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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1209 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment
  [SJR: 0.525]   [H-I: 35]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1435-9537 - ISSN (Online) 1435-9529
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Experimental investigation of slope sediment resuspension characteristics
           and influencing factors beneath the internal solitary wave-breaking
           process
    • Authors: Zhuangcai Tian; Xiujun Guo; Luzheng Qiao; Yonggang Jia; Le Yu
      Abstract: Abstract To define the transformation steps and understand the influence of the breaking process of internal solitary waves (ISWs) on slope sediments, experiments were conducted to study the interactions between continuous ISWs and slopes. Varying slopes were constructed based on the bottom shape and sediment composition of the northern South China Sea. The changes in the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were then observed during the shoaling and breaking of ISWs on uniform slopes. The results showed that different types of slope sediments were suspended simultaneously at the wave-breaking position when ISW troughs arrived. After 0.5–4 min, the SSC declined slowly. Each suspension process was similar when the ISWs arrived at continuing intervals of 10 min, but the redeposition process varied for different sediments. Clayey silt and fine sand were not restored to the initial concentration in any of the deposition processes. With continued ISWs, this SSC bias increased and a nepheloid layer gradually formed. The sediment resuspension and deposition processes at the splitting deformation position were similar to those at the wave-breaking position; however, the maximum SSC was only one third to one fifth of the former. The capacity of the ISW to suspend sediments was affected by the seabed slope angle, sediment state (shear strength), wave velocity, and sediment type. The results obtained were not consistent with the experimental results (presented in this study) using traditional sediment resuspension criteria. In future research, modified criteria should thus include relevant parameters reflecting the effects of the sediment state and seabed slope angle on stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1161-x
       
  • Mechanism of core discing in the relaxation zone around an underground
           opening under high in situ stresses
    • Authors: Long An; Changyu Jin; Dong Liu; Chenggong Ding; Xinghang Dai
      Abstract: Abstract Core discing is a brittle rock failure during borehole drilling in intact rock subjected to high in situ stresses. This failure mode has been recognized as an important index for assessing underground projects under high in situ stresses. With increasing depth of underground space exploitation, core discing occurs not only in highly-stressed intact rock, but also in the relaxation zone of the surrounding rock masses. In the latter case, the disc thickness is even smaller, and the mechanism is significantly different from that of core discing in highly-stressed intact rock. In this study, the correlation between the regional geological structures and the disc thickness in the relaxation zone is analyzed based on the deep auxiliary tunnel of the Jinping hydropower project. A “structural arch” model, applicable for analyzing the mechanical behaviors of fractures and rock blocks in the relaxation zone, is proposed. The model is then verified by laboratory similarity tests and numerical simulations. Finally, it is revealed that the “discontinuous” stress field in the relaxation zone is the main cause of core discing in the relaxation zone around underground openings subjected to high in situ stresses.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1168-3
       
  • Exploration of the creep properties of undisturbed shear zone soil of the
           Huangtupo landslide
    • Authors: Chun Li; Huiming Tang; Dawei Han; Zongxing Zou
      Abstract: Abstract The time-dependent soil creep behavior affects the strength and deformation of the shear zone in landslides. Limited studies have been carried out on the undisturbed soil samples from the deep shear zone due to the difficulties in obtaining them. This problem is investigated using a case study of the well-known Huangtupo landslide, which is the largest landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China. The creep properties of the undisturbed shear zone were studied using triaxial creep testing. Two creep stages (the primary stage and the attenuation secondary creep stage) were observed, which were characterized by a creep rate that approached zero, instantaneous deformation and the development with a constant speed. The long-term shear strength of the shear zone was calculated based on the test results. The creep stages and long-term shear strength are significantly different from those of direct creep tests of reconstituted shear zones due to the influence of the confining pressure and coarse particles. The Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning technique was also applied, and the results showed clear rotation of some coarse particles in the middle parts of the samples, which was reflected by their shapes. The changes in particle position were more significant at the bottom of the sample. Based on these results, an empirical constitutive model was proposed to describe the relations among stress, strain and time, and this model fits the experimental data well. The inhomogeneity of the undisturbed soil samples leads to different creep properties from those in ideal theoretical models; therefore, new stochastic constitutive models should be explored and developed for further studies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1174-5
       
