American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1941-7020 - ISSN (Online) 1941-7039
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Yield at Thermal Engines Internal Combustion
Abstract: The paper presents an algorithm to set the parameters of the dynamics of the classic mechanism the main of internal combustion. It shows the distribution of the forces (on the main mechanism of the engine) on engines with internal combustion. With these strong points and together with speeds of kinematic couplings shall be determined when the output of the engine heat shield. The method shall be applied separately for two distinct situations: When the engine is working on a compressor and in the system of the engine. For the two individual cases, two independent formulae are obtained for the efficiency of the engine. With these relations is then calculated with respect to the mechanical efficiency of the engine heat shield Otto, in four-stroke, for two-stroke engines and 4 stroke V. the final yield of the engine is obtained taking into account and thermal efficiency given by the Cycle Carnot program.
- Velocities and Accelerations at the 3R Mechatronic Systems
Abstract: This article presents an original method to determine the speeds and accelerations to structures MP R-3 The structure of the 3R (space) are known (required) rotation speeds of the triggers and must be determined speeds and accelerations of the endeffector M. Starting from the positions of direct kinematic system MP R-3deriving these system of relations in depending on the time, once and then a second time (the second derivation) is first obtains the speeds of the system and for the second time the accelerations endeffector point M. System on which must be resolved has three equations and three independent parameters to determine. Constructive basis is represented by a robot with three degrees of freedom (a robot with three axis of rotation). In the case where a study (analysis) a robot anthropomorphic with three axis of rotation (which represents the main movements, it is absolutely necessary), already has a system of the basis on which it can add other movements (secondary,). All calculations have been arranged and in the form of the array.
- Understanding Hybrid Additive Manufacturing of Functional Devices
Abstract: The fabrication of electronic components in three-dimensional space is critical for building multifunctional devices. Traditional manufacturing approaches are limited to building planar device configurations. In order to address this limitation, our group has developed a novel hybrid additive manufacturing process that can deposit multi-material patterns on conformal substrates. This direct-write approach involves the combination of microextrusion, pico jet and laser systems. A multi-axis robot was employed to deposit slurries and colloids of conductive materials on different substrates. Fine deposition of the slurries was achieved by tuning the process parameters such as deposition line speed, extrusion pressure, curing temperature, Z-height, laser beam spot, material type and laser intensity. Precise deposition of the medium viscous colloidal liquids was achieved by pico jet unit. Sintering of the micro/nano particles was achieved using a fiber optic laser system and micro wave furnace. The conductance of the deposited electrical trace varied based on the material type and trace cross-section area. This research lays the foundation to build a three-dimensional hierarchy of electronic components. By embedding components at various depths and orientations complex electronic circuitry with versatile material compositions and design flexibility can be fabricated in situ.
- Experimental Study of Composite Beams Made of Steel Tubes Filled with
Concrete under the Confinement Effect of U-Links and Stud-Plate
Abstract: Concrete strength improved substantially when lateral confinement stresses are provided. This effect has been exploited in this study in composite beams at the concrete compression zone. New type of confinement is used in this research. The confinement of concrete in the compression zone is accomplished by providing U-links and stud-plate systems. The U-links are steel bars in the shape of the letter U welded internally in a steel tube at the compression concrete zone. These tubes provide confinement effect similar to the stirrups used in reinforced concrete beams. The stud-plate element used in this study is made of steel bar welded to a horizontal plate at one of its end, while the other end is welded to the top of the steel tube at the compression zone from the inside of the tube. The main function of these two elements is to provide the concrete in the compression zone with confinement stresses. The composite beam is tested in bending under single load at the mid-span. The effect of the new confinement system is studied and compared with concrete filled tube without any confinement element. The failure mechanism is also a focus of this research along with the deflection at the mid-span of the beam. The effect of the new confinement system on the structural behavior of the composite beam is presented.
