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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2270 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Canadian Geotechnical Journal
  [SJR: 2.093]   [H-I: 75]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0008-3674 - ISSN (Online) 1208-6010
   Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Discussion of “Comparative study of Y-shaped and circular floating piles
           in consolidating clay”
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:08:07Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0693
       
  • Discussion of “Comparative study of Y-shaped and circular floating piles
           in consolidating clay”
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T07:02:44Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0676
       
  • Prediction and modeling of permeability function and its application to
           the evaluation of breakthrough suction of a two-layer capillary barrier
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Different empirical formulas have been proposed to describe the water retention curve (WRC) and relative permeability (kr) of soils. This paper presents a Bayesian framework that evaluates not only the most probable empirical fitting constants, but also their joint probability density function. A dataset containing two soil classes — sand and silty loam — compiled from the UNSODA database is used for illustration. First, model constants of the van Genuchten’s WRC formula are calibrated and subsequently used to predict kr of the studied soils using two existing formulas based on Mualem’s and Burdine’s models. The best estimated kr in both formulas is found to skew towards the lower side of the measurement. Then, a new three-parameter empirical formula is proposed to describe kr with suction while the model constants are calibrated from the permeability data. Using the proposed framework, the statistical distribution of kr and subsequently the unsaturated permeability (kunsat), as a function of suction, can be obtained. The results are then applied to a hypothetical two-layer capillary barrier composed of soils of the compiled dataset to determine the breakthrough suction (ψBT) of the barrier. The proposed Bayesian approach gives a probabilistic distribution of ψBT instead of a single value in the traditional deterministic method.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T07:08:18Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0339
       
  • Reply to the discussion by Mesri and Wang on “Correlations for undrained
           shear strength of Finnish soft clays”
    • Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T06:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0114
       
  • Discussion of “Correlations for undrained shear strength of Finnish
           soft clays”
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T06:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0686
       
  • Reply to the discussion by Noor on “Drag load on end-bearing piles in
           collapsible soil due to inundation”
    • Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T04:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0045
       
  • Discussion of “Drag load on end-bearing piles in collapsible soil
           due to inundation”
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.

      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T04:38:04Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0639
       
  • Novel analysis for large strains based on particle image velocimetry
    • Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Over the last few decades, the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has become an interesting tool used to measure displacements in the field of experimental mechanics. This paper presents a procedure to interpret PIV displacements, measured following an Eulerian scheme, with the purpose of providing accumulated displacements, velocities, accelerations, and strains on points representing physical particles. Strains are computed as the gradient of displacements. When compared with other standard procedures already published, the presented methodology is especially well suited to interpret large strains. The basis of the procedure is to map displacement increments measured through PIV analysis on the subset (or patch) centres into numerical particles that are defined as portions of the moving masses whose deformation is analyzed. The implementation of the method is explained in detail, highlighting its simplicity. The procedure can be used as a post-processor of currently available PIV software packages. The methodology is first applied to synthetic cases of rectangular samples in which known displacements are imposed and also to a sandy slope failure experiment involving large displacements. The method reproduces satisfactorily the recorded images.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0327
       
  • Elastoplastic consolidation solutions for scaling from shallow
           penetrometers to pipelines
    • Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The build-up of friction on seabed pipelines is an important design consideration, affecting their stability and the resulting in-service strain and fatigue. The consolidation beneath a partially embedded pipeline has been investigated in the past and linked to the build-up of axial pipe–soil resistance. This paper extends previous work by providing solutions for consolidation around a new class of shallow penetrometer, to provide a basis to scale from site investigation results directly to the build-up of pipeline friction. Small-strain finite element analyses, using the Modified Cam Clay soil model, are presented for the novel toroid and ball penetrometers. The effects of initial penetrometer embedment, device roughness, strength gradient, and overload ratio have been explored in a comprehensive manner, and are compared with pipe results. The toroid penetrometer shows excellent agreement with an element of an infinitely long pipe, simplifying the scaling process. The ball penetrometer shows a faster consolidation response, typically by a factor of three, reflecting the more effective drainage mechanisms of a three-dimensional device compared to a plane strain device. The dissipation responses are fitted by simple equations to aid application in design.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-02-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0286
       
