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ENGINEERING (1204 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-9537 - ISSN (Online) 1435-9529
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • In situ observation of storm-wave-induced seabed deformation with a
           submarine landslide monitoring system
    • Authors: Zhenhao Wang; Yonggang Jia; Xiaolei Liu; Dong Wang; Hongxian Shan; Lei Guo; Wei Wei
      Abstract: Abstract Submarine landslides move large volumes of sediment and are often hazardous to offshore installations. Current research into submarine landslides mainly relies on marine surveying techniques. In contrast, in situ observations of the submarine landslide process, specifically seabed deformation, are sparse, and therefore restrict our understanding of submarine landslide mechanisms and the establishment of a disaster warning scheme. The submarine landslide monitoring (SLM) system, which has been designed to partly overcome these pitfalls, can monitor storm-wave-induced submarine landslides in situ and over a long time period. The SLM system comprises two parts: (1) a hydrodynamic monitoring tripod for recording hydrodynamic data (e.g., waves, tides, and currents) and (2) a shape accel array for recording seabed deformation at different depths. This study recorded the development of the SLM system and the results of in situ observation in the Yellow River Delta, China, during the boreal winter of 2014–2015. The results show an abrupt small-scale storm-wave-induced seabed shear deformation; the shear interface is in at least 1.5-m depth and the displacement of sediments at 1.23-m depth is more than 13 mm. The performance of the SLM system under real-time field monitoring conditions confirms the feasibility and stability of this approach.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1130-4
  • Prediction of rock burst in underground caverns based on rough set and
           extensible comprehensive evaluation
    • Authors: Yiguo Xue; Zhiqiang Li; Shucai Li; Daohong Qiu; Yufan Tao; Lin Wang; Weimin Yang; Kai Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract In high terrestrial stress regions, rock burst is a major geological disaster influencing underground engineering construction significantly. How to carry out efficient and accurate rock burst prediction is still not resolved. In this paper, a new rock burst evaluation method based on rough set theory and extension theory is proposed. In the method the following seven indexes were selected as indices to evaluate and predict rock bursts: uniaxial compressive strength, ratio of rock strength to in situ stress, ratio of rock compressive strength to tensile strength, ratio of tangential stress and rock compressive strength, elastic strain energy index, depth of tunnel, and rock integrity. According to rough set theory, those indexes influencing rock bursts were investigated through attribute reduction operation to obtain four main influential indexes and the weight coefficients of each evaluation index were acquired by analysing the significance of conditional attribute. Thereafter, the main influential indexes and its weight were taken into the extension theory to predict the practical engineering. This method was applied to a practical case, underground caverns of Jiangbian hydropower station in China’s Sichuan province. It is proved that the evaluation results of the method were well consistent with real conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1117-1
  • Dynamic characteristics of saturated loess under different confining
           pressures: a microscopic analysis
    • Authors: Huie Chen; Yaling Jiang; Cencen Niu; Guanjun Leng; Guili Tian
      Abstract: Abstract To explore the influence of confining pressure on the dynamic characteristics of saturated loess and variation of the characteristics in micro-mechanisms therein, dynamic triaxial testing of loess from Xianyang was carried out. The dynamic elastic modulus of saturated loess after different numbers of cycles was available through the test and the relationship between the dynamic elastic modulus and confining pressure can be analysed. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination was conducted to assess the microstructural characteristics of the specimens. From both qualitative and quantitative aspects, the variations in microstructure were analysed. The microstructural parameters which had greater correlation with macroscopic strength were found based on grey relationship theory, then the relationship between them was found by curve-fitting. The results show that, the dynamic elastic modulus of saturated loess was increased as the confining pressure increases, but decreased with increasing vibration cycle and tended to be stable over time. The approximate microstructural parameters selected were correlated to the dynamic elastic modulus in addition to the average pore shape factor; because of the high correlation with the dynamic elastic modulus, the average diameter of the pores, the average shape factor and fractal dimension of the morphology of structural units were selected to fit the dynamic elastic modulus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1101-9