  • Comparison of methods for calculating geometrical characteristics of
           discontinuities in a cavern of the Rudbar Lorestan power plant
    • Authors: Abbas Kamali Bandpey; Kourush Shahriar; Mostafa Sharifzadeh; Parviz Marefvand
      Abstract: Abstract Discontinuities considerably affect the mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass. These properties of the rock mass are influenced by the geometry of the discontinuities to a great extent. This paper aims to render an account of the geometrical characteristics of discontinuities related to the rock mass around the powerhouse cavern of Rudbar Lorestan Pumped Storage Power Plant which is located in a extensional zone of an anticline measured based on linear and areal sampling (circular and rectangular) methods. These methods are used to calculate the geometrical properties of discontinuities at the Rudbar Lorestan powerhouse cavern. Quite a large quantity of scanlines and the window samplings used in this research indicated that the areal sampling methods are more time consuming and more cost-effective than the linear methods. Having corrected the biases of the geometrical properties of the discontinuities, their associated statistical distributions of function, density (areal and volumetric) as well as the linear, areal and volumetric intensity accompanied by the other properties are related to four sets of discontinuities that were computed. There is an acceptable difference between the mean trace length measured using two linear and areal methods for the two joint sets. Due to the fact that the region under study is highly tectonized, there is as well the surveying results of the discontinuities at different locations that have given rise to the performance having an equality of two for the multi means and variances test (ANOVA) for studying the homogeneity of the data. The dominant tectonic of the region as well as the genetic type of the discontinuities have caused their Fisher’s constant to be decreased, and the joint sets with uniform genetics have given rise to the same probability density function of the trace length and spacing. It is difficult to estimate the volumetric intensity of the study area. Review of the results depicts that the volumetric intensity of a joint set computed using different methods is different up to 38%. So, it is necessary to measure the geometrical characteristics of discontinuities by some methods, and taking into consideration correcting biases, do calculation of the areal and volumetric parameters of joint sets, studying the homogeneity and genetic type of discontinuities to generate the 3-D discrete fracture network.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1145-x
       
  • On the soil response of a coastal sandy slope subjected to tsunami-like
           solitary wave
    • Authors: Jian Leng; Guanlin Ye; Chencong Liao; Dongsheng Jeng
      Abstract: Abstract This study proposes a two-dimensional coupled approach to examine dynamic response of a sloping beach due to tsunami-like solitary wave. Wave motion is governed by Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, while the beach response is described with the poro-elastoplastic theory. The wave module and beach module are strongly integrated, resulting in a profound investigation of the solitary wave-induced soil response. Validation against the experimental demonstrates the applicability of the present approach. Results show that the excess pore water pressure ratio (EPWPR) is significant in the shallow soil. Distribution of EPWPR along the soil depth direction shows a decreasing trend. In addition, the principal axes of soil element on the shoreline rotated considerably under the solitary wave loading. When wave draws down from the slope, both shear stress and mean effective stress decrease compared with the run-up process. For engineering practice, special attention is given to the effect of permeability and coast slope on the soil response subjected to tsunami-like solitary waves.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1165-6
       
  • Relation between crack initiation-damage stress thresholds and failure
           strength of intact rock
    • Authors: Giacomo Pepe; Simone Mineo; Giovanna Pappalardo; Andrea Cevasco
      Abstract: Abstract The analysis of a wide literature dataset of mechanical parameters related to intact rocks from more than 480 unconfined compression tests, coupled with new laboratory tests on 132 specimens, is proposed herein with the aim of analyzing the mechanical behavior of a great variety of rock types, mainly focusing on their crack initiation (σci) and crack damage (σcd) stress levels. These thresholds can be employed as warning indicators for rock mass damage and breakouts and represent important input parameters for numerical models. International literature lacks in a detailed analysis on the mutual dependence existing between the main mechanical properties of intact rocks and their crack stress thresholds. In this paper, the study of the correlation between crack initiation-crack damage stress levels and the failure strength of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks is carried out through single and multiple regression approaches aimed at finding reliable prediction models, which can be useful when time-consuming laboratory experimental procedures need to be avoided. The correlation between predicted and measured values demonstrates that defined models represent a good tool for the empirical estimation of σci and σcd, and can be useful for preliminary engineering design dealing with stress-induced brittle fracturing, especially when the definition of warning indicators for rock mass damage and breakouts is needed. In fact, it is known that underground instability mainly depends on the redistribution of stresses around the excavation, which can produce induced stress concentrations, resulting in sudden release of stored energy and causing stress-induced brittle failure phenomena.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1172-7
       