  • Water retention model for compacted bentonites
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The water retention behaviour of compacted bentonites is strongly affected by multi-physical and multi-scale processes taking place in these materials. Experimental data have evidenced major effects of the material dry density, the imposed volume constraints, and the soil fabric. This paper presents a new water retention model accounting for proper retention mechanisms in each structural level of compacted bentonites, namely adsorption in the intra-aggregate pores and capillarity in the inter-aggregate ones. The model is calibrated and validated against experimental data on different bentonite-based materials, showing good capabilities in capturing the main features of the behaviour. The model is able to reproduce experimental data on compacted bentonites over a wide range of suction values, within a unified framework, and using a limited number of parameters. Some of the parameters introduced are shown to take approximately the same value for several bentonites, providing a significant basis for preliminary design when dedicated experiments are missing.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0297
       
  • Influence of end effect on rock strength in true triaxial compression test
    • Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The influence of the end effect on rock strength in true triaxial compression testing was studied using a numerical approach. The influence of the intermediate principal stress (σ2) on rock strength was isolated by using the two-dimensional Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion that depends only on the major principal stress (σ1) and minor principal stress (σ3). Thus, any enhancement to the rock strength with the increase of σ2 can be attributed to the end effect. It was shown that the end effect can result in an apparent σ2 effect, as long as the coefficient of friction (μ) at the rock specimen – steel platen contacts is not zero and the specimen in the σ2 loading direction is squat. When the strengthening due to the increase of σ2 predicted by a theoretical failure criterion was added to the strengthening due to the end effect, the results were in good agreement with the observed σ2 effect from some previous laboratory tests, indicating that the observed σ2 effect in true triaxial compression testing could be partially influenced by the end effect, particularly when σ3 was low. It is suggested to decrease the end effect to a level where the apparent σ2 effect is very small so that the obtained test results are more meaningful to characterize the actual σ2 effect.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0393
       
  • Lateral spreading near deep foundations and influence of soil permeability
    • Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is calibrated based on a large-scale (1g) shake-table experiment. In this experiment, single piles were subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. The testing configuration, experimental results, and FE framework are presented and discussed. The presence of piles in this fully saturated ground model caused a significant reduction in the extent of accumulated lateral soil deformation. In this regard, high shear strains, additional to those in the free field, occur as the soil moves around the piles in the downslope direction. The associated shear-induced tendency for dilation increases the effective confinement, and reduces the resulting downslope deformations. As such, an FE parametric study is undertaken to investigate the effect of soil permeability on this observed liquefaction-induced lateral response. As the prescribed soil permeability increased (in the silt–sand range), higher levels of ground lateral deformation occured, albeit with a lower pile head displacement and lateral load. Eventually, high permeability (in the gravels range) precluded the accumulation of significant excess pore pressure, with low levels of both soil and pile lateral displacement. On this basis, permeability is highlighted as a critical potentially primary parameter in dictating the effects of liquefaction-induced lateral load on embedded foundation systems.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0162
       
  • Rock quality designation (RQD): time to rest in peace
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced by Don Deere in the mid-1960s as a means of using diamond core to classify rock for engineering purposes. Subsequently, it was incorporated into the rock mass rating (RMR) and Q-system classification methods that, worldwide, now play substantial roles in rock mechanics design, whether for tunnels, foundations, rock slopes or rock excavation. It is shown that a key facet of the definition of RQD is ignored in many parts of the world, and it is noted that there are several inherent limitations to the use of RQD. Based on mapping of rock formations by 17 independent professionals at different locations in Australia and South Africa, it is shown that differences in assessed RQD values result in significant errors in computed RMR and Q ratings, and also in geological strength index (GSI) and mining rock mass rating (MRMR). The introduction of a look-up chart for assessing GSI has effectively removed the need to measure, or estimate, RQD. It has been found that GSI values derived from the look-up chart are as valid as those derived by calculation from the original component parameters, and are satisfactorily consistent between professionals from diverse backgrounds. The look-up charts provide a quick and appropriate means of assessing GSI from exposures. GSI is, in turn, a useful rock mass strength index; one new application is presented for assessing potential erosion of unlined spillways in rock. Incorporation of RQD within the RMR and Q classification systems was a matter of historical development, and its incorporation into rock mass classifications is no longer necessary.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0012
       
