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    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal  
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 1.201]   [H-I: 138]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0018-9294
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editorial board, current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (T-BME)
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Handling Editors
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the handling editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Editorial Special Section on Multiscale Cancer Modeling
    • Authors: Z. Wang;P. K. Maini;
      Pages: 501 - 503
      Abstract: The papers in this special section focus on the use of multiscale modeling in the field of cancer research. Cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease, characterized by many interaction processes on, and across, multiple scales in time and space that act in concert to drive cancer formation, progression, invasion, and metastasis. These processes range from molecular reactions to cell-cell interactions, to tumor growth and invasion on the tissue-scale, and even to larger scales, such as the physiology, pathophysiology, and population scales. In addition, many cancer properties (including, e.g., size, cell density, extracellular ligands, cellular receptors, mutation type(s), phenotypic distribution, vasculature status, blood vessel permeability, and treatment prognosis) are dynamic and patient-dependent, changing and evolving with both time and treatments. For example, cell death rate may change over time due to chemotherapy. All these dynamically changing cancer properties make development of effective cancer therapies extremely difficult. Computational modeling has the potential to predict complex behaviors of cancer, elucidate regulatory mechanisms, and help inform experimental design. Everyone would agree that computer simulations are usually more cost-effective, efficient, and tractable, relative to laboratory experiments.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Predicting the Influence of Microvascular Structure On Tumor Response to
    • Authors: James A. Grogan;Bostjan Markelc;Anthony J. Connor;Ruth J. Muschel;Joe M. Pitt-Francis;Philip K. Maini;Helen M. Byrne;
      Pages: 504 - 511
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate how theoretical predictions of tumor response to radiotherapy (RT) depend on the morphology and spatial representation of the microvascular network. Methods: A hybrid multiscale model, which couples a cellular automaton model of tumor growth with a model for oxygen transport from blood vessels, is used to predict the viable fraction of cells following one week of simulated RT. Both artificial and biologically derived three-dimensional (3-D) vessel networks of well vascularized tumors are considered and predictions compared with 2-D descriptions. Results: For literature-derived values of the cellular oxygen consumption rate there is little difference in predicted viable fraction when 3-D network representations of biological or artificial vessel networks are employed. Different 2-D representations are shown to either over- or under-estimate viable fractions relative to the 3-D cases, with predictions based on point-wise descriptions shown to have greater sensitivity to vessel network morphology. Conclusion: The predicted RT response is relatively insensitive to the morphology of the microvessel network when 3-D representations are adopted, however, sensitivity is greater in certain 2-D representations. Significance: By using realistic 3-D vessel network geometries this study shows that real and artificial network descriptions and assumptions of spatially uniform oxygen distributions lead to similar RT response predictions in relatively small tissue volumes. This suggests that either a more detailed description of oxygen transport in the microvasculature is required or that the oxygen enhancement ratio used in the well known linear-quadratic RT response model is relatively insensitive to microvascular structure.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy
           Resistance in Cancer
    • Authors: Joel S. Brown;Jessica J. Cunningham;Robert A. Gatenby;
      Pages: 512 - 518
      Abstract: Objective: Evolution of resistance allows cancer cells to adapt and continue proliferating even when therapy is initially very effective. Most investigations of treatment resistance focus on the adaptive phenotypic properties of individual cells. We propose that the resistance of a single cell to therapy may extend beyond its own phenotypic and molecular properties and be influenced by the phenotypic properties of surrounding cells and variations in cell density. Similar variation exists in population densities of animals living in groups and can significantly affect the outcome of an external threat. Methods: We investigate aggregation effects in cancer therapy using Darwinian models that integrate phenotypic properties of individual cells and common population effects found in nature to simulate the dynamics of resistance and sensitivity in the diverse cellular environments within cancers. Results: We demonstrate that the density of cancer cell populations can