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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2496 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (218 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (118 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1306 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (84 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)

ENGINEERING (1306 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.267
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9294
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • Frontcover
    • Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (T-BME)
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering Handling Editors
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the Handling Editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • TBME: A Retrospective
    • Authors: B. He;
      Pages: 2673 - 2674
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • A Quasi-Static Boundary Element Approach With Fast Multipole Acceleration
           for High-Resolution Bioelectromagnetic Models
    • Authors: Sergey N. Makarov;Gregory M. Noetscher;Tommi Raij;Aapo Nummenmaa;
      Pages: 2675 - 2683
      Abstract: Objective: We develop a new accurate version of the boundary element fast multipole method for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) related problems. This method is based on the surface-charge formulation and is using the highly efficient fast multipole accelerator along with analytical computations of neighbor surface integrals. Results: The method accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with the proven commercial finite-element method (FEM) software ANSYS Maxwell 18.2 2017 operating on unstructured grids and with adaptive mesh refinement. Five realistic high-definition head models from the Population Head Repository (IT'IS Foundation, Switzerland) have been acquired and augmented with a commercial TMS coil model (MRi-B91, MagVenture, Denmark). For each head model, simulations with our method and simulations with the FEM software ANSYS Maxwell 18.2 2017 have been performed. These simulations have been compared with each other and an excellent agreement was established in every case. Significance: At the same time, our new method runs approximately 500 times faster than the ANSYS FEM, finishes in about 200 s on a standard server, and naturally provides a submillimeter field resolution, which is justified using mesh refinement. Conclusions: Our method can be applied to modeling of brain stimulation and recording technologies such as TMS and magnetoencephalography, and has the potential to become a real-time high-resolution simulation tool.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Electroencephalogram Based Detection of Deep Sedation in ICU Patients
           Using Atomic Decomposition
    • Authors: Sunil Belur Nagaraj;Lauren M. McClain;Emily J. Boyle;David W. Zhou;Sowmya M. Ramaswamy;Siddharth Biswal;Oluwaseun Akeju;Patrick L. Purdon;M. Brandon Westover;
      Pages: 2684 - 2691
      Abstract: Objective: This study was performed to evaluate how well states of deep sedation in ICU patients can be detected from the frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) using features based on the method of atomic decomposition (AD). Methods: We analyzed a clinical dataset of 20 min of EEG recordings per patient from 44 mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving sedatives in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Several features derived from AD of the EEG signal were used to discriminate between awake and sedated states. We trained support vector machine (SVM) classifiers using AD features and compared the classification performance with SVM classifiers trained using standard spectral and entropy features using leave-one-subject-out validation. The potential of each feature to discriminate between awake and sedated states was quantified using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The sedation level classification system using AD was able to reliably discriminate between sedated and awake states achieving an average AUC of 0.90, which was significantly better ($p
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Microbubble Localization for Three-Dimensional Superresolution Ultrasound
           Imaging Using Curve Fitting and Deconvolution Methods
    • Authors: Foroohar Foroozan;Meaghan A. O’Reilly;Kullervo Hynynen;
      Pages: 2692 - 2703