  • Unsaturated flow in hydrating porous media with application to cemented
           mine backfill
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Unsaturated flow in hydrating porous media is pertinent to several engineering applications, including underground and surface use of cemented tailings. Proper description and modelling of flow is complicated by changes in material properties due to hydration as well as by the generation of suction by the net consumption of water volume by hydration, variously termed chemical shrinkage or self-desiccation. It is necessary to define changes in hydraulic properties with time; for instance, the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is not unique in time in addition to being path (drying versus wetting) dependent. To address this problem, a theory for modelling unsaturated flow in hydrating materials is introduced. The theory deconstructs the SWCC into a pore-size distribution, which changes with time as hydration occurs, and the water content, which is a variable that must be tracked with space and time. Matric suction depends on the time-dependent SWCC and the water content variable. The theory is applied to a multi-layer deposition experiment performed in a column, and shows reasonable results.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2015-0314
       
  • Cyclic lateral response and failure mechanisms of semi-rigid pile in soft
           clay: centrifuge tests and numerical modelling
    • Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Previous studies on laterally loaded piles in clay have mainly focused on flexible and rigid piles. Little attention has been paid to semi-rigid piles (whose pile–soil stiffness lies somewhere between those of rigid and flexible piles), which may behave as either flexible piles or rigid piles, depending on the change in soil stiffness during cycling. This study aims to understand the cyclic lateral response of a repeatedly loaded semi-rigid pile in soft clay and the failure mechanisms of the soil around the pile, through a series of centrifuge model tests and three-dimensional finite element analyses using an advanced hypoplastic clay model. Numerical parametric studies were also performed to investigate the evolution of soil flow mechanisms with increasing pile rigidity. It is revealed that the semi-rigid pile behaved as if it were a flexible pile (i.e., flexural deformation dominated) during the first few cycles, but tended to behave like a rigid pile (i.e., rotational movement prevailed) during subsequent cycles, which progressively softened the surrounding soil. As a result, the mechanisms of soil flow around the semi-rigid pile exhibited an intermediate behaviour combining the mechanisms of both flexible and rigid piles. Three distinctive mechanisms were identified: a wedge-type mechanism near the surface, a full-flow mechanism (within the transverse sections) near the middle of the pile, and a rotational soil flow mechanism (in the vertical symmetrical plane of the pile) near the lower half of the pile. By ignoring the rotational soil flow mechanism, which has a much lower resistance than the full-flow mechanism, the American Petroleum Institute code (published in 2007) underestimated the cyclic bending moment and the lateral pile displacement by 10% and 69%, respectively. Application of jet grouting around the semi-rigid pile at shallow depth significantly altered the soil flow mechanism (i.e., it was a solely wedge-type mechanism around the grouted zone).
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0356
       
  • Strength verification of stabilized soil–cement columns: a laboratory
           investigation of the push-in resistance test (PIRT)
    • Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The push-in resistance test (PIRT) is an in situ means of verifying the strength of stabilized soil columns. During the test, a winged penetrometer penetrates the stabilized column at a constant rate and the column strength is estimated from the recorded probing resistance using a bearing capacity factor (N). While N values between 8 and 20 (although typically between 8 and 15) are quoted in the literature (based almost exclusively on empirical and Scandinavian experience), there have been few field tests and no laboratory investigations aimed at investigating the value of N and the factors upon which it depends, thereby limiting international confidence in the method. This paper presents the findings of a unique laboratory-scale PIRT series conducted at the National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway). The development of appropriate column construction and testing methods is discussed. The results of 11 PIRT tests on pre-drilled stabilized columns with unconfined compression strengths (UCS) from 150 to over 800 kPa are reported, as well as those of a complementary cone-only series of tests to assess additional frictional forces acting on the penetrometer. Appropriate corrections to the data for temperature and time consistency between the probing forces and UCS values are discussed. Test results indicate that the strength of the column has a mild influence on the N value. Further investigation of this finding is recommended at both laboratory and field scales.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0230
       