  • A new 3D observation system designed for a seismic ahead prospecting
           method in tunneling
    • Authors: Bin Liu; Lei Chen; Shucai Li; Xinji Xu; Lanbo Liu; Jie Song; Ming Li
      Abstract: Abstract The tunnel seismic ahead prospecting method is usually used to estimate adverse geology ahead of a tunnel face. The observation system plays an important role in tunnel seismic ahead prospecting, which helps to obtain accurate imaging results. Optimizing the observation system is a key issue for seismic ahead prospecting. In this paper, observation layouts are evaluated and a new three-dimensional (3D) observation system is proposed by imaging results analysis. For linear and 3D layouts, imaging result analysis in this paper indicates that the mirror artifact caused by the linear layout (Which sets sources and geophones on a straight line) can be suppressed by the 3D layout, due to its energy concentration and convergence. Moreover, reflections using 3D layout identify real abnormal bodies better than the linear layout. Moreover, conventional observation layouts often use shot point on the tunnel face or front sidewall, which makes it difficult to filter interference waves from the back of the tunnel face. To solve this problem, typical numerical examples are conducted, and imaging results of observation layouts with shot point on front sidewall, tunnel face or back sidewall are studied. Results show shot point on the back sidewall helps to separate waves, suppress interference waves and extract effective waves (reflected P-waves by discontinuities) by apparent velocity filtering method, so shot point is designed on the back sidewall to get high-quality records. To balance record quality and application convenience, a new 3D observation system is proposed with 12 geophones and 10 shot points in a special arrangement. Compared with a linear layout, practical testing and application using the new 3D system indicate the main fractured zones are accurately identified and located, which proves the reliability and practicability of the new observation system.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1131-3
  • Characterization of the Illilten earth flow (Algeria)
    • Authors: Nacira Bouaziz; Bachir Melbouci
      Abstract: Abstract Located at the summits of the mountains of Djurdjura, the mudflow of Illilten has damaged the two villages, Ait Aïssa Ouyahia and El-Had, located at 70 km to the South East of the chief place of the town of Tizi-Ouzou. This earthflow occurs on two slopes with an average slope of 15% to 45% in the highlands of the Djurdjura in the south-east of the summit of Azrou N’Tohor (1884 m), concerns about 57 ha and mobilises millions of cubic meters of scree and torrential alluvial deposits. It was triggered by the heavy rainfall recorded in 2012, from an altitude of about 1800 m to the foot of Oued Azrou N’Thour up to 900 m altitude. It has a scarp of 300 m in depth and 500 m in width with a thickness varying from 5 to 20 m. This work consists, on the one hand, in seeking the main triggering causes while characterising the materials constituting it through a series of laboratory tests, carried out on remoulded samples extracted upstream and downstream of the earthflow, On the other hand, to study the evolution of this earthflow with a temporal follow-up using satellite image analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1093-5
  • Determination of the embedded length of stabilizing piles in colluvial
           landslides with upper hard and lower weak bedrock based on the deformation
           control principle
    • Authors: Changdong Li; Junfeng Yan; Junjie Wu; Guoping Lei; Liangqing Wang; Yongquan Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Several colluvial landslides have developed in the Jurassic strata region of Zigui County, a major landslide-prone region in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region of China. The bedrock in which stabilizing piles are placed in the landslide-prone Zigui region can be generally characterized as upper sandstone and lower silty mudstone. A site investigation of the Majiagou No. 1 landslide indicated that the pile heads were displaced horizontally by approximately 15.0 cm. This paper presents a novel model for determining the reasonable embedded length for stabilizing piles in colluvial landslides with upper hard and lower weak bedrock based on the deformation control principle. A negative power function relationship between the horizontal displacement of the pile head and the reasonable embedded ratio for stabilizing piles is proposed on the basis of the allowable pile deformation according to industrial standards. Furthermore, the lower limit on the horizontal displacement of the pile head is deduced to obtain the maximum reasonable embedded ratio of stabilizing piles. Reasonable embedded length ratio models of stabilizing piles are analyzed based on various influencing factors. The results show that (1) increasing the embedded length of the piles can significantly reduce both the horizontal displacement and the maximum absolute value of the shear force on the piles, (2) the increase in the maximum bending moment of the pile with increasing embedded pile length is insignificant, and (3) increasing the thickness of the upper hard rock and the coefficients of subgrade reaction of the upper hard and lower weak rock and reducing the driving force of the landslide help to reduce the reasonable embedded length of the piles. Consequently, it is suggested that stabilizing piles should be set in stronger and thicker upper hard rock in regions with low landslide driving force in order to minimize the reasonable embedded length of the piles.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1123-3