- Development of a Dashboard for a Local Food Bank
Abstract: Hunger relief is one of the major needs during humanitarian emergencies. It presents significant challenges to aid organizations trying to manage data, information and knowledge about the situation or event. Food banks receive donations from a variety of sources to meet their demand. The distribution of donated food to meet the unmet hunger needs is a critical issue faced by the food banks across the nation. This paper presents a methodology to apply interactive dashboards to a food bank's decision making process. The first step of this research focuses on understanding the existing decision making process of a food bank. Data from a local food bank was used for this research. Data mining tools were employed to develop predictive models for food bank decision making. Appropriate visualization techniques were identified that can be used to visualize the data mining results. An interactive dashboard was developed and evaluated to enable effective decision making. The results indicated that interactive dashboards were highly effective as compared to the traditional data retrieval system for decision making in food bank operations. The new methodology can be extended to other food banks and hunger-relief organizations which deal with big data.
- Comparative Assessment of Analytical models for the ULS Resistance
Verification of Structural Glass Elements under Variable Loads
Abstract: The design of glass structures, due to the intrinsic material properties, is mainly governed by the typical tensile brittle behavior of the material. In this regard, a currently open question related to the use of glass in buildings as a load-bearing constructional material, is represented by the correct estimation of static fatigue phenomena due to a generic combination of design actions. In this study, taking advantage of past literature contributions and existing design standards for glass, a novel analytical formulation is proposed for the resistance verification of a given structural glass elements under a Ultimate Limit State (ULS) combination of variable loads. The novel proposal is assessed towards three existing analytical formulations, based on two worked examples as well as an extended analytical analysis. In conclusion, the potential and criticisms of the examined approaches are discussed.
- Developing and Testing Dynamic Models for HVAC Systems Using System
Abstract: This paper proposes integrated modeling and optimization methods for a chilled water HVAC system using a system identification approach. Two multiple input-single output models are developed to find the supply air temperature and fan power of the investigated chilled water air handling unit AHU. To test the proposed models, actual data are collected from existing HVAC systems. Different fan and cooling coil model structures with various time delays and orders are tested to find the optimal model structure in term of normalized root-mean-square deviation or Coefficient Of Variances (COV). The paper also proposes an optimization procedure integrated into system identification model to automate the process of finding optimal fan and cooling coil model structures yielding the best accurate predictions. The testing results show that the proposed methods can provide accurate predictions that can used for several applications such as control optimization, energy assessment and fault detection and diagnosis.
- Something about the Balancing of Thermal Motors
Abstract: Internal combustion engines in line (regardless of whether the work in four-stroke engines and two-stroke engines Otto cycle engines, diesel and Lenoir) are, in general, the most used. Their problem of balancing is extremely important for their operation is correct. There are two possible types of balancing: Static and dynamic balance. The total static to make sure that the sum of the forces of inertia of a mechanism to be zero. There are also a static balance partial. Dynamic balance means to cancel all the moments (load) inertia of the mechanism. A way of the design of an engine in a straight line is that the difference between the crank 180 [°] or 120 [°]. A different type of construction of the engine is the engine with the cylinders in the opposite line, called "cylinder sportsmen". In this type of engine (regardless of their position, which is most often vertical) for engines with two cylinders, one has a static balance total and an imbalance in the dynamic. Similar to the model of the earth concentrated in rotation movement are resolved and load balancing shafts rotating parts. An important way to reduce losses of heat engines is how to achieve a better balance. The methods may be used in equal measure and on engines with external combustion, type Stirling or Watt.
- Biodegradation of 2, 4 Dichlorophenol
Abstract: The present study focuses on the optimization of process parameters of the aerobic biodegradation of 2, 4 Dichlorophenol (2, 4 DCP) by a commercial strain of P. putida immobilized in PVA gel matrix, using design of experiments by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The degradation rates obtained from these experiments were used to evaluate the effects of the main factors and their interactions during the biodegradation of 2, 4 DCP. An effective quadratic regression model predicting the rate in terms of the main independent variables, namely temperature, initial pH and initial concentration of 2, 4 DCP, was developed. The optimum conditions for DCP degradation were obtained as follows: Temperature 32.6°C, pH 5.0 and initial DCP concentration 70.5 mg L-1, resulting in a maximum predicted degradation rate of 41.8 mg L-1 h-1. Under these optimized conditions, a degradation rate of 40.1 mg L-1 h-1 was experimentally obtained, thus validating the model.
