American Journal of Applied Sciences
[SJR: 0.254] [H-I: 28] [28 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1546-9239 - ISSN (Online) 1554-3641
Published by Science Publications [28 journals]
- Climate Projections of Future Extreme Events in Malaysia
Abstract: In Malaysia, extreme rainfall events are often linked to a number of environmental disasters such as landslides, monsoonal and flash floods. In response to the negative impacts of such disaster, studies assessing the changes and projections of extreme rainfall are vital in order to gather climate change information for better management of hydrological processes. This study investigates the changes and projections of extreme rainfall over Peninsular Malaysia for the period 2081-2100 based on the RCP 6.0 scenario. In particular, this study adopted the statistical downscaling method which enables high resolution, such as hourly data, to be used for the input. Short duration and high intensity convective rainfall is a normal feature of tropical rainfall especially in the western part of the peninsular. The proposed method, the Advanced Weather Generator model is constructed based on thirty years of hourly rainfall data from forty stations. To account for uncertainties, an ensemble multi-model of five General Circulation Model realizations is chosen to generate projections of extreme rainfall for the period 2081-2100. Results of the study indicate a possible increase in future extreme events for both the hourly and 24 h extreme rainfall with the latter showing a wider spatial distribution of increase.
- Cavern Design Philosophy under High Stress Rock Condition a Case Study in
Abstract: For stabilizing of rock cavern stress condition and orientation, rock properties and cavern geometry have determinant effects. Numerical and analytical study and knowledge about self-support arching can assist to designer in appropriate understanding of cavern and ground interaction. The comparative studies by E. Hoek, showed that the mushroom shaped cavern was not an acceptable design because of high value stress concentration. The elliptical cavern provide best stress distribution. In this research 5 basic concept in a case study cavern design under high stress condition has been studied. Orientation of cavern and cross section shape have a dominant influence in stress redistribution and forming self-support arch, respectively. Very small tangential stress may create radial crack in periphery of the opening. If the rock mass is hard and brittle, rock burst problem may arises in the area of high compressive stress when the rock mass strength is lesser than the imposed compressive stress. If the strength of rock is low compare to the stresses on it. Instability problems may arise after few years of excavation. Uma Oya underground hydro power project has chosen as a case study. High value of horizontal stress (k>1) might cause buckling effect in walls. Result indicates that high value of horizontal stress might cause local tensile spalling. Plastic zones extend to the pillar between to caverns more than 30 to 1.5 m in the roof. Even after rock bolting, there is considerable tensile zone. About 5 m deep tensile zones are calculated in the walls and a tensile zone of 2 m deep in the roof. The thickness of arching are calculated 4.8 to 5.5 for power house and 1.6 to 1.7 m for transformer cavern, via FEM analysis.
- Taxation of End Consumption: Effect on Country Economies and its
Abstract: International experience of the largest countries' economies of the last decade demonstrates that the use of Value Added Tax (VAT) in taxation of consumption is used more actively and is gradually squeezing out the sales tax. In most countries of the world VAT ensures between 12 and 30% of stable budget revenues. Taking statistical data selected with the help of the Ordinary Least Squares method as a basis, changes in the ratio of VAT received by the budget to GDP in the economies of different states for the 1995 – 2015 period were studied. The best ratio of the economic data was revealed in the Czech Republic and Mexico, where sustainable growth of the ratio amounted to 0.0008 – 0.0009 respectively. A significantly lower correlation of the data was noticed in Austria and France, the correlation is conspicuous for its negative value of the regression coefficient. The research we have undertaken in relation with several states has shown the following consistent pattern: an average value of the share of VAT is less (by 10%) dependent on the development and state of the economy of the countries we have compared than (over 60%) on the taxation rules established by laws on each state (the use of tax incentives, lower tax rates, etc.). Our research of VAT effect on the economies of countries has revealed a number of specific problems, which weaken the mechanism of collection and payment of the tax. Consequently, to solve the macroeconomic problems of VAT, additional measures aimed at organizations' revenue growth should be undertaken. Another area should be the improvement of the tax incentive and exemption system as well as the removal of existing possibilities of tax evasion. These measures will allow the government to adjust the basic rate downwards in the middle term.