profoundly influence response to chemotherapy independent of the properties of individual cells. Most commonly, these aggregation effects benefit the tumor allowing cells to survive even with phenotypic properties that would render them highly vulnerable to therapy in the absence of population effects. Conclusion: We demonstrate aggregation effects likely play a significant role in conferring resistance to therapy on tumor cells that would otherwise be sensitive to treatment. Significance: The potential role of aggregation in outcomes from cancer therapy has not been previously investigated. Our results demonstrate these dynamics may play a key role in resistance to therapy and could be used to design evolutionarily-enlightened therapies that exploit aggregation effects to improve treatment outcomes.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Glioblastoma: A Mathematical
    • Authors: Yangjin Kim;Hyejin Jeon;Hans Othmer;
      Pages: 519 - 527
      Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the deadliest human cancers and is characterized by tumor cells that hijack immune system cells in a deadly symbiotic relationship. Microglia and glioma infiltrating macrophages, which in principle should mount an immune response to the tumor, are subverted by tumor cells to facilitate growth in several ways. In this study, we seek to understand the interactions between the tumor cells and the microglia that enhance tumor growth, and for this purpose, we develop a mathematical and computational model that involves reaction-diffusion equations for the important components in the interaction. These include the densities of tumor and microglial cells, and the concentrations of growth factors and other signaling molecules. We apply this model to a transwell assay used in the laboratory to demonstrate that microglia can stimulate tumor cell invasion by secreting the growth factor TGF-β. We show that the model can both replicate the major components of the experimental findings and make new predictions to guide future experiments aimed at the development of new therapeutic approaches. Sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most important parameters as an aid to future experimental work. This study is the first step in a program that involves development of detailed 3-D models of the mechanical and biochemical interactions between a glioblastoma and the tumor microenvironment.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Stem Cell Plasticity and Niche Dynamics in Cancer Progression
    • Authors: Noemi Picco;Robert A. Gatenby;Alexander R. A. Anderson;
      Pages: 528 - 537
      Abstract: Objective: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to initiate and drive tumor growth and recurrence due to their self-renewal ability. If correct, this hypothesis implies that successful therapy must focus primarily on eradication of this CSC fraction. However, recent evidence suggests stemness is niche dependent and may represent one of many phenotypic states that can be accessed by many cancer genotypes when presented with specific environmental cues. A better understanding of the relationship of stemness to niche-related phenotypic plasticity could lead to alternative treatment strategies. Methods: Here, we investigate the role of environmental context in the expression of stem-like cell properties through in-silico simulation of ductal carcinoma. We develop a two-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum cellular automata model to describe the single-cell scale dynamics of multicellular tissue formation. Through a suite of simulations, we investigate interactions between a phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cell population and a dynamic environment. Results: We generate homeostatic ductal structures that consist of a mixture of stem and differentiated cells governed by both intracellular and environmental dynamics. We demonstrate that a wide spectrum of tumor-like histologies can result from these structures by varying microenvironmental parameters. Conclusion: Niche driven phenotypic plasticity offers a simple first-principle explanation for the diverse ductal structures observed in histological sections from breast cancer. Significance: Conventional models of carcinogenesis largely focus on mutational events. We demonstrate that variations in the environmental niche can produce intraductal cancers independent of genetic changes in the resident cells. Therapies targeting the microenvironmental niche may offer an alternative cancer prevention strategy.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Multiscale Modeling of Glioblastoma Suggests that the Partial Disruption
           of Vessel/Cancer Stem Cell Crosstalk Can Promote Tumor Regression Without
           Increasing Invasiveness
    • Authors: Huaming Yan;Mónica Romero-López;Hermann B. Frieboes;Christopher C. W. Hughes;John S. Lowengrub;
      Pages: 538 - 548