      Abstract: Superresolution algorithms in ultrasound imaging are attracting the interest of researchers recently due to the ability of these methods to enable enhanced vascular imaging. In this study, two superresolution imaging methods are compared for postprocessing images of microbubbles generated using passive acoustic mapping (PAM) methods with a potential application of three-dimensional (3-D) brain vascular imaging. The first method is based on fitting single bubble images one at a time with a 3-D Gaussian profile to localize the microbubbles and a superresolution image is then formed using the uncertainty of the localization as the standard deviation of the Gaussian profile. The second superresolution method is based on image deconvolution that processes multiframe resolution-limited images iteratively and estimates the intensity at each pixel of the superresolution image without the need for localizing each microbubble. The point spread function is approximated by a Gaussian curve which is similar to the beam response of the hemispherical transducer array used in our experimental setup. The Cramér–Rao Bounds of the two estimation techniques are derived analytically and the performance of these techniques is compared through numerical simulations based on experimental PAM images. For linear and sinusoidal traces, the localization errors between the estimated peaks by the fitting-based method and the actual source locations were 220 $pm$ 10 $mu$ m and 210 $pm$ 5 $mu$m, respectively, as compared to 74 $pm$ 10 $mu$m and 59 $pm$ 8 $mu$m with the deconvolution-based method. However, in terms of the running time and the computational costs, the curve fitting technique outperforms the deconvolution-based approach.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Inertial Sensing for Gait Event Detection and Transfemoral Prosthesis
           Control Strategy
    • Authors: Elissa D. Ledoux;
      Pages: 2704 - 2712
      Abstract: Objective: This paper presents a method for walking gait event detection using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) mounted on the shank. Methods: Experiments were conducted to detect heel strike (HS) and toe off (TO) gait events of 10 healthy subjects and 5 transfemoral amputees walking at various speeds and slopes on an instrumented treadmill. The performance of three different algorithms [thresholding (THR), linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis] was evaluated on both timing and frequency of gait event detections compared to data collected using force plates. Results: Though all algorithms could be used reliably (within 8.2% stride temporal error and 0.2% frequency error), THR was the most accurate, detecting 100% of gait events within an average of 2% stride for both the healthy subjects and the amputees. Furthermore, universal parameters could be used across all speeds and slopes within each demographic. Conclusion: HS and TO for walking gait can be reliably detected in healthy and transfemoral amputee subjects using a single IMU. Significance: This work provides a robust, simple, and inexpensive method of gait event detection that does not rely on a load cell and could be easily implemented in a lower-limb prosthesis.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • EEG Spectral Coherence Analysis in Nocturnal Epilepsy
    • Authors: Giovanni Busonera;Marco Cogoni;Monica Puligheddu;Raffaele Ferri;Giulia Milioli;Liborio Parrino;Francesco Marrosu;Gianluigi Zanetti;
      Pages: 2713 - 2719
      Abstract: Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely employed in the study of sleep disorders. This paper exploits the identification of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs), a periodic ubiquitous phenomenon nested in the sleep stages, to analyze the EEG spectral coherence in subjects affected by nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and healthy controls. Methods: For each EEG recording, we extracted several CAP A1 subtype 4 s time series. We analyze the coherence between each pair of electrodes for each individual to obtain its distribution for each frequency range of interest to investigate differences between cases and controls. In addition, the imaginary and real parts of the spectral coherence were calculated and plotted to assess their likelihood of segregation into different classes and anatomical regions. Results: The results of this study suggest a relevant frontal-temporal neural circuitry difference between individuals affected by epilepsy and controls. Conclusion: This supports the observation that, though highly variable, a broad range of executive, cognitive and attentional deficit observed in subjects affected by NFLE might depend on frontal-temporal altered networking. Significance: The investigation of EEG activity in the domain of the complex sleep architecture represents a challenging topic in neurophysiology and needs new methods to explore the manifold aspects of sleep. This work aims to provide a simple method to distinguish NFLE from healthy subjects from a functional connectivity point of view and to explore the possibility of using a smaller EEG channel set to support diagnosis.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Medical Image Synthesis with Deep Convolutional Adversarial Networks
    • Authors: Dong Nie;Roger Trullo;Jun Lian;Li Wang;Caroline Petitjean;Su Ruan;Qian Wang;Dinggang Shen;
      Pages: 2720 - 2730