  • Geophysical exploration of an old dumpsite in the perspective of enhanced
           landfill mining in Kermt area, Belgium
    • Authors: Mero Yannah; Kristine Martens; Marc Van Camp; Kristine Walraevens
      Abstract: Abstract Landfills are becoming major sources for industrial raw materials yet it is difficult to determine the type of material hosted in old dumps. The investigated old dump in Kermt-Hasselt is an ultimate example of an uncontrolled system of waste disposal from field observation. The application of enhanced landfill mining (ELFM) on old dumps is intended to manage the tonnes of waste deposited in the past for economic and environmental development. The goal is to use geophysical methods to characterize buried waste resources (metals, plastics, rubbles) concealed in a dump over an area of 7540 m2. The results show a dump of ~2 m thick, characterized by heterogeneous buried waste material mostly of domestic origin. The concealed waste recorded ground conductivity between 12 - 80 mS/m, resistivity of 155–380 Ωm, radar signals between 10 - 50 ns and magnetic field between 42,400–46,000 nT. Metallic and plastic materials constitute the main sources of the measured anomalies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1169-2
       
  • The impact of active faulting on the geotechnical properties of the Upper
           Gotvand Dam, southwest Iran
    • Authors: Arash Barjasteh
      Abstract: Abstract Fault movement in dam foundations is an earthquake hazard feature that may lead to severe structural distortions. Such movements may manifest as rock failures, crushing and displacements of rock masses. Faults with surface breaking and potential block movements are also of considerable interest in the issue of dam safety. The Upper Gotvand Dam is the highest rock fill dam in Iran which was constructed over the Karun River in the Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran. Its location in the Zagros active belt, the most active seismotectonic zone of the country, makes it prone to abutment instability and potential seepage through the foundation and abutments. The dam foundation is on the sandstones of the Agha-Jari Formation while the abutments are composed of rock mass of the Bakhtyari Formation. The right abutment of the dam is highly fractured and displaced due to action of the Pir-Ahmad active fault.. Geotechnical sections along the dam axis and across the right abutment indicate four strike faults near the right bank as well as sharp changes in the dip of bedding along the dam axis. The Agha-Jari layers are tightly folded beneath the dam axis with a 30° inter-limb angle forming a chevron fold. The geomechanical classification of the outcropped rocks is in the range of weak to very weak. The whole region is affected by an N-S basement tectonic lineament introduced in this research as the Lali-Ahvaz trend. Variations in the geotechnical properties of the dam site are mostly due to the movement of the Pir-Ahmad Fault. The activity of the fault should be re-assessed for future operations and producing dam maintenance plans as fault activity could diminish future dam safety.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1163-8
       
  • Run-out of the 2015 Shenzhen landslide using the material point method
           with the softening model
    • Authors: Butao Shi; Yun Zhang; Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Sand and soil are comprised of large amounts of discrete particles, which may lead to a transition between solid and fluid-like states in large deformation problems. How to deal with the complex transitions between these states in granular media is the key to explaining the run-out of a landslide. The Shenzhen (China) landfill landslide exemplifies a type of large deformation demonstrating this transition between solid and fluid-like states. The soil in the landfill was mainly composed of completely decomposed granite (CDG). The landslide's run-out traveled in fluid-like fashion several hundred meters and caused casualties. In this paper, we use the material point method (MPM) based on the softening model and contact algorithm to analyze the run-out of the Shenzhen landfill landslide. MPM offers substantial advantages in numerical simulations of problems involving extra-large deformations. The latest research of landslide simulations is reviewed, and the fundamental principles of MPM are introduced in the first part of the paper. Then, the post-failure behavior of the large slope in the Shenzhen landfill is simulated with the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) method with a softening model and a contact algorithm, respectively. The trend of the velocities and displacements of material points are calculated. Topographies of the post-failure landslide using different parameters are analyzed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1167-4
       