      Abstract: Objective: In glioblastoma, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been shown to enhance tumor growth. We propose a multiscale mathematical model to study this mechanism, explore tumor growth under various initial and microenvironmental conditions, and investigate the effects of blocking this crosstalk. Methods: We develop a hybrid continuum-discrete model of highly organized vascularized tumors. VEC-GSC crosstalk is modeled via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by tumor cells and by secretion of soluble factors by VECs that promote GSC self-renewal and proliferation. Results: VEC-GSC crosstalk increases both tumor size and GSC fraction by enhancing GSC activity and neovascular development. VEGF promotes vessel formation, and larger VEGF sources typically increase vessel numbers, which enhances tumor growth and stabilizes the tumor shape. Increasing the initial GSC fraction has a similar effect. Partially disrupting the crosstalk by blocking VEC secretion of GSC promoters reduces tumor size but does not increase invasiveness, which is in contrast to antiangiogenic therapies, which reduce tumor size but may significantly increase tumor invasiveness. Significance: Multiscale modeling supports the targeting of VEC-GSC crosstalk as a promising approach for cancer therapy.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Biocompatible Near-Infrared Three-Dimensional Tracking System
    • Authors: Ryan S. Decker;Azad Shademan;Justin D. Opfermann;Simon Leonard;Peter C. W. Kim;Axel Krieger;
      Pages: 549 - 556
      Abstract: A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. We developed small biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with a novel fused plenoptic and NIR camera tracking system, enabling three-dimensional tracking of tools and target tissue while overcoming blood and tissue occlusion in the uncontrolled, rapidly changing surgical environment. In this work, we present the tracking system and marker design and compare tracking accuracies to standard optical tracking methods using robotic experiments. At speeds of 1 mm/s, we observe tracking accuracies of 1.61 mm, degrading only to 1.71 mm when the markers are covered in blood and tissue.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • An Integrated Circuit for Simultaneous Extracellular Electrophysiology
           Recording and Optogenetic Neural Manipulation
    • Authors: Chang Hao Chen;Elizabeth A. McCullagh;Sio Hang Pun;Peng Un Mak;Mang I Vai;Pui In Mak;Achim Klug;Tim C. Lei;
      Pages: 557 - 568
      Abstract: Objective: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. Methods: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/lightemitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC. Results: The low input capacitance of the amplifier (9.7 pF) was achieved by adding a dedicated unity gain stage optimized for high impedance metal electrodes. The input referred noise of the amplifier is 4.57 μVrms, which is lower than the estimated thermal noise of the metal electrode. Thus, the action potentials originating from a single neuron can be recorded with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 6.6. The LED/laser current driver delivers a maximum current of 330 mA, which is adequate for optogenetic control. The functionality of the IC was tested with an anesthetized Mongolian gerbil and auditory stimulated action potentials were recorded from the inferior colliculus. Spontaneous firings of fifth (trigeminal) nerve fibers were also inhibited using the optogenetic protein Halorhodopsin. Moreover, a noise model of the system was derived to guide the design. Significance: A single IC to measure and control action potentials using opto-genetic proteins is realized so that more complicated behavioral neuroscience research and the translational neural disorder treatments become possible in the future.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Semisupervised Tripled Dictionary Learning for Standard-Dose PET Image
           Prediction Using Low-Dose PET and Multimodal MRI
    • Authors: Yan Wang;Guangkai Ma;Le An;Feng Shi;Pei Zhang;David S. Lalush;Xi Wu;Yifei Pu;Jiliu Zhou;Dinggang Shen;
      Pages: 569 - 579
      Abstract: Objective: To obtain high-quality positron emission tomography (PET) image with low-dose tracer injection, this study attempts to predict the standard-dose PET (S-PET) image from both its low-dose PET (L-PET) counterpart and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: It was achieved by patch-based sparse representation (SR), using the training samples with a complete set of MRI, L-PET and S-PET modalities for dictionary construction. However, the number of training samples with complete modalities is often limited. In practice, many samples generally have incomplete modalities (i.e., with one or two missing modalities) that thus cannot be used in the prediction process. In light of this, we develop a semisupervised tripled dictionary learning (SSTDL) method for S-PET image prediction, which can utilize not only the samples with complete modalities (called complete samples) but also the samples with incomplete modalities (called incomplete samples), to take advantage of the large number of available training samples and thus further improve the prediction performance. Results: Validation was done on a real human brain dataset consisting of 18 subjects, and the results show that our method is superior to the SR and other baseline methods. Conclusion: This paper proposed a new S-PET prediction method, which can significantly improve the PET image quality with low-dose injection. Significance: The proposed method is favorable in clinical application since it can decrease the potential radiation risk for patients.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Efficient Subculture Process for Adherent Cells by Selective Collection