- Monte Carlos Simulation Approach to Population Dynamics of Sickle Cell
Abstract: Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a serious inherited blood disorder where the red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body develop abnormally. The mathematical dynamics of the disease remain poorly understood, as such this paper investigates the mathematical inheritance pattern of the disease by the application of Monte Carlos simulation technique which is a complementary approach to physical simulation Smith’s statistical package was used as random number generator in which the simulated birth from different mating indicates that SS has an average of 2.4% neonates, AS has 29.9% and AA has 67.7%. We thus, conclude that eradication of SCA is not visible. However, curative measure of SCA remains paramount.
- Common Fixed Point Theorems for Four Maps in G-Partial Metric Spaces
Abstract: The common fixed point principle for two set of maps satisfying specified contractive conditions in cone metric spaces is proved in the context of G-partial metric space and none of the maps involved therein is continuous. Our research outcome extends well known similar results available in the literature.
- Measuring three Demarketing Cases using Statistical Methods
Abstract: This paper applies statistical measures to illustrate effects of 'demarketing' in three case studies. The first case involves a leading Internet café which had recently lost customers to rivals in the same trading environment. The second one involves a reputable Chicken farm that had also lost many clients. The third one involves a Catering services company that had lost some of its customers. The three cases are respectively labelled 'Int café', 'Chicken farm' and 'Catering services'. Despite these being dissimilar cases, some similarities occurred with the way they lost favor with their clients. The paper calculates and compares the demarketing effects in the three cases using the measures.
- Performance Evaluation of Channel Propagation Models and Developed Model
for Mobile Communication
Abstract: Propagation models represent a solidifying of mathematical equations and algorithms that are used for radio signal propagation prediction in specific regions. In this research different propagation models are analyzed and compared. These propagation models have been proposed at the operating frequency of 3.8 GHz for different transmitter antenna heights in all types of terrain. These propagation models depend on location, frequency range and clutter type such as urban, suburban and countryside. We have to bear in mind that the results of the path loss estimation of Free Space model are identical and equal to (119 dB) for 18 m and 34 m transmitter antenna heights at 3.8 GHz in urban environment. It is obvious that Egli model shows the highest path loss values in rural environment as compared with the other models. By the end of this paper, a developed empirical radio propagation model is proposed to be appropriate in urban and rural environments.
- Bibliometric Measures of Research Output of Lower Middle Income Economies
Abstract: To understand the path of Lower Middle Income (LMIC) Economies towards economic stability as far as Science, Technology and Innovation are concerned; this paper conducts trend analysis of research output in science-based disciplines of the 55 countries in the LMIC bracket, grouped into the 6 continents of the world. Factors of interest across the six regions were (1) source of funding for scientific research output measured against percentage share of Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD), (2) R&D share of GDP measured against three key determinants of growth in Science, Technology and Innovation (Services, value added (% of GDP); Industry, value added (% of GDP) and High technology exports (% of manufactured exports),) and (3) scientific research publications measured against the three determinants of growth in Science, Technology and Innovation. The results show that, in the period of 2000-2012, the combined performance of LMIC countries in the Oceania region were relatively higher in the Services, value added (% of GDP) and High technology exports (% of manufactured exports) than LMICs in other regions. South America's LMICs performed relatively better under Industry, value added (% of GDP) than other LMICs. The study helps to understand whether investments made in scientific research in LMICs have corresponding effect on the production of Science, Technology and Innovation.