  • An engineering site suitability index (ESSI) for the evaluation of
           geological situations based on a multi-factor interaction matrix
    • Authors: Kun Li; Yanjun Shang; Wantong He; Daming Lin; Muhammad Hasan; Kaiyang Wang
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study is to determine how to evaluate the suitability of engineering sites quantitatively with the aid of multi-disciplines. This paper presents an engineering site suitability index (ESSI) system based on a multi-factor interaction matrix. This system was designed to define the principal causes related to suitability of engineering sites, quantify factor interactions, obtain the weight ratios and calculate the index of suitability. Recently, the ESSI system has been used successfully in the site selection for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project. Firstly, the geomorphology, lithology, geological structure, hydrogeology, rock weathering and land use were selected as evaluation indices to compare the suitability of the five potential sites. Secondly, the relationship matrix was established, and then the weight ratios of six influential factors were computed comprehensively after the analysis of relationship among these six factors. The third site was selected for the suitability of CSNS as the most favorable engineering site after the evaluation of five potential sites for the engineering excavation and construction. This case study shows that the ESSI system is scientific, reasonable and applicable to provide a reference for similar large-scale geo-engineering sites.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1122-4
  • Geo-environmental characteristics of weathering deterioration of red
           sandstone relics: a case study in Tongtianyan Grottoes, Southern China
    • Authors: Kunpeng Wang; Guangli Xu; Shutao Li; Chuan Ge
      Abstract: Abstract It is reasonable to study the destruction and preservation of stone relics from a geo-environmental point of view. The Tongtianyan Grottoes, known as “the First Grottoes in Southern China”, are located in the city of Ganzhou, Jiangxi province, China, and are the largest cave temples in eastern China and southern China. The grottoes were carved into sandstone palisades during the period from the late Tang Dynasty (755–763 AD) to the Republic of China (1912–1949 AD). In China, the Danxia landform is a special landform characterized by red sandstone cliffs. Different from the grottoes located in arid climate regions, the Tongtianyan Grottoes have the lowest latitude (25°45′N) among all the grottoes in China, and the stone relics are under a perennially warm and humid environment. The monuments have suffered from various forms of weathering deterioration, which can be summarized as five types: exfoliation, bio-weathering deterioration, crack, erosion, and loss. Detailed investigations have been conducted to analyze the mechanisms of the weathering deterioration of the stone relics based on different aspects of geo-environmental characteristics. The weathering sandstone samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence, and the chemical weathering indices (LOI, WPI, and WI) were calculated. We found that there is a boundary zone at a depth of 10 ± 2.5 mm from the surface to the inner rock based on the curves of the chemical weathering indices, and the rock outside of the boundary zone has much stronger weathering than that inside.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1128-y
  • Strength deterioration of a Shaly sandstone under dry–wet cycles: a case
           study from the Three Gorges Reservoir in China