  • An approach for modelling volume change of fine-grained soil subjected to
           thermal cycles
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      As a result of cyclic heating and cooling around the ambient temperature under drained conditions, normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated fine-grained soils experience accumulation of irreversible volumetric contraction. Most existing thermomechanical models were developed for one heating–cooling cycle and are not suitable for multiple thermal cycles. An approach is proposed to simulate the volume change of fine-grained soil induced by thermal cycles. In the proposed approach, a thermal stabilization line is introduced to control the stabilized volumetric contraction under thermal cycles. Comparison with experimental results shows that the proposed approach can reproduce well the cumulative feature of volumetric contraction of fine-grained soil subjected to thermal cycles.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0459
       
  • Effect of variable confining pressure on cyclic behaviour of granular soil
           under triaxial tests
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Previous studies were performed to use combined cyclic deviatoric stress and confining pressure to simulate cyclic vertical and horizontal normal stresses under traffic loading. The effect of variable confining pressure (VCP) on the permanent deformation of soils was investigated. However, some studies concluded VCP could promote the development of permanent deformation compared to the tests with constant confining pressure (CCP), while others drew the opposite conclusions. In this study, three types of CCP and VCP tests with identical maximum stress, identical average stress, and identical initial stress were conducted. Test results showed VCP tests accumulated more permanent strains when CCP and VCP tests had identical maximum or average stress, and the permanent strains increased with the decrease in the inclinations of stress paths, while similar permanent strains were generated when CCP and VCP tests had identical initial stress. In addition, larger permanent strains were generated with the increase in stress ratio or length of stress path in both CCP and VCP tests. Considering that different strains were cumulated in CCP and VCP tests with the same stress ratio, it is recommended that both stress ratio and length of stress path be considered to assess the permanent deformation.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0439
       
  • Bucket foundation model testing under tensile axial loading
    • Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The present study focusses on bucket foundation behaviour under long-term cyclic loading. The paper analyses testing results of a bucket foundation model exposed to cyclic tensile loading. The model, with dimensions of 1 m in diameter and 0.5 m in skirt length, was, installed in dense water-saturated sand. Slow monotonic loading tests and cyclic tensile loading tests were performed (up to 40 000 load cycles) including tests with mean cyclic loading in tension, which is a unique testing condition. High-quality data were documented for load, displacement, and pore pressure response. Conclusions have been drawn regarding static and cyclic loading stiffness and displacement development during long-term cyclic loading. Four cyclic loading tests induced partially drained soil conditions and showed that pore pressure can accumulate during the long-term loading. Post-cyclic monotonic tensile loading tests showed up to 25% reduction in load capacity of the foundation. The research results provide valuable information for the design of an upwind bucket foundation under a jacket structure.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0301
       
  • An empirical method for predicting post-construction settlement of
           concrete face rockfill dams
    • Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      In this study, employing a database of 19 concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) cases, two prediction methods for post-construction settlement of CFRDs are presented. In the first method, post-construction settlements are estimated using height of the embankment. In the second method, characterization of the stress–strain behavior of the compacted rockfill layers during construction allows prediction of the subsequent stress–strain–time behavior of the embankment. Knowledge of rock particles strength is necessary in both methods. In the presented methods, settlements are estimated separately for each of the three life-cycle phases: before, during, and after impoundment. The presented results show that, in addition to addressing some limitations of previous methods, the proposed approach is precise and highly practical. It also allows a better understanding of rockfill deformation mechanisms. Apart from using this method for predictive purposes, the presented graphs can be used to distinguish unexpected settlement behavior of a CFRD during its post-construction lifespan.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0193
       