           Using Cultivation Substrate Vibration
    • Authors: Yuta Kurashina;Kenjiro Takemura;James Friend;Shogo Miyata;Jun Komotori;
      Pages: 580 - 587
      Abstract: Cell detachment and reseeding are typical operations in cell culturing, often using trypsin exposure and pipetting, even though this process is known to damage the cells. Reducing the number of detachment and reseeding steps might consequently improve the overall quality of the culture, but to date this has not been an option. This study proposes the use of resonant vibration in the cell cultivation substrate to selectively release adherent calf chondrocyte cells: Some were released from the substrate and collected while others were left upon the substrate to grow to confluence as a subculture-without requiring reseeding. An out-of-plane vibration mode with a single nodal circle was used in the custom culture substrate. At a maximum vibration amplitude of 0.6 μm, 84.9% of the cells adhering to the substrate were released after 3 min exposure, leaving a sufficient number of cells for passage and long-term cell culture, with the greatest cell concentration along the nodal circle where the vibration was relatively quiescent. The 72-h proliferation of the unreleased cells was 20% greater in number than cells handled using the traditional method of trypsin-EDTA (0.050%) release, pipette collection, and reseeding. Due to the vibration, it was possible to reduce the trypsin-EDTA used for selective release to only 0.025%, and in doing so the cell number after 72 h of proliferation was 42% greater in number than the traditional technique.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Corticomuscular Coherence With Time Lag With Application to Delay
    • Authors: Yuhang Xu;Verity M. McClelland;Zoran Cvetković;Kerry R. Mills;
      Pages: 588 - 600
      Abstract: Functional coupling between the motor cortex and muscle activity is usually detected and characterized using the spectral method of corticomuscular coherence (CMC). This functional coupling occurs with a time delay, which, if not properly accounted for, may decrease the coherence and make the synchrony difficult to detect. In this paper, we introduce the concept of CMC with time lag (CMCTL), that is the coherence between segments of motor cortex electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals displaced from a central observation point. This concept is motivated by the need to compensate for the unknown delay between coupled cortex and muscle processes. We demonstrate using simulated data that under certain conditions the time lag between EEG and EMG segments at points of local maxima of CMCTL corresponds to the average delay along the involved corticomuscular conduction pathways. Using neurophysiological data, we then show that CMCTL with appropriate time lag enhances the coherence between cortical and muscle signals, and that time lags which correspond to local maxima of CMCTL provide estimates of delays involved in corticomuscular coupling that are consistent with the underlying physiology.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • On the Merits of Tetrapolar Impedance Spectroscopy for Monitoring Lithium
           Concentration Variations in Human Blood Plasma
    • Authors: Loukas Constantinou;Iasonas F. Triantis;Michelle Hickey;Panayiotis A. Kyriacou;
      Pages: 601 - 609
      Abstract: Bipolar disorder is characterized as a manic-depressive psychiatric syndrome with life-threatening risks to the patient. Diagnosed individuals undergo long-term lithium therapy which has proven to be effective for mood stabilization. Maintaining blood lithium concentration levels within a narrow therapeutic window between 0.6 and 1.5 mM is vital for the patient as slightly elevated concentrations of the order of 0.1 mM can be toxic. This paper aims to evaluate the merits of tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy as an alternative method in monitoring blood lithium levels. Measurements were performed using a custom-made tetrapolar probe in human blood plasma with lithium concentrations covering the therapeutic range. The results indicate a limit of detection less than 0.1 mM and a response time of less than 5 s. Prediction of lithium concentration levels using impedance values is in good agreement with conventional standard techniques to approximately 0.05 mM. This technique provides a basis for further development of instrumentation for point of care healthcare technologies.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • FIM$^{2c;}$: Multicolor, Multipurpose Imaging System to Manipulate and
           Analyze Animal Behavior
    • Authors: Benjamin Risse;Nils Otto;Dimitri Berh;Xiaoyi Jiang;Matthias Kiel;Christian Klämbt;
      Pages: 610 - 620