- Synthesis of Graphene on Conducting Substrate by Electrochemical
Abstract: Investigation to optimize the synthesis process of graphene on conducting substrate is essential for many applications. In this investigation suitable approach to extract graphene thin film on a conductive ITO substrate is optimized. This optimization is carried out by electrochemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide (RGO) solution utilizing a repetitive cyclic potential against reference electrode. To do this, Silver chloride reference electrode is employed within a three electrode system at a potential range of (0 to -1.5) V. A number of four consecutive cycles is used to obtain a negative reduction peak. Yet more importantly the material’s electrochemical properties were studied by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) operation. From CV, it is clear that, the surface area with electrodeposition from ITO to RGO/ITO and RGO/RGO/ITO rates in a potential window of (2V) for (-1 to 1) V is improved. Moreover, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) showed reduced electrode surface internal resistance of the modified electrode that dramatic decreased in comparison from 96.33kΩ of RGO/ITO to 32Ω of RGO/RGO/ITO. In addition, Charge/Discharge Cycle (CDC) is obtained that showed relatively symmetrical charging property along with its corresponding discharge equivalents viewing rapid charging/discharging process that favors redox process for increased mobility and thus conductivity improvement. Moreover the modified electrode was studied for its physical characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that showed uniform reduced graphene sheets deposition with particles diameter ranging from 1.65µm to 635nm. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used in contact mode for a square area of 5µm showing increased surface roughness from ITO of 2.773nm in comparison to Reduced Graphene Oxide/RGO/ITO 34.93nm. Results also proved that deposition of multiple layers of Graphene could strongly improve energy storage applications if implemented by allowing the material to hold greater charge in smaller area. This will lead to enhance the power densities far beyond existing electrochemical capacitors in a cost effective eco-friendly manner.
- The Social Impacts of Rice Distribution Program for Poor People
Abstract: This research aims at identifying the social impacts of rice distribution program at Batua in Panakukkang district, Makassar city. This research is a kind of survey research. In this research, the technique of data analysis is a qualitative descriptive that explores research results descriptively. The research results showed that there is no impact economically, because the distribution is only enough for food, not to fulfill other needs like clothes and shelter. The results also showed that there is no impact to sociocultural conditions of the receivers.
- MEMS Based RF Energy Harvester for Battery-Less Remote Control: A Review
Abstract: The paper deals with the growing interest of energy harvesting systems due to great development in many new emerging technologies in electronics and telecommunication. The research focuses particularly about rectenna element comprises of antenna, impedance matching and rectifier. The rectenna is applied under Micro-Electromechanical-System (MEMS) technology design use in Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvester. MEMS is a technology of miniaturization that has been mostly adopted from integrated circuit industry together on a chip that are made using micro fabrication technique and applied for not only electrical systems. RF ambient source is considered over other ambient sources because RF can be broadcasted by various wireless systems in unlicensed frequency bands. However, the amount of energy captured from the ambient RF is extremely low which need improvements and more Direct Current (DC) voltage generated from RF energy harvester. For this motivation, a dual band MEMS rectenna is proposed for maximizing the efficiency. Power Management Unit (PMU) is interposed between MEMS rectenna and a load. The system is equipped with temporary energy storage and voltage regulator to produce optimum output voltage. The paper proposes a system that is designed and simulated using PSpice software and modeled in Mentor Graphic. The stated result from RF MEMS energy harvester is to provide functional conversion efficiency and reliable energy harvesting system to reach 1.5-3.0 V output voltage for operating frequency at 1.9 and 2.45 GHz from RF input power at -20 dBm with reveal approximately 100% improvement over other existing designs. The conceptual design can be the platform for innovative developments in recent technologies to achieve wireless transmission powered only by RF MEMS energy harvester.
- Hybrid Block Method for Direct Numerical Approximation of Second Order
Initial Value Problems Using Taylor Series Expansions
Abstract: In this article, a hybrid block method is utilized for the numerical approximation of second order Initial Value Problems (IVPs). The rigor of reduction to a system of first order initial value problems is bypassed as the hybrid block method directly solves the second order IVPs. Likewise, the methodology utilized also avoids the cumbersome steps involved in the widely adopted interpolation approach for developing hybrid block methods as a simple and easy to implement algorithm using the knowledge from the conventional Taylor series expansions with less cumbersome steps is introduced. To further justify the usability of this hybrid block method, the basic properties which will infer convergence when adopted to solve differential equations are investigated. The hybrid block method validates its superiority over existing methods as seen in the improved accuracy when solving the considered numerical examples.