      Abstract: Medical imaging plays a critical role in various clinical applications. However, due to multiple considerations such as cost and radiation dose, the acquisition of certain image modalities may be limited. Thus, medical image synthesis can be of great benefit by estimating a desired imaging modality without incurring an actual scan. In this paper, we propose a generative adversarial approach to address this challenging problem. Specifically, we train a fully convolutional network (FCN) to generate a target image given a source image. To better model a nonlinear mapping from source to target and to produce more realistic target images, we propose to use the adversarial learning strategy to better model the FCN. Moreover, the FCN is designed to incorporate an image-gradient-difference-based loss function to avoid generating blurry target images. Long-term residual unit is also explored to help the training of the network. We further apply Auto-Context Model to implement a context-aware deep convolutional adversarial network. Experimental results show that our method is accurate and robust for synthesizing target images from the corresponding source images. In particular, we evaluate our method on three datasets, to address the tasks of generating CT from MRI and generating 7T MRI from 3T MRI images. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods under comparison in all datasets and tasks.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Pathogen Detection Using Frequency Domain Fluorescent Lifetime
           Measurements
    • Authors: Gilad Yahav;Sivan Gershanov;Mali Salmon-Divon;Haim Ben-Zvi;Gabriel Mircus;Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen;Dror Fixler;
      Pages: 2731 - 2741
      Abstract: Objective: Inflammation of the meninges is a source of severe morbidity and therefore is an important health concerns worldwide. The conventional clinical microbiology approaches used today to identify pathogens suffer from several drawbacks and frequently provide false results. This research describes a fast method to detect the presence of pathogens using the frequency domain (FD) fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) system. Methods: The study included 43 individuals divided into 4 groups: 9 diagnosed with different types of bacteria; 16 diagnosed with different types of viruses; 5 healthy samples served as a control; and 12 samples were negative to any pathogen, although presenting related symptoms. All samples contained leukocytes that were extracted from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and were subjected to nuclear staining by 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and FLT analyses based on phase and amplitude crossing point (CRPO). Results: Using notched boxplots, we found differences in 95% probability between the first three groups through different notch ranges (NR). Pathogen samples presented a longer median FLT (3.28 ns with NR of 3.24–3.32 ns in bacteria and 3.18 ns with NR of 3.16–3.21 ns in viruses) compared to the control median FLT (2.65 ns with NR of 2.63–2.67 ns). Furthermore, we found that the undetected forth group was divided into two types: a relatively normal median FLT (2.72 ns with NR of 2.68–2.76 ns) and a prolonged FLT (3.22 ns with NR of 3.17–3.27 ns). Conclusion: FLT measurements can differentiate between control and pathogen by the CRPO method. Significance: The FD-FLIM system can provide a high throughput diagnostic technique that does not require a physician.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Detecting Vascular Age Using the Analysis of Peripheral Pulse
    • Authors: Michele Sorelli;Antonia Perrella;Leonardo Bocchi;
      Pages: 2742 - 2750
      Abstract: Vascular ageing is known to be accompanied by arterial stiffening and vascular endothelial dysfunction, and represents an independent factor contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease. The microvascular pulse is affected by the biomechanical alterations of the circulatory system, and has been the focus of studies aiming at the development of non-invasive methods able to extract physiologically relevant features. Objective: proposing an approach for the assessment of vascular ageing based on a support vector machine (SVM) learning from features of the pulse contour. Methods: the supervised classifier was trained and validated over 20935 models of pulse wave, obtained with a multi-Gaussian decomposition algorithm, applied to laser Doppler flowmetry signals of 54 healthy, non-smoker subjects. Results: the multi-Gaussian model showed a mean R2 of 0.98 and an average normalized root mean square error of 0.90, demonstrating the ability to reconstruct the pulse shape. Over 30 training and validation experiments, the SVM showed a mean Pearson's r of 0.808 between the rate of waves classified as old and the age of the subjects, along with an average area under the ROC curve of 0.953. Conclusion: the SVM showed the capability to discriminate differently aged individuals. Significance: the proposed method might detect the ageing-related modifications of the vascular tree; furthermore, since diabetes promotes vascular alterations comparable to ageing, this approach may be also suitable for the screening of diabetic angiopathy.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Heartbeats Based Biometric Random Binary Sequences Generation to Secure
