceed 20% to ensure acceptable combustor efficiency and lower emissions.
  • Determining the Gestation Age through the automated measurement of the
           bi-parietal distance in fetal ultrasound images

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Mariam Saii, Zaid Kraitem The proposed method has implemented series of steps. First the ratio of existing noise is reduced depending on Wiener Filter, followed by the stage of image borders removing in order to enrich high-density primary regions and suppress remaining ones. Thresholding stage has converted the image into a binary form, then the small foreground elements are removed in a binary image, after that the Skeletonization stage is applied in order to reduce the data points, then a matrix containing all data points which are lying on the target ellipse to be drawn. Detection of the ellipse corresponding to the limits of the fetus head in the input ultrasound image is done via the Least Square Fitting (LSF) algorithm, which returns the ellipse parameters including the minor axis which corresponds to the bi-parietal distance measure. The results of auto-measurements are compared with manual measurements of a specialist to improve the effective of the proposed method.
  • Production cost development for commercial exhaust systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): Ahmad Abosrea, Waleed El-Sallamy, Tarek Osman, Tamer Elnady Muffling devices are essential parts of any vehicle/machine that uses internal combustion engines. From automotive manufacturers point of view, they contribute massive sheet metal processing and production time, especially mufflers that are produced at high rates for commercial vehicles. This paper is concerned with applying manufacturing procedures to reduce the production cost of any commercial automotive mufflers through theoretical studies and experimental measurements verification. Mufflers design parameters such as transmission loss, flow generated noise and pressure drop were selected for performance judgment, parameters were simulated and experimentally measured. The transfer matrix method was used to calculate the propagation of sound waves along the muffler. A commercial automotive muffler with a hybrid combination of dissipation and reflection was selected for application and a new design was proposed for this muffler with a reduced manufacturing cost. The manufacturing processes were reduced by 77.7% and consequently the cost relative to the original muffler.
  • Hybrid fuzzy back-propagation control scheme for multilevel unified power
           quality conditioner

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 4Author(s): V. Veera Nagireddy, Venkata Reddy Kota, D.V. Ashok Kumar To increase the lifetime and performance of equipment in utility distribution systems, the enhancement of power quality is essential. In this paper, to enhance the power quality, we present the design of a hybrid fuzzy back-propagation control scheme for a unified power quality Conditioner. The gating pulses of the UPQC are generated using hybrid fuzzy-back propagation controllers. The reference currents for the controller are estimated using back-propagation algorithms with source currents and load currents as input control parameters. The reference voltages for the controllers are estimated using fuzzy logic controllers for the dc voltage regulator with a terminal voltage, and a dc voltage for the input control parameters. We perform this analysis in zero-voltage regulation mode and power factor correction mode in a multilevel UPQC-connected distribution system. We analyze the results of the total harmonic distortion, dynamic performance, load balancing and mitigation of the voltage sag using MATLAB/Simulink.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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