- Investigating the Efficacy of a Bio-Based Modifier to Improve the
Rheological Properties of Recycled Asphalt Shingles
Abstract: This study investigates the use of Bio-Binder, derived from swine manure, as an additive to improve rheological properties of bitumen extracted from recycled asphalt shingles. Test results show that adding Bio-Binder to Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) leads to reduced viscosity, modulus shear complex G*, relaxation time RT and segregation. Results illustrated that the derived Bio-Binder additive can remove the negative impact of oxidation and rejuvenate bitumen extracted from recycled asphalt shingles.
- New Strategy to Optimize Lean Supply Chain Design by Meta-Heuristic
Abstract: This paper aims at presenting one novel quantitative strategy of optimizing the design of Lean supply chain using Meta-Heuristics. While classifying Lean Manufacturing tools in two categories, namely Functional and Tier Lean tools, we propose a new framework to design the Lean supply chain by implementing the former into a 5-echelon Fat supply chain. As the following step, we investigate the effect of the latter on the mentioned Lean supply chain model. Then, we utilize the tight correlation of Tier Lean tools and priority-based Genetic Algorithm Meta-Heuristics in order to optimize the configuration of the Lean supply chain. Finally, these ideas are illustrated step by step in one numeral example.
- A Conceptualization of Distributed Computation for Machine Learning: The
Abstract: This paper describes a voting algorithm that can be used to find the most optimal solution to clustering problems in machine learning. As part of the family of algorithms known as Condorcet methods, the voting algorithm is used to choose a particular candidate, even in the absence of a definitive majority. The algorithm proceeds in two steps: Renormalization and reconciliation. In the renormalization step all probability measure are reset so that the ensemble probability is always unity. In the reconciliation step a best choice is made based on the renormalized data. The result showed an excellent performance due to the use of linear time computations.
- Optimization of Raw Materials for Preparation of Transparent Soil Based on
Analytic Hierarchy Process
Abstract: The application of man-made transparent soil has greatly contributed to the development of the visual research in physical model test. Comparing to the traditional model test, the transparent soil has advantages with respect to transparency, visualization, lower cost and utility et al. However, the transparency of material itself seriously restricted the effect of the results during the model text. This paper took the transparency as the evaluation standard, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to make clear the factors on transparency of transparent soil which are: Purity and transparency of materials, matching degree of refractive index, size distribution of aggregate, air content and loading-unloading rate while consolidation and taking the commonly used combinations of raw materials as the example, the optimal combination was obtained. The work described in this study can provide a certain theoretical guidance for selection of raw materials and to improve the transparency during the preparation of transparent soil.
- Design and Simulation of Novel Gated Integrator for the Heavy ion Beam
Abstract: In this study, the objective is to realize a Gated Integrator (GI) circuit for silicon strip, Si(Li), CdZnTe and CsI detectors etc. With the development of radioactive ion beam physics, heavy-charged particles like carbon ions have been applied to the treatment of deep-seated inoperable tumors in the therapy terminal of the Heavy ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) located at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). A high resolution current measurement circuit was developed to monitor the beam current at 1pA range. The circuit consisted of a low current high sensitivity I/V converter and gated integrator in an energy spectroscopy. A low offset voltage precision amplifier and new guarding and shielding techniques were used in the I/V converter circuit which allowed to measure low current. This paper will show a MOS switch configuration which is used to prevent leakage current and novel technique to compensate a charge injection in the reset switch.