      Abstract: In vivo whole-body imaging of small animals plays an important role for biomedical studies. In particular, animals like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster or the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are popular model organisms for preclinical research since they offer sophisticated genetic tool-kits. Recording these translucent animals with high contrast in a large arena is however not trivial. Furthermore, fluorescent proteins are widely used to mark cells in vivo and report their functions. This paper introduces a novel optical imaging technique called FIM2c enabling simultaneous detection of the animals posture and movement as well as fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP). FIM2c utilizes frustrated total internal reflection of two distinct wavelengths and captures both, reflected and emitted light. The resultant two-color high-contrast images are superb compared to other imaging systems for larvae or worms. This multipurpose method enables a large variety of different experimental approaches. For example, FIM2c can be used to image GFP positive cells/tissues/animals and supports the integration of fluorescent tracers into multitarget tracking paradigms. Moreover, optogenetic tools can be applied in large-scale behavioral analysis to manipulate and study neuronal functions. To demonstrate the benefit of our system, we use FIM2c to resolve colliding larvae in a high-throughput approach, which was impossible given the existing tools. Finally, we present a comprehensive database including images and locomotion features of more than 1300 resolved collisions available for the community. In conclusion, FIM2c is a versatile tool for advanced imaging and locomotion analysis for a variety of different model organisms.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dynamic Computation Offloading for Low-Power Wearable Health Monitoring
    • Authors: Haik Kalantarian;Costas Sideris;Bobak Mortazavi;Nabil Alshurafa;Majid Sarrafzadeh;
      Pages: 621 - 628
      Abstract: Objective: The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate an algorithm to reduce power usage and increase battery lifetime for wearable health-monitoring devices. Methods: We describe a novel dynamic computation offloading scheme for real-time wearable health monitoring devices that adjusts the partitioning of data processing between the wearable device and mobile application as a function of desired classification accuracy. Results: By making the correct offloading decision based on current system parameters, we show that we are able to reduce system power by as much as 20%. Conclusion: We demonstrate that computation offloading can be applied to real-time monitoring systems, and yields significant power savings. Significance: Making correct offloading decisions for health monitoring devices can extend battery life and improve adherence.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse
           Embryos During Embryo Biopsy
    • Authors: Christopher Yee Wong;James K. Mills;
      Pages: 629 - 636
      Abstract: Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Objective: Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. Methods: A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. Results: A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Conclusion: Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. Significance: LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Hand-Held Assistant for Semiautomated Percutaneous Needle Steering
    • Authors: Carlos Rossa;Nawaid Usmani;Ronald Sloboda;Mahdi Tavakoli;
      Pages: 637 - 648
      Abstract: Objective: Permanent prostate brachytherapy is an effective and popular treatment modality for prostate cancer in which long needles are inserted into the prostate. Challenges associated with manual needle insertion such as needle deflection limit this procedure to primarily treat the entire prostate gland even for patients with localized cancer. In this paper, we present a new semiautomated hand-held needle steering assistant designed to help surgeons improve needle placement accuracy. Methods: Regular clinical brachytherapy needles are connected to a compact device that the surgeon holds. As the surgeon inserts the needle, the device rotates the needle base on a measured and calculated basis in order to produce a desired trajectory of the needle tip. A novel needle-tissue interaction model and a steering algorithm calculate such control actions based on ultrasound images of the needle in tissue. The assistant can also apply controlled longitudinal microvibrations to the needle that reduce needle-tissue friction. Results: Experimental validation of the proposed system in phantom and ex-vivo biological tissue report an average needle targeting accuracy of 0.33 mm over 72 needle insertions in 12 different experimental scenarios. Conclusion: We introduce a new framework for needle steering in prostate brachytherapy in which the surgeon remains in charge of the needle insertion. The device weighs 160 g, making it easy to incorporate with current insertion techniques. Significance: Expected benefits of the proposed system include more precise needle targeting accuracy, which can result in improved focal treatment of prostate cancer.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Global Diffusion Tractography by Simulated Annealing
    • Authors: Marc C. Robini;Matthew Ozon;Carole Frindel;Feng Yang;Yuemin Zhu;
      Pages: 649 - 660