  • Liquefaction response of loose gassy marine sand sediments under cyclic
           loading
    • Authors: Yong Wang; Lingwei Kong; Yanli Wang; Mingyuan Wang; Min Wang
      Abstract: Abstract Gassy sediments have often been encountered in the marine seabed, and they have different features from common saturated and unsaturated soil. By developing and improving an effective methodology, triaxial gassy sand specimens with different initial gas content (saturation ≥85%) were prepared in the laboratory. Their state parameters can be controlled in real time. A series of undrained dynamic triaxial tests by a Global Digital System (GDS) dynamic testing apparatus were conducted to investigate the liquefaction characteristics of gassy sand sediments. The results show that the gassy sand can liquefy the same as the fully saturated sand, but gas existence monotonically increases the sand liquefaction resistance. The occluded gas bubbles have significant influences on sand liquefaction properties. The dynamic pore pressure of gassy sand shows obvious features of slower accumulation, greater amplitude fluctuation, and deeper groove shape in time history curves of pore water, resulting from the effects of gas compression/expansion, migration, and dissolution/exsolution. By introducing a parameter of saturation, a modified model was proposed to describe the evolution of dynamic pore pressure of gassy sands. It was found that the model parameter θ is linearly dependent on the initial gas content (or initial saturation degree Sr).
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1164-7
       
  • Chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics analysis of sandstone
           dissolution under the action of dry–wet cycles in acid and alkaline
           environments
    • Authors: Wen Yuan; Xinrong Liu; Yan Fu
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper is to study the mechanism of strength deterioration of sandstone under the action of dry–wet cycles in acid and alkaline environments based on the basic principles of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. To do that, uniaxial and triaxial tests were conducted on sandstone after different dry–wet cycles in acid and alkaline environments to ascertain its cohesion and internal friction angle, and the relationship between these and the number of dry–wet cycles. On that basis, the variation of the sandstone shear strength with the number of cycles was obtained. Based on the basic principles of chemical thermodynamics, the stability of the main minerals in neutral, alkaline, and acid solutions were determined. After each dry–wet cycle, the concentration of some ions (SiO2, K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Fe2+) in different solutions was measured. The generation rate of each ion was then calculated using chemical kinetics. The results show that the deterioration of sandstone shear strength is most severe in an acid environment, followed by that in an alkaline environment and that in neutral environment. In acid solutions, potash feldspar, albite, calcite, and biotite are unstable. In alkaline solutions, quartz is unstable. The thermodynamic analysis results are consistent with kinetic test results.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1162-9
       
  • Analysis of a complex slope failure in a granodiorite quarry bench
    • Authors: Leandro R. Alejano; María Veiga; Ignacio Pérez-Rey; Uxía Castro-Filgueira; Javier Arzúa; Álvaro J. Castro-Caicedo
      Abstract: Abstract We describe a complex failure mechanism in a 30-m high bench in a granodiorite quarry. This mechanism included a circular failure in completely decomposed granodiorite at the bottom of an unstable area pushing on a block of granodiorite. This first block induced subsidence and failure of a wedge of highly decomposed granodiorite, which pushed a slender block below it, causing it to topple. This toppling block eventually pushed a lower block that slid out of the slope. In this rather complex mechanism, completely weathered rock interacted with rock blocks and ultimately produced a small landslide of around 1500 m3 of material. Our study highlights the need to consider the possibility of a complex failure mechanism when analysing rock slope instability. It also highlights the role of toppling in some part of a rock mass prone to instability. When a slender block located in the middle of an initially stable slope experiences a small amount of force, for instance, due to water pressure, that causes it to topple, all the weight is transmitted to the block immediately below the slender block, inducing a greater force that can render the entire area unstable.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1160-y
       