- Use of the Nere Pod (Parkia Biglobosa) for the Improvement of Mechanical
Properties of Soils
Abstract: Buildings made of unbaked clay have some advantage in terms of production cost. However, they have some inconveniences concerning their mechanical performance, particularly their resistance to weather. The objective of this study is to minimize these disadvantages and to maximize the benefits of such buildings to make them more viable. For this purpose, a method based on a traditional practice where the néré pod is utilized as a color wash, as well as, a binder is used. In the first case (color wash), it is to protect the building against weather damage, in the latter case, it is used to improve the mechanical performance of the coatings on the ground and it is in this way that rural people use to keep more sustainable homes. To achieve this, geotechnical characteristics were studied on seven (07) soil samples collected in seven (07) localities in Togo (Kovié, Aouda Zanguéra, Sarakawa Tagbamba, Goumoukopé and BB Lomé). The same geotechnical characteristics were studied on the same soil samples enhanced by adding the néré pods. Finally, a study was conducted to optimize the performance of this new composite material (soil-néré pod) based on the proportion of néré pod within the material. To manufacture a brick of dimensions of 22×14×9.5 cm, 8.5 kg of the mixture was needed and the amount of dampening water needed was equal to the amount of water to obtain optimum Proctor plus 2%. The results of these tests confirmed that néré pods help to improve the mechanical performance, especially the resistance to compression and puncture of the soils under consideration.
- Processability of Bulk Metallic Glasses
Abstract: Microfluidic Shear Flow Instabilities in Injection Molded Glassy Metal are investigated. The formation of microfluidic shear flows instabilities involving the presence of different viscosities fluids has been observed in injection molded Bulk Metallic Glasses. The complex rheology of injection molded metastable glassy metal, which has been hypothesized to induce selective clustering of atoms of different steric hindrance, is discussed. Smaller Be, Cu and Ni atomsmay differently rearrange themselves in the bulk metal glassy super cooled liquids forming flow streams of lower viscosity. Segregation of atoms of different size could activate a variety of viscous flow instabilities such as folding and swirling. FEI Scios Dual-Beam Electron scanning and optical microscopy observations of a commercial liquid metal alloy (Zr44Ti11Cu10Ni10Be25) have been carried out. We discussed the influence of short-range order clusters distribution and its effect in locally induced shear flow instability and corrosion resistance.
- A new Framework of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) Based on
Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Abstract: Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) is a new concept followed especially in private sector; it is an approach to managing human resource that supports long-term business goals, it tries to enhance the management of HR to a strategic level through human capital. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the main concepts used in the strategic human resource management, including the management and planning of human resource and focusing on the strategy formulation steps to arrive to a general framework of the SHRM. The present study was performed after analysing the SHRM formulation steps and proposing the process of implementation in the public and private sectors, the proposed framework suggests the use of scientific tools such as Markov modelling for the HR supply forecasting and the fuzzy method to refine the choice of a suitable strategy among others. The main finding of the paper is the proposition of a framework of SHRM that relies on quantitative and qualitative data, which enable us to rely on well analysed information to build a strategy. The reason behind this is to emphasize and encourage the use of scientific models in order to approach the reality and to refine the future projections.
- Using Crump Rubber (CR) of Scrap Tire in Hot Mix Asphalt Design
Abstract: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) design is one of the most important types of pavement used in highway construction. This research provided a hot mixture design method modifying with Crump Rubber Scrap Tire (CR) in order to develop and determining the optimum additive for hot mix asphalt design. All tests conducted to the raw material including specific gravity, compact test and absorption content to ensuring its quality. In this research, hot mix designed as a stander without any additives and with (4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7%) percent of asphalt content. All specimens of each asphalt percent content were tested after 24 h, according to AASHTO. The additives in this research were prepared by two methods (wet process and dry process). The results show that in dry process all additives cause a failure and the segregation was the major reason for failure. In wet process the selected wet process at 5.5% CR by weight of binder content was optimum were its raising the stability value to 65% of original stability in standard mix, which lead to decreasing the rutting effects.