      Abstract: Objective: Our goal is to develop a robust global tractography method for cardiac diffusion imaging. Methods: A graph is stretched over the whole myocardium to represent the fiber structure, and the solutions are minima of a graph energy measuring the fidelity to the data along with the fiber density and curvature. The optimization is performed by a variant of simulated annealing that offers increased design freedom without sacrificing theoretical convergence guarantees. Results: Numerical experiments on synthetic and real data demonstrate the capability of our tractography algorithm to deal with low angular resolution, highly noisy data. In particular, our algorithm outperforms the Bayesian model-based algorithm of Reisert et al. (NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 2, 2011) and the graph-based algorithm of Frindel et al. (Magn. Reson. Med., vol. 64, no. 4, 2010) at the noise levels typical of in vivo imaging. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm avoids the drawbacks of local techniques and is very robust to noise, which makes it a promising tool for in vivo diffusion imaging of moving organs. Significance: Our approach is global in terms of both the fiber structure representation and the minimization problem. It also allows us to adjust the trajectory density by simply changing the vertex-lattice spacing in the graph model, a desirable feature for multiresolution tractography analysis.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Angiogenesis Imaging by Mutual Information
           Analysis for Prostate Cancer Localization
    • Authors: Stefan G. Schalk;Libertario Demi;Nabil Bouhouch;Maarten P. J. Kuenen;Arnoud W. Postema;Jean J. M. C. H. de la Rosette;Hessel Wijkstra;Tjalling J. Tjalkens;Massimo Mischi;
      Pages: 661 - 670
      Abstract: Objective: The role of angiogenesis in cancer growth has stimulated research aimed at noninvasive cancer detection by blood perfusion imaging. Recently, contrast ultrasound dispersion imaging was proposed as an alternative method for angiogenesis imaging. After the intravenous injection of an ultrasound-contrast-agent bolus, dispersion can be indirectly estimated from the local similarity between neighboring time-intensity curves (TICs) measured by ultrasound imaging. Up until now, only linear similarity measures have been investigated. Motivated by the promising results of this approach in prostate cancer (PCa), we developed a novel dispersion estimation method based on mutual information, thus including nonlinear similarity, to further improve its ability to localize PCa. Methods: First, a simulation study was performed to establish the theoretical link between dispersion and mutual information. Next, the method's ability to localize PCa was validated in vivo in 23 patients (58 datasets) referred for radical prostatectomy by comparison with histology. Results: A monotonic relationship between dispersion and mutual information was demonstrated. The in vivo study resulted in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area equal to 0.77, which was superior (p = 0.21-0.24) to that obtained by linear similarity measures (0.74-0.75) and (p
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Oblong-Shaped-Focused Transducers for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging
    • Authors: Junsu Lee;Jihun Jang;Jin Ho Chang;
      Pages: 671 - 680
      Abstract: In intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, a transducer is inserted into a blood vessel and rotated to obtain image data. For this purpose, the transducer aperture is typically less than 0.5 mm in diameter, which causes natural focusing to occur in the imaging depth ranging from 1 to 5 mm. Due to the small aperture, however, it is not viable to conduct geometric focusing in order to enhance the spatial resolution of IVUS images. Furthermore, this hampers narrowing the slice thickness of a cross-sectional scan plane in the imaging depth, which leads to lowering spatial and contrast resolutions of IVUS images. To solve this problem, we propose an oblong-shaped-focused transducer for IVUS imaging. Unlike the conventional IVUS transducers with either a circular or a square flat aperture, the proposed transducer has an oblong aperture of which long side is positioned along a blood vessel. This unique configuration makes it possible to conduct geometric focusing at a desired depth in the elevation direction. In this study, furthermore, it is demonstrated that a spherically shaped aperture in both lateral and elevation directions also improves lateral resolution, compared to the conventional flat aperture. To ascertain this, the conventional and the proposed IVUS transducers were designed and fabricated to evaluate and to compare their imaging performances through wire phantom and tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. For the proposed 50-MHz IVUS transducer, a PZT piece of 0.5 × 1.0 mm2 was spherically shaped for elevation focus at 3 mm by using the conventional press-focusing technique whereas the conventional one has a flat aperture of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed IVUS transducer is capable of improving spatial and contrast resolutions of IVUS images.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Intratidal Overdistention and Derecruitment in the Injured Lung: A