  • Macro-meso effects of gradation and particle morphology on the
           compressibility characteristics of calcareous sand
    • Authors: Yang Shen; Yinghao Zhu; Hanlong Liu; An Li; Huayang Ge
      Abstract: Abstract In order to fully develop the South China Sea, a large number of reclamation projects using calcareous sand have been carried out in this area recently. A deep understanding of the physical and mechanical properties of calcareous sand is of critical importance. Therefore, the calcareous sand near a certain reef of the South China Sea is used in this study to investigate the effect of three-dimensional (3-D) particle morphology and gradation on the compressibility characteristics of calcareous sand. This paper proposes a 3-D mesoscope observation method to obtain the average 3-D angularity parameter S d and 3-D aspect ratio T d of calcareous sand with different particle sizes. It is found that the morphology of coarse particles (diameter: 5 ~ 1 mm) is significantly multi-angular, while the morphologies of middle particles (1 ~ 0.25 mm) are mostly dendritic and schistic. Compared to the 3-D S d of quartz sand, the calcareous sand’s particle morphology is much more irregular and multi-angular, which makes it easy for the calcareous sand to form large pores and, thus, be more compressible. In order to systematically study the effect of gradation on the calcareous sand’s compressibility characteristics, a number of compression tests on calcareous sand with different gradations are taken. The influential mechanism is then discussed by analyzing the test results from a mesoscopic viewpoint. It is found that changing the coarse fraction content is the most efficient way to reduce the compressibility of the calcareous sand. That is because of the coarse fraction’s high angularity, which makes the skeleton-bearing capacity of the calcareous sand sensitive to the change of coarse fraction content. An empirical formula is proposed to evaluate the compressibility of the calcareous sand with different coarse fraction contents.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1157-6
       
  • Attribute recognition model for risk assessment of water inrush
    • Authors: Jing Wang; Shu-cai Li; Li-ping Li; Peng Lin; Zhen-hao Xu; Cheng-lu Gao
      Abstract: Abstract An attribute recognition model of water inrush risk evaluation is established based on attribute mathematic theory and software is developed for risk assessment in a tunnel. In our model, the entropy weight method is applied to analyze the weights of evaluation indexes. Considering karst hydrologic and engineering geological conditions of a tunnel under construction, eight major influencing factors of water inrush (formation lithology, unfavorable geology, groundwater level, attitude of rocks, contact zone of dissolvable and insoluble rocks, layer and interlayer fissures, catchment ability and surrounding rock mass classification) are selected as the evaluation indexes, and an index system of water inrush risk assessment is constituted. The tunnel is divided into 26 sections, and 340 evaluation objects are selected from these 26 sections in order to construct a judgment matrix. The water inrush risk of the whole tunnel is evaluated by using the proposed software. The results indicate that the attribute recognition model of water inrush risk evaluation is scientific and reasonable and that the software is convenient for use in calculations and is easy to master.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1159-4
       
  • Determining the optimum cutting direction in granite quarries through
           experimental studies: a case study of a granite quarry
    • Authors: Reza Yarahmadi; Raheb Bagherpour; Amir Khademian; Luis M.O. Sousa; Seied Najmedin Almasi; Mahin Mansouri Esfahani
      Abstract: Abstract Optimization of cutting operations in quarrying and processing of building stones leads to certain reductions in operational costs. Despite the developments of cutting technology and employment of more efficient cutting machines, there is still a need to optimize a series of operational parameters; the cutting direction is one of them. In order to optimize the cutting direction parameter in cutting processes, an experimental study was designed in a granite quarry. For this purpose, 12 granite samples along 12 different directions with 15° intervals were cut by a special laboratory wire cutting machine. The obtained cutting rate showed that different cutting directions demonstrate very diverse cutting rates. A significant difference of 43% was found between the highest and lowest cutting rates. Also, the optimal cutting direction was found to be 185° relative to the geographical north. Furthermore, microscopic studies on petrographic thin sections were performed to analyze the cutting rate results. Analysis showed that the rock’s equivalent hardness was not correlated to the cutting rate, while there is a possible direct relationship between the quartz content and the cutting rate. Besides, results confirmed the currently identified splitting planes of the quarry and showed a potential relationship with the main fault system of the area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1158-5
       