    • Authors: Xinrong Liu; Meihai Jin; Dongliang Li; Liang Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract We selected the shaly sandstone at the rock slope of the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China where water level varies (the water level-fluctuating zone) in order to study the effect of dry–wet cycles on strength deterioration and micro-structure changes of shaly sandstone. After n dry–wet cycles (n being the number of cycles, with a value of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20), the shaly sandstone samples were exposed to a uniaxial compression test, triaxial compression test, and Scanning Electron Microscope observation. The strength deterioration and micro-structural changes of the samples are then analyzed with PFC2D (particle flow code in 2D). We found that as n increases, the micro-structure of the shaly sandstone changes from a well-organized dense structure stage to a porous stage and then to a cracking stage, the particles within the shaly sandstone bear and transfer a larger load, strength deterioration is more obvious, and particles are more prone to yield failure. The dry–wet cycles lower the micro-structure strength of the particles contact network, at the macro level, which is reflected in the strength decrease of shaly sandstone. At peak stress state, the shaly sandstone mainly shows the characteristics of shear failure after dry–wet cycles. With the loading process and n increasing, the cracks propagation process of the shaly sandstone samples can be divided into four stages: the elastic deformation stage, cracks generation and stable cracks growth stage, cracks damage and unstable cracks growth stage, and post-peak failure stage.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1107-3
  • Seismic vulnerability indices of ground for Değirmendere (Kocaeli
           Province, Turkey)
    • Authors: Hamdullah Livaoğlu; T. Serkan Irmak; I. Talih Güven
      Abstract: Abstract It is well known that the mechanical and physical properties of subsoil layers as well as poor construction practices play an important role in determining the level of structural damage sustained from earthquakes. Thus, sufficient knowledge of these properties is essential for estimating the weak points of a region. The ground vulnerability index (K g), an indicator of the weak points of a region, also has a substantial importance role in mitigating earthquake hazards in multidisciplinary studies. In this context, we have used engineering basement shear wave velocity (v s30), fundamental frequencies and peak amplitude values of the horizontal-to-vertical ratio (H/V) to calculate K g values for the study area (Kocaeli Province, Turkey). Structural damage was investigated after the August 17, 1999 Kocaeli (M w  = 7.4) Earthquake and compared with the calculated K g values. The results indicate that the K g values decrease towards the southern part of the study area, which is in good agreement with damage distribution from this earthquake. K g values of >10 appear to be indicative of the most vulnerable areas in the study area. Structures built along the coastlines in Değirmendere area were the mostly severely damaged or collapsed entirely; we found that the subsoil beneath them have high K g values of between 10 and 25 In contrast, K g values in the southern districts, which sustained little or no damage, are relatively low (K g < 10). In our study, the K g values and soil types showed good agreement. Potential vulnerable areas also have poor subsoil conditions. Therefore, it could be important to consider these results for the future planning and designing of urban areas. These results could also be used as a rapid way to detect potential vulnerable areas before the occurrence of a destructive earthquake.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1102-8
  • Dynamic process simulation of construction solid waste (CSW) landfill
           landslide based on SPH considering dilatancy effects
    • Authors: Heng Liang; Siming He; Xiaoqin Lei; Yuzhang Bi; Wei Liu; Chaojun Ouyang
      Abstract: Abstract Construction solid waste (CSW) landfill landslides, such as the Guangming New District landslide, which occurred in Shenzhen (hereafter the Shenzhen landslide), occur when the material is loose and saturated. They usually exhibit characteristics such as abrupt failure and whole collapse. During the propagation of landslides, dilatation behavior plays an important role in causing liquefaction, resulting in high velocity and exceptionally long run-out dynamics. We propose a dynamic model for describing fluidized CSW landslides by integrating the dilatancy model into smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The dilatancy model implies that the occurrence of dilation or the contraction of the granular-fluid mixture depends on the initial solid volume fraction. The dynamic model is used to simulate the Shenzhen landslide, and special attention is paid to the effects of different initial solid volumes on the mobility of the CSW landslide. The results show that when the solid volume fraction is higher than the critical value, contraction occurs, the excess pore water pressure increases, and the basal friction resistance is reduced. CSW landslide mobility is based on the initial solid volume fraction (or initial void ratio) of the granular-fluid mixture; a slight change in the initial volume fraction significantly affects the mobility of the CSW landfill landslide.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1129-x
  • Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modeling for landslide
           susceptibility assessment in a Mediterranean hilly area
    • Authors: Christos Polykretis; Christos Chalkias; Maria Ferentinou