  • Scaling relationships for strip fibre–reinforced aggregates
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Previous research on random fibre-reinforced granular materials has shown that the relative dimensions of the grains and fibres significantly affect the macromechanical behaviour of the mixture. However, quantitative data are scarce and most previous work has focused on fine to medium sands, leaving uncertainties regarding the applicability of current knowledge to larger size aggregates such as railway ballast. In this paper, triaxial test data on 1/3 and 1/5 scale railway ballast are used to develop scaling relationships for the size and quantity of fibres needed to achieve the same reinforcing effect in granular materials of differing grain size. It is shown that, to maintain consistency across scales, fibre content should be quantified as a numerical (i.e., number of fibres per grain) rather than a volumetric ratio. It is further shown that increasing the fibre length increases the resistance of the mixture to deviator stress if the fibres are wide enough; and that provided an allowance is made for the effect of fibre tension, the changes in the stress–strain–strength behaviour of the granular matrix resulting from the changes in void ratio associated with the addition of the fibres are consistent with conventional soil mechanics theory across scales.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0346
       
  • Experimental study on swelling behaviour and microstructure changes of
           natural stiff Teguline clays upon wetting
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper addresses the microstructure change induced by swelling for natural stiff Teguline clays. The predominant clay mineral measured by X-ray diffractometry was identified to be illite and no swelling clay minerals were found. Significant swelling occurs upon wetting, illustrating the process of suction release from a nearly fully saturated condition. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the change in microstructure with swelling during wetting. It is found that the soil swelling mainly leads to an increase of macropores (0.15–350 μm), and a slight decrease of micropores (0.006–0.15 μm) and inaccessible pores (350 μm). Furthermore, swelling was found to occur in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane, indicating an anisotropic swelling behaviour. The creation and development of cracks during wetting were also investigated. It appears that most cracks caused by swelling have the size of macropores (0.15–350 μm) identified by the MIP test. These findings call enough attention to the significant change in microstructure by wetting-induced swelling that can strongly influence the thermohydromechanical properties of stiff clays.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0250
       
  • Dynamic modulus characteristics of saturated clays under variable
           confining pressure
    • Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Dynamic loadings, induced by earthquakes and other causes, will lead to the cyclic variation of both shear stress and normal stress components on the soil elements. A series of cyclic triaxial tests with and without variable confining pressure were carried out to investigate the coupling effects of cyclic shear stress and cyclic normal stress on the normalized shear modulus, G/Gmax, characteristics of saturated clays. Results indicated that both the phase differences and ratios between the cyclic deviatoric stress and cyclic confining pressure exerted a constant and pronounced influence on the G/Gmax, indicating that the G/Gmax properties under combined loadings will be more representative of actual field conditions than from single-loading conditions. A modified hyperbolic model considering the effects of cyclic confining pressure was further proposed.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0441
       
  • Stability analysis of a deep buried elliptical tunnel in
           cohesive–frictional (c–[math]) soils with a nonassociated flow rule
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The stabilities and associated collapse mechanisms of deep buried unlined elliptical tunnels in cohesive–frictional (c–[math]) soils with the action of soil weight are investigated by the “upper-bound finite element method with rigid translatory moving elements” (UBFEM–RTME). The soil masses are assumed to obey the Mohr–Coulomb yield criterion and a nonassociated flow rule. Upper-bound stability coefficients (γcrD/c, where γcr is critical unit weight; D is tunnel height; c is cohesion) are deduced for different values of friction angles ([math]), dilatancy coefficients (ψ/[math], where ψ is dilation angle), and dimensionless spans (B/D, where B is span). The obtained collapse mechanisms do not extend to the ground surface and are primarily composed of a series of mutually movable rigid blocks. The γcrD/c values increase while the collapse zones decrease with an increasing [math] and ψ/[math] and a decreasing B/D.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0523
       
  • Performance assessment of peat rail subgrade before and after mass
           stabilization
    • Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Railway tracks over peat subgrades can experience large ground deformations, increased pore-water pressures, formation of pumping holes, and pumping of fines during the passage of trains, which can lead to accelerated track deterioration and risk of derailment. One approach to mitigate these issues is to improve the subgrade stiffness using mass stabilization, which involves mixing a binding agent, such as cement, into a soil to improve its physical properties. This paper describes the development and use of a method to calculate trackbed modulus to quantify the improvement due to mass stabilization at a site with peat subgrade. Track modulus was calculated using in-service freight trains by measuring track displacements using digital image correlation and wheel loads from a nearby wheel impact load detector. Because of the voids that existed between the rail, sleepers, and ballast it was found that using displacements of the ballast crib to calculate the trackbed modulus, instead of the overall track modulus using rail or sleeper displacements, provided a way to quantify the improvement of the subgrade that was not affected by the presence of voids. The results indicate the post-rehabilitation trackbed modulus was double the original baseline value for the track section, indicating that mass stabilization can be an effective rehabilitation strategy to improve the stiffness of problematic peat subgrades.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0256
       