  • Classification of geological and engineering properties in weak rock: a
           case study of a tunnel in a fault zone in southeastern Korea
    • Authors: Hyun-Seok Yun; Yong-Seok Seo
      Abstract: Abstract Given that the rock mass classifications of weak rocks observed in tunnels are evaluated only as ‘poor rock mass’ or grades IV–V using existing rock mass classification methods, a new scheme is needed that would better distinguish the various geological properties of weak rocks. In this study, geological and engineering properties of weak rocks were classified based on the analysis results of a total of 55 faces in a tunnel that passes through a fault zone in southeastern South Korea. Geological observations, point load tests, and Schmidt hammer tests were conducted to analyze the properties of the weak rocks. Through this analysis, the weak rocks were classified into two weathering types: ‘disintegrated rocks’ and ‘decomposed rocks’. This division is based on the tectonic mechanisms and parameters necessary to determine the engineering geological properties of individual rock-weathering types according to their geological properties. The ‘disintegrated rocks’ have been physically weathered by brittle deformation and are classified into three subtypes using the rock quality designation (RQD) and joint set number (Jn), which can characterize the discontinuity properties of the rocks. Point load tests were conducted on these individual subtypes to calculate the point load index (Is(50)). The resultant values are clearly related to the assigned three subtypes. The ‘decomposed rocks’ have been chemically weathered by ductile deformation and are classified into five subtypes based on the results of Schmidt hammer tests conducted on faces and Is(50) values calculated using the average of the Schmidt hammer values. The geological properties of the individual subtypes of the ‘disintegrated rocks’ and ‘decomposed rocks’ are clearly related to their engineering properties. Based on these results, rock mass classification diagrams are proposed that can be simply and easily applied to weak rocks.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1156-7
       
  • A revised, geotechnical classification GSI system for tectonically
           disturbed heterogeneous rock masses, such as flysch
    • Authors: Vassilis Marinos
      Abstract: Abstract Use of the geological strength index (GSI) rock mass classification system and the associated m, s and a parameter relationships linking GSI with the Hoek–Brown failure criterion provides a demonstrated, effective and reliable approach for prediction of rock mass strength for surface and underground excavation design and for rock support selection for most “normal” rock masses. One of the key advantages of the index is that it allows characterization of rock masses difficult to describe, such as flysch, and the geological reasoning it embodies, allowing adjustments to be made to its ratings to cover a wide range of rock masses and conditions compared to a typical engineering approach. Flysch, having high heterogeneity in its petrographic nature and a tectonically disturbed structure, forms very weak rock masses in many cases and needs a particular geotechnical classification according to the engineering geological characteristics it presents. After a decade of application of the GSI for the classification of heterogeneous rock masses (Marinos and Hoek 2001), this paper attempts to re-evaluate or verify the original values and to contribute to the appropriate selection of the index for various conditions. A revised GSI diagram for heterogeneous rock masses, such as flysch, is presented, where a certain range of GSI values for every rock mass type is proposed according to the siltstone-sandstone participation and their tectonic disturbance. Data from the design and construction of a large number of tunnels in a variety of geological conditions were assessed for this purpose. In addition to the GSI values, the selection of the appropriate “intact” rock properties for this type of heterogeneous rock mass is also discussed, where characteristic σci, Ei and modulus ratio (MR) values are proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1151-z
       