           Wireless Body Sensor Networks
    • Authors: Sandeep Pirbhulal;Heye Zhang;Wanqing Wu;Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay;Yuan-Ting Zhang;
      Pages: 2751 - 2759
      Abstract: Heartbeats based random binary sequences (RBSs) are the backbone for several security aspects in wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs). However, current heartbeats based methods require a lot of processing time (∼25–30 s) to generate 128-bit RBSs in real-time healthcare applications. In order to improve time efficiency, a biometric RBSs generation technique using interpulse intervals (IPIs) of heartbeats is developed in this study. The proposed technique incorporates a finite monotonic increasing sequences generation mechanism of IPIs and a cyclic block encoding procedure that extracts a high number of entropic bits from each IPI. To validate the proposed technique, 89 ECG recordings including 25 healthy individuals in a laboratory environment, 20 from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, and 44 cardiac patients from the clinical environment are considered. By applying the proposed technique on the ECG signals, at most 16 random bits can be extracted from each heartbeat to generate 128-bit RBSs via concatenation of eight consecutive IPIs. And the randomness and distinctiveness of generated 128-bit RBSs are measured based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests and hamming distance, respectively. From the experimental results, the generated 128-bit RBSs from both healthy subjects and patients can potentially be used as keys for encryption or entity identifiers to secure WBSNs. Moreover, the proposed approach is examined to be up to four times faster than the existing heartbeat-based RBSs generation schemes. Therefore, the developed technique necessitates less processing time (0–8 s) in real-time health monitoring scenarios to construct 128-bit RBSs in comparisons with current methods.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • An Optimization-Based Algorithm for the Construction of Cardiac Purkinje
           Network Models
    • Authors: Jesuliana N. Ulysses;Lucas A. Berg;Elizabeth M. Cherry;Ben R. Liu;Rodrigo W. dos Santos;Bruno G. de Barros;Bernardo M. Rocha;Rafael A. B. de Queiroz;
      Pages: 2760 - 2768
      Abstract: Objective: This work presents a new algorithm for the construction of a model for the Purkinje network (PN) of the heart. Methods: The algorithm is based on a method called constructive constrained optimization (CCO), which was reformulated for the specific case of automatic PN generation. The proposed optimization-based algorithm is referred to as constructive optimization (CO). The CO method iteratively constructs the PN by minimizing the total length of the generated PN tree. In addition, it can take into account some important topological information of the PN, such as the location of the Purkinje-muscle junctions and the average bifurcation angle found in the literature. Results: To validate the model, the new method was compared with the classical L-system method for generating PN models and to a recently proposed image-based technique. Conclusion: The results show that the CO is able to construct PNs with geometric features and activation times that are in good agreement with those reported in the literature and to those obtained by the other aforementioned alternatives.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Cardiac Motion Evolution Model for Analysis of Functional Changes Using
           Tensor Decomposition and Cross-Sectional Data
    • Authors: Kristin McLeod;Kristin Tøndel;Lilian Calvet;Maxime Sermesant;Xavier Pennec;
      Pages: 2769 - 2780
      Abstract: Cardiac disease can reduce the ability of the ventricles to function well enough to sustain long-term pumping efficiency. Recent advances in cardiac motion tracking have led to improvements in the analysis of cardiac function. We propose a method to study cohort effects related to age with respect to cardiac function. The proposed approach makes use of a recent method for describing cardiac motion of a given subject using a polyaffine model, which gives a compact parameterization that reliably and accurately describes the cardiac motion across populations. Using this method, a data tensor of motion parameters is extracted for a given population. The partial least squares method for higher order arrays is used to build a model to describe the motion parameters with respect to age, from which a model of motion given age is derived. Based on the cross-sectional statistical analysis with the data tensor of each subject treated as an observation along time, the left ventricular motion over time of Tetralogy of Fallot patients is analysed to understand the temporal evolution of functional abnormalities in this population compared to healthy motion dynamics.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Three-Dimensional Model of Electroretinogram Field Potentials in the Rat