           Simulation Study
    • Authors: Reza Amini;Jacob Herrmann;David W. Kaczka;
      Pages: 681 - 689
      Abstract: Goal: Ventilated patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are predisposed to cyclic parenchymal overdistention and derecruitment, which may worsen existing injury. We hypothesized that intratidal variations in global mechanics, as assessed at the airway opening, would reflect such distributed processes. Methods: We developed a computational lung model for determining local instantaneous pressure distributions and mechanical impedances continuously during a breath. Based on these distributions and previous literature, we simulated the within-breath variability of airway segment dimensions, parenchymal viscoelasticity, and acinar recruitment in an injured canine lung for tidal volumes(VT) of 10, 15, and 20 mL · kg-1 and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O. Acini were allowed to transition between recruited and derecruited states when exposed to stochastically determined critical opening and closing pressures, respectively. Results: For conditions of low VT and low PEEP, we observed small intratidal variations in global resistance and elastance, with a small number of cyclically recruited acini. However, with higher VT and PEEP, larger variations in resistance and elastance were observed, and the majority of acini remained open throughout the breath. Changes in intratidal resistance, elastance, and impedance followed well-defined parabolic trajectories with tracheal pressure, achieving minima near 12 to 16 cm H2O. Conclusion: Intratidal variations in lung mechanics may allow for optimization of ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, by balancing lung recruitment against parenchymal overdistention. Significance: Titration of airway pressures based on variations in intratidal mechanics may mitigate processes associated with injurious ventilation.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Detecting Interactions between the Renal Autoregulation Mechanisms in Time
           and Space
    • Authors: Christopher G. Scully;Nicholas Mitrou;Branko Braam;Willliam A. Cupples;Ki H. Chon;
      Pages: 690 - 698
      Abstract: Objective: Our objective is to identify localized interactions between the renal autoregulation mechanisms over time. Methods: A time-varying phase-randomized wavelet bicoherence detector for quadratic phase coupling between tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response is presented. Through simulations we show its ability to interrogate quadratic phase coupling. The method is applied to kidney blood flow and laser speckle imaging sequences of cortical perfusion from anesthetized rats before and after nonselective inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase. Results: Quadratic phase coupling in kidney blood flow data was present in four out of nine animals during the control period for 13.0 ± 5.6% (mean ± SD) of time and in five out of nine animals during inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase for 15.8 ± 8.2% of time. Approximately 60% of time-series extracted from laser speckle imaging pixels of the renal cortex showed significant quadratic phase coupling. Pixels with significant coupling had a median coupling length of 10.8 ± 2.2% and 12.1 ± 3.1% of time with the 95th percentile of pixels being coupled for 25.5 ± 4.4% and 30.9 ± 6.4% of time during control and inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate quadratic phase coupling exists in short time intervals between tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response and is detected more often in local renal perfusion signals than whole kidney blood flow in anesthetized rats. Significance: Combining the detector and laser speckle imaging provides identification of coordination between renal autoregulation mechanisms that is localized in time and space.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Bicomponent Conformal Electrode for Radiofrequency Sequential Ablation and
           Circumferential Separation of Large Tumors in Solid Organs: Development
           and In Vitro Evaluation
    • Authors: Zhigang Wang;Hongyan Luo;Stuart Coleman;Alfred Cuschieri;
      Pages: 699 - 705
      Abstract: Objective: Complete destruction of large tumors by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with surrounding tumor-free margin is difficult because of incomplete or nonuniform heating due to both heat-sink effect of circulating blood and limitations of existing RF electrode design. A new RF electrode is described to overcome this limitation. Methods: A bicomponent conformal (BCC) RFA probe providing sectorial sequential ablation followed by circumferential cutting is designed and evaluated. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis model was developed with temperature feedback-controlled simulation of RFA for electrode design and optimization. The prototype bipolar BCC probe with three embedded thermocouples was constructed and evaluated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Results: Maximum tissue temperature was kept
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • An Automatic User-Adapted Physical Activity Classification Method Using