  • GPR measurements to detect major discontinuities at Cheshmeh-Shirdoosh
           limestone quarry, Iran
    • Authors: Luigi Zanzi; Azadeh Hojat; Hojjatollah Ranjbar; Saeed Karimi-Nasab; Asghar Azadi; Diego Arosio
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the Iranian rich quarry industry has been looking for efficient scientific investigations to improve the extraction operations in different dimension stone quarries. Kerman Province is one of the most potential zones with a variety of dimension stone quarries near the city of Kerman. In this research, GPR measurements were carried out to detect major discontinuities at Cheshmeh-Shirdoosh limestone quarry, northeast of Kerman city. This quarry is being extracted by the diamond wire sawing method. As the first GPR study in Iranian quarries, a total length of about 1200 m was surveyed with 50 MHz and 250 MHz GPR antennas collecting data on the surface of the three extraction benches of the quarry. A 800 MHz antenna was also used to map the main defects of a block, which was extracted from a fractured section of the quarry. Six parallel profiles at 10 cm intervals were measured along one side of the block. The results obtained from the 250 MHz dataset were very encouraging and could detect all the major discontinuities. Interpreted profiles were also used to prepare depth slices of the density of joints for two main survey areas. As expected, GPR sections obtained from the 50 MHz antenna had a lower resolution but could clearly detect fault zones. The 800 MHz antenna could map the main defects of the extracted block. However, a higher frequency antenna (e.g., 2GHz or more) is recommended for mapping thin fractures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1153-x
       
  • Mechanisms of large deformation in soft rock tunnels: a case study of
           Huangjiazhai Tunnel
    • Authors: Kang Bian; Jian Liu; Zhenping Liu; Shangge Liu; Fei Ai; Xiaoqing Zheng; Shaohu Ni; Wei Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Typical large-deformation phenomena of soft rock occurred frequently during the tunneling process in Huangjiazhai Tunnel, Hubei Province, China, including extrusion at the tunnel wall and severe damage of the primary support and secondary lining. To reveal the mechanisms of these anomalies, comprehensive investigations have been undertaken combining engineering, laboratory, and microscopic analyses. Since the monitoring results show that there might be a close relationship between the large deformation phenomena and water infiltration into the tunnel, the water–rock interaction is the research focus in the investigations. The experimental results reveal that the deforming resistance and strength of shales exposed at the excavation face weaken quickly in the first 20 days after the shales have contact with water. The results obtained by mineral composition detection and microstructure observation illustrate the microscopic reasons for the decreasing strength and deforming resistance of the tunnel surrounding rock after water infiltration. The results from in situ geostress tests indicate that as a result of high tectonic stress and low rock strength, the field of Huangjiazhai Tunnel is an extremely high geostress area. By combining analyses from the mechanical and geological perspectives, there are two main reasons for the large deformations in the Huangjiazhai Tunnel: the plastic flow caused by tunnel excavation under high geostress and low rock strength and a hydrated-mechanical coupling process between the shales and water.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1155-8
       
  • Field, experimental, and numerical investigation of a rockfall above a
           tunnel portal in southwestern China
    • Authors: Jie Hu; Shucai Li; Liping Li; Shaoshuai Shi; Zongqing Zhou; Hongliang Liu; Peng He
      Abstract: Abstract Combining the results of detailed field investigation, laboratory tests, and numerical simulations, this paper studies the rockfall problem above a tunnel portal. The mechanism of potential rock instability was analyzed, and model tests were conducted based on geological conditions and described in detail, so as to study the restitution coefficients used in programs simulating rockfall trajectory. Improvements in the tests were made in terms of experimental techniques and creative similar materials. A newly developed test bench was built by steel frames and can be assembled or disassembled at will according to requirement of model size. An innovative block-release device was adopted and controlled by computer to change the release position of block. During the model construction, the slope and blocks were fabricated with similar materials developed through quantities of mixing proportion tests. Then experiments were conducted with varied shape, mass, and release height of blocks to clarify their effect on restitution coefficients. Results indicate that restitution coefficients are apparently related to these factors and their values decrease when block mass and releasing height increase. Restitution coefficients of the wedge block are larger than those of a sphere or cuboid block. Subsequently, numerical simulations adopting the calibrated parameters were performed, and the velocities, bounce heights, and kinetic energies of rockfall along the slope profiles were obtained. Based on the research, this paper provides a useful reference for practical remediation design.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1152-y
       
 
 
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