           Eye
    • Authors: Ashley N. Selner;Zahra Derafshi;Brian E. Kunzer;John R. Hetling;
      Pages: 2781 - 2789
      Abstract: Objective: The information derived from the electroretinogram (ERG), especially with regard to local areas of retinal dysfunction or therapeutic rescue, can be enhanced by an increased understanding of the relationship between local retinal current sources and local ERG potentials measured at the cornea. A critical step in this direction is the development of a robust bioelectric field model of the ERG. Methods: A finite-element model was created to simulate ERG potentials at the cornea resulting from physiologically relevant transretinal currents. A magnetic resonance image of a rat eye was segmented to define all major ocular structures, tissues were assigned conductivity values from the literature. The model was optimized to multi-electrode ERG (meERG) data recorded in healthy rat eyes, and validated with meERG data from eyes with experimental lesions in peripheral retina. Results: Following optimization, the simulated distribution of corneal potentials was in good agreement with measured values; residual error was comparable to the average difference of individual eyes from the measured mean. The model predicted the corneal potential distribution for eight eyes with experimental lesions with similar accuracy, and a measure of pre- to post-lesion changes in corneal potential distribution was well correlated with the location of the lesion. Conclusion: An eye model with high anatomical accuracy was successfully validated against a robust dataset. Significance: This model can now be used for optimization of ERG electrode design, and to support functional mapping of the retina from meERG data via solving the inverse bioelectric source problem.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Is EMG a Viable Alternative to BCI for Detecting Movement Intention in
           Severe Stroke'
    • Authors: Sivakumar Balasubramanian;Eliana Garcia-Cossio;Niels Birbaumer;Etienne Burdet;Ander Ramos-Murguialday;
      Pages: 2790 - 2797
      Abstract: Objective: In light of the shortcomings of current restorative brain–computer interfaces (BCI), this study investigated the possibility of using EMG to detect hand/wrist extension movement intention to trigger robot-assisted training in individuals without residual movements. Methods: We compared movement intention detection using an EMG detector with a sensorimotor rhythm based EEG-BCI using only ipsilesional activity. This was carried out on data of 30 severely affected chronic stroke patients from a randomized control trial using an EEG-BCI for robot-assisted training. Results: The results indicate the feasibility of using EMG to detect movement intention in this severely handicapped population; probability of detecting EMG when patients attempted to move was higher (p $
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • RF Channel Modeling for Implant-to-Implant Communication and Implant to
           
    • Authors: Pritam Bose;Ali Khaleghi;Mohammad Albatat;Jacob Bergsland;Ilangko Balasingham;
      Pages: 2798 - 2807
      Abstract: Propagation of radio-frequency signals inside human body is demanding to analyze as it is a highly complex medium consisting of different frequency-dependent lossy materials of varying thickness. Moreover, experimental analyses are also unfeasible because that requires probes to be placed inside a human body to collect the signals. This paper focuses on in-body to in-body implant communication for future multinodal capsule-like leadless cardiac pacemaker technology. The frequency range of 0.3–3 GHz is analyzed using very detailed numerical simulations of digital human models. The results show that the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical radio band of the frequency range of 2.4–2.5 GHz is optimal, having the least attenuation of signals considering the size constraints of the implant antenna. Furthermore, the placement of an additional subcutaneous implant transceiver is studied. The analysis shows that the abdominal wall is the optimal position for the placement of the implant compared to shoulder and lateral side of the body. This result is further validated by an in vivo experiment on an adult pig. The other novelty of the study is the investigation of the channel behavior based on ventricular blood volume of the heart to find out the appropriate timing of the transmission of signals between the implants. The results show that the attenuation of the signal increases with the increase in blood volume inside the heart.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • A Smart Capsule With a Hydrogel-Based pH-Triggered Release Switch for