  • Rheological properties of loose sands subjected to upward flow
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The objective of this study was to investigate the rheological properties of loose sands subjected to upward flow by using a vane-type rheometer that controlled upward flow in the loose sand specimens. Various hydraulic gradients (i.e., i = 0–2.0) were applied to loose sands. The rheological properties of the loose sands, such as yield stress and viscosity, were determined based on the Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley models. The experimental results showed that the flow behavior of loose sand samples exhibited a shear thickening when the Herschel–Bulkley model was applied (i.e., nondimensional flow index n > 1) and exhibited a Bingham-like within a limited shear rate range (i.e., 1∼30 1/s). The latter is clearly shown for a relatively high shear rate. As the hydraulic gradient was increased, the flow characteristics were close to the Bingham fluid. Yield stress showed a tendency to decrease linearly as hydraulic gradient was increased. However, the viscosity of the loose sands maintained a constant value irrespective of hydraulic gradient. The test results indicated that the pore fluid pressure resulting from upward flow in a soil sample affects yield stress, which contributes to the initiation of debris flow mobilization. As a result, it was possible to estimate the rheological properties of soil at the condition of liquefaction (critical hydraulic gradient), or initial occurrence of debris flow.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0171
       
  • Compression and shear strength characteristics of compacted loess at high
           suctions
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Compression and shear behavior of a loosely compacted loess is investigated via two series of saturated and unsaturated direct shear tests. The vapor transfer mechanism is used to modify a shear box device for control of suction at high range. In spite of significant volumetric strain upon wetting (up to 14%), suction-induced volumetric shrinkage is less than 2% for all suction levels considered because of the as-compacted moisture content at the dry side of the optimum value. During shearing, all unsaturated tests dried to high suctions indicate a strain-softening mode of failure associated with noticeable dilation. There is a continuous increase in peak strength with suction but at a reduced rate, which cannot be captured by the improved Bishop’s effective stress model, as it underestimates the contribution of high suctions by approaching zero degree of saturation. Unsaturated tests at high suctions also show an increased rate of dilation with suction for both values of net stress, which cannot be predicted well by the classical stress–dilatancy models. It is shown that for suction values beyond 8 MPa, dilation angle increases by 2° and 6° per 100 MPa increase of suction under net stress of 50 and 200 kPa, respectively.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0347
       
  • 2014 Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: Landslide runout analysis —
           current practice and challenges
    • Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Flow-like landslides, such as debris flows and rock avalanches, travel at extremely rapid velocities and can impact large areas far from their source. When hazards like these are identified, runout analyses are often needed to delineate potential inundation areas, estimate risks, and design mitigation structures. A variety of tools and methods have been developed for these purposes, ranging from simple empirical–statistical correlations to advanced three-dimensional computer models. This paper provides an overview of the tools and methods that are currently available and discusses some of the main challenges that are currently being addressed by researchers, including the need for better guidance in the selection of model input parameter values, the challenge of translating model results into vulnerability estimates, the problem with too much initial spreading in the simulation of certain types of landslides, the challenge of accounting for sudden channel obstructions in the simulation of debris flows, and the sensitivity of models to topographic resolution and filtering methods.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0104
       
  • Phreatic line calculation and stability analysis of slopes under the
           combined effect of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall
    • Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      Rainfall and reservoir water level fluctuations are the main external factors of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. To improve the analysis of slope stability under the combined effect of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall, a simplified method for phreatic line calculation of slopes is proposed in this study. Based on the obtained phreatic line, the expression of normal stress on the sliding surface of the slope under the hydrodynamic forces is deduced, and a global analysis method to solve the slope safety factor under hydrodynamic force is proposed. Finally, the safety evolution of a slope in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is studied under the combined effect of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-05T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0315
       