- Low Power Multiplier by Effective Capacitance Reduction
Abstract: In this study we present an energy efficient multiplier design based on effective capacitance minimization. Only the partial product reduction stage in the multiplier is considered in this research. The effective capacitance at a node is defined as the product of capacitance and switching activity at that node. Hence to minimize the effective capacitance, we decided to ensure that the switching activity of nodes with higher capacitance is kept to a minimum. This is achieved by wiring the higher switching activity signals to nodes with lower capacitance and vice versa, for the 4:2 compressor and adder cells. This reduced the overall switching capacitance, thereby reducing the total power consumption of the multiplier. Power analysis was done by synthesizing our design on Spartan-3E FPGA. The dynamic power for our 1616 multiplier was measured as 360.74 mW and the total power 443.31 mW. This is 17.4% less compared to the most recent design. Also, we noticed that our design has the lowest power-delay product compared to the multipliers presented in literature.
- The Use of Genetic Optimization for Design of Small Diesel-Battery
Abstract: Design of a Small Diesel-Battery Submarine (SDBS) has been carried out using Multi-Objectives Genetic Algorithm optimization combined with Analytical Hierarchy Process to meet the operation requirements. The objective attributes for this optimization are cost and effectiveness. The product of this optimization is a series of cost-effectiveness frontiers in the scattered graph which are used to select alternative designs based on the Indonesian Navy's preference. It is found that the Length of the submarine is 28 m with Diameter 4 m. The sprint power of 20 knots determines the motor power while the endurance power of 5 knots determines the battery capacity.
- An NPV Optimization Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network Design and
Abstract: As the importance of forward-reverse logistics increases, attention will be focused on parameters which affect Net Present Value (NPV) of the whole system, aiming at considering the time value of money in planning. In this research, an NPV optimization model for multi-period multi-product closed-loop supply chain network design and planning is developed to maximize the total NPV. The effect of interest rates on profit and performance, the effect of the maximum return ratio on the overall NPV of the system and the effect of interest rate change on the network configuration are studied.
- Numerical Study on the Influence of Fault on the Seepage and Stress Field
Abstract: In the process of water injection in oil field, the fault will affect the seepage field and stress field of the formation, which leads to the deformation and destruction of the formation. Therefore, more casing damage wells are found around the fault. In order to study the influence of fault on the formation in the process of water injection, a reservoir model including one closed fault was established based on the fluid-solid coupling method and the characteristics of seepage field and stress field near the fault were studied. The results show that the closed fault will obstruct the flow path of the fluid in the formation, resulting in the independence of the seepage and stress characteristics on both sides of the fault. The pore pressure and formation stress of injection side of fault are higher than that of production side and bigger shear stress is observed at the junction between the fault and the permeable stratum.
- High Performance and Low Leakage 3DSOI Fin-FET SRAM
Abstract: In recent semiconductor designs, the major key factors: Competent device simulations, precise device characterization, well power optimization, new architectural design and cost-effective fabrication drives the designers attention towards multi gate transistors as an alternative to MOSFET. Non planner device structures are a competitive edge over planner devices. Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) FinFETs are hopeful among variety of multi-gate structures as they have simple fabrication, Superior gate control, lower subthreshold leakage and minimized susceptibility to process variations. Low leakage memory cells play a significant role of power consumption in the recent VLSI Systems. In this study, Ultra-low Voltage Asymmetric Short Gate (UVASG) FinFET is modeled with TCAD tools for low leakages and FinFET based SRAM has been proposed as a substitute for the bulk devices.
- Application of Titanium Dioxide Self-Cleaning Coatings on Photovoltaic
Modules for Soiling Related Losses Reduction
Abstract: Several studies have assessed the influence of soiling deposition on Photovoltaic (PV) modules front-cover with regards to performance losses over time. In fact, soiling phenomena in PV systems are ascribed as responsible for medium and long-term yield reduction up to 16% over the first-year of outdoor exposure. Provided that PV technology is a low yield energy production source, maintaining module initial power output declared values is of the outmost importance to ensure that the return time of investment matches project calculations. The scope of this work was a detailed investigation on self-cleaning coating application as a viable retrofit option on already installed modules, or on newly built PV systems, to avoid soiling build-up on front-covers and guarantee threshold performance level in time. The aim is to provide system designers with a consistent alternative to manual cleaning, without losing effectiveness in terms of yield maintenance. The use of self-cleaning coating instead of acting on panels on a regular basis is more convenient in terms of operation and cost. These issues were analyzed through a set of experiments performed both on commercial size modules and laboratory assembled samples. Results prove product compatibility with PV components and its effectiveness in preventing soiling and dust deposition. Outcomes are presented in terms of maximum power output (Pmax) variation according to measurements performed in Standard Test Conditions (STC) at different time steps. In addition, a parallel comparison with uncoated modules exposed to the same outdoor conditions is also proposed to allow for Pmax variation monitoring performed on a reference sample.