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy modeling (ANFIS) is applied in order to map landslide susceptibility for a Mediterranean catchment (Peloponnese, Greece). The relationship between landslides and factors influencing their occurrence is investigated in GIS environment. Seven conditioning factors, including elevation, slope angle, profile curvature, stream density, distance to main roads, geology, and vegetation were considered in the analysis. Six ANFIS models with different membership functions were developed to generate the corresponding landslide susceptibility maps. The outputs, representing the probability level of landslide occurrence, were grouped into five classes. They were then evaluated using an independent dataset of landslide events in two different validation methods: receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and success and prediction rates. The majority of the calculated area under the curve values for the two validation methods was in the range 0.70–0.90 indicating between fair and very good prediction accuracy for the six models. These values also showed that the prediction accuracy depends on the membership functions examined in the ANFIS modeling. Among these functions, the difference of two sigmoidally shaped (Dsigmf) and product of two sigmoidally shaped (Psigmf) presented the highest prediction accuracy.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1125-1
  • Potential hazards to a tunnel caused by adjacent reservoir impoundment
    • Authors: Bin Zhang; Han-xun Wang; Yi-wei Ye; Jun-liang Tao; Lian-ze Zhang; Lei Shi
      Abstract: Abstract A reservoir impoundment located near a tunnel structure negatively affects groundwater seepage to varying degrees. This can result in water inflow, structural collapse, and other engineering hazards during tunnel excavation. In addition, in cold regions, reservoir impoundment and water seepage can exacerbate frost heave damage during tunnel operations. This paper describes a comprehensive case study on the quantitative evaluation of the seepage effects of the proposed Longsheng Reservoir on the adjacent proposed Kouzi village tunnel (located in Ulanchap, Inner Mongolia, North China). An engineering geology survey was conducted to identify the topography and geological features in the tunnel and reservoir area. A geohydrological survey was conducted to identify groundwater runoff patterns and to assess the possible seepage paths. Pumping and injection tests were conducted to characterize the in-situ permeability of the strata. Based on the detailed field information, the seepage field and stress field of the study area were investigated using COMSOL Multiphysics and ABAQUS software. From these numerical simulations, the evolution of the water inflow and the stress/strain field in the shallow buried section of the tunnel could be predicted quantitatively at different construction and operation stages. This study showed that the seepage influence of the Longsheng Reservoir on the Kouzi village tunnel during the excavation and operational stages will be relatively weak. However, structural collapse of the tunnel and water inflow are likely to occur beneath the two gullies. Mitigation measures such as impervious walls and inverted arch structural elements were proposed to address these potential hazards.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1110-8
  • Coupling effect of landfill leachate and temperature on the microstructure
           of stabilized clay
    • Authors: Juan Hou; Jiazheng Li; Yijun Chen
      Abstract: Abstract This paper studies the microstructure of stabilized clay polluted by landfill leachate at different temperatures. For this purpose, dynamic corrosion-stabilized clay was used to prepare mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy samples by lyophilization. The results showed that a rise in temperature affects the pore structure of corrosion-stabilized clay. Macropores are easily produced when the temperature ranges from 40 to 60 °C, while cryptopores and ultramicropores appear in significant numbers if the temperature reaches 80 °C. The corresponding micrographs show a dispersed structure at temperatures of 40 to 60 °C and a clearly flower-like structure at 80 °C. Landfill leachate has obvious effects on the microstructure of stabilized clay. After corrosion processes, pore size is reduced while average pore radius is increased. Macropores increase and span a wider range. The peak of the pore size distribution curve shifts from the middle to both ends; porosity initially decreases and then increases. From the chemical point of view, this corrosion mechanism is mainly due to the growth of new material such as calcium chloro-aluminates, ettringite or dihydrate gypsum that were generated by the reaction between landfill leachate and stabilized clay.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1099-z
  • Implications of increasing the ferruginous cement on the physical and
           mechanical properties of the Cambro-Ordovician Wajid Sandstone in
           southwest Saudi Arabia: applications for construction purposes
    • Authors: Ahmed Abd El Aal; Bassem S. Nabawy