- Human Capital Competitiveness in ASEAN Economic Community (AEC): The Role
of Regulation, Indonesia Experiences
Abstract: The AEC is an economic integration between ASEAN countries with the creation of a free market generally in the context of capital, goods and services and labor. The AEC opens the gate for all countries to invest and have better mutual cooperation. Indonesia experienced a big leap from 50 to 37 in the World Economic Forum (WEF) competitiveness ranking. As the largest population in the ASEAN, Indonesia must work harder to compete with the advanced educated labor force from Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. Some challenges to develop the human capital. The problems that exist in the context of human resources and labor in Indonesia today such as lack of expertise, low education, inadequate facilities, low competitiveness, unemployment, imbalance salaries, low productivity and many others, but these problems do not make Indonesia retreat and avoiding the free market competition. MEA 2015 should not lead Indonesian labor plunged in their own home, but MEA expected to drive Indonesian workers able to exchange experiences and advance skill from other countries.
- Review on Vision-Based Gait Recognition: Representations, Classification
Schemes and Datasets
Abstract: Gait has unique advantage at a distance when other biometrics cannot be used since they are at too low resolution or obscured, as commonly observed in visual surveillance systems. This paper provides a survey of the technical advancements in vision-based gait recognition. A wide range of publications are discussed in this survey embracing different perspectives of the research in this area, including gait feature extraction, classification schemes and standard gait databases. There are two major groups of the state-of-the-art techniques in characterizing gait: Model-based and motion-free. The model-based approach obtains a set of body or motion parameters via human body or motion modeling. The model-free approach, on the other hand, derives a description of the motion without assuming any model. Each major category is further organized into several subcategories based on the nature of gait representation. In addition, some widely used classification schemes and benchmark databases for evaluating performance are also discussed.
- The use of Expected Utility Theory (EUT) in Taxpayers' Behaviour
Abstract: In this study, we analyze taxpayers' behaviour regarding tax system. We present a theoretical study of a model pre established by other authors based on the expected utility theory; taxpayer's behavior is assumed to be risk-averse. We have released some conditions of this model and we have introduced a new parameter reflecting the efficiency of tax control; we found that the efficiency of a fiscal control have an important effect on these interactions. Previous studies are based on a maximal efficiency of tax control, which is a particular case of our model. We found that for Moroccan case, the fraud is related to the size of companies; it's more important in the big companies than small and medium enterprises. This result can be used as a tool to reconsider administrative approaches of tax compliance.
- A Comparison between Different Data Mining Algorithms in Freight Mode
Abstract: This research aims to study application of support vector machine algorithm, artificial neural networks and five different types of decision trees in predicting mode choice of freight transportation. Performance of these models has been compared with log it model which is one the most prevalent statistical models in the field. Effect of factors such as cargo weight, distance, type and characteristics of commodity has been studied in process of modelling mode choice which is rail and road. In this regard, data gathered in the United States, is used and similarities and advantages of the models are described in details. Results indicated that cost-sensitive support vector machine is the best method in predicting shipment mode choice. After this method, stand C5 decision tree and artificial neural network. The most important variables in determining shipment mode choice of firms are respectively weight, great-circle distance between origin and destination, commodity type, compound impedance factor of rail and truck and containerized condition of the shipment to be moved.
- Performance Analysis of Threshold Based Compressive Sensing Algorithm in
Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are comprised of spatially distributed sensor nodes, where each node contains sensors, processors and transceivers for communicating data. Regardless of the application in which the sensor network is serving, the data generated in the network eventually must be delivered to the sink. However the limited network bandwidth, frequent node/link failure along with the unreliable communication medium poses great challenges for node to node communication in WSN. Hence, energy efficient data compression algorithms are necessary for sensor nodes as they enhance the transmission efficiency in WSN. Compressive sensing is a new compression algorithm in which the input signal is converted into sparse signal and the sparse signal is further converted into a signal of reduded dimension than original signal. The dimensionality reduction improves the transmission efficiency. This new concept is recently applied in WSN, however suitable threshold selection to sparsify the one dimensional sensor reading and suitable sparifying basis for image input data are not considered in literature. Hence, in this paper analysis of compressive sensing algorithm with a suitable threshold selection is performed in order to increase the level of sparsity for one dimensional data and a suitable sparsifying basis selection is performed for image data. Results indicate that compressive sensing with suitable threshold selection improves transmission and bandwidth efficiency in case of low correlated one dimensional sensor data and a suitable basis improves the quality of transmission for image sensor data and hence the overall lifetime of sensor network can be increased.