  • Integrated approaches for predicting soil-water characteristic curve and
           resilient modulus of compacted fine-grained subgrade soils
    • Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      This paper combines a series of approaches for predicting the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) and the variation of the resilient modulus (MR) of compacted fine-grained subgrade soils with moisture content, which is the key information required in mechanistic pavement design methods. The presented approaches for the SWCC and MR are integrated, as (i) they are developed following the same philosophy, (ii) they require only the measurements of the suction and moisture content or MR at saturated and optimum moisture content conditions for prediction, and (iii) the predicted SWCC is used for predicting the MR – moisture content relationship. Experimental studies have been performed on five fine-grained subgrade soils that were collected from different regions in Ontario, Canada, to determine their MR at various external stress levels and post-compaction moisture contents, as well as their SWCCs after the MR tests. Experimental measurements are predicted using the integrated approaches and the empirical approaches currently used in the mechanistic–empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG). It is demonstrated that the integrated approaches are easy to use and show improved reliability in predicting both the SWCC and MR for the investigated subgrade soils in spite of using limited experimental data.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-05T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0349
       
  • Experimental analysis of large-scale pullout tests conducted on polyester
           anchored geogrid reinforcement systems
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      The pullout resistance of reinforcement, such as geogrids in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls, includes the skin friction between the soil and solid geogrid surfaces. It also includes the bearing resistance against the transverse ribs, which has a greater influence on the production of pullout resistance. Taking the current limitations involved in producing woven polyester geogrids into consideration (i.e., the limited thickness of the transverse ribs), the amount of bearing resistance developed in front of transverse ribs is limited in the pullout mechanism. Thus, along with introducing an innovative and applied system, this research has endeavoured to demonstrate the effective performance of this new system in increasing the passive resistance — and thereby the pullout resistance — of standard geogrids. This new system, which is formed by adding steel transverse elements (a set of steel equal angles) to the ordinary polyester geogrids by means of nuts and bolts, is called an anchored geogrid (AG). The experimental results show that a spacing-to-height ratio of transversal elements equal to 5 gives the maximum pullout resistance for a polyester AG system in sandy soil used in the study. With an optimum arrangement, this system is capable of increasing the pullout resistance of the ordinary geogrid system by 65%. In addition, based on the plasticity solution, the pullout bearing failure mechanisms of a single isolated transverse element in the polyester AG system depend on overburden pressures.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-12-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0365
       
  • Field measurements of water storage capacity in a loess–gravel capillary
           barrier cover using rainfall simulation tests
    • Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Geotechnical Journal, e-First Articles.
      A 30 m long × 20 m wide capillary barrier cover (CBC) test site was constructed at the Jiangcungou landfill in Xi’an, China. The cover consisted of a compacted loess layer with a thickness of 0.9 m underlain by a gravel layer. After the cover surface was kept bare and exposed to natural climate conditions for nearly 5 months, one artificial rainfall event was implemented at the site. Vegetation was established at the test site after the first rainfall event. Four months later, a second artificial rainfall event was applied to the surface of the vegetated site. The pore-water pressures (PWPs) and volumetric water contents (VWCs) of the cover were monitored using jet-filled tensiometers and time-domain reflectometry moisture probes, respectively. Surface runoff and percolation were measured using field collection devices. The field measurements demonstrated a more rapid response of PWPs to the rainfall compared to the response of the VWCs. Percolation was observed when the PWPs near the interface reached the water-entry value of the gravel at local points. At that moment, the measured VWC near the interface was less than the VWC according to the water-entry value. The observation indicated that preferential flows took place in the compacted loess during the rainfall. As a result, the maximum water storage capacity was not reached at the onset of percolation. When percolation ceased, the average PWP near the interface decreased below the water-entry value, while the VWC near the interface was higher than that at the onset of percolation. Water storage at the completion of percolation was approximately 5% greater than that at the onset of percolation. Compared with the monolithic loess cover, the loess–gravel CBC increased the available water storage capacity by 41% at the completion of percolation. Vegetation had an insignificant influence on water storage capacity.
      Citation: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
      PubDate: 2016-11-15T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2016-0298
       
 
 
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