           GI-Tract Site-Specific Drug Delivery
    • Authors: Hongjie Jiang;Wuyang Yu;Mark Oscai;Babak Ziaie;
      Pages: 2808 - 2813
      Abstract: In this paper, we present a smart capsule that can release its payload after a predetermined/adjustable delay subsequent to passing from the stomach into the small intestine. The described capsule (9 mm × 22 mm) comprises a pH-sensitive hydrogel-based switch, an electronic compartment containing a capacitor charged to 2.7 V, and a drug reservoir capped by a taut fusible thread intertwined with a nichrome wire. The nichrome wire, capacitor, and pH-responsive electrical switch are connected in series. The pH transition the capsule encounters when it enters the small intestine triggers controlled swelling of the pH-responsive hydrogel, which pushes a conductive elastic membrane to close an electrical switch. This initiates a sequence of events, i.e., the discharge of the capacitor, heating the nichrome wire, breakage of the fusible thread, and release of the payload stored in the capsule reservoir through the unlatched cap. The time lag between initiation of hydrogel swelling (by the near-neutral pH of the small intestine) and payload release is controlled by the deflection of the conductive elastic membrane and the gap separating the contacts. The release time can be set to within ±5 min after one hour in the small intestine (start of the swelling) increasing to ±40 min after 4 h.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Distortion Distribution of Neural Spike Train Sequence Matching With
           Optogenetics
    • Authors: Adam Noel;Dimitrios Makrakis;Andrew W. Eckford;
      Pages: 2814 - 2826
      Abstract: Objective: This paper uses a simple optogenetic model to compare the timing distortion between a randomly-generated target spike sequence and an externally-stimulated neuron spike sequence. Optogenetics is an emerging field of neuroscience where neurons are genetically modified to express light-sensitive receptors that enable external control when the neurons fire. Methods: Two different measures are studied to determine the timing distortion. The first measure is the delay in externally-stimulated spikes. The second measure is the root-mean-square-error between the filtered outputs of the target and stimulated spike sequences. Results: The mean and the distribution of the distortion are derived in closed form when the target sequence generation rate is sufficiently low. The derived results are verified with simulations. Conclusion: The proposed model and distortion measures can be used to measure the deviation between neuron spike sequences that are prescribed and what can be achieved via external stimulation. Significance: Given the prominence of neuronal signaling within the brain and throughout the body, optogenetics has significant potential to improve the understanding of the nervous system and to develop treatments for neurological diseases. This work is a step towards an analytical model to predict whether different spike trains were observed from the same external stimulus, and the broader goal of understanding the quantity and reliability of information that can be carried by neurons.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Ex Vivo Modeling of Perioperative Air Leaks in Porcine
           Lungs
    • Authors: Charles Klassen;Chad E. Eckert;Jordan Wong;Jacques P. Guyette;Jason L. Harris;Suzanne Thompson;Leonard J. Wudel;Harald C. Ott;
      Pages: 2827 - 2836
      Abstract: Objective: A novel ex vivo model is described to advance the understanding of prolonged air leaks, one of the most common postoperative complications following thoracic resection procedures. Methods: As an alternative to in vivo testing, an ex vivo model simulating the various physiologic environments experienced by an isolated lung during the perioperative period was designed and built. Isolated porcine lungs were perfused and ventilated during open chest and closed chest simulations, mimicking intra and postoperative ventilation conditions. To assess and validate system capabilities, nine porcine lungs were tested by creating a standardized injury to create an approximately 250 cc/min air leak. Air leak rates, physiologic ventilation, and perfusion parameters were continuously monitored, while gas transfer analysis was performed on selected lungs. Segmental ventilation was monitored using electrical impedance tomography. Results: The evaluated lungs produced flow–volume and pressure–volume loops that approximated standard clinical representations under positive (mechanical) and negative (physiological) pressure ventilation modalities. Leak rate was averaged across the ventilation phases, and sharp increases in leak rate were observed between positive and negative pressure phases, suggesting that differences or changes in ventilation mechanics may strongly influence leak development. Conclusion: The successful design and validation of a novel ex vivo lung model was achieved. Model output paralleled clinical observations. Pressure modality may also play a significant role in air leak severity. Significance: This work provides a foundation for future studies aimed at increasing the understanding of air leaks to better inform means of mitigating the risk of air-leaks under clinically relevant conditions.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Magnetomotive Displacement of the Tympanic Membrane Using Magnetic