- GIS-Based Optimal Site Selection for Installation of Large-Scale Smart
Grid-Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Power Plants in Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: This study presents a GIS-based model to identify optimal sites to install large-scale smart grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) power plants. Input datasets include digital elevation model, road networks, grid lines and daily average solar radiation. Using multi-criteria decision-making approach, we set constraining conditions for slope, proximity to the road, proximity to grid lines, solar radiation and land use to optimize the process of selecting suitable sites. Also, we predicted energy generation potential, installation capacity and CO2 emission reduction potential. The result shows that 790.48 km2 (40%) of the study is optimal for large-scale PV installation. Furthermore, a total of 105276.88 GWh/yr annual electricity generation, 59.29 GW installation capacity and yearly CO2 emission reduction of 66324 (kt–CO2/yr) are estimated for Selangor. This study indicates that based on the 2030 national energy demand, about 38.4% of the annual energy demand could be met if 59.29 GW capacity is install in Selangor. Similarly, the study predicts 13.2% annual carbon emission reduction offset from the predicted 2020 CO2 emission.
- An Improved Speed-Density Relationship Model for Pedestrian Flow
Abstract: The speed-density relationship performs as a basis to realize the behavior of a complex system such as vehicular or pedestrian traffic flow. Based on the speed-density relationship, the relationships between other pedestrian characteristics such as speed-flow, flow-density and speed-pedestrian module could be derived. Compared to vehicular flow, very little research has been done to develop a general model to describe pedestrian speed-density relationship. The widely used exponential speed-density models, the Underwood model and the Drake model show that the maximum flow is obtained at jam density, which is illogical because at jam density the movement is very limited and the speed will be at its minimum level. In this study, we propose an improved deterministic speed-density model for pedestrian flow which is an important contribution in the field of pedestrian studies. The proposed model shows that the maximum flow occurs at a density which is less than the jam density and thus, overcoming the limitations of the existing models. The validity of the model is empirically verified by primary and secondary datasets. The results showed that the proposed model can describe the speed-density relationship for all the datasets that were collected for different scenarios such as indoor and outdoor facilities. This model can be used as a general speed-density relationship.
- Lung Sound Classification Using Empirical Mode Decomposition and the
Abstract: Lung sound is produced by the respiration process in the human respiratory tract. It contains information about the health of the respiratory organs. Lung sound is non-stationary signals and complex signals. One method for the analysis of non-stationary signals often used for the analysis of lung sounds is Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is used to view the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) of the lung sound to differentiate the types of lung sounds. Features extraction directly on Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) of EMD result is rarely performed in the lung sound analysis. In this research, the EMD was used to obtain IMF of lung sounds. IMF from lung sounds was then analyzed using the Hjorth descriptors. As a classifier, we used Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) with a three-fold cross validation (3fold CV) for validation. From the test, it was found that activity parameter in the first 10 IMF yielded 98.8% accuracy on five classes of data tested. The proposed method showed the excellence of the measurement of the Hjorth descriptor on IMF for feature extraction in lung sound classification.
- Investigation of the Characteristics of Thulium Doped Alumina
Nanoparticles for Applications in Silica-Based Fibers
Abstract: It is reported that during the fabrication of doping RE ions into the silica preform, the distribution of particles is inhomogeneous and becomes uneven throughout the fiber which lead to unwanted spectroscopic characteristics. It is assumed that by using thulium doped with alumina, the problem with the inhomogeneity of the particles inside the fiber can be solved. With the incorporation of alumina particles with thulium ions, the clustering effect and the ion-ion interactions between the ions can be prevented. In this research, thulium doped alumina nanoparticles will be synthesized by using sol-gel method to achieve particles within the nanoscale range of less than 100 nm in size, evenly distributed nanoparticles and high uniformity. The characterization activities will be perform by using optical microscope, FESEM, EDS and particle analyzer to identify the properties of the resulting solutions. By doping thulium with alumina nanoparticles, it is assumed that the amplification in the transmission systems can be increased and the conversion of passive optical fibers to active fibers can be achieved.