    • Authors: Pengfei Li;Yu Wang;Yu Tian;Tian-Shu Zhou;Jing-Song Li;
      Pages: 706 - 714
      Abstract: In recent years, an increasing number of people have become concerned about their health. Most chronic diseases are related to lifestyle, and daily activity records can be used as an important indicator of health. Specifically, using advanced technology to automatically monitor actual activities can effectively prevent and manage chronic diseases. The data used in this paper were obtained from acceleration sensors and gyroscopes integrated in smartphones. We designed an efficient Adaboost-Stump running on a smartphone to classify five common activities: cycling, running, sitting, standing, and walking and achieved a satisfactory classification accuracy of 98%. We designed an online learning method, and the classification model requires continuous training with actual data. The parameters in the model then become increasingly fitted to the specific user, which allows the classification accuracy to reach 95% under different use environments. In addition, this paper also utilized the OpenCL framework to design the program in parallel. This process can enhance the computing efficiency approximately ninefold.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Novel Quantitative 500-MHz Acoustic Microscopy System for Ophthalmologic
    • Authors: Daniel Rohrbach;Anette Jakob;Harriet O. Lloyd;Steffen H. Tretbar;Ronald H. Silverman;Jonathan Mamou;
      Pages: 715 - 724
      Abstract: Objective: This paper describes development of a novel 500-MHz scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) for assessing the mechanical properties of ocular tissues at fine resolution. The mechanical properties of some ocular tissues, such as lamina cribrosa (IC) in the optic nerve head, are believed to play a pivotal role in eye pathogenesis. Methods: A novel etching technology was used to fabricate silicon-based lens for a 500-MHz transducer. The transducer was tested in a custom-designed scanning system on human eyes. Two-dimensional (2-D) maps of bulk modulus (K) and mass density (p) were derived using improved versions of current state-of-the-art signal processing approaches. Results: The transducer employed a lens radius of 125 μm and had a center frequency of 479 MHz with a -6-dB bandwidth of 264 MHz and a lateral resolution of 4 μm. The IC, Bruch's membrane (BM) at the interface of the retina and choroid, and Bowman's layer (BI) at the interface of the corneal epithelium and stroma, were successfully imaged and resolved. Analysis of the 2-D parameter maps revealed average values of IC, BM, and BI with KLC = 2.81 ± 0.17; GPa, KBM = 2.89 ± 0.18; GPa, KBL = 2.6 ± 0.09; GPa, p LC = 0.96 ± 0.03 g/cm3; ρ BM = 0.97 ± 0.04 g/cm3; ρ BL = 0.98 ± 0.04 g/cm3. Significance: This novel SAM was shown to be capable of measuring mechanical properties of soft biological tissues at microscopic resolution; it is currently the only system that allows simultaneous measurement of K, ρ, and attenuation in large lateral scales (field area >9 mm2) and at fine resolutions.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
  • Mitigation of Intra-coil Eddy Currents in Split Gradient Coils in a Hybrid
           MRI-LINAC System
    • Authors: Fangfang Tang;Fabio Freschi;Maurizio Repetto;Yu Li;Feng Liu;Stuart Crozier;
      Pages: 725 - 732
      Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to mitigate intra-gradient coil eddy currents in a hybrid MRI-LINAC system. Methods: The tracks of the gradient coils are modified by cutting slits along the current flow direction. The electromagnetic model developed was first experimentally validated and then used to study the impacts of the slit conductors on the energized and surrounding coils. In this study, gradient coils were slit with different numbers of subtracks and driven by a current with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The proposed configuration was assessed by evaluating a number of system parameters, such as the gradient magnetic field, the power loss generated in the surrounding unenergized coil (hereafter referred to as passive coils), and the performance of the energized coil. Results: It was found that at a typical operating frequency of 1 kHz and compared with a conventional (no cut) split coil structure, the new coil pattern (with four slits) offered improved coil parameters. 1) The average power loss dissipated in the surrounding passive coil was significantly reduced by 85%, 2) the cuts largely reduced the secondary field generated by the eddy currents in the passive coil, which was reduced to about 4% of that produced by the uncut coil and, 3) the performance of the energized coil with slit tracks was significantly improved. Some typical gradient coil parameters, such as the figure of merit, efficiency (η), and η2 /R (where η is the efficiency and R is the resistance), were improved by 8.0%, 11.9%, and 45.7%, respectively. Conclusion and Significance: The new slit coil structure is effective in mitigating intra-coil eddy current effects, which is an important issue in the MRI-LINAC system.
      PubDate: March 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 3 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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