- High-Speed for Data Transmission in GSM Networks Based on Cognitive Radio
Abstract: This paper mainly studies data transmission DT rate in the modern communication systems. Increasing the need to improve the sensitivity of the control systems to detect low signals weak capacity density in view of the increasing communications systems new radio that use the capacity is decreasing and the scope of the taking of spaciousness and frequencies are on the rise. This proposed approaches Methodology: Of the combined macro cellular and micro cellular networks on the principles of the cognitive radio, Provide in parallel with the work of the main GSM network to transfer data at a rate of several tens of megabits per second depending on the High-speed for Data transmission in GSM networks based on Cognitive Radio (CR) technology and its various aspects that may play a very important role in the field of next generation wireless communication networks.
- Numerical Simulation of Flexural-tensile Properties of Reinforced Concrete
Abstract: Reinforced concrete is a kind of typical composite and reinforced concrete structure is widely used in the construction of a kind of structure, the flexural-tensile properties is very important for structure design optimization. In this study, the 2 dimensional numerical model of reinforced concrete beam is established by using ANSYS software and the effects of the thickness of the protective layer, the reinforcement ratio and the size of the specimen on the flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams are studied. The research shows that the failure of reinforced concrete beams is started in the middle and bottom of the beam and the influence of the specimen size on the failure load is the most significant, the mid-span stress increases with the decrease of thickness of protective layer and reinforcement ratio.
- Sparse Representation Tracking with Auxiliary Adaptive Appearance Models
Abstract: We propose an effective tracking algorithm based on sparse representation and auxiliary adaptive appearance modeling. Based on a sparse representation, l1 minimization can follow targets in challenging situations. Unfortunately, tracking approaches based on l1 minimization are likely to be inefficient because they measure using dense coefficient distributions. The number of target candidates can be very large when the state space is densely sampled. Each minimization takes long time to find the solution. Traditionally, we must calculate the coefficients for each tracking candidates, which is computationally expensive. In this work, we found that l1 minimization can be limited to a few regions with the reasonable probability based on adaptive appearance modeling and background probability estimation. Therefore, the computational cost is greatly reduced. We have also found that appearance information is useful for the region selection. We form the basis of appearance modeling using colors and shapes. The results of the experiment show that the proposed tracker has good performance.
- Blind Pre-Coder for MIMO System Capacity Enhancement
Abstract: In this study, linear scheme at the transmitter is proposed as a blind pre-coder to improve the performance and enhance the channel capacity of MIMO systems with certain configurations for transmitting and receiving antennas over fading channels. This is accomplished by generating a specific linear pre-coder matrix without having any prior information about the Channel State (CS) matrix. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of this linear pre-coder at the transmitter to enhance the MIMO channel capacity for all types of correlations.
- Evaluation of Customer Behaviour Irregularities in Cameroon Electricity
Network using Support Vector Machine
Abstract: Non-Technical Losses (NTLs) in the Cameroonians electricity network are approximately 30 to 40% of production and are estimated at several billion CFA francs per year for National Electricity Company (ENEO); Hence the importance of finding effective solutions to fight against these losses. The purpose of this work was to develop a tool for the fraud detection for Cameroon National Electricity Company (ENEO) using support vector machines which consisted in data preprocessing base on the load profile, development of a model for classification, parameter optimization and detection of customers irregularities and prediction.