      Abstract: Abstract The main target of the present study is to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of the Wajid Sandstones in SW Saudi Arabia and to evaluate its economic value for construction purposes. A number of samples were collected representatively for the upper Gray ‘UGU’ and lower red ‘LRU’ units of the Wajid Sandstones from three sites in the area of study. The studied physical properties include porosity ‘∅’, capillary water absorption ‘Sw’ and bulk specific gravity ‘SPG’, while the mechanical properties include the uniaxial compressive strength ‘UCS’, the ultimate tensile strength ‘UTS’, the Schmidt hammer number ‘RN’ and degree of Abrasion ‘Ab’. Petrographically, the studied Wajid samples are composed of fine to coarse quartz grains cemented by siliceous cement with some ferruginated cement in the ‘LRU’ unit. In addition, some samples were studied using the ‘SEM’ and ‘XRD’ analyses to reveal their mineral composition and homogeneity of their internal fabrics and cement type. The ‘XRD’ and SEM studies indicate that the ‘LRU’ samples are cemented by a ferruginated siliceous silica cement (8.12 ≤ hematite ≤ 13.96%) in the form of iron spherules attached to the pore and grain surfaces. Both the physical and mechanical values of the studied samples have given weights and ratings, and their quality index ‘QI’ was then calculated. The ‘QI’ values indicate that the sandstone samples of the ‘UGU’ unit are fair to poor (19.8 ≤ QI ≤ 22.5) at the different sites and not suitable for construction purposes. On the other hand, the ‘QI’ values of the ‘LRU’ samples are good (32.5 ≤ QI ≤ 37.6) and are suitable for construction purposes. A model has been introduced to predict in precise the ‘UCS’, ‘UTS’, ‘∅’ and ‘SPG’ of the studied Wajid Sandstones during further quarrying. Statistical equations of the proposed model are characterized by very high reliability (0.876 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.975). Finally, the areal extension of the studied fluvial silici-clastic deposits of the Wajid Sandstones have been traced through their regional extensions in the Arabian Peninsula and it has been stated that they are comparable with the Nubia sandstone sequences in NW Africa.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1115-3
  • Study of correlation between specific energy of cutting and physical
           properties of rock and prediction of excavation rate for lignite mines in
           Çayırhan area, Turkey
    • Authors: Cihan Dogruoz; Jamal Rostami; Serhat Keles
      Abstract: Abstract Laboratory specific energy (SE) is a reliable indicator to evaluate the rock cuttability and efficiency for mechanical excavation in mining and tunneling applications. In this study, various geological units encountered in lignite mines were studied through laboratory tests and measurement of specific energies in nine different rock types and two different lignite samples from Çayırhan area, Ankara, Turkey. The correlation between the physical and mechanical properties of various rock including uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, cone indenter hardness, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with measured SE of cutting were also investigated. A prediction model for SE based on statistical analyses using regression technique of laboratory test results are also introduced. The model can be used for estimating the SE from the rock physical and mechanical properties, and in turn offer an estimate of machine performance for pertinent mechanical excavators such as roadheaders, continuous miners, and drum shearers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1124-2
  • Landslide distribution and size versus relative relief (Shaanxi Province,
    • Authors: Haijun Qiu; Peng Cui; Amar Deep Regmi; Sheng Hu; Yuzhu Zhang; Yi He
      Abstract: Abstract The present study aims to investigate the distribution and size of landslides in relation to relative relief. For this, a landslide inventory map of the area was developed from the interpretation of satellite images and detailed field survey. From this we could map 331 landslides in Ningqing County (Shaanxi Province). By using GIS and statistical approaches, we studied the coupling between landslide size distribution and relative relief. From this the control of relative relief on the rollover effect of the size distribution of landslides is obtained. The result shows that the landslide frequency-relative relief distribution is unimodal, with majority of landslides occurring in areas with relative reliefs in between 300 and 400. The relative number density of landslides decreased with the increase in the relative relief; on the contrary, the average area, average length and average width of landslide increased with the increase in relative relief. The percentage of large-scale landslide increased with the increase of relative relief or vice versa. In addition, the cumulative frequency-area distributions of these landslides empirically agree well with a power-law relation with an exponent of 1.776 above a certain size threshold. Below this value, it exhibited an obvious rollover effect. Further analysis has shown that landslide cumulative frequency-area curve is strongly influenced by relative relief. The rollover effect is more obvious with the increase of relative relief. The exponent of power law correlation gradually increased from 0.993 to 1.872 with increasing relative relief.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1121-5