           Nanoparticles: Toward Enhancement of Sound Perception
    • Authors: Pin-Chieh Huang;Eric J. Chaney;Ryan L. Shelton;Stephen A. Boppart;
      Pages: 2837 - 2846
      Abstract: Objective: A novel hearing-aid scheme using magnetomotive nanoparticles (MNPs) as transducers in the tympanic membrane (TM) is proposed, aiming to noninvasively and directly induce a modulated vibration on the TM. Methods: In this feasibility study, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were applied on ex vivo rat TM tissues and allowed to diffuse over ∼2 h. Subsequently, magnetic force was exerted on the MNP-laden TM via a programmable electromagnetic solenoid to induce the magnetomotion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), along with its phase-sensitive measurement capabilities, was utilized to visualize and quantify the nanometer-scale vibrations generated on the TM tissues. Results: The magnetomotive displacements induced on the TM were significantly greater than the baseline vibration of the TM without MNPs. In addition to a pure frequency tone, a chirped excitation and the corresponding spectroscopic response were also successfully generated and obtained. Finally, visualization of volumetric TM dynamics was achieved. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of magnetically inducing vibrations on TMs containing iron oxide nanoparticles, manipulating the amplitude and the frequency of the induced TM motions, and the capability of assessing the magnetomotive dynamics via OCT. Significance: The results demonstrated here suggest the potential use of this noninvasive magnetomotive approach in future hearing aid applications. OCT can be utilized to investigate the magnetomotive dynamics of the TM, which may either enhance sound perception or magnetically induce the perception of sound without the need for acoustic speech signals.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
  • Sleep-Dependent Directional Coupling of Cardiorespiratory System in
           Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Authors: Heenam Yoon;Sang Ho Choi;Hyun Bin Kwon;Sang Kyong Kim;Su Hwan Hwang;Sung Min Oh;Jae-Won Choi;Yu Jin Lee;Do-Un Jeong;Kwang Suk Park;
      Pages: 2847 - 2854
      Abstract: Objective: Cardiorespiratory interactions have been widely investigated in different physiological states and conditions. Various types of coupling characteristics have been observed in the cardiorespiratory system; however, it is difficult to identify and quantify details of their interaction. In this study, we investigate directional coupling of the cardiorespiratory system in different physiological states (sleep stages) and conditions, i.e., severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Directionality analysis is performed using the evolution map approach with heartbeats acquired from electrocardiogram and abdominal respiratory effort measured from the polysomnographic data of 39 healthy individuals and 24 mild, 21 moderate, and 23 severe patients with OSA. The mean phase coherence is used to confirm the weak and strong coupling of cardiorespiratory system. Results: We find that unidirectional coupling from the respiratory to the cardiac system increases during wakefulness (average value of −0.61) and rapid eye movement sleep (−0.55). Furthermore, unidirectional coupling between the two systems significantly decreases during light (−0.52) and deep sleep, which is further decreased in deep sleep (−0.46), approaching bidirectional coupling. In addition, unidirectional coupling from the respiratory to the cardiac system also significantly increases according to the severity of OSA. Conclusion: These coupling characteristics in different states and conditions are believed to be linked with autonomic nervous modulation. Significance: Our approach could provide an opportunity to understand how integrated systems cooperate for physiological functions under internal and external environmental changes, and how abnormality in one physiological system could develop to increase the risk of other-systemic dysfunctions and/or disorders.
      PubDate: Dec. 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 12 (2018)
       
 
 
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