  • Analysis of the Aso-Bridge landslide during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
           in Japan
    • Authors: Ching Hung; Guan-Wei Lin; Huei-Sian Syu; Chi-Wen Chen; Hsin-Yi Yen
      Abstract: Abstract In 2016, earthquakes occurred beneath Kumamoto City, Kumamoto Prefecture in the Kyushu Region of Japan and generated numerous landslides around the city, and among those triggered in this disastrous event, the Aso-Bridge landslide was the largest. For the purpose of examining the behavior of this large-scale landslide during the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquakes, we conducted a study involving simplified sliding block concepts and finite element codes, and conclude that (a) the slope of the Aso-Bridge landslide (about 710 m high and with a dip angle of 33 °) is marginally stable in the absence of earthquakes; (b) the failure surface obtained using finite element codes is in satisfactory agreement with that of the actual failure surface; ©) our results reveal that the initiation-time of the Aso-Bridge landslide lay between 18.45 and 21 s based on three indications: (I) the directional tendency of the first apparent displacement, (ii) evidential factor of safety (FS) values <1, and (iii) Newmark’s displacement; and (d) the combination of an internal friction angle of 35 ° and a cohesion value of 80 kPa led to a failure surface closest to that observed in the field. The study demonstrates that we were able to apply the simplified sliding concepts and finite element codes to analyze the Aso-Bridge landslide in reasonable agreement with the actual event.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1103-7
  • Weak foliated rock slope stability analysis with ultra-close-range
           terrestrial digital photogrammetry
    • Authors: Pedro Alameda-Hernández; Rachid El Hamdouni; Clemente Irigaray; José Chacón
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a review of the data acquisition procedures of geotechnical parameters for rock slope stability assessment and the proposal of some new improvements. For this purpose, a piece of research based on the slope mass rating classification system using close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry (CR-TDP) has led to improvements in quality and timing of discontinuity data acquisition, and analyzes the suitability of each one of the parameters when applied to weak foliated rocks. TDP allows rapid 3D image acquisition of a rock slope, which can be analyzed using software to determine the geometrical parameters that affect stability. A fast procedure to perform the photogrammetric, non-contact survey in order to obtain the 3D images is shown in this paper. Being a rapid and single-person task, this procedure provides enough precision to be applied to weak foliated rock slopes with non-well-defined geometry. Furthermore, the study has focused on highly foliated rock outcrops, in which high resolution in the 3D images is very desirable. This research was applied to mountain road cuts, in which the use of TDP with a very close range was necessary. Through an application on weak rocks in the Alpujarras (Andalusia, Spain), this work analyzes the bias when applying TDP to materials such as these, under progressive weathering processes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1119-z
  • Investigating the shear band of methane hydrate-bearing sediments by FEM
           with an elasto-plastic constitutive model
    • Authors: Mingjing Jiang; Jun Liu; Zhifu Shen
      Abstract: Abstract In order to investigate the formation of the shear band in methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS), an elasto-plastic constitutive model was proposed and implemented into a FEM software Abaqus. After verification of the model implementation by UMAT, a series of biaxial compression test simulations on MHBS samples were performed. Then. the verified UMAT was adopted to simulate the characteristics of the shear band of the MHBS samples, and the ‘weak element’ was set in the MHBS samples to simulate the influence of nonuniform density on the deformation behavior of the MHBS. Finally, the simulation results were analysed, with emphasis on the characteristics of the shear band. The results showed that: (1) during the test, the shear band coalesces through the ‘weak element’ and the inclination of the shear band is 48°; (2) the presence of the shear band is the forerunner of element destruction; (3) the shear band occurs before the peak shear strength and the width of the shear band grows larger during loading; and (4) the bifurcation of the stress and volumetric response of elements within the shear band is more obvious during the tests.